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Near Gettysburg in Adams County, Pennsylvania — The American Northeast (Mid-Atlantic)
Pennsylvania Memorial
 
South Facing Panel Photo, Click for full size
By Craig Swain, December 27, 2008
1. South Facing Panel
 
Inscription. (South Panel):
Gettysburg was immediately recognized as an important event in the course of the Civil War. President Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address solidified the national significance of this battlefield. As early as 1864 efforts began that eventually transformed the battlefield to a national park. Naturally, veterans chose this as the premier location to place monuments to honor their fallen comrades and to detail the history of their unit. Today the National Park Service continues to balance the protection of the battlefield landscape with the need to commemorate this event. No future monuments will be placed on Gettysburg Battlefield according to the new General Management Plan.

Vandalism is a major threat to the 1,400 monuments and markers throughout the park. When a piece of bronze or granite is stolen or destroyed, it can cost anywhere from $50 to $15,000 to make repairs or fabricate replacements. Park staffing and funding is limited. However, you can make a difference. Endowments and donations for monuments are accepted by the Park for use in preserving and protecting these outdoor works of art. The Friends of the National Parks at Gettysburg continue to provide support to the Park as all work together to care for these unique resources. The monuments, the symbolism and the emotion they evoke, are one of
 
West Facing Panel Photo, Click for full size
By Craig Swain, December 27, 2008
2. West Facing Panel
 
the remaining physical ties to the men who fought and died here. They deserve our respect and care.

(West Panel):

The design of the Pennsylvania Memorial was a result of an artistic competition. The state wanted to "get away from the common tombstone, or the common shaft style." The design also needed to be "unique, chaste and in good architecture." The winner of the competition was architect W. Liance Cottrell of New York. Cottrell received $500 for his design - a memorial that reflected the beaux-arts style that promoted grandeur in architecture.

This is the largest of the state memorials in the park. In 1907 $15,000 was appropriated by the Pennsylvania legislature for the construction of a monument "in memory of the volunteer soldiers from Pennsylvania." At the time of the dedication on September 27, 1910, the memorial was not complete. An additional $40,000 was appropriated in 1911 to create the eight portrait statues that flank the arches. The memorial was completed in 1914.

The 35,000 soldiers from Pennsylvania represented the second largest contingent of Union soldiers to fight on this battlefield. This memorial was a unique way to honor the contribution made by those who fought in this battle -- officers and enlisted men alike. The state wanted to assure that "these names shall be correctly spelled and that the name of no man who was engaged
 
North Facing Panel Photo, Click for full size
By Craig Swain, December 27, 2008
3. North Facing Panel
 
in the battle be omitted." Surviving soldiers of each regiment engaged at Gettysburg were requested to assist in developing the list of names to be placed on the tablets at the base of the memorial Nevertheless, by May 1, 1914, 230 names had been corrected as to spelling, 496 names had been removed and 219 had been inserted as near as possible to their proper places. Name changes or adjustments are no longer made to the historic tablets on the memorial.

The original intent of the tablets was not to be a complete roster of each organization, but to embrace only the names of those who were actually on duty near the scene of engagement and subject to the orders of General Meade. Soldiers on furlough or in the hospital are not entitled to have their names on the tablets, nor are men who deserted at any time after the battle. -- Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Commission.

(North Panel):
During the dedication of the memorial in 1910 the chairman of the monument commission closed his remarks by stating "...the beautiful Goddess of Victory and Peace is now signaling, from this one-time bloody field of battle, Pennsylvania's message to the world that war should cease and that peace should reign among the nations of the earth." The sword in her right hand and the palm in her left hand signify her dual representation of war and pace.

A major study funded
 
East Facing Panel Photo, Click for full size
By Craig Swain, December 27, 2008
4. East Facing Panel
 
by the Friends of the National Parks at Gettysburg made possible by a grant from The Pew Charitable Trusts will identify the preservation work needed to restore the memorial. It is generally understood that the focus of its recommendations will be structural. Water infiltration problems, inherent structural defects, and the substandard condition of much of the aging concrete that supports the memorial will all have to be addressed. In addition, architectural metal ornamentation components will require preservation and restoration attention.

Plans call for opening the observation deck in a way that protects both visitors and the memorial. This will once again allow visitors to appreciate the unique character of this imposing commemorative structure.

(East Panel):
The Pennsylvania Memorial has a history of moisture related, materials related, and structural problems. Since its completion, the National Park Service has attempted on several occasions to remedy these failures. Recent remedial efforts have focused on the exterior stonework of the dome. A 1998 study identified areas of special concern for the long-term preservation of the memorial. These areas include the concrete substructure and interior spiral staircase, terrace (main and observation levels), terrace walls and structural attachment of the statue of Winged Victory. Treatment plans will be developed
 
Kiosk at Front of the Pennsylvania Memorial Photo, Click for full size
By Craig Swain, December 27, 2008
5. Kiosk at Front of the Pennsylvania Memorial
 
to address water infiltration, cleaning, pointing, and conservation of the stone and metals.

(At the bottom of each panel):
Pennsylvania Memorial rehabilitation work funded by the Friends of the National Parks at Gettysburg with assistance of Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge through a grant from The Pew Charitable Trusts. For more information about monument preservation contact Friends of the National Parks at www.friendsofgettysburg.org.
 
Erected by Gettysburg National Military Park.
 
Location. 39° 48.454′ N, 77° 14.124′ W. Marker is near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, in Adams County. Marker is on Hancock Avenue, on the right when traveling north. Click for map. Located on Cemetery Ridge, next to the Pennsylvania Memorial, in Gettysburg National Military Park. Marker is in this post office area: Gettysburg PA 17325, United States of America.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. A different marker also named Pennsylvania Memorial (a few steps from this marker); Battery A, 1st New Jersey Artillery (a few steps from this marker); Pennsylvania State Memorial (a few steps from this marker); Battery C, Fourth U.S. Artillery (within shouting distance of this marker); Batteries C & F, Pennsylvania Independent Light Artillery (within shouting distance of this marker); First Regular Brigade (within shouting distance of this marker); Ninth Michigan Battery (within shouting distance of this marker); 84th Pennsylvania Infantry (within shouting distance of this marker). Click for a list of all markers in Gettysburg.
 
Location of Interpretive Markers at Entrance to the Memorial Photo, Click for full size
By Craig Swain, December 27, 2008
6. Location of Interpretive Markers at Entrance to the Memorial
Enough of the preservation and modification of the memorial is complete to allow visitors to access the observation deck. This photo looks from that deck to the location of the interpretive markers.
 

 
More about this marker. On the south facing panel is a portrait of Colonel Strong Vincent, captioned The Battle of Gettysburg is the story of brave men who fought for their beliefs against all odds. Colonel Strong Vincent is one of the Pennsylvanians killed in the struggle here at Gettysburg. Below are photos of the 83rd and 90th Pennsylvania Infantry Monuments. The 83rd PA Monument on Little Round Top and the 90th PA Monument on Oak Ridge, are 2 of 111 Pennsylvania regimental monuments on the Battlefield at Gettysburg. The 90th PA Monument is a regular target for vandals.

On the west facing panel's upper right side is a photo of the memorial: The Pennsylvania Memorial, dedicated in 1910, is the largest state memorial on the Battlefield at Gettysburg. In the left center is a photo which shows One of the 35,000 Pennsylvania soldiers fighting at the Battle of Gettysburg points to his name enshrined on the bronze tablets of the base of the Memorial.

On the north facing panel is a photo of "Winged Victory" atop the Pennsylvania Memorial. On the lower left, a schematic outlines the main areas of the Memorial under study for restoration and preservation.

On the east panel is a photo showing that The undercroft of the Pennsylvania Memorial is an unusual feature that unfortunately
 
Pennsylvania Memorial on a Misty Day Photo, Click for full size
By Craig Swain, December 27, 2008
7. Pennsylvania Memorial on a Misty Day
 
allows increased water infiltration to the base of the memorial.
In the lower left is a photo of The Pennsylvania Memorial under construction almost a century ago.
 
Also see . . .  Friends of Gettysburg Web Site. (Submitted on February 27, 2009, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia.)
 
Credits. This page originally submitted on February 27, 2009, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia. This page has been viewed 4,260 times since then. Photos:   1, 2, 3, 4, 5. submitted on February 27, 2009, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia.   6. submitted on February 28, 2009, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia.   7. submitted on February 27, 2009, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia.
 
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