“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
Near Lake Mills in Jefferson County, Wisconsin — The American Midwest (Great Lakes)


Aztalan Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
1. Aztalan Marker
Inscription. Indian people lived at Aztalan between AD 900 and 1200. The village encompassed 20 acres and was well-planned. The inhabitants planted corn, beans and squash, hunted wild game, fished and collected native plants for food. An elite group of individuals organized ceremonies and village life. A stockade surrounded the major portion of the village. Inside, three platform mounds and a natural knoll marked four corners of a large plaza. The village was abandoned for reasons that remain a mystery.

Aztalan is one of the most important archeological sites in Wisconsin, representing a complex life-style rarely found in the Great Lakes region: a unique blend of native and exotic cultures. Information about the site was first published in 1836, and since then the ruins have attracted considerable public and scientific interest. Archeological excavations continue to uncover valuable information about Aztalan's daily life.
Erected 1991 by the Wisconsin Historical Society. (Marker Number 11.)
Marker series. This marker is included in the National Historic Landmarks, and the Wisconsin Historical Society marker series.
Location. 43° 4.131′ N, 88° 51.773′ W. Marker is near Lake Mills, Wisconsin, in Jefferson County
Aztalan Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, October 19, 2010
2. Aztalan Marker
Part of the reconstructed stockade is visible in the background, and the Aztalan Mound Park marker is in the foreground.
. Marker is on County Road Q 0.3 miles south of County Road B, on the left when traveling south. Click for map. The marker is adjacent to the parking lot at the entrance to the Aztalan State Park. A vehicle admission sticker is required just to park there. Theoretically, one could avoid the fee by parking on the highway and walking into the lot; aside from the safety issues, however, it is worth the price of admission to visit the rest of the park. Marker is in this post office area: Lake Mills WI 53551, United States of America.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within 7 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. Aztalan Mound Park (here, next to this marker); Pioneer Aztalan (approx. mile away); Princess Burial Mound (approx. mile away); Mamre Moravian Church (approx. mile away); Drumlins (approx. 1.3 miles away); In Service to Their Country (approx. 2.4 miles away); 94th Combat Infantry Division (approx. 2.4 miles away); The Island Church (approx. 7 miles away). Click for a list of all markers in Lake Mills.
More about this marker. Beyond the Aztalan marker, in Aztalan State Park, there are a series of other markers detailing various aspects of the site. Included below are markers on the site layout, platform mounds, archaeological investigations, the Crawfish River, other major settlements of the Mississippian culture, the stockade, fishing, platform
Site Layout Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
3. Site Layout Marker
Caption: The structure of Aztalan suggests deliberate planning on the part of the village's inhabitants. A large stockade encloses the main portion of the site, while a smaller stockade separates the living area from the platform mounds. Stratigraphic information indicates that the residential zone and its stockade were constructed first. Some time later, the platform mounds and surrounding site stockade were built. The mounds were likely built prior to the external stockade [which] assumes [an] irregular shape around the northwest and southwest mounds. The residential zone appears to have been found in other areas, [so] the extent of residential structures is unclear. Agricultural fields were north of the stockade, and the mounds along what is now the highway had large posts in them, and likely served as markers of the site. Relationships between the mounds and structures in the immediate site area and those across the river or to the west are unknown.
mounds, hunting, religious beliefs, cultural affiliation, general subsistence, recreation, appearance and manner of dress, ceramics, other artifacts, warfare, dates of occupation, abandonment, houses, stone tools, and social organization.
Related markers. Click here for a list of markers that are related to this marker. Markers on the Mississippian culture
Also see . . .  Aztalan State Park. (Submitted on September 6, 2010, by William J. Toman of Green Lake, Wisconsin.)
Categories. Native Americans
Closeup of Map on Site Layout Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
4. Closeup of Map on Site Layout Marker
Caption: A map indicating the major areas or precincts of the Aztalan site. Although each area had a primary function, more than one activity took place in each area.
Platform Mounds Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
5. Platform Mounds Marker
Caption: Platform mounds were designed to hold buildings. Generally speaking, these mounds were not burial mounds, although occasionally they did not include burials of selected portions of the society. The buildings they held were not ordinary houses, but were locations of religious or specialized structures and houses for the elite. Platform mounds were often built in stages, each one having an accompanying structure. The northwest mound is one example of a platform mound with burials. The mound was built in three stages, and during the second stage, a special structure was placed on the west side of the mound, oriented in a northeast-southwest direction. Ten individuals were placed within the structure, atop a mat woven of cattails. The bones of an additional individual were bundled with a length of twisted cord. When the structure was completed with the deceased individuals inside, the building burned; however, it is unclear whether the burning was intentional or accidental. The final layer of earth was placed over the burned structure.
Platform Mounds Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
6. Platform Mounds Marker
The northwest platform mounds are in the background.
History of Archaeological Investigations Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
7. History of Archaeological Investigations Marker
Investigations at Aztalan can be divided into four general periods: early exploration, culture history determination, park development, and regional work / specific questions. The first written investigation was by Nathaniel Hyer, who published a site map in 1837. Increase A. Lapham prepared a more detailed map in 1850, and others also explored the site during this time. Extensive archaeological work began when Dr. Samuel A. Barrett of the Milwaukee Public Museum excavated in 1919, 1920, and 1932. He focused on understanding the site and its culture history. Once the site was purchased by the state, activity focused on excavations which would contribute to park development. This work in the 1950's and 1960's traced stockade walls, explored platform mounds, and excavated houses. In the mid-1970's, work began to look beyond Aztalan itself to regional surveys of the surrounding area. In the 1980's and 1990's, work has been targeted to answering questions about site formation and development. In addition to excavations, some people have examined collections to address questions about culture history and specific cultural practices.
Closeup of Photo on History of Archaeological Investigations Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
8. Closeup of Photo on History of Archaeological Investigations Marker
Caption: Dr. Samuel A. Barrett and colleagues excavating at Aztalan in 1920. Barrett is on the left.
The Crawfish River Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
9. The Crawfish River Marker
The ceremonial center of Aztalan is situated on the banks of the Crawfish for good reason. The river served as an important food source and provided a variety of fish, turtles, freshwater mussels, aquatic mammals, waterfowl, and edible plants.

When Aztalan flourished, the Crawfish was much deeper and clearer and the shallow banks were lined with wild rice, rushes, and other aquatic plants.

The river provided an important transportation and trade route. The map illustrates the wide area that could be accessed via water routes from Aztalan. Following the Crawfish downstream to its confluence with the Rock, and then continuing down the Rock to where it joins the Mississippi in present day Illinois, we have a travel route to the distant Mississippian complex of Cahokia.
The Crawfish River Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
10. The Crawfish River Marker
The Crawfish River is in the background.
Major Mississippian Sites Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
11. Major Mississippian Sites Marker
The red circles indicate "major temple towns with many mounds (of these Cahokia was the largest with a population of 10,000 or more)"; pink circles indicate "regional centers with several mounds"; and blue circles indicate "large village sites with a few mounds (Aztalan is the farthest north)."
Stockade Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
12. Stockade Marker
Caption: Stockades are walls or fences. There were three different stockades at Aztalan, one around the exterior, one surrounding the plaza, and one enclosing the residential portion of the site. The external stockade contained bastions, or watchtowers, at evenly-spaced intervals. Entrances to the site itself were cleverly constructed. For example, although the wall looks solid, there is a set of overlapping walls at one entrance to the plaza near the southwest mound. The opening is screened from view, and you enter through a narrow, protected passageway.

To build the stockade, posts were set in the ground. Willow branches were woven through the posts and the whole stockade was plastered with clay mixed with grasses. There were various theories about the stockade's function. People built stockades for many reasons: to keep people out, to keep people in, and/or to control the number and type of people who enter and exit.

The first exterior stockade was rebuilt; the second one burned, but we do not know if this was deliberate or accidental.

Drawing caption:

Likely stockade construction technique; plants and grasses are mixed with mud to form a plaster over the large individual posts
Stockade Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
13. Stockade Marker
Fishing Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
14. Fishing Marker
Fish was an important food resource for the people at Aztalan. Remains of a variety of different kinds of fish have been found: catfish, bass, suckers, buffalo fish, pike, drum, and gar. Each of these fish could have been captured from nearby rivers and streams, and most of these same species can be found in the area today.

Fishhooks and harpoons were fashioned from animal bone and copper; they look much like those we might use today. Although fishnets have not been recovered at Aztalan, we know that people knew weaving, and it is likely that they would have manufactured nets to assist them in fishing. People's ingenuity is also apparent in the remnants of a fish dam created in the Crawfish River in the immediate vicinity of the site. This feature would have made fishing significantly easier since it would "capture" or slow down fish, and it would also have made crossing the river a bit simpler.

Photo caption:

The photo shows as large chunk of copper, as well as a few copper fishhooks. In addition to fishing with hook and line, nets were also likely used.
Fishing Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
15. Fishing Marker
The Crawfish River is in the background.
Aztalan Platform Mound Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
16. Aztalan Platform Mound Marker
Aztalan Platform Mound Marker and Platform Mound Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
17. Aztalan Platform Mound Marker and Platform Mound
View from Platform Mound Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
18. View from Platform Mound
Closeup of Stockade and Corridors Therein Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
19. Closeup of Stockade and Corridors Therein
A Platform Mound Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
20. A Platform Mound
Wide View of a Portion of the Stockade Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
21. Wide View of a Portion of the Stockade
Hunting Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
22. Hunting Marker
Agriculture was important, but hunting remained a critical part of diet and lifestyle. Hunting represented an important source of protein, and the animal bones themselves provided extremely useful raw materials to fashion into tools.

The vast majority of animal bones found at the site are deer, and there is little question that deer remain the primary source of meat. Nonetheless, elk, raccoon, beaver, muskrat, passenger pigeon, and fox were also hunted on a regular basis. Most hunting was done by means of bows-and-arrows, where small triangular points were hafted to wooden shafts to form arrows. Since game is available seasonally, we think that they focused their energies on particular game in particular seasons. Even assuming this is the case, it is also true that hunting would have continued all [illegible].

Photo caption: Hunting
A selection of arrow heads [illegible].
Religious Beliefs Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
23. Religious Beliefs Marker
We may find artifacts that we think are associated with religious beliefs, but for people without writing, it's hard to know how these items were used and what beliefs they represent. Evidence comes from historic analogies, mounds, and burials.

Not everyone was treated the same way at death. Placement of a pot with a spoon may suggest food for an afterlife, and the fact that few people were buried in platform mounds indicates there was restricted access to these locations.

Another way to address the question of religion is through examination of symbols. Some Mississippian symbols likely represent religious beliefs, including weeping eyes, warriors decorated with particular designs, and the creation of small, so-called "god masks." This illustration shows two copper masks or maskettes from Aztalan. Each has a head piece, a distinctive nose, and holes for attachment. Neither piece is very large, but such masks of copper or shell are often found at Mississippian sites, suggesting not just symbolic beliefs, but the repetition of beliefs across wide geographic areas.

Photo caption: Religious Beliefs
Two small copper "masks" found at Aztalan. Note that these items have attachment holes and are similar to those found in ritual contexts elsewhere in the Eastern United States. The masks are shown three to four times larger than their actual size.
Cultural Affiliation Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
24. Cultural Affiliation Marker
Two distinct cultures appear to have inhabited Aztalan: Late Woodland and Mississipian peoples. Although other Late Woodland groups lived in the area, the Late Woodland people of Aztalan were different, and likely moved here from the south. These folks had agriculture and distinctive artifact types. During excavations, Mississippian pottery styles were located relatively close to the modern surface, while Late Woodland varieties were found in deeper deposits. However, in the middle levels, some "transitional" pottery styles were found, containing both Mississippian and Late Woodland characteristics. As a result, it is clear that Late Woodland groups occupied the site before the appearance of Mississippians. However, due to the "transitional" pottery, it is not completely clear whether the Late Woodland populations merged with the Mississippian populations, whether the Mississippians gradually replaced Late Woodland occupants, or whether Late Woodland groups "became" Mississippians. Both groups of people likely came here from areas to the south in what is now Illinois.
General Subsistence Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
25. General Subsistence Marker
Aztalan is located in a rich natural environment, where a variety of food and other resources are available within a short distance. Domesticated plants, particularly corn, were important, but they continued to gather wild foods such as hickory nuts, acorns, and berries. People hunted large quantities of deer; however, elk, raccoon, beaver, muskrat, fox, and turtle were also hunted and eaten regularly. Birds such as passenger pigeons, ducks, turkey, goose, and swan were skillfully hunted, but villagers were also fond of fish and aquatic wildlife, which could be caught in abundance in the nearby rivers and wetlands. Catfish, bass, suckers, buffalo fish, pike, drum, gar and mussels are all represented in the archaeological deposits. Some meat, fish, and plant foods were processed and stored in pits for later use. There was also abundant wood for building and for fires, plenty of plant fibers for weaving and house construction, and other raw materials to be made into artifacts.

Drawing caption: General Subsistence
Examples of three different kinds of subsistence activities, and the kinds of tools required. Drawings were done by Ann Hatfield, 1982.
Recreation Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
26. Recreation Marker
We know people in the past relaxed and enjoyed themselves, and we also know they enjoyed games and competed in sports. However, it is difficult to identify an artifact as part of a game without written records, and it's more difficult to figure out the game.

In most Mississippian villages, ground stone artifacts called "discoidals" or "chunkey stones" have been found. We think these were used in the same way as the historically documented game of chunkey. A person rolls a chunkey stone into an open area, and players throw a spear toward the location where they think the stone will stop. Whoever's spear is closest to the stopping point is the winner. Historically, the game is associated with gambling.

Musical instruments were likely also important. People commonly used turtle, animal bone, and other items to create drums, rattles, and flutes.

A number of small pots found at Aztalan may have been toy pots for children's games and education.
Appearance and Manner of Dress Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
27. Appearance and Manner of Dress Marker
It is rare for clothing to be preserved, so we need other sources of information to determine how people dressed. Sometimes, occasional fragments and ornamentation are preserved. Second, artistic depictions might include cave paintings, figurines, and designs on artifacts. Finally, historic and/or ethnographic accounts of related or similar peoples provide additional information.

At Aztalan, quite a bit of ornamentation or jewelry has been recovered, including earspools (similar to earrings) made of stone, copper, or clay; and pendants and beads made out of shell, copper, and stone. Based on their location in burials, we know that pendants and beads were worn around the neck, wrist, and ankles. Drilled animal bone was also worn in this fashion.

Stone figurines found at other Mississippian sites, and cave paintings found in Wisconsin, confirm these general views, and suggest that there may have been variety in garments as well as the use of colorful feathers. Who you were in the society likely determined what you wore.

Photo caption: Appearance and Manner of Dress
Some example of mussel shell beads found at Aztalan.
Ceramics Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
28. Ceramics Marker
Pottery is the most commonly found artifact at Aztalan, in part because when you drop a pot, you get a lot of pieces: Also, sedentary villagers relied on ceramic technology far more than people who moved a lot. Archaeologists find pottery especially important because distinctive styles and forms allow one to distinguish between cultures -- each culture tends to produce its own specific ceramic styles.

At Aztalan, we find pottery associated with both Late Woodland and Mississippian cultures. Although Late Woodland is slightly older, there is a period of time when the two overlap. Co-occurrence of two styles has confused interpretations. Were there two occupations? Did Mississippians overrun Late Woodland folks? Late Woodland pottery is most common at Aztalan. The exterior finish on Late Woodland pottery is cordmarked, and decoration is generally sparse. In contrast, Mississippian pottery includes bowls, jars, plates, bottles, and beakers, with smooth and sometimes polished exteriors, often including designs formed by incised lines.

We think that two separate groups of [illegible] Aztalan from places to the south, in [illegible].
Other Artifacts Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
29. Other Artifacts Marker
Ceramics and stone tools are the most commonly found artifacts at Aztalan, but other materials, such as animal bones, shell, and copper were also important. The shapes of particular animal bones might suggest another function; for example, bird bones are hollow and were made into flutes or beads, and particular deer bones could be easily modified into awls. Shells were made into spoons, hoes, pendants, and beads, and copper was made into fishhooks or items like beads or earspools. Plants could be woven into bags, baskets, or clothing, but at Aztalan they are most often part of the plaster used to cover houses and stockade walls. Plants were mixed with clay to cover and protect the walls, but when the structure burned, the fire would bake the plaster and turn it into a brick-like material. This has been called "Aztalan brick" because early visitors misinterpreted these items as being mud bricks.
Warfare Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
30. Warfare Marker
Some people at Aztalan met violent deaths. Whether those deaths are the result of warfare is a different question. Since the early 1900's, it has been suggested that warfare and cannibalism were important factors at Aztalan, and may have led to disintegration of the society. However, of the burials found, only one contains clear evidence of violent death (an arrow embedded in one person's temple). The reason that cannibalism is tied to warfare is the assumption that individuals being eaten were enemies of [war or captives]. Evidence of cannibalism [comes from the fragmentary] nature of the human bones found, cut marks on the bones, and the location of human bones in garbage pits. However, this evidence does not prove that flesh was consumed or that these folks were enemies, as there are many common Mississippian mortuary practices that include processing of bodies, often as a sign of respect for and tracking of ancestors.
Dates of Occupation Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
31. Dates of Occupation Marker
Archaeologists use several methods to determine age. One approach is called relative dating. One method of relative dating is based on the principle that things lower in the ground are generally older than those higher in the ground - you can thus tell that one group preceded another. Another relative technique is based on the principle that if dated distinctive artifacts from a culture are found elsewhere, those artifacts likely date to the same period.

In 1949, radiocarbon dating was developed, and could, for the first time, determine a specific age range in calendar years from charred pieces of organic material. At Aztalan, this technique helped more reliably determine the site's antiquity. Aztalan may have been occupied as early as AD 600 and as late as AD 1830; however, most dates occur between AD 1100 and 1300, and most artifact types are contemporary with this period, so we can be reasonably sure that Aztalan was occupied most intensively during this time. The very early dates indicate an occupation not associated with the stockade and mounds. The late dates may reflect a brief historic occupation.

[The chart, entitled "Aztalan Radiocarbon Dates" and with a caption stating "Dates of Occupation: Chart showing the range of radiocarbon dates that have been analyzed at Aztalan," has "Calendric Dates (mean values)" on the vertical axis, with dates ranging from AD 600 to 1800, and "Samples arranged chronologically" on the horizontal axis," and shows most samples fall between AD 1000 and 1200.]
Abandonment Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
32. Abandonment Marker
Some time after AD 1300, the people at Aztalan left. We don't know why or how they left - whether it was on their own, of if they were pushed out by others. If others forced them out, there is no evidence of a battle. We know that one set of stockade wall was rebuilt, and that the last set burned down, but we don't know if the fire was deliberate or accidental. Even if deliberate, it may have been set by the inhabitants as they left.

Villages are abandoned for many reasons, and making the puzzle even more complex is the fact that, in the case of Aztalan, the period following the site's primary occupation - roughly AD 1300-1600 - is poorly documented and little known. We know that it is unlikely that people moved to another location nearby because virtually no sites of the same period have [been] found in the area around Aztalan. People probably moved south for [missing text].
Abandonment Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
33. Abandonment Marker
A portion of the stockade is in the background.
Houses Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
34. Houses Marker
Two house types are found at Aztalan: circular and rectangular. Each contained separate entrance chambers and hearths inside. Although no rows of houses have been found, houses are densely grouped, suggesting some level of community planning. House construction began by setting wall posts into individual holes or within a trench dug to the size and shape of the house. The walls were then covered with branches and the same type of plaster that covered that stockade (made of grasses and clay) -- this technique is known as "wattle-and-daub." Based on historic accounts and the structures themselves, we can infer that roofs were covered with bark or thatch. People likely lived in these houses all year, and many houses had entrances facing south, away from harsh winter winds. Inside were pole frame beds, probably covered with tamarack boughs, deer skins, and furs. Fireplaces were either in the center of the house or by the doorway, with a central hole in the roof to release smoke, acting as a chimney.

The structure of two different types of Aztalan houses. The top drawing is a plan view, as you might see if you looked down on where the house was. The middle view shows the interior of the house and its construction; the bottom view shows how the outside of the house looked. Please add the following caption under the Stone Tools Marker photo: Stone tools last longer than artifacts made out of any other raw material. The stone is shaped into an artifact either by chipping, fine-grained rocks such as flint or chert, or by grinding and polishing coarse rock such [as] granite. Both technologies were used at Aztalan. Chipped-stone artifacts were most often shaped into triangular arrows, but also made into things like scrapers, drills, hoes, and knives. Ground stone tools generally included items such as axes, celts (a celt is an ungrooved ax), gaming pieces, and pendants. Some of the stone used at Aztalan was imported from long distances, and it is somewhat common to find such evidence of long distance trade at Mississippian sites. Mississippian craftspeople were very talented not only in how they made their tools, but also in the consistency with which they fashioned tools. There is comparatively little variation in kinds of points or styles or axes.

Stone Tools Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
35. Stone Tools Marker
Stone tools found as Aztalan. Please note that these [drawings are not to] scale. Please add the following caption under the Social Organization Marker photo: Large construction projects like stockades and mounds indicate a society that was organized and fairly complex. Furthermore, evidence for some level of social stratification can be interpreted from the layout of the site. Houses located on top of the platform mounds, for example, were not residences for the average inhabitant. These areas were likely reserved for members of the elite, a group who also served in religious roles. From atop any of the mounds, one could view the entire site and surrounding region. At least some members of this group were buried within the mounds. The residential zone, demarcated by an internal stockade, housed the majority of the site's occupants. Within this area, meals were prepared, tools were made, stories told, children played, food stored, and some of the deceased were buried. A large plaza area existed in the central portion of the site, and this was a space where communal activities could take place.
Social Organization Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
36. Social Organization Marker
Aztalan National Historic Landmark Marker Photo, Click for full size
By William J. Toman, September 4, 2010
37. Aztalan National Historic Landmark Marker
Credits. This page originally submitted on , by William J. Toman of Green Lake, Wisconsin. This page has been viewed 1,751 times since then. Last updated on , by William J. Toman of Green Lake, Wisconsin. Photos:   1, 2. submitted on , by William J. Toman of Green Lake, Wisconsin.   3, 4, 5, 6. submitted on , by William J. Toman of Green Lake, Wisconsin.   7, 8, 9, 10, 11. submitted on , by William J. Toman of Green Lake, Wisconsin.   12. submitted on , by William J. Toman of Green Lake, Wisconsin.   13, 14, 15. submitted on , by William J. Toman of Green Lake, Wisconsin.   16, 17, 18, 19. submitted on , by William J. Toman of Green Lake, Wisconsin.   20, 21. submitted on , by William J. Toman of Green Lake, Wisconsin.   22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29. submitted on , by William J. Toman of Green Lake, Wisconsin.   30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36. submitted on , by William J. Toman of Green Lake, Wisconsin.   37. submitted on , by William J. Toman of Green Lake, Wisconsin. • Bill Pfingsten was the editor who published this page. This page was last revised on June 16, 2016.
Paid Advertisement
Categories20th CenturyAbolition & Underground RRAfrican AmericansAgricultureAir & SpaceAnimalsAntebellum South, USAnthropologyArchitectureArts, Letters, MusicAsian AmericansBridges & ViaductsCemeteries & Burial SitesCharity & Public WorkChurches, Etc.Civil RightsColonial EraCommunicationsDisastersEducationEntertainmentEnvironmentExplorationForts, CastlesFraternal or Sororal OrganizationsGovernmentHeroesHispanic AmericansHorticulture & ForestryIndustry & CommerceLabor UnionsLandmarksMan-Made FeaturesMilitaryNative AmericansNatural FeaturesNatural ResourcesNotable BuildingsNotable EventsNotable PersonsNotable PlacesPaleontologyPatriots & PatriotismPeacePolitical SubdivisionsPoliticsRailroads & StreetcarsRoads & VehiclesScience & MedicineSettlements & SettlersSportsWar of 1812War, 1st Iraq & Desert StormWar, 2nd IraqWar, AfghanistanWar, ColdWar, French and IndianWar, KoreanWar, Mexican-AmericanWar, Spanish-AmericanWar, Texas IndependenceWar, US CivilWar, US RevolutionaryWar, VietnamWar, World IWar, World IIWars, Non-USWars, US IndianWaterways & Vessels
States or ProvincesAlabamaAlaskaAlbertaArizonaArkansasBritish ColumbiaCaliforniaColoradoConnecticutDelawareDistrict of ColumbiaFloridaGeorgiaHawaiiIdahoIllinoisIndianaIowaKansasKentuckyLouisianaMaineManitobaMarylandMassachusettsMichiganMinnesotaMississippiMissouriMontanaNebraskaNevadaNew BrunswickNew HampshireNew JerseyNew MexicoNew YorkNewfoundland and LabradorNorth CarolinaNorth DakotaNova ScotiaOhioOklahomaOntarioOregonPennsylvaniaPrince Edward IslandPuerto RicoQuebecRhode IslandSaskatchewanSouth CarolinaSouth DakotaTennesseeTexasUtahVermontVirginiaWashingtonWest VirginiaWisconsinWyomingYukon Territory
CountriesArgentinaAustraliaAustriaBahamasBelgiumBelizeBrazilCanadaChinaCosta RicaCzech RepublicDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEstoniaFinlandFranceGermanyGreeceGrenadaGuatemalaGuyanaHondurasHungaryIrelandIsraelItalyJamaicaKiribatiLiechtensteinLuxembourgMalaysiaMexicoNetherlands AntillesNew ZealandNicaraguaPalestinian TerritoriesPhilippinesRussiaSaint LuciaScotland, UKSingaporeSouth AfricaSouth KoreaSwedenSwitzerlandThailandTurkeyTurks and Caicos IslandsU.S Virgin IslandsUkraineUnited KingdomU.S.A.