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Locust Grove in Orange County, Virginia — The American South (Mid-Atlantic)
The Battle of Payneís Farm
Unexpected Encounter
 
The Battle of Payneís Farm CWT Marker Photo, Click for full size
By Bernard Fisher, June 6, 2011
1. The Battle of Payneís Farm CWT Marker
 
Inscription. “There was a sudden commotion in the train ahead and several of the ambulances turned and came back in confusion. General [George H.] Steuart promptly ordered them back to their places, faced the brigade into line to the left and deployed skirmishers.” — Lt. McHenry Howard, CSA

“The Union soldiers came in sight of a road, along which the rebel baggage wagons and ambulances were being driven at a rapid rate, when they met with a firm resistance from the enemy in front.” — Regimental History, 1st Massachusetts Infantry, USA

The Battle of Payneís Farm began at the intersection beyond the trees in front of you on the afternoon of November 27, 1863, as men of the Union III Corps met portions of Confederate Gen. Edward Johnsonís division. Even though pickets on both sides had encountered each other throughout the morning, neither side recognized the other as anything more than a small scouting party. That afternoon, as Johnsonís column was passing the intersection, however, Federal skirmishers in these woods fired upon the surprised Confederates on the Raccoon Ford Road to your left.

Gen. George H. Steuart, bringing up the Confederate rear, halted his brigade and quickly formed a line of battle in the road. On arriving and surveying the scene, Johnson ordered
 
Confederate Gen. George H. “Maryland” Steuart Photo, Click for full size
2. Confederate Gen. George H. “Maryland” Steuart
 
the rest of his division to countermarch to the scene of the action. It is unclear whether Johnson knew the full strength of the force he was facing, but it seemed to make no difference to him. In the woods and fields adjoining this intersections one Confederate division confronted a Union army corps three times its size.
 
Erected 2011 by The Civil War Trust and Virginia Civil War Trails.
 
Marker series. This marker is included in the Virginia Civil War Trails marker series.
 
Location. 38° 20.091′ N, 77° 49.822′ W. Marker is in Locust Grove, Virginia, in Orange County. Marker can be reached from Zoar Road (Virginia Route 611) near Indiantown Road (Virginia Route 603). Click for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: 31334 Zoar Road, Locust Grove VA 22508, United States of America.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. A different marker also named The Battle of Payneís Farm (approx. 0.2 miles away); The Mine Run Campaign (approx. 0.2 miles away); a different marker also named The Mine Run Campaign (approx. 0.2 miles away); a different marker also named The Battle of Payneís Farm (approx. 0.2 miles away); a different marker also named The Battle of Payneís Farm (approx. ľ mile away); a different marker also named The Battle of Payneís Farm (approx. 0.3 miles away); a different marker also named The Battle of Payneís Farm (approx. 0.3 miles away); a different marker also named The Battle of Payneís Farm (approx. 0.3 miles away). Click for a list of all markers in Locust Grove.
 
Advance of the Union III Corps from Jacob's Ford Photo, Click for full size
3. Advance of the Union III Corps from Jacob's Ford
 

 
More about this marker. On the lower left is a photograph with the caption, "Confederate Gen. George H. “Maryland” Steuart graduated near the bottom of his West Point class but amassed an impressive Civil War record. His boldness against a vastly superior force here at Payneís Farm helped to stall the advance of the entire Union army. Millerís Photographic History of the Civil War(1911)"

On the top right is a troop deployment map with the caption, "The Battle of Payneís Farm began at the intersection in front of you when the advance of the Union III Corps fired upon the ambulances of Confederate Gen. Edward Johnsonís division."

On the right is a photograph with the caption, "Many of the roads in the Wilderness, including the Raccoon Ford Road along which the Battle of Payneís Farm opened, were muddy and also had thick encroaching woods on both sides. Millerís Photographic History of the Civil War (1911)"
 
Also see . . .
1. Mine Run. Civil War Trust (Submitted on June 6, 2011, by Bernard Fisher of Mechanicsville, Virginia.) 

2. Mine Run. CWSAC Battle Summary (Submitted on June 6, 2011, by Bernard Fisher of Mechanicsville, Virginia.) 
 
Typical condition of the roads in the Wilderness Photo, Click for full size
4. Typical condition of the roads in the Wilderness
 
 
The intersection of Raccoon Ford Road and Jacob's Ford Road Photo, Click for full size
By Bernard Fisher, June 6, 2011
5. The intersection of Raccoon Ford Road and Jacob's Ford Road
Present-day Zoar Road and Indiantown Road
 
Credits. This page originally submitted on June 6, 2011, by Bernard Fisher of Mechanicsville, Virginia. This page has been viewed 580 times since then. Photos:   1, 2, 3, 4, 5. submitted on June 6, 2011, by Bernard Fisher of Mechanicsville, Virginia.
 
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