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Settlements & Settlers Markers
9990 markers matched your search criteria. The first 250 markers are listed. Next 9740
Australia, New South Wales (Beresford), Cooma — Cooma 1890 / Cooma 1925
This marker is made up of two panels placed back to back. Cooma 1890 During the 1880s Cooma was expanding rapidly and Sharp Street had become the town’s main thoroughfare, although settlement was still quite scattered. Some very substantial buildings had been constructed, some of which have now been demolished while others have been modified so they are hardly recognisable (sic) as Victorian buildings. The large white building in the centre of the picture stands on the . . . — Map (db m70674) HM
Australia, New South Wales (Beresford), Cooma — Lambie Street
This marker consists of two plaques placed back to back. In the 1850s Cooma was developing in two areas, one around Lambie and Mulach Street, the other over the hill where Centennial Park and Sharp Street are now. Nevertheless for the first twenty years Lambie Street was the commercial centre of Cooma. Lambie Street is registered by the National Trust as a heritage precinct. This is because many of Cooma’s oldest buildings are there and as modern development virtually passed it . . . — Map (db m70675) HM
Australia, Victoria, Port Fairy — Captain John Griffiths1801-1881
In Memory of Captain John Griffiths 1801 - 1881 This island is named after him and he was responsible for bringing the first White settlers from Launceston, Tasmania to Portland Bay and Port Fairy Victoria.

He established the first major whaling station at Portland in 1833 and later established a larger whaling station on this island, in 1836.

An entrepreneur, his activities included ship-builder, ship-owner, intercolonial trader, merchant, farmer, whaler, sailor, brewer, flour-miller, and landowner. — Map (db m52472) HM

Australia, Victoria, Warrnambool — Warrnambool 150th Anniversary 1847-1997
This stone commemorating the Foundation of Warrnambool Gazetted on 17 February 1847 was unveiled by His Excellency The Honourable Richard E. McGarvie A,C. Governor of Victoria in the presence of His Worship the Mayor Cr Gerald Shanley — Map (db m52643) HM
Australia, Victoria, Wedderburn — Major Mitchell Explorer
Major T.Mitchell Explorer Passed Here 7th July 1836 Erected by Shire of Korong 1930 — Map (db m53080) HM
Australia, Victoria (Campaspe (Shire)), Echuca — The Only Classified Brothel in Victoria
This Establishment Built About 1878 Is The Only Classified Brothel in Victoria The house consists of 3 small rooms on each floor, the upper rooms being reached by a staircase leading into a sheltered lane running off Little Hopwood street, making it possible for even the most respectable citizen to visit the scarlet ladies undetected. After the nearby Murray Hotel was built in 1879, the Brothel was run in conjunction with the pub and became known for its ‘honky tonk’ dancing and . . . — Map (db m70630) HM
Brazil, Bahia, Salvador — Zumbi dos Palmares Monument
Panel 1: Zumbi dos Palmares “É chegada a hora de tirar nossa nação das trevas da injustica racial.” Nasceu livre, em 1655, na Serra da Barriga, união dos Palmares, Alagoas. Neto de Aqualtune, não permitiu a submissão de seu povo ao jugo da corda portuguesa, pois queria a liberdade para todos, dentro ou fora do Quilombo. Persistiu na luta e tornou-se líder do Quilombo, sento ferido em 1694, quando a capital Palmares foi destruída. Em 20 de Novembro de 1695, . . . — Map (db m26125) HM
Brazil, Distrito Federal, Brasilia — Memorial JKJK Memorial[President Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, the founder of Brasilia]
In Portuguese: Projeto do arquiteto Oscar Niemeyer foi inaugurado em 12 de setembro de 1981 em homenagem a Juscelino Kubischek de Oliveira, fundador de Brasilia. Abriga biblioteca com trēs mil volumes que pertenceram a JK, atém de objetos pessoais, fotos, videos e vários documentos. Os painéis da recepção e da câmara mortuaria são obras de Althos Bulcão. O vitral que se encontra acima da uma funerária é de autoria da artista francesa Marianne Peretti. A estátua de JK esculpid por . . . — Map (db m26590) HM
Alberta, Glendon — The Pyrogy – PyrohyBest Made in Glendon
A European food that was brought to Western Canada in the early 19th century by the working and poor people. It originated as a boiled dumpling, and later people added whatever they desired inside, and it became a pyrogy – pyrohy, sometimes called varenyky. — Map (db m8813) HM
British Columbia (Alberni-Clayoquot Regional District), Port Alberni — Bicentennial of the Spanish Expeditions to the Northwest Coasts of America1771–1991
[Upper Marker]: Pedro de Alberni, Captain of the Catalan Volunteers and Commander of the Spanish Establishment at Santa Cruz de Nootka, 1790-1792. Offered by the Government of Spain on the occasion of the visit of the Spanish training ship “Juan Sebastian el Cano” to the province of British Columbia, April 1991. [Lower Marker]: Generalitat de Catalunya The Autonomous Government of Catalonia joins this bicentennial celebration in remembrance of . . . — Map (db m9155) HM
British Columbia (C), Victoria — Isabella Mainville RossBorn Jan. 10, 1808 • Died in Victoria April 23, 1885 — Here Lies
She came here in 1843 with her husband, Chief Trader Charles Ross, who was in charge of building Fort Victoria. After his death she bought the land upon which you are standing for a farm. By so doing she became the first woman to own land in what is now British Columbia. — Map (db m74825) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Central Saanich — Black Pioneers in British ColumbiaLes Pionniers Noirs de la Colombie-Britannique
In 1858, nearly 800 free Blacks left the oppressive racial conditions of San Francisco for a new life on Vancouver Island. Governor James Douglas had invited them here as promising settlers. Though still faced with intense discrimination, these pioneers enriched the political, religious and economic life of the colony. For example, Mifflin Gibbs became a prominent politician; Charles and Nancy Alexander initiated the Shady Creek Methodist Church; John Deas established a salmon cannery; and the . . . — Map (db m72868) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Sidney — Mayor's Community Builder Awardees at Beacon Park Pavilion
Town of Sidney BC Spirit Squares Beacon Park Pavilion Opened June 28, 2009 by the Honourable Steven Point, Lt. Gov. of BC A legacy of the 150th anniversary of the founding of the Crown Colony of British Columbia —————————— Joan E. Ballenger 1939 - 2005 The Town of Sidney and Peninsula Celebrations Society celebrate Joan Ballenger, an incredibly active community volunteer. In 1994, Joan saw an opportunity . . . — Map (db m75464) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Sidney — Port of Entry Beacon
was seen in early days by ships at sea Hence, Beacon Avenue — Map (db m75341) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Sidney — Waterfront Industries
Before town planning and notions of the picturesque, waterfronts were convenient for industrial development. As a transportation hub, Sidney's waterfront boasted a sawmill, a cannery, boatworks and roofing plant, besides rail and ship facilities. Sidney sawmill began in 1892 to cut lumber for the V&S Railway. After initial success it flagged and was in receivership by 1913. Closed until 1917, it was revived by GH Walton. By 1920 it employed about 150 men, the largest workforce in the . . . — Map (db m75465) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — "Summerdyne"Celebrating Our Heritage
The Burrell family home, "Summerdyne", on Oak Bay Avenue at Monterey looking west - circa 1906 The Burrell family walking east along Oak Bay Avenue near their home - circa 1900 — Map (db m75299) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — A Natural HarbourFisherman's Wharf Park
ca. 1860 [Photo caption reads] A detail of the View of Victoria, 1860. Major Bay is largely undeveloped. BC Archives POP01538 1878 [Photo caption reads] Bird's-Eye View of Victoria, Vancouver Island, B.C. 1878, detail. Drawn by E.S. Glover, Published by M.W. Waitt & Co., Victoria, B.C. 1880's The shores around Shoal Point and Major Bay offered a protected landing point and by the 1890's the development of the Outer Wharves changed the look of the untouched . . . — Map (db m74383) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Chinese Cemetery
Before 1903 the remains of early Chinese immigrants were buried in the low-lying, southwestern corner of Ross Bay cemetery. This area was often flooded after a heavy rainstorm. In the early 1900s, high winds and waves eroded a few waterfront Chinese graves, exposing coffins and sweeping away their remains. In 1903 the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association (CCBA) purchased this site for a cemetery. Traditional Chinese burial practices had the remains exhumed after seven years, the . . . — Map (db m75449) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Elliot Street Square
This area, designed and laid out by the landscape branch of the Provincial Department of Public Works in 1975, has been named Elliot Street Square, in memory of Andrew Charles Elliot, barrister, judge, gold commissioner, police magistrate, and fourth Premier of the Province of British Columbia, and as a reminder of the street, which bore his name. Before its closure in 1974 many prominent citizens had their homes within the limited length of Elliot Street. On the north or city side were the . . . — Map (db m48765) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Figures and Medallions of the Library Wing of Parliament Building
[Medallions, top row] Milton – Sophocles – Shakespeare – Socrates – Dante – Homer [Statues, anti-clockwise from the top left] Colonel R.C. Moody 1813-1887 Commander of Royal Engineers in 1858, erected New Westminster as capital of B.C., planned the Cariboo Road. David Thompson 1770 – 1857 Greatest of fur trade explorers. In 1812 traversed Kootenay area, descended the Columbia from source to mouth. Sir Anthony Musgrave 1828 – . . . — Map (db m49045) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria
was erected by Hudson’s Bay Company 1843 Here Colony of Vancouver’s Island was inaugurated by Richard Blanshard 1850 Vancouver’s Island and British Columbia united 1866 Two years later Victoria became the capital of British Columbia — Map (db m48547) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — George and Isabella Pottinger
Came with their five children from Papa Westray, Orkney Isl[ands]. aboard the sailing ship Knight Bruce via Cape Horn. Arrived at Victoria on 24 Dec 1864 after 180 days at sea. — Map (db m74706) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Helmchen House Historic Site
John Sebastian Helmcken arrived in Fort Victoria in 1850 to work as a physician for the Hudson’s Bay Company. He remained here for the rest of his life, marrying Cecilia Douglas, the eldest daughter of Governor James Douglas. The young couple has a small log cabin built here in 1852, next to their in-laws home. Over the years as the family grew the house also grew larger. It is one of the oldest housed in western Canada.

Dr. Helmcken practiced medicine during the fur trade, the gold rush . . . — Map (db m48752) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — KakehashiIn Honour and Memory of Pioneers from Japan
This memorial commemorates the 150 Victorians of Japanese descent who are buried in this historic cemetery, beginning in 1887. During the 1940's, when no person of Japanese descent was allowed to remain within 100 miles of the West Coast, many grave markers deteriorated or were vandalized. This monument is dedicated to the early immigrants from Japan whose courage and endurance made our lives in Canada possible. [Japanese script on reverse] August 1999 — Map (db m74695) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Kwakiutl Bear Pole
Project of Native Indians' Participation Centennial Sub-Committee to commemorate the Union in 1866 of the colonies on Vancouver Island and the mainland as British Columbia Kwakiutl Bear Pole carved by Mr. Henry Hunt of Kwawkewlth Indian Band at Victoria, B.C. Log donated by MacMillan, Bloedel and Powell River, Limited. — Map (db m74399) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Lorne LewisHere Lies
Born in New Bedford Massachussets [sic] in 1814 Died in Victoria in 1912 while a resident of the Old Men's Home He came to Victoria from California in 1858 and was appointed by Governor James Douglas as a police constable but racial prejudice made his job difficult. Later he served for many years as district constable on the Songhees Indian Reserve and afterwards was a member of the British Columbia Provincial Police. — Map (db m74829) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Right Reverend George Hills, D.D.
First Bishop of British Columbia who resigned after completing nearly 34 years of untiring and laborious work in this colony He died at Parham Vicarage, Suffolk, England on December 10th 1895 and was buried 14th December in the churchyard of that parish. 'Blessed are the pure of heart; for they shall see God.' Matt. V. — Map (db m74752) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Rockland Cairn
This monument was erected by residents of Rockland, with the support of the City of Victoria, to commemorate the past, celebrate the millennium and look to the future. Rockland was carved out of the 500 acre Douglas Estate “Fairfield Farm” in the mid 1800’s. The foremost architects of Victoria reflected the image and lifestyle of their day in the grand homes of Rockland. Residents of Rockland have sought to maintain the heritage character of the neighbourhood for the . . . — Map (db m75028) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Birthplace of Victoria
We would like to take a moment to share with you the history that you are standing over, around and next to. This harbour was originally the sole domain of the Lekwungen First Nation who plied its protected waters and fished in their dugout canoes. When James Douglas arrived here in 1843, he chose it as the site for a new Hudson’s Bay Company trading post, eventually called Fort Victoria. It wooden walls stood along the rocky shore overlooking this site (behind you along Wharf Street).

At . . . — Map (db m48749) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Victoria Centennial FountainActivated 2 August 1968 by Hon. W.A.C. Bennett, L.E.D.. Premier.
British Columbia was formed from four British Colonies and territories: The Crown Colony of Vancouver Island 1845 The Dependency of the Queen Charlotte Islands 1852 The Crown Colony of British Columbia 1856 The Stickeen Territory 1862 Plaques on the fountain tell the origin of their union to become the British Columbia of today. The animal symbols are those from which all Indian Societies obtained their main totems of the four areas. The first impetus to exploration and . . . — Map (db m49074) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Vancouver Island Wallmap Mural
[Three 'markers' a part of this mural. They are entitled: Pemberton Family, Vancouver Island, and Fort Victoria.]

Pemberton Family J.D. Pemberton, engineer and surveyor for the H.B.C., arrived in 1851 by canoe in the last stages of his journey from England when this settlement numbered about 300. He built the first schoolhouse, was the first settler to cross the Island, and was the first Surveyor General of the colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia. As population swelled . . . — Map (db m48543) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — William (Billy) Barker1817 - 1894
Baptized: March, Cambridgeshire, England June 7 1817 Died: Victoria, B.C., Canada July 11, 1894 On August 17 of 1862, Barker struck gold at 52 feet on Williams Creek, Cariboo. The town of Barkerville bears his name. Like many miners he was soon broke, but Barker continued to mine and prospect throughout the Cariboo for the rest of his life. The fabulous wealth of the Cariboo mines laid the foundation for British Columbia. With this monument, Billy Barker is honoured as a builder . . . — Map (db m74827) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — William Edgar OliverIn Loving Memory of
First Reeve of Oak Bay Municipality 1906 Born in Edinburgh, Scotland, January 19, 1867 Died at Cowichan Lake, August 9, 1920 Beloved Husband of Mary Eleanor Ward Oliver (1869-1959) Installed 2006 - Oak Bay Centennial — Map (db m74750) HM
British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), Barkerville — Cariboo Gold FieldsDistricts Aurifères de Cariboo — Barkerville - Historic Town
English: A search for the source of placer gold found on lower parts of the Fraser River led to discoveries of lode mines in the Cariboo, of which Williams Creek, is said to have yielded $19,000,000. As a centre of population in the 1860’s, the gold fields were the catalyst for the economic and political development of colony of British Columbia. They attracted miners from around the world and stimulated the growth of trade and agriculture. Economic difficulties resulting from the . . . — Map (db m42712) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Semiahmoo — Peace ArchThe Signing of the Columbia River Treaty
Upper marker: This unfortified boundary line between the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America should quicken the remembrance of the more than century old friendship between these countries A lesson of peace to all nations. Lower marker: In commemoration of One hundred and fifty years of peace, 1814 - 1864, between Canada and the United States of America. The signing of the Columbia River Treaty on September 16th, 1964, at this international . . . — Map (db m27450) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Surrey — Historic ElginPart of Surrey’s Heritage Resources
Community Building The first permanent structure in Elgin was the Elgin Hotel (1870). It was built as a convenient stop-over point for travellers between New Westminster and Blaine. In 1875, four years before the incorporation of the District Municipality of Surrey, the first public church service was held in a simple log cabin built by John Brewer, who had settled in the area in 1870. William Brewer is attributed with building the first community hall in 1878. Built on the . . . — Map (db m60900) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Surrey — Historic Stewart FarmhousePart of Surrey’s Built Heritage
Settlement History First Nations settlements and seasonal hunting and fishing camps existed at the mouths of rivers and along the coastal shoreline for thousands of years before Europeans reached the West Coast. These sites were near plentiful resources of fish, berries, wild game and cedar forests, which provided food, shelter and transportation. These same resources eventually attracted explorers, fur traders, loggers, and settlers. As early as 1861, Samuel Handy and Hugh . . . — Map (db m60901) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — "Gassy Jack"1830-1875 — The Founding Father of Gastown
John Deighton was born in Hull, England. He was an adventurer, river boat pilot and captain, but best known for his "gassy" monologues as a saloonkeeper. His Deighton House Hotel, erected here on the first subdivided lot, burned in the Great Fire of June 13, 1886. On December 25, 1986, this statue was dedicated to the City of Vancouver by the owner of this historic site, Howard Meakin, a third generation Vancouver realtor. — Map (db m40204) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Here Stood Hamilton
Here stood Hamilton First Land Commissioner Canadian Pacific Railway 1885 in the silent solitude of the primeval forest He drove a wooden stake in the earth and commenced to measure an empty land into the streets of Vancouver — Map (db m40645) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — The Old Maple
Here stood the old maple tree under whose branches the pioneers met in 1885 and chose the name "Vancouver" for this city. — Map (db m41554) HM
British Columbia (Kitimat-Stikine Regional District), Hazelton — Hazelton
Head of sternwheeler navigation on the Skeena. The town grew at the landing close to the Indian village of Gitenmaks. Crews from the Collins Telegraph arrived in 1866. Following them Omineca gold miners, Hudson’s Bay pack strings and “gandy dancers” of the Grand Truck all tramped these streets. Each is a chapter in the history of “the town on the hazel flats.” — Map (db m9073) HM
British Columbia (Skeena-Queen Charlotte Regional District), Port Edward — North Pacific Cannery
Salmon canning stimulated economic development on this coast. North Pacific is the oldest West Coast cannery still standing. From here the Bell-Irving family shipped high quality salmon directly to England before 1900. Typical of most canneries in its isolation and operations, North Pacific relied more on native labour than those close to urban centres, was slower to adopt new technology, and had lower production costs. Ethnically-segregated living and work areas divided Chinese, Indian, . . . — Map (db m9203) HM
Manitoba, Gardenton — St. Michael’s Ukrainian Orthodox Church
Constructed in 1899, this church is a fine early example of Ukrainian ecclesiastical architecture in Canada. Its distinctive massing, plan and bulbous cupolas reflect the Byzantine-influenced architectural heritage of the homeland of the settlers in the region. The traditional free-standing bell tower was built in 1906, and like the church, is distinguished by the high quality of its wooden craftsmanship. Built by the first generation of Ukrainians to arrive in Canada, St. Michael’s served as . . . — Map (db m8421) HM
Manitoba, Gimli — New Iceland
New Iceland represents a distinctive episode in the early settlement of the Canadian West. In 1875 and 1876, more than a thousand Icelandic immigrants settled a large tract of land reserved for them by the federal government along the western shore of Lake Winnipeg. Before 1887, the reserve was essentially self-governing under its own constitution, and the setters were primarily of Icelandic origin. New Iceland enabled them to preserve their language and cultural identity. Numerous descendants . . . — Map (db m8453) HM
Manitoba, Headingley — Dominion Lands Survey System
The first marker of the Dominion Lands Survey was placed 10 July, 1871, on the Principal Meridian, about half a mile south of this site. The system, then inaugurated by Lieutenant Colonel J.S. Dennis, Surveyor-General, extends across the prairies and to the Pacific coast, embracing more than 200 million acres of surveyed lands in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and parts of British Columbia. Réseau Topographique du Dominion Le 10 juillet 1871, la première borne du réseau . . . — Map (db m8489) HM
Manitoba, St. Andrews — St. Andrew’s Rectory
Erected between 1852 and 1854, this large limestone dwelling housed the rector of nearby St. Andrew’s church and complemented the massive construction of that building. The rectory, built for the Reverend William Cockran was one of the first stone houses in the Red River Settlement. Like a number of substantial homes built here for retired officers of the Hudson’s Bay Company, it reflects the style and character of important dwellings at company posts. In this way the rectory provides a good . . . — Map (db m8449) HM
Manitoba, St. Andrews — St. Andrews Anglican Church
Beginning in 1828 the Rev. W. Cockran held religious services in the homes of settlers in this area. In 1829 he established a permanent residence at Grand Rapids on the Red River and by 1831 had built a small wooden church. His growing congregation required a larger church building and the present stone church , the oldest in Western Canada, was begun in 1845 and completed in 1849. This simple but beautiful building became the center of missionary activity in Rupert's Land and continues to be . . . — Map (db m8445) HM
Manitoba, St. Andrews — Twin Oaks
Built in the mid-1850s, this house was the residence for a private girls’ school run by Matilda Davis until 1873. The school was supported by families of the Red River Settlement and by officers of the Hudson’s Bay Company from across western Canada who sent their daughters here to be educated as English ladies. The residence could board up to 40 girls. Along with two log classrooms it was used to teach French, music, drawing, dancing, needlework and deportment. The building survives as a fine . . . — Map (db m8450) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Campobello Company and HotelsLe Campobello Company et les Hôtels
Although visitors had been coming to the island since 1855, Campobello's summer trade did not really prosper until the 1880s - years of long summer vacations and great resorts. A group of Boston and New York businessmen bought most of the island in 1881. The new owners called themselves the Campobello Company; their plan was to promote the island as a summer resort. They hoped to lure a wealthy clientele with extensive leisure time to the island, let them enjoy the area's many charms, . . . — Map (db m63639) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Friar's Head / Le Cap Friar
Friar's Head takes its name from the stone pillar or stack (photo 1) that rises from the beach directly below the observation deck. While occupying Eastport, the British navy was said to have used the stone pillar for target practice, altering its outline to that of a hooded monk or Friar in deep contemplation. Native American Passamaquoddy legend referred to this rock as the Stone Maiden. The legend speaks of a young brave leaving on a long journey, telling his lover to sit . . . — Map (db m63629) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Lubec, Maine
About 1840, a canal connecting Johnson and South Bays was dug in North Lubec and a dam constructed there to harness tidal energy to power plaster mills. Gypsum (the raw product used to make plaster) and grindstones from the Maritimes were important trade goods. Lubec’s mills manufactured plaster as late as 1858. In 1874, shipping traffic to and from Lubec was so extensive that the U.S. Coast Guard constructed a life-saving station at West Quoddy Head. About that time, passenger ferries . . . — Map (db m54995) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Lubec, Maine
Lubec's known history began at a Passamaquoddy Indian encampment at Mill Creek in what came to be called Seward's Neck (now North Lubec). French settlers later came to those shores in the early 1700s, but shortly afterward were driven away by the British. Resettlement occurred around 1776 when squatters settled Seward's Neck and Moose Island, both incorporated into the town of Eastport in 1798 and having a population of 244. Many of the settlers were Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and western . . . — Map (db m55023) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Mulholland Point / La Pointe Mulholland
Built in 1885, the Mulholland Point Lighthouse (photo 1) served as a guide for the many small coasters and freighters taking the shorter and more foul weather-protected route through the Lubec Narrows. Steamships, such as the Penobscot (photo 2), sailing between Boston, Portland, and Eastport in the 1890s could only travel through the Narrows when the tide was high. Otherwise, they had to steam around the eastern side of Campobello. The first automobiles brought to the island . . . — Map (db m63593) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Panoramic View of CottagesVue Panoramique des Résidences d'Éte
Two of the Campobello Company's founders, Alex S. Porter and Samuel Wells, and several of the luxury hotel visitors, including James Roosevelt and families by the name of Sturgis, Cochrane, Prince, and Pell purchased land and refurbished or built large cottages. Five cottages remain today: the Prince, Roosevelt, Hubbard, Wells-Shober, and Johnston cottages in what is now the Roosevelt Campobello International Park's historic core. This circa 1914 photo identifies the various . . . — Map (db m63641) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Roosevelt Campobello International ParkLe Parc International Roosevelt de Campobello
The Roosevelt Campobello International Park is a unique example of international cooperation - jointly administered, staffed, and funded by the peoples of Canada and the United States. Established by international treaty in 1964, the 1,134-hectare (2800-acre) park remains a symbol of the close relationship between our two countries. When she declared the Park Visitor Center open in 1967, the Queen Mother Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth expressed the sentiments of both countries with these . . . — Map (db m63591) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — United Empire Loyalists
In Lasting Memory of the United Empire Loyalists Who preferred to remain loyal British subjects and came to canada in large numbers immediately following the American Revolution of 1776 and the signing of the Treaty of Peace in 1783. —————— On this site in 1785 was erected one of the first log houses in this district by a loyalist pioneer Col. Richard Beasley who on June 11th and 12th 1796 here . . . — Map (db m66131) HM
Ontario, Niagara Falls — Ebenezer Community
In 1852 this was the site of the Ebenezer religious community of 800 people. It had log houses, a wharf, store, blacksmith shop, sawmill, woolen mill, flour mill, cannery, cabinet shop and a communal dining hall. Their best known product was high quality cotton denim dyed Ebenezer Blue. In 1859 the community moved to Amana, Iowa. — Map (db m64653) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — By Ward Market Heritage Conservation DistrictDistrict de Conservation du Patrimoine du Marché By
The dense cedar bog that became the site of the By Ward Market was drained and cleared in 1827 by Lieutenant-Colonel John By of the Royal Engineers to accommodate the workers building the Rideau Canal. The area rapidly became the commercial core of Bytown and later served the region's farming communities and the Ottawa Valley lumber industry, whose itinerant lumbermen gave the town its rowdy reputation. Over the next century the By Ward Market housed the businesses and institutions that . . . — Map (db m63692) HM
Ontario, South Dundas — Loyalist American Regiments / Loyalists of the Indian Nations / Sir John Johnson
[ Front of Monument ] Loyalists American Regiments 1775-84 This monument has been erected by a grateful province to commemorate the services of His Majesty's Forces in North America, 1775-84 In particular the following which were disbanded as units and settled along the St. Lawrence River in the new province of Upper Canada. The 84th Regiment (Royal Highland Emigrants) The King's Royal Regiment of New York (Royal Greens) The King's Rangers (Rogers' Corps) The Loyal . . . — Map (db m39747) HM
Ontario, Whitney — Algonquin Provincial ParkLe Parc Provincial Algonquin
Established in 1893, Algonquin was the first provincial park in Canada and the forerunner of Ontario’s extensive park system. Many methods now used across Canada to administer multi-purpose parks and explain nature to the public were developed here. Algonquin also became a focus for discussion of seemingly conflicting objectives, such as wilderness protection versus recreation promotion; forest conservation versus logging activity. Its rugged lakeshores and wooded slopes have long attracted . . . — Map (db m59998) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Connection to Town
Connection to Town Fort Malden (originally called Fort Amherstburg) was the anchor of the town, which grew to the south. In this view, you are looking past the parade grounds of the fort (now a park) down Dalhousie Street towards the location of the naval dockyard. Over the years, much of the economic activity of the town of Amherstburg was generated by the need to feed, supply and amuse several hundred soldiers and their families. Entries from an 1810 account . . . — Map (db m71192) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Fort Malden Points of Interest
Fort Malden Points of Interest • Fort Malden Points d'intérêt (1) Visitor Centre 1939 Centre d'accueil 1939 (2) Military Pensioner's Cottage circa 1851 (Restoration) Maison des pensionnés militaires vers 1851 (bâtiment restauré) (3)Earthworks 1813 & 1838-1840 (Remnants) Remblais 1813 et 1838-1840 (vestiges) (4) Brick Guardhouse circa 1821 . . . — Map (db m71278) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Pensioner's Cottage
Pensioner's Cottage This cottage was built in the early 1850s for a retired soldier and his family. About 85 of these homes were constructed just east of the Fort, and leased at a modest rate to veteran soldiers in return for light military duties. This one, belonging to Charles O'Connor, was moved here from its original location about 500 metres away. For a growing family this cottage would have been very cramped, since it has only two rooms … a combined kitchen/sitting . . . — Map (db m71167) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — 1748
The original cross Was erected in 1748 By the Jesuit Missionaries — • — Was re-enacted at the Old Boys re union Aug., 1909 Re-enacted and this permanent cross erected by the Border Cities Old Boys in Aug., 1922 — Map (db m37519) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — French Settlement on the South Shore
Front - In English Windsor is the oldest known site of continuous settlement in Ontario. The government of New France, anxious to increase its presence on the Detroit River, offered land agricultural settlement on the south shore in 1749. That summer families from the lower St. Lawrence River relocated to lots which began about 6.5 km downstream from here. Along with civilians and discharged soldiers from Fort Pontchartrain (Detroit), they formed the community of La Petite Cote. . . . — Map (db m37343) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — Jesuit Mission to the Hurons
In 1728 a mission to the Huron Indians was established near Fort Pontchartrain (Detroit) by Father Armand de la Richardie, S.J. The mission was moved to Bois Blane Island and the adjacent mainland in 1742. In 1747 it was destroyed by disaffected Hurons and a party of Iroquois, and the next year re-established in this vicinity. The Huron Mission became the Parish of Assumption in 1767 and was entrusted with the spiritual care of the French settlers on this side of the river as well as the . . . — Map (db m37386) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Louis de Buade Comte de Frontenac et de Palluau1622-1698
One of the most influential and controversial figures in Canadian history, Frontenac was born at St-Germain-en-Laye, France. As a member of the noblesse d'epee he was able in 1672 to secure the appointment as Governor-General of New France. Devoted largely because of self-interest to promoting the colony's territorial expansion, Frontenac established a series of fortified fur-trading posts extending into the interior of North America, the first of which, Fort Frontenac, was constructed near . . . — Map (db m39978) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — The King's Royal Regiment of New York
The largest Loyalist Corps in the Northern Department during the American Revolution, the King's Royal Regiment of New York was raised on June 19, 1776 under the command of Sir John Johnson. Originally composed of one battalion with ten companies, it was authorized to add a second battalion in 1780. The regiment, known as the "Royal Yorkers," participated in the bitter war fought on the colonial frontier. It conducted raids against settlements in New York and was also employed in garrison duty. . . . — Map (db m39977) HM
Ontario (Hamilton), Stoney Creek — The Nash-Jackson House
Originally located at the north-east corner of king Street East and Nash Road in the city of Hamilton, the house known as the Nash=Jackson House was built in 1818. The property on which the house stood, part of William Gage's original land grant, was deeded to his eldest daughter, Susannah (Gage) Nash, in 1815. William Gage was uncle to James Gage, original owner of what is now Battlefield House Museum. The Nash-Jackson House, once named Grandview, with its Loyalist Neo-Classic style of . . . — Map (db m56859) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — Middlesex Court HouseLe Palais de Justice de Middlesex
[English Translation] Erected in 1830, this building was modelled after Malahide Castle, near Dublin, Ireland, the ancestral home of Colonel Thomas Talbot, founder of the Talbot Settlement. The site was a part of the town plot set aside by Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe after his visit to The Forks in February, 1793. Here he proposed to locate the provincial capital. [French Translation] En 1830, le colonel Talbot, fondateur de la colonie Talbot, fit erige cet . . . — Map (db m18962) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — The Founding of London
In 1793, here on the River Thames, Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe selected a site for the capital of Upper Canada. York, however, became the seat of government and the townsite of London lay undeveloped until its selection in 1826 as the judicial and administrative centre of the London District. A court-house and gaol (1829) and homes for the government officials were built, stores and hotels were opened, and by 1834 the community contained over 1100 inhabitants. A British garrison . . . — Map (db m18971) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — The Ridout Street Complex
This streetscape includes several of London's earliest buildings and provides a capsule view of the appearance of mid-19th century Ontario cities. These buildings, the earliest of which was begun in 1835, include residential, industrial and commercial premises all intermingled on one of the city's main streets. The group of structures soon became known as “Bankers' Row” because of the presence of five branch offices here. After years of neglect and deterioration, they were . . . — Map (db m18972) HM
Ontario (National Capital Region), Ottawa — Nicholas Sparks
Irish Nicholas Sparks (b.1792) was from Darragh, County Wexford. He came "up river" 1816 to work for the founding Wrights of Hull. In 1826 he acquired Philemon Wright Jr.'s widow (Sarah Olmstead) and her nine children (he and she were to have one son and two daughters): crossed to the south shore, and for £ 95 bought the 200 acres, and log cabin thereon, from the first patentee, John Burrows Honey. His household thus became the first in the swale which Col. John By made his campsite for the . . . — Map (db m75711) HM
Ontario (Regional Municipality of Niagara), Fort Erie — Conestoga Wagon Trek
The border between Canada and the United States of America has witnessed many migrations of people. At two times, however, the migration was primarily from south to north. That was in the troubled days just prior to the American Revolutionary War and during the uneasy decades when the new republic was being formed. During the last two decades of the eighteenth century, many people, motivated by loyalty to the British Crown and fearing some aspects of the course being set by the new United . . . — Map (db m66149) HM
Ontario (Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Butler's Rangers
In 1777 John Butler of New York raised a force of Rangers who, with their Iroquois allies, raided the frontiers of New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey throughout the American Revolutionary War. From their base at Fort Niagara they successfully maintained British military power on the frontiers and seriously threatened rebel food supplies. When Fort Niagara became overcrowded in the autumn of 1778, Butler built near here a group of barracks to house his Rangers and their families. Disbanded in . . . — Map (db m66148) HM
Ontario (Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Niagara Land Purchases
To obtain land on which to settle Loyalists and dispossessed members of the Six Nations of the Iroquois, Guy Johnson in May 1781 and John Butler in May 1784 negotiated treaties with representatives of the Mississauga and Chippewa of this region. The Crown thereby acquired title to a tract of land 6.4 km wide along the west bank of the Niagara River between Lakes Erie and Ontario. These two cessions were later confirmed by a third treaty negotiated by John Graves Simcoe, Lieutenant-Governor of . . . — Map (db m66153) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Chatham — British Army River Crossing to Dolsen's LandingFriday, October 1, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Upon sighting American war ships at the mouth of the Thames River on October 1, 1813, the British Army boarded scows and bateaux near this site. One by one, the boats and their cargo were pulled across the river to their next encampment site at Dolsen's Landing, a small but important commercial site in Dover Township established by Matthew and Hannah Dolsen. The settlement consisted of the Dolsen's log home, a store, a blacksmith shop, a distillery, and other outbuildings. Dolsen's Landing had . . . — Map (db m71311) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Chatham — Chatham Blockhouse— 1794 —
On this site a blockhouse was constructed in 1794 by order of Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe. He planned to establish here a small naval arsenal which would form a link in the defences of Upper Canada's western frontier and also draw the Indian trade from Detroit. The post was garrisoned by a detachment of the Queen's Rangers, and two gunboats were built; but by 1797 it was abandoned. In 1798 the province's Administrator, Peter Russell, had the blockhouse moved to Sandwich to serve as the Western District's court-house and gaol. — Map (db m71313) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Chatham — First Nations Encampment: Thomas McCrae FarmFriday, October 1, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Thomas McCrae was an early settler, innkeeper, and political figure in Raleigh Township along the Thames River. He served as a captain and company commander in the Kent Militia and was present at the capture of Fort Detroit. Family tradition relates that McCrae used the prize money he received from the capture of the fort to complete his Georgian brick home in 1813. On October 1, with the British now encamped across the river and to the east at Dolsen's Landing, the First Nations . . . — Map (db m71308) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Chatham — The Forks — Tecumseh Parkway
The Forks of the Thames are formed by the joining of the Thames River and McGregor Creek creating a peninsula that is present day Tecumseh Park in Chatham, Ontario. The strategic importance of the site was recognized by Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe when he visited the region in 1793. The first settlement at the Forks occurred in 1794 when Simcoe commissioned Captain William Baker to establish a shipyard. Baker constructed a log blockhouse, a 72 foot-long frame workshop, forges, . . . — Map (db m71331) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Fairfield — Tecumseh Parkway
The Moravians or "Bohemian Brethren" were a protestant sect that originated in the 1400s in Moravia and Bohemia, the present day Czech Republic. They faced persecution in their homeland and in 1722 many moved to Saxony (now part of Germany) where they were given security and land on the estate of Nikolaus Ludwig Von Zinzendorf. There they built a community called Hernhut and subsequently sent missionaries to North America where they established settlements in Pennsylvania (Bethlehem and . . . — Map (db m72448) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the ThamesTuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Jacques (James) Baby 1763-1833: A member of the Legislative and Executive Council for Upper Canada, judge for the Western District, and in command of the 1st Kent Militia, Baby was captured by the Americans at the Battle of the Thames. Billy Caldwell 1780-1841: The son of William Caldwell and his Mohawk wife, Billy was a captain in the Indian Department and became a Potowatomi chief after the war. William Caldwell 1750-1822: Of Scots-Irish descent, Caldwell fought in Butler's Rangers . . . — Map (db m71415) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the ThamesTuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
James Johnson 1774-1826: The brother of Richard Johnson, James was elected as a Kentucky State senator in 1808. He served as a lieutenant colonel in Johnson's Mounted Infantry and led the charge on the British lines at the Battle of the Thames along with his two sons. Following the war, he served in the U.S. House of representatives. Richard Mentor Johnson 1780-1850: From Kentucky, Johnson was elected to the House of Representatives in 1806. He served as a colonel in the American Army . . . — Map (db m72385) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — The Burning of Fairfield — Tecumseh Parkway
Robert McAfee, a soldier in Colonel Johnson's Mounted Regiment, kept a journal of his experiences, and wrote on October 7, 1813: Spent the day in collecting in plunder ... Colonel Owings Regiment of Regulars came up and took charge of the plunder and the whole army marched off and we sett [sic] fire to the town, putting the first torch to the Moravian Church and consumed the whole to ashes and we continued our march down the river to the large plantation where the bake ovens were and . . . — Map (db m72414) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Chippawa — The Founding of Chippawa
In 1792-94 a village grew up near Fort Chippawa on Chippawa Creek at the end of the new portage road from Queenston. In 1793 the creek was renamed the Welland River, but the village, where a post-office was opened before 1801, remained "Chippawa". It was largely destroyed 1813-14 when British and American forces fought for control of the Welland River. Portage traffic revived after the war and continued until Chippawa became an outlet for the original Welland Canal from 1829 to 1833. A . . . — Map (db m54124) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Queenston — The Founding of Queenston
Following the loss, after the American Revolution of the Niagara River's east bank, a new portage around Niagara Falls was established in the 1780s' with Queenston its northern terminous. Wharves, storehouses and a block-house were built. Robert Hamilton, a prominent merchant considered the village's founder, operated a thriving trans-shipment business. Known as the "Lower Landing" it was named "Queenston" by Lieut.-Governor Simcoe. During the war of 1812 the village was badly damaged. Here . . . — Map (db m51621) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Queenston — The Queenston Baptist Church
By 1808 the Rev. Elkanah Holmes, a missionary from the United States, had organized the first Baptist congregation in Queenston. Following the war of 1812 the congregation declined, was reorganized in 1831 and between 1842 and 1845 erected the rough-cut limestone structure as its church. It is an early and interesting example of the Gothic Revival style in this province. The church had closed by 1918 and in 1928 was sold to the Women's Institute, which occupied the building until 1954. In 1970 . . . — Map (db m51627) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Thorold — The Founding of Thorold
During the construction of the original Welland Canal, 1824-1829, a number of communities sprung up along its length. Here, on land belonging to George Keefer, a village known as Thorold had developed by 1828. A large flouring mill was built on the canal and the Thorold Township post office was moved from Beaverdams to the new settlement by Jacob Keefer. By 1831 two sawmills were in operation and in 1835 the village contained 370 inhabitants. During the 1840's the building of the Welland Mills, . . . — Map (db m54088) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Vineland — Ball's Grist-Mill
By 1809 John and George Ball had constructed a four-storey grist-mill here on Twenty Mile Creek. Equipped with two run of stones, the mill provided flour for British Troops during the War of 1812. It was expanded during the 1840's and by the end of the decade was part of a complex which included sawmills and woollen factories. About that time George Peter Mann Ball laid out a village plot named Glen Elgin. His plans for an industrial community were thwarted, however, when the Great Western . . . — Map (db m57064) HM
Quebec (Brome-Missisquoi MRC), Stanbridge East — In honour of Capt. Caleb Tree
In honour of Capt. Caleb Tree who came to Canada in 1796 from New- Hampshire, settled on this farm and along with other pioneers founded Stanbridge East in 1801. En l'honneur des pionniers de Stanbridge Est. Erected in 1966 — Map (db m74536) HM
Quebec (Coaticook MRC), Waterville — École HYATT School
The settlement of Milby dates back to the 1790s. This Hyatt One-Room Schoolhouse was built on land originally granted to Loyalist Abraham Hyatt Sr., located in the Hyatt Settlement, now known as Milby. Two brothers, Cornelius and Abraham Jr. settled here while another brother Gilbert settled first at Capelton and later moved to Lower Forks in 1796, then called Hyatt's Mills, known to-day as Sherbrooke.

Loyalist Cornelius Hyatt operated the Grist Mill and Saw Mill at the river, just across . . . — Map (db m74544) HM

Quebec (Le Plateau-Mont-Royal Borough), Montréal — Hochelaga
Près d’ici état le site de la ville fortifiée ďHochelaga visitée par Jacques Cartier en 1535, abandonnée avant 1600 elle renfermait cinquante grandes maisons logeant chacune plusieurs familles vivant de la culture du sol et de la pêche. Near here was the site of the fortified town of Hochelaga visited by Jacques Cartier, in 1535, abandoned before 1600. It contained fifty large houses, each lodging several families who subsisted by cultivation and fishing. — Map (db m72726) HM
Quebec (Ville-Marie Borough), Montréal — Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac
[The coat of arms of Quebec] “Je Me Souvien” Ici vécut -- Here lived Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Sier de Cadillac (1658-1730), Fondateur de -- Founder of Détroit, -- Detroit, Governeur de -- Governor of La Louisiane -- Louisiana Commission des Monuments Historiques — Map (db m33976) HM
Quebec (Ville-Marie Borough), Montréal — Aux origines de Montréal / The origins of Montréal
C’est ici que le sieur de Maisonneuve fonda Montréal en mai 1642. Situé au confluent du Saint-Laurent et de l’ancienne petite rivière Saint-pierre, l’endroit était bien connu des Autochtones qui s’y rassemblaient depuis des siècles, de même que sur le site de l’actuelle place Royale. Dès leur arrivée, les Français construisirent le fort Ville-Marie. Vers 1688, le gouverneur de Montréal, Louis-Hector de Calliėre, obtint une partie du terrain et y érigea sa résidence, d’où le nom de pointe . . . — Map (db m72935) HM
Saskatchewan, Canora — Ukrainian Settlers of Canora
The first block Ukrainian settlement in Saskatchewan was established in 1897 when 180 families arrives in the Canora district from western Ukraine. Ottawa had specified that earlier Ukrainian immigrants first settle in Alberta and Manitoba. Canora became a center where the Ukrainian culture and language are still kept alive. Thus, many people know Canora as a Ukrainian town. The distinctive dome on many churches in the area are a lasting feature of this settlement. — Map (db m8492) HM
Saskatchewan, Rosthern — Rosenort Mennonite Church
Mennonite settlers who arrived in this area in 1892 held church services in private homes until 1896, when the first church of the conference of Mennonites in the North-West Territories was built on this site. The Mennonite community had organized the Rosenort Mennonite Church in 1894, named for the community in West Prussia from which their elder, Peter Regier, and others had come. In 1902 the original log structure was replaced by the present church, which was remodelled in 1954. — Map (db m8531) HM
Yukon Territory, Dawson City — West Dawson
West Dawson was settled c.1899 by people wanting to avoid overcrowding and typhoid outbreaks in Dawson. Farms also became established and later, as mining in the sixtymile area increased, a link with Dawson became necessary. In 1902 a ferry guided by a cable began operating. This cable was supported on the opposite bank by a 37 metre tower which provided clearance for the riverboats. — Map (db m44711) HM
France, Île-de-France (Paris), Paris — Samuel Champlainle 26 juin 1604
de Brouage en Saintonge Avec Pierre Dugua de Mons et ses Compagnons fondent en Acadie le premier éstablissement Français permanent au Canada et ensuite s’établira à Québec en 1608.

[English translation] The June 26, 1604 Samuel Champlain of Brouage en Saintonge With Pierre Du Gua de Monts and his companions founded in Acadia the first permanent French settlement in Canada and then drew plans for Quebec City in 1608. — Map (db m60538) HM

France, Languedoc-Roussillon (Bouches-du-Rhône), Arles — Le Forum Romain et Les CryptoportiquesThe Roman Forum and the Cryptoportiques
L’implantation du Forum romain contre le flanc Ouest de la colline d’Arles a necéssité la construction d’importantes substructions destinées à établir solidement une vaste terrasse. La partie Nord de ces galeries sousterraines, appelées Cryptoportiques passe sous la place du Forum actuelle, la partie Sud sous l’Hôtel de Ville. Autour l’esplanade ainsi constituée, fut édifié dès l’installation de la colonie romaine, fondée en 46 av. J.C. par Jules César, un grand portique de colonnes encadrant . . . — Map (db m60964) HM
Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Mansfeld-Südharz District), Mansfeld-Lutherstadt — Mansfeld Brunnen / Well
Dieser brunnen wurde bei Straßenbauarbeiten der Stadtkernsanierung im Jahr 2003 freigelegt und saniert. Er wurde im frühen 17. Jahrhundert angelegt. Die oberen 7m sind aus Sandsteinblocken gemauert. Darunter wurde der Brunnen in anstehenden Buntsandstein gehauen. Gesamttiefe: 23 m Wassertiefe: 15 m —————————— This well was uncovered during road construction work in the town center redevelopment in 2003 and renovated. It . . . — Map (db m70377) HM
Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Mansfeld-Südharz District), Mansfeld-Lutherstadt — Mansfeld um / in 1560
nach einer Handskizze von Cyriakus Spangenberg [Stadtplan und Schlüssel] Material und Putzarbeiten gesonsert von Firma KNORR Bau GmbH Entwurf und Ausführung Günter Bormann und Siegfried Bösel —————————— after a hand sketch by Cyriacus Spangenberg [map and key] Material and plaster work provided by KNORR Bau GmbH Design and execution by Günter Bormann and Siegfried Bösel — Map (db m70367) HM
Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Mansfeld-Südharz District), Mansfeld-Lutherstadt — Scherren(original nach / by C. Spangenberg)
Im Volksmund später auch Murre genannt. Als Scherren bezeichnete man im Mittelalter Verkaufsstände an denen frische Lebensmittel gehandelt wurden. Dies waren vorwiegend Fleisch und Brot. Daher werden sie in der Chronik auch als Fleisch und Brotbänke bezeichnet. —————————— In the vernacular, later also called Murre. As one called Scherren in the Middle Ages Stalls, selling fresh food being traded. These were mainly . . . — Map (db m70363) HM
Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Wittenberg District), Lutherstadt Wittenberg — 1556 Wittenberg Water System
1556 Wir danken den hier senannten grundern des alten jungfern-rohr wassers fur ihr noch heute bestehendes uneigennutziges werk Hieronymus Krapp • Christoph Kellner • Christoph Schramm • Lucas Cranach • Kaspar Pfreundt • Konrad Ruehel • Hans Lufft —————————— 1556 We thank the mentioned founders for their selfless efforts in developing the old maiden-tube water system existing today Hieronymus Krapp • Christoph Kellner • . . . — Map (db m69736) HM
Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Wittenberg District), Lutherstadt Wittenberg — Christian Döring(unbek. - 1533)
Goldschmied, Verleger, Stadtkämmerer verlegte 1522 das Neue Testament —————————— Goldsmith, Publisher, City Treasurer in 1522 published the New Testament — Map (db m69783) HM
Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Wittenberg District), Lutherstadt Wittenberg — Lucas Cranach d. Ältere(1472 - 1553)
Maler und Unternehmer 1537 - 1544 Bürgermeister —————————— Artist and Entrepreneur 1537 - 1544 Mayor — Map (db m69739) HM
Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Wittenberg District), Lutherstadt Wittenberg — Lucas Cranach d. Jüngere(1515 - 1586)
Maler und Porträtist 1565 Bürgermeister —————————— Painter and Portraitist 1565 Mayor — Map (db m69779) HM
Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Wittenberg District), Lutherstadt Wittenberg — Lucas Cranach der Ältere (1472-1553)
Zur Erinnerung an die Ankunft des Malers 1505 in Wittenberg Frijo Müller-Belecke, Hemmoor Bildhauerlehrling 1948 im Cranach-Hof Wittenberg Bronze, 2005 —————————— To commemorate the arrival of the painter in 1505 in Wittenberg Frijo Müller-Belecke, Hemmoor Sculptor Apprentice 1948 Cranach-Hof Wittenberg Bronze, 2005 — Map (db m69737) HM
Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Wittenberg District), Lutherstadt Wittenberg — The Elbe Gate / Das Elbtor
When Martin Luther came to Wittenberg in 1508 he saw three mighty gates around the heavily fortified town. At this place in 1508 was the Elbe Gate. In front of this gate was the Elbe suburb. In 1829 the Princess Auguste of Saxony-Weimar came through this gate into the town. She was a guest of the commander of the fortress and on her way to her marriage with Prince Wilhelm of Prussia. In 1873 the destruction of the gate started. . . . — Map (db m70145) HM
Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Wittenberg District), Lutherstadt Wittenberg — The Elster Gate / Das Elstertor
When Martin Luther came to Wittenberg in 1508 he saw three mighty gates around the heavily fortified town. At this place in 1508 was the Elster Gate. In front of this gate was the Elster suburb. On February 22, 1546, the body of Martin Luther was met by his wife Katharina and his children, the professors of the university, the council of the town and the citizens of Wittenberg. From here in a festive procession to his funeral at the Castle Church was accompanied by the ringing of bells. . . . — Map (db m70143) HM
Ireland, Connacht (County Mayo), Cloonlaur — Bunlahinch ClapperbridgeClew Bay Archaeological Trail site 14Slí Seandálaíochta Chuan Módh
Bún na hInes - Bottom of the River Meadow This clapperbridge is a very unusual feature in the West of Ireland. The word clapper originally meant plank in the Sussex area of England, where there are many examples. Clapperbridges are a pre-historic form of stone-built bridge. The basic structure consists of small stone piers or pillars, which are spanned by flat stone slabs or planks. They were designed to cross wide, flat streams and rivers, as seen here, and used as footbridges. . . . — Map (db m28058) HM
Ireland, Connacht (County Mayo), Cong — Monk's Fishing House / Teach Iascaigh na Manach
Monk's Fishing House Fish was a staple in the diet of the mediaeval monastery, and this small building, probably built in the 15th or 16th century, is believed to have been used by the monks of Cong to make the task of catching fish a little easier. It is built on a platform of stones over a small arch water from the river to flow underneath the floor. A trapdoor in the floor may have been used for a net, and monks could sit by the small fireplace in cold weather waiting for their . . . — Map (db m28068) HM
Ireland, Connacht (County Mayo), Killeen — Killeen Graveyard and Cross SlabClew Bay Archaeological Trail site 15Slí Seandálaíochta Chuan Módh
This graveyard is now in the area known as Killeen. There is no trace of the early Christian church but there is a circular raised platform within the graveyard which could indicate where the original church stood. Tradition has it that if a person found guilty of any crime placed a finger in the keyhole of the church door, he/she would be let go free. In the graveyard, there is a large standing stone, leaning precariously, which was christianised during the seventh century with a Maltese . . . — Map (db m28056) HM
Ireland, Connacht (County Mayo), Murrisk — Murrisk Abbey / National Famine Monument / Statue of St PatrickClew Bay Archaeological Trail sites 6, 7, 8Slí Seandálaíochta Chuan Módh
Murrisk Abbey • site 6 Muraisc - Sea Marsh Murrisk Abbey was founded circa 1456 by the Augustinian Friars because “the inhabitants of those parts have not hitherto been instructed in their faith.” It quickly became the preferred starting point for pilgrimages up Croagh Patrick. Before then, pilgrims approached the mountain from AnTóchar Phádraig, which starts in Aughagower. The ruins consist of an L-shaped building representing the long and narrow . . . — Map (db m27757) HM
Ireland, Connacht (County Mayo), Murrisk — Murrisk Friary / Mainistir Mhuraisce
Murrisk - from Muraisc (Sea-marsh) Murrisk Friary This small house of Augustinian friars, located here on the south shore of Clew Bay in the shadow of Croagh Patrick, was founded in 1457 by Hugh O'Malley. It was dedicated to St Patrick, some of whose relics were preserved here. The only surviving buildings are the small church and the range of domestic buildings which bordered the cloister on its east side - the chapter house below, where the friars met to . . . — Map (db m27587) HM
Ireland, Connacht (County Mayo), the Doo Lough Valley — 1849 Famine Walk
. . . — Map (db m27687) HM
Ireland, Connacht (County Roscommon), Ballyconboy — 988:1272 — Cruachan / Cruachain (Rathmore)
Cruachan is traditionally said to be the inauguration place of the Kings of Connacht. There are a number of monuments spread over an area of about two square miles. These include a large mound, a number of differently-shaped enclosures and some ring-forts. One of these contains a standing stone alleged to mark the resting place of the last pagan king of Ireland. De réir an tseanchais is ag Cruachain a dhéantaí Ríthe Chonnacht a ghairm. Tá roinnt séadchomharthaí scaipthe ar fud achar dhá . . . — Map (db m28192) HM
Ireland, Connacht (County Roscommon), Rathmoyle — Rathmoyle Cemetery
Rathmoyle Cemetery is unique in that it is the property of the parish and is maintained solely by the local population. The site appeas on the 1st edition of the 6 inch O.S. series of maps for Co. Roscommon as a Mortuary Chapel with surrounding graveyard. It is mentioned in the 1837 O.S. Map. The site was presented as a gift to the area by the local gentry, the Irwin's, in 1921 and has since been used as a local cemetery. The surrounding wall was constructed in the 1930's through . . . — Map (db m28204) HM
Ireland, Connacht (County Roscommon), Strokestown — Mahon Dower House
Former Mahon Dower House Originally constructed in 1740's later used as Scoil Mhuire Secondary School until 1967 — Map (db m27538) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Fingal), Howth — Howth Abbey, St. Marys / "Mainistir" Bhinn Éadair
Howth Abbey, St. Marys Sigtrygg, King of Dublin, founded the first church here in 1042. When this church was amalgamated with another on Ireland's Eye in 1235, it was re-founded by Luke, Archbishop of Dublin. Much of the present church dates from the 15th and 16th centuries. In the southeastern corner is a chantry containing the tomb of Christopher St. Laurence, carved around 1470, with the effigy of the Knight and his wife on top. Surrounding the tomb can be seen representations of the . . . — Map (db m27205) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Fingal), Howth — Howth The Village / Binn Éadair ______The Fingal Way / Sli Fhine Gall
A Fishing Village References to the fishing industry in Howth can be found from the twelfth century, although in the seventeenth century the port was also known in the area as a base for pirates roaming Dublin Bay. In Elizabethan times a wooden quay was built but as vessel size increased the importance of Howth for goods and passenger traffic declined. In the nineteenth century various plans were put forward for a harbour at Howth and in 1807 construction commenced using stone quarried . . . — Map (db m27057) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Fingal), Howth — St Mary's Church / Eaglais Mhuire
Howth from Old Norse Hofuth (a promontory); Binn Éadair (the hill of Éadar) is the Irish name. This church, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, was collegiate; that is, it was served by a college or community of clerics, one of whom had responsibility for liturgy within the church as well as for matters of business. The house where the community lived stands to the south of the church. The earliest church here was built by Sitric, King of Dublin, in 1042. It . . . — Map (db m27183) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Fingal), Howth — The Ready Boat PillarSculpted by Seán O'Dwyer
Seeing the meaning When viewing a piece of sculpture one can see many different layers of meaning. The clues given here are only the first layer of meaning and are meant only as a gateway through which you can go on your way to see meanings of your own. All local stories, myths and legends are preserved to carry a message. Howth has a wonderful past and from it certain themes emerge.... exploration, conflict, healing and preservation. I have depicted figures in the Ready Boat Pillar . . . — Map (db m25301) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Fingal), Malahide — Malahide / Mullach Íde
[Excerpt from marker] History There has been a settlement at Malahide (Mullach Íde in Gaelige meaning the Hill of the Hydes) since ancient times. The Vikings landed in 795 AD and the Danes were settled here from 897 AD. In 1185 the Normans were in control of Dublin and from the 12th century the castle at Malahide was developed by the Talbot family who remained in residence until the 1970's. The village developed in the early 19th century and the small harbour was used to import . . . — Map (db m72714) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Laois), Borris In Ossory — Millenium Fountain
The threshold and other rough stone was salvaged from one of the last thatched houses in the village. It was demolished in the year 2000. — Map (db m24721) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Longford), Lanesborough — fáilte go Lanesborough
Brief History of Longford Longford is a focal point of the northern midlands where the provinces of Leinster, Ulster and Connaught all converge. Longford, where history and literature, tradegy and triumph are all woven together, takes its name from the ancient stronghold of the O'Farrell family (Long Fort - Fort of the O'Farrells) who ruled from the 11th Century. Bordered to the west by the majestic River Shannon, Longford is a county of rolling plains and picturesque stretches of . . . — Map (db m27498) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Longford), Lanesborough — Lanesborough / Béal Átha Liag History 500 - 1900 AD
The Mouth of the Ford of Stones The ancient name of Lanesborough is Béal Átha Liag which means “Mouth of the Ford of Stones”. Situated at the northern tip of Lough Ree, or Loch Rí - meaning the “Lake of Kings” - Béal Átha Liag provided the first crossing point on the Shannon north of Athlone. From 1000 AD, the bridges across the Shannon have been of major military importance, being a main crossing point between the East and West of Ireland. 540 • . . . — Map (db m27424) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Louth), Monasterboice — Monasterboice / Mainistir Bhuithe
Monasterboice — from Mainistir Bhuithe (the Monastery of Buithe) This is the only early Irish monastery whose name incorporates the Irish word mainistir. Monasterboice was founded by St Buite, who died around 520. The monastery was an important centre of spirituality and learning for many centuries until the Cistercians arrived at nearby Mellifont in 1142. The two churches which stand on the site today were probably built no earlier than the end of the 14th . . . — Map (db m24628) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Louth), Monasterboice — 98 — Round Tower / An Cloigtheach
Round Tower The round tower was the Irish reaction to the Norse raids on monasteries in the 10th/11th century A.D. These tapering buildings, over 100 feet high, served as watch-towers, belfries, repositories for church valuables and as refuges for the community. The door, normally 15-20 feet above ground was reached by a movable ladder and the interior was divided into four or more storeys. The present height of the tower is 110 feet. The level of the surroundings has been raised by . . . — Map (db m24693) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Louth), Monasterboice — 98 — The North Church / An Teampall Thuaidh
A 13th century reconstruction on the foundations of an earlier monastic building, used as a small parochial church after the monastery at Monasterboice had come to an end. It remains little of architectural interest. The east windows and most of that gable have disappeared. ————— Hatógadh an teampall seo ar fhothaí sean-mhainistreach, agus húsáideadh mar theampall paróiste é tar éis an mhainistir dul i léig. — Map (db m24694) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Louth), Monasterboice — 98 — The South Church / An Teampall Theas
At one time a church consisting of nave and chancel stood on this site. In the 13th century re-edification the west gable was moved back to add over two feet to the nave. The chancel having by this time disappeared, the plain round arch in the east gable was built up to give a single-roomed building. —————— Bhí tráth ar an láthair seo teampall ina raibh méánlann agus caingeal. Nuair a hathógadh é sa 13ú aois bogadh an bhinn thiar amach le 2'4" a chur leis an meánlann. — Map (db m24717) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Culmullen — Culmullen & 1798They Gave Their Lives For Their Cause
Erected by the People of Culmullen and District to the memory of the Men and Women of Wexford and Meath who died for their Country and lie buried in the surrounding area There were two periods of intense Rising activity around Culmullen in 1798 Thursday May 24, 1798 Dunshaughlin was the rallying point for the United Irishmen of Meath, Dublin and North Kildare where a Tree of Liberty was planted. The following day, the rebels moved to one side of the Bog of Culmullen . . . — Map (db m33354) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Duleek — St Mary's AbbeyDuleek Heritage Trail
One of the great churches of the 12th century, St. Mary's Abbey, was built by the Augustinians on lands presented to them by Hugh de Lacy, Overlord of Meath. In the 1500s a massive square tower was built alongside the earlier round tower. The latter is no longer standing but the ‘scar’ where it was joined onto the square tower is clearly visible on its north side. Within the church are some early cross-slabs, a Romanesque pilaster-capital and the base and head of the South Cross, and . . . — Map (db m26384) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Duleek — The Lime TreeDuleek Heritage Trail
William of Orange and Mary accepted the throne of England in 1698, supplanting King James II who took refuge with his ally and sponsor Louis XIV of France. The tensions between James and William would reach their highpoint in 1690 at the battle of the Boyne in Meath, where James was defeated. In Duleek at the time there was a very significant colony of Huguenots (French Protestants) who had fled persecution in France. Subsequently to the Battle of the Boyne the people of Duleek planted . . . — Map (db m24802) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Fordstown — Girley / FordstownMeath Villages
An introduction to Fordstown Fordstown is named after the Norman-Irish Ford family, who lived in the area. One part of the townland is sometimes referred to as Ballaghboy. Today, Fordstown is a growing, vibrant community. ‘Fordstown Street Fair’ is an old world fair, hosted by Fordstown in October each year since 2004. Fordrew Rovers Fordrew Rovers Football Club was formed in 1997 and play in Drewstown. They progressed from Division 4A to Division 1 in four years. They won . . . — Map (db m27318) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Kells — Headfort PlaceKells Heritage Trail
Headfort Place was purposely widened and lined with trees in the 18th century to make it a suitable setting for its attractive Georgian houses. It is also here that a site for a parish church was donated to the Roman Catholic community by Lord Bective. The original site of the church is in the area near the present church's carpark. — Map (db m27339) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Kells — Kells Round TowerKells Heritage Trail
This tower is located on the grounds of St Columba's church and was built in the 10th century as part of the early Christian monastery. Such towers were referred to as a cloigteach meaning bell tower. Modelled on early Italian belfries, they were used as lookout towers and as places of refuge during attack, particularly from Norse invaders. The tower is ninety feet high from the original street level to the base of its roof and has six floors but no internal staircase. Access to the upper . . . — Map (db m26440) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Kells — Market CrossKells Heritage Trail
This 9th century high cross, the cross of the gate of the Kells monastery, is one of five high crosses still surviving in Kells. The cross of the gate, currently at or near its original site, was a termon cross and signified that a fugitive could claim sanctuary once inside the boundary of the monastic area. The carved faces of the high crosses depict scenes from the Old and New Testament and were used primarily for the religious instruction of the faithful. These scenes may originally have . . . — Map (db m27341) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Kells — Suffolk StreetKells Heritage Trail
Suffolk Street is an anglicisation of the ancient name Siofac, the meaning of which is today uncertain. The Annals of the Four Masters mentions a fire in 1156 burning the area of Kells from the cross of the gate to Siofoic. The name may be derived from the existence of a suidhe, a fairy mound, possibly a prehistoric tumulus, at the junction of Suffolk and Farrell Streets. A hillock at this site was cleared away in the early 19th century with the widening of Farrell Street. — Map (db m26424) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Loyd — Spire of LoydKells Heritage Trail
The tower, a mock lighthouse, was erected in 1791 by the First Earl of Bective in memory of his father Sir Thomas Taylor. The architect was Henry Baker who completed the design of the Kings Inns in Dublin after Gandon. The tower has an internal spiral stone staircase and was used in the 19th century to view the horseracing and the hunt. A section of land adjoining the tower was given to the Kells Union Workhouse in 1851 to be used as a paupers' graveyard. A famine road existed between the . . . — Map (db m27324) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Newgrange — Knowth / Cnogbha
Within the great mound of Knowth there are two passage-tombs and around it, eighteen satellite tombs. The site remained a focal point for over 4,000 years. There is evidence of occupation from 3,000 B.C. to 1,200 A.D. This project has been part-financed by the European Regional Development Fund — Map (db m27219) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Newgrange — The Woodhenge/Pit circle / The Winter Soltice
The Woodhenge/Pit circle If you were here 4000 years ago in the Early Bronze Age you would be standing inside a large wooden enclosure. The passage tomb was no longer in use at this time but the site was still a focal point for ritual and celebration. Because the enclosure was made of wood, it hasn't survived above ground. However, evidence of it was found by archaeologists. They found postholes where the huge wooden stakes had been. They also found pits where small animals had been . . . — Map (db m22522) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Slane — Saint Patrick on the Hill of Slane
Long established tradition tells that St. Patrick lit the Easter Fire on this Hill of Slane in 433. In doing so, he unwittingly disobeyed King Laoghaire at nearby Tara. The inevitable confrontation had a happy outcome: Laoghaire's druid, Erk, became a Christian (later, first Bishop of Slane) and the King was pacified. The Easter Fire is still lighted, each year, on the Hill of Slane. — Map (db m22538) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Slane — Slane AbbeyMainistir Shláine
Slane Abbey It is believed that in 433 AD, the first Christian missionary to Ireland, later known as St. Patrick, lit a large celebration fire here on the Hill of Slane. Soon after St Patrick, a monastery associated with St Earc was built on the site. But we know little of its history until the church was rebuilt in its present form in 1512, when Sir Christopher Fleming founded a Franciscan friary. The church was built to a simple plan but it has a fine bell tower; the aisle to the . . . — Map (db m22533) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Trim — Newtowntrim Cathedral / Ardeaglais an Bhaile NuaCathedral of Saints Peter and Paul — Ardeaglais nPheadair agus nPhóil
The priory of Newtowntrim was founded in 1202 by Simon de Rochfort, Bishop of Meath, for a community of Augustinian canons (priests). As well as functioning as part of the monastery, the church became the cathedral for the diocese of Meath after Simon petitioned the Pope to transfer his cathedral from Clonard to this site, where it could be protected by the great Norman castle at Trim. The Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul was one of the largest and most sophisticated churches built in . . . — Map (db m27240) HM
Ireland, Munster (County Clare), Kilfenora — Historic Kilfenora / Cill Fhionnúrach Stairiúil
Historic Kilfenora The monastery of Kilfenora or Chill Fhionnúrach (the church of the white brow) is said to have been founded in the 6th century by St. Fachnan. The outline of the early monastic circular enclosure can still be traced in the curve of the roads to the south and west of the cathedral. The early history of the site is obscure, with the first historical reference occurring in 1055 when the stone church at the site was burned. The material remains, in particular the group . . . — Map (db m23694) HM
Ireland, Munster (County Kerry), Dunquin — The Blaskets
This group, the most westerly off the Irish coast, comprises 7 sizeable islands and isolated rocks spread in a line west by south over 2½ miles of the Atlantic, the largest (Great Blasket) 2 miles off shore. Antiquities of the early Christian period include oratories, crosses and “beehive” cells on Inis Mhicileáin and Inis Tuaisceart, and church ruins on the Great Blasket. The economy of the islands, based mainly on fishing with some farming, in 1839 supported 13 . . . — Map (db m24096) HM
Ireland, Munster (County Kerry), Fahan — Dunbeg Promontory Fort / An Dún Beag
Dunbeg Promontory Fort This Promontory Fort consists of four fosses (ditches) and five mounds. Behind this we have the terraced dry-stone masonry rampart, originally straight but which became curved during later construction work. The entrance is roofed and flanked by two guardrooms. The inner part of the wall is the older, the outer portion being added later to strengthen it. Inside the Fort are the remains of a large Clochaun, internally square on plan. There is a water drain around . . . — Map (db m24780) HM
Ireland, Munster (County Kerry), Gallarus — Gallarus Oratory / Séipéilín Ghallarais
Built around the 7th or 8th century this Oratory resembles an inverted boat. This is the only perfect remaining example of a number of small corbel-built Oratories on a rectangular plan. The outward inclination of the bed joints of the stonework directs the rain to the outside. There are two openings, the western doorway and the eastern window. The doorway has a double lintel, above which project two stones each pierced with a round hole; these may have served for the attachment of a door. The . . . — Map (db m23499) HM
Ireland, Munster (County Kerry), Kilmalkedar — Kilmalkedar Church / Cill Mhaoilchéadair
Kilmalkedar — from Cill Mhaoilchéadair (the Church of Mhaoilchéadair) Kilmalkedar Church Kilmalkedar, one of the most important early church sites on the Dingle peninsula, is traditionally associated with St. Brendan but it was probably founded by St. Maolcethair who died in 636. The present church, built in the middle of the 12th century, is a fine example of Irish Romanesque architecture. This style was introduced from England and the continent in the early . . . — Map (db m24299) HM
Ireland, Munster (County Kerry), Listowel — "River Fort"
This sculpture was designed by local councillor and craftsman Tony O'Callaghan The “Standing Stone” illustrates the River Feale which flows around our town. The “Ring” depicts an earthen fort situated in the vicinity of the town from which the town got its name Lios Tuathail (Listowel). — Map (db m23989) HM
Ireland, Munster (County Kerry), Reask — Reask Monastic Site / Láthair Mhainistreach an Riaisc
Reask - from An Riasc (the marsh). This important early monastery was probably founded in the 6th century. Little is known of the history of the site. The enclosing wall is roughly circular and its interior is divided by a curving wall into two parts. In the eastern part is the oratory (a small church) which was made - like all the other buildings on the site - with dry-stone walls with a corbelled roof; no mortar was used to hold the walls together. Besides . . . — Map (db m24147) HM
Ireland, Munster (County Limerick), Abbeyfeale — Thatched Chapel Cross
Cross from thatched chapel where many generations of Abbeyfeale people worshipped until St. Mary's Church was built in 1846 — Map (db m24738) HM
Ireland, Ulster (County Donegal), Burt — Grianan Ailligh / Grianán Ailigh
This large stone-walled fort, located on a hilltop commanding views over Loughs Foyle and Swilly and counties Donegal, Derry and Tyrone, was the royal citadel of the northern Uí Néill from the 5th to the 12th century. It was probably built some time around the birth of Christ. Its builders may have been attracted to this hilltop site by the presence here of a sacred monument - a prehistoric burial mound or tumulus, possibly from the Neolithich period (about 3000 BC). A lintelled . . . — Map (db m71458) HM
Ireland, Ulster (County Donegal), Carrick — Carrick / An Charraig
In 1907 a young woman from Carrick, who had emigrated to America was at the centre of a national controversy. Mary Cunningham worked as a domestic servant for the famous sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudins in New Hampshire. It was claimed that Saint-Gaudins used Mary as the model for the new ten-dollar gold coin. At a time when there was still prejudice against the Irish, this caused a national uproar. The critics seemed to have ignored the fact that Saint-Gaudins was himself an Irishman. . . . — Map (db m72266) HM
Ireland, Ulster (County Donegal), Donegal Town — Donegal Castle
Built in 1474 by Hugh O'Donnell. Destroyed in 1595 by Red Hugh O'Donnell to prevent seizure by the British. Rebuilt circa 1614 by Sir Basil Brook. [Top view drawing showing evolution of the castle in] 15th century, 17th century, Modern — Map (db m71569) HM
Ireland, Ulster (County Donegal), Donegal Town — 6 — Donegal Castle / Caisleán Dhún na nGall
Donegal Castle was built by Red Hugh O'Donnell, the young 'Eagle of the North', in the late 15th Century beside the River Eske. During the Plantation of Ulster that followed 'The Flight of the Earls' in 1607, the Castle, historic home of the O'Donnell's, was granted to Captain Basil Brooke who came to Ireland with the English Army in 1598 and fought in Munster. It is generally accepted that Red Hugh O'Donnell, who was proclaimed "The O'Donnell' in 1592, burned the castle to prevent it . . . — Map (db m71570) HM
Ireland, Ulster (County Donegal), Letterkenny — Gallaghers Cottage
At this point once stood the home place of the late Jimmy Gallagher, his wife and family. Jimmy who was an employee of the County Donegal Railway, was a guard on the Letterkenny to Strabane train, when on 11th August 1941, he was fatally injured in a rail accident about 2 miles from Letterkenny. His son Patrick started to work on the railway after his father died, starting as an engine cleaner, then to fireman and finally engine driver. He had the distinction of driving the last steam train . . . — Map (db m71478) HM
Ireland, Ulster (County Donegal), Letterkenny — George Murbury
Founder of Letterkenny Town is buried in this graveyard No. 276 — Map (db m71546) HM
Ireland, Ulster (County Donegal), Letterkenny — The Cathedral Square
St. Eunan's Cathedral Work began on Saint Eunan and Saint Colmcille's Catholic Cathedral in 1890. It was designed by William Hague. It is built of white stone from Mountcharles and cost £300,000. The ceilings are the work of Amici of Rome, while the wonderful stained glass windows, which illuminate the Sanctuary and the Lady Chapel, are by the Mayer firm of Munich. The carvings show stories from the lives of Saint Eunan and Colmcille. It was dedicated in 1901. The spire stands at 212 . . . — Map (db m71548) HM
Ireland, Ulster (County Donegal), Slieve League — Farming on Sliabh Liag / Feirmeoireacht ar Shliabh LiagWalking Through Donegal — Ag Siúl Tríd Dhún na nGall
Local farmers use the cliffs of Sliabh Liag as a grazing area for sheep. Hardy varieties of sheep suited to harsh mountain environments are raised to produce wool which was traditionally woven locally to produce the world famous Donegal Tweeds. Baineann ne feirmeoirí áitiúla úsáid as Shlaibh Liag mar thalamh innilte do chaoire. Tógtar caoire de chineáil crua atá fóirsteanach do thimpeallacht sléibhe garbh le olann a shaothrú. Bhíodh an olann seo a sníodh le bréidín cháiliúil Dhún na . . . — Map (db m71630) HM
Ireland, Ulster (County Donegal), Slieve League — Fishing /IascaireachtWalking Through Donegal — Ag Siúl Tríd Dhún na nGall
The sea has always been a central part of the lives of the people who live in this area. Fishing once provided an important source of income for many local families. However, today the industry is in steady decline. Donegal Bay, once busy with boats of all sizes, now supports only minimal fishing activity. Is páirt lárnach do shaol na ndaoine a chónaíonn sa cheantar seo an fharraige. Chuidigh an teacht isteach ó thionscal na h-iascaireachta go mór le mórán de na teaghlaigh áitiúla lá den . . . — Map (db m71644) HM
Ireland, Ulster (County Donegal), Slieve League — The Bog / An PortachWalking Through Donegal — Ag Siúl Tríd Dhún na nGall
The principal fuel for heating homes in this area has always been turf, which is cut out of the bog. Cutting the turf begins around April or May when wet sods are spread on the surface to begin drying. These are then 'footed' into small piles to dry thoroughly. Once dried the turf can then be transported home in time for the winter. The remains of old turf workings are very evident in this area and can be recognized as banks and steps across the landscape. Ba í móin an príomh ábhar . . . — Map (db m71668) HM
Ireland, Ulster (County Monaghan), Clones — Clones Round Tower, Cross and ChurchCros, Eaglais agus Cloigtheach Chluain Eois
These features were part of a monastery founded by St Tighearnach at the beginning of the 6th century. The 10th or 11th century Round Tower, the monastery's bell-tower, is the oldest surviving building on the site. Close by, in the graveyard, is a stone shrine, shaped like a church, with a worn carving of a bishop at one end. It is known as St Tighearnach's Shrine, and was probably erected in the 12th century. The head and shaft of the High Cross which now stands in the centre of the town . . . — Map (db m72654) HM
Ireland, Ulster (County Monaghan), Clones — High Cross / Ardchros Cluain EoisClones - Historic Town / Cluain Eois, Baile Scairiúil
This is a 10th century Ulster Scripture Cross. Cap-stone, Head & Shaft are all from different periods. However, the main shaft is dated as above. Originally a termon or boundary cross marking monastic lands limit. Also used as a teaching aid by the monks. Picture Panels depict New and Old Testament scenes. Crosses may have been of timber construction before coming of Vikings. Picture panels. Read from bottom to top. New Testament - Adoration of Magi, Wedding Feast of Cana, Loaves & . . . — Map (db m73258) HM
Ireland, Ulster (County Monaghan), Clones — Remains of St Tiernach
Here lie the remains of St Tiernach. Of the Royal House of Oriel. First Abbot of Clones Monastry [sic] Bishop of Clogher. 500 AD to 4th April 548. — Map (db m73277) HM
Ireland, Ulster (County Monaghan), Clones — Round Tower / Cloigtheach Chluain EoisClones - Historic Town / Cluain Eois, Baile Scairiúil
One of the earliest examples of a round Tower. Probably built in the 10th century. The base shows evidence of attempts to destroy by burning. The Tower lost its conical cap between 1591 and 1741. Four top windows face the cardinal points. Old Irish name "Cloig Teach" meaning Bell House refers to original use. Present height of Tower approx. 70ft. Circumference 50ft. Wall Thickness 3ft.-6in. Height of door 5ft.-4.5in. Originally 5 floors carried on offsets & joists. Single window . . . — Map (db m73266) HM
Ireland, Ulster (County Monaghan), Clones — The Sarcophagus / Sarcofagas Thighearnaigh NaofaClones - Historic Town / Cluain Eois, Baile Scairiúil
Twelfth century representation of an early Christian Church. Carved from a single block of sandstone. Originally made to contain a relic possibly of Saint Tiernach. Carving on surface severely weathered. Position of Sarcophagus probably in the area of the high Altar of the "Great Church of Clones" which was demolished during the Nine Years War. More recently the tomb under Sarcophagus used as a burial place for McMahon and McDonald senior family members. Each family disputed others . . . — Map (db m73272) HM
Israel, Central District, Rosh Ha'ayin — Tel Afeq - Antipatris
Archaeological excavations at Tel Afeq have exposed layers of occupation dating from the Chalcolithic period (the fourth millennium B.C.E.) until the 20th century C.E. Strategically situated on the "Afeq Pass", a bottleneck between the headwaters of the Yarqon Stream and the range of hills in the east, Afeq controlled the international route that ran from Egypt to the north. Already in the third millennium B.C.E. the city that stood here was encircled by a fortification wall. In the time of the . . . — Map (db m64309) HM
Israel, Central District, Rosh Ha'ayin — The Egyptian Governor's Residence
This is the most complete of the six Late Bronze Age (Canaanite), 1550-1200 B.C.E. palaces excavated at Afeq. The ground floor is preserved in its entirety, while the stairway testifies to the existence of the now-destroyed upper storeys. Inscriptions in Sumerian, Akkadian and Canaanite languages found in the palace be a witness to the importance of Afeq in the Egyptian government network in Canaan. A letter from Ugarit (in northern Syria) is evidence of the trade between the Egyptian and . . . — Map (db m64406) HM
Israel, Central District, Rosh Ha'ayin — The Roman Cardoהקארדו הרומי
A remnant of the main street of the Roman city of Antipatris. "Cardo" is the name for the main north-south street of a Roman-era city. Shops lined the Cardo, and at its center it was connected to the Forum, the city's central square. Grooves can be seen in the paving stones, carved over the years by the wheels of vehicles rolling along the street. The lookout tower on the Cardo was constructed during the Ottoman period, long after the street had fallen into complete disuse. — Map (db m64445) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Acre — The CrusadersUntil their arrival at Akko
On their way to Jerusalem in 1099, the Crusaders killed the Jewish 'infidels' and destroyed many communities, among which were in the communities of Speyer, Worms and Magenza. In memory of those who perished the prayer "Merciful Father" was composed, which has been recited each Sabbath by the Ashkenazi communities. — Map (db m65446) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — A Public Grain Silo
A public grain silo from the time of King Jeroboam II (8th century BCE). The silo had a capacity of 450 cubic meters. Straw found between the stones attests to the function of the installation. — Map (db m65196) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — A Unique Continuity
[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]: The deep section dug by the University of Chicago Expedition (1925-1939) provides a unique glimpse into the nearly thirty settlements built one on top of the other at the site. Due to the unique continuity of its occupation from the Neolithic period through the Persian period - and the scope of its excavations, Tel Megiddo is considered the 'cradle' of biblical archaeology and the 'laboratory' of modern research methods. [Text on the . . . — Map (db m64908) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — From Megiddo to Armageddon
The city of Megiddo played a prominent role in the history of the ancient Near East. Strategically located at the mouth of the Nahal Iron Pass, Megiddo controlled access to the road that linked Egypt with Mesopotamia and Anatolia - the most important trade and military route of that time. Megiddo is the only site in the Land of Israel mentioned in the records of all Near Eastern ancient powers and was one of the most fought-over cities in the region. The first fully-recorded battle in history, . . . — Map (db m64782) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — Schumaker's Excavations
The first excavations at Tel Megiddo were directed by Gottlieb Schumacher on behalf of the Deutscher Palastina-Verein, between 1903 and 1905. After excavating the Tempelburg ('temple-fortress') in the eastern section of the mound, Schumacher dug a 25m. wide trench running north to south across the mound. The remains of several monumental buildings, as well as burial chambers vaulted in fine-stone corbelling, were exposed in the trench. — Map (db m65019) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — Tel Megiddo National ParkWorld Heritage Site — The Biblical Tels - Megiddo, Hazor, Beer Sheba
The biblical tels of Megiddo, Hazor and Beer Sheba were inscribed in 2005 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as World Heritage Sites with outstanding universal value. They are fitting representatives of the 200 biblical tels in Israel, which were flourishing cities in the past.These cities were established alongside ancient commercial roads and near prosperous agricultural areas, and were ruled by a central government. They made their mark on the . . . — Map (db m64811) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The City-Gate(The Late Bronze Period)
[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]: The Late Bronze period (1550-1150 B.C.) is marked by Egyptian rule of Canaan. At that time, Megiddo was one of the country's major city-states and its king a loyal vassal of the Egyptian pharaoh. The city-gate and the elaborate palace located just inside the are the best-known remains of this period. The city-gate was apparently incorporated into the Middle Bronze (2000-1550 B.C.) fortifications that were still in use at the time. [Text . . . — Map (db m64821) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The City-Gate(The Iron II Period)
[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]: Megiddo became an Israelite city sometime between the 10th and 9th centuries B.C., and functioned as an administrative center for he fertile Jezreel Valley. Some time later, a massive wall (1) and a monumental city-gate (2-4) were built. According to one opinion, the gate dates to the reign of Solomon (10th c. B.C.). Other scholars postdate the gate to the reign of either Ahab (9th c.) or Jeroboam II (8th c. B.C.). [Text across the . . . — Map (db m64882) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Northern Palace
[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]: The foundations of this palace, first investigated by Y. Yadin in 1960, are presently being excavated by 'The Megiddo Expedition'. The edifice was apparently laid out as a bit hilani (North Syrian palace) whose architecture included a monumental porticoed entrance and a large central ceremonial hall. [Text across the Bottom of the Marker]: "And he made the hall of pillars (...) there was a porch in front with . . . — Map (db m64898) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Northern Stables
[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]: Architectural complexes dating from the same period (9th or 8th c. B.C.) and of similar design were found near the northern and southern edges of the mound. Through the years they variously interpreted as stables, storehouses or marketplaces. Recent research seems to corroborate their identification as horse-stables. [Text across the Bottom of the Marker]: "I besieged and conquered Samaria. Led away as booty 27,290 . . . — Map (db m64889) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Sacred Area
[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]: This area served as a focus of worship for over two thousand years, from the Early Bronze through the Iron I periods. The University of Chicago excavation section a series of temples (1, 3-5) built one on top of the other. The Megiddo Expedition, led by a team from Tel Aviv University, uncovered an additional temple (2) unique in the Levant in its monumentality and the thousands of sacrificial animal bones found in and around it. [Text . . . — Map (db m64985) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Southern Palace
[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]: An elaborate ashlar-built palace (1) stood near the southern edge of the mound. A monumental entrance (2) - the only visible remains still standing - led to the courtyard (3). Like the northern palace, this edifice may have been built along the lines of a North Syrian bit hilani. One interpretation dated its construction to King Solomon (10th c. B.C.), whereas another one postdates it to Ahab's reign (9th c. B.C.). [Text across . . . — Map (db m65198) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Southern Stables
[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]: The southern stables' five units could accommodate 150 horses. As in the northern complex, each unit consists of a rectangular building divided into three sections by two rows of alternating pillars and troughs. It seems that the Northern Kingdom established a major horse-breeding and training center at Megiddo in the 8th c. B.C., and this was apparently one of the reasons for its prosperity. Assyrian records from the 9th and the 8th c. B.C. . . . — Map (db m65204) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Water System
[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]: The problem of supplying water to large cities, a serious issue even in times of peace, could become acute in times of siege. Megiddo's main water source was located at the foot of the mound, beyond the city's fortifications. In order to ensure access to the spring from within the city, a hidden gallery was built on the slope of the mound in the 10th or 9th c. B.C. This gallery was later blocked and replaced by an elaborate water system, which . . . — Map (db m65215) HM
Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — Beit Hatzofeh LookoutA Journey to the Source
"Jerusalem, hills enfold it, and the Lord enfolds his people now and forever" (Psalms 125:2) Jerusalem was first established on the hill on which you are now standing almost 4,000 years ago, during the Canaanite Period (Middle Bronze Age II). Flanking the hill are the Kidron Valley and the Central Valley and Mt. Moriah rises to the north. A journey to the City of David, the ancient core of Jerusalem, is a journey to the source. The City of David was the . . . — Map (db m63924) HM
Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — The Burnt Room and the House of the BullaeDestruction and Ruin
"He burned the House of the Lord, the king's palace, and all the houses of Jerusalem; he burned down the house of every notable person." (II Kings 25: 9) This residential quarter went up in flames with the rest of the city during the Babylonian during the Babylonian destruction of 586 BCE. The floors of the houses were covered by a thick layer of ash. Beneath the heap of rubble in one room, Yigal Shiloh uncovered Babylonian and Israelite arrowheads and . . . — Map (db m63933) HM
Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — The House of Ahiel
Here Dwells Ahiel in a Four Room House "He (David) had houses made for himself in the City of David..." (1 Chronicles15: 1) The name 'Ahiel' appears on potsherds found among the ruins of this house. The House of Ahiel is a 'four-room house' - a typical Israelite dwelling, consisting of three parallel spaces closed off by a fourth. The roof beams were supported by pillars, part of which can be seen here. It is reasonable to assume that this was a two-story . . . — Map (db m65296) HM
Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — The Royal Quarter (Area G)
"...the city shall be rebuilt on its mound, and the fortress in its proper place" (Jeremiah 30:18) The inhabitants of ancient Jerusalem once built their homes on this hillside. The earliest structure unearthed here was part of an enormous Stepped Stone Structure that supported King David's Palace or the Canaanite fortress that preceded it. In the early First Temple period, stately homes and an official archive were built upon the Stepped Stone Structure. . . . — Map (db m63928) HM
Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — The Water System(Warren's Shaft) — Into the Depths of the Earth Through the Ancient Water System
"And David said on that day: 'Whosoever smiteth the Jebusites, and getteth up to the gutter...'" (II Samuel 5:8) We are standing at the entrance to a subterranean water system. The Gihon Spring was Jerusalem's main water source from the city's earliest days. However, the spring's location near the bottom of the eastern slope forced the city's builders to leave it outside the city walls and to create a protected passageway that led to the water source. In . . . — Map (db m63947) HM
Israel, Northern District, Nazareth — The Ancient Village of Nazareth
What is left of the ancient village consist of a network of grottoes and bits of walls form various historical periods. Going backwards in time we found first the remains of the XVII century Franciscan monastery, then the palace of the crusader archbishop of Nazareth and the humble homes with some parts datable up to the VIII cent. B.C. The parts that were carved out of the soft local rock are the best preserved: cistern for storing rainwater, silos set on different levels for storing . . . — Map (db m65462) HM
Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — "Magic on the sea of galilee..."
Tiberias the capital of the Galilee, one of the four Holy Cities of Israel Which was built by Antipas in the year 17-20, C.E. Antipas named the city Tiberias in honor of the Roman Ceasar, Tiberius. The institution of Jewish Leadership, the Sanhedrin and the Presidency moved to Tiberias from Tzipori. The Jerusalem Talmud was complied in Tiberias in the 5th century. Schools of poets, Rabbies and Scholars are thriving during the period of Geonim. "The Tiberias Vowel Punctuation" was developed in this period and still is in use today. — Map (db m65327) HM
Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — Domestic Building
This building was part of Tiberias' northern quarter between the 6th and 11th centuries CE. The quarter occupied by Jews and the synagogue stood in its center. This building has three rooms and a courtyard with a well. — Map (db m65359) HM
Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — The Architecture of Tiberias
The Architecture of Tiberias The columns, bases, cornices and capitals attest to the superb architecture of the public buildings in Tiberias. These were built according to the 2nd-3rd centuries CE Roman Imperial tradition. The architectural elements were made of local limestone and basalt as well as marble and grey granite imported from Asia Minor and North America. Columns Columns created large spaces in public building. They stood up to 4.5 m. high . . . — Map (db m65352) HM
Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — The Crusader-Ottoman Building / Millstones
[Text at the top of the marker]: The Crusader-Ottoman Building This was built in the 12th century CE and remained in use until the Ottoman period. The hall has typical pointed vaults and embrasures in the walls, with remains of another two perpendicular halls. These halls were part of the Tiberias fort that was the capital of the Crusader 'Galilee Principality', and was integrated into Daher el-Omar's fortifications in the 18th century CE. [Text at the bottom of the . . . — Map (db m65331) HM
Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — The Southern Wall
The wall was erected by the Beduin Governor of the Tiberias Region, Daher El-Omer, in the 18th century on the basis of the ruins of an earlier wall built by the Crusaders. The wall was destroyed in the 1837 earthquake and since then only partially rebuilt. In the beginning of the 20th century, new settlements were established for the first time, outside the walls. The remaining ruins were once again struck by the great flood of 1934. — Map (db m65326) HM
Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — The Synagogue
This is one of the thirteen synagogues existed in Tiberias according to the Talmud. It was a square building divided by two rows of columns. One of the mosaics bears a dedication inscription decorated with Jewish symbols: Lulav and Etrog. The dedication mentions "Prokolos son of Crispos" who either made the mosaic or donated it. The synagogue was built in the 6th century CE and lasted until the 11th century CE. — Map (db m65333) HM
Israel, Northern District, Tsipori — The Citadel
The Citadel (perhaps a watch tower) was built during the crusader period on foundations from an earlier period. Some of the cornerstones are rubble-filled Roman sarcophagi. In the 18th Century the building was renovated by Dahr El-Omar, the Bedouin ruler of the Galilee. At the end of the Ottoman Period it was rebuilt for use as a schoolhouse and was renovated again during the British Mandate. — Map (db m65412) HM
Israel, Northern District, Tsipori — The Theater
The Roman theater was built in the late first or early second century C.E. Carved into the bedrock on the steep northern slope of the hill. It's diameter is 72 m., and it seated 4000. The rows of seats constructed on the hewn bedrock were robbed in antiquity. The lowest three rows are partly reconstructed with original stones. Behind the orchestra (place of the choir during the Greek period, and reserved for honored guests in Roman times) stood a stage. It's floor was made of wooden . . . — Map (db m65405) HM
Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The Rebel's Community Life
How to organize community life under siege? Near the western entrance square were discovered large concentrations of inscribed pottery shards (ostraca) from the period of the revolt. They bear names, combinations of letters or single letters in Hebrew. These shards were apparently used as food-rationing coupons, as a substitute for money, or to register fighting units or the families that lived on the mountain. Both types demonstrate the community life of the rebels in Masada. It is probable . . . — Map (db m64077) HM
Mexico, Baja California Sur, San Jose Del Cabo — 1730 - 1980
Al celebrarse el ccl aniversario de la fundacion de San Jose Del Cabo, la il legislatura del h. congreso del estado lo declaro, por este dia, capital de la entidad y en sesion publica de esta fecha aprobo la iniciativa enviada por el c. Lic. Angel Cesar Mendoza Aramburo Gobernador Constitucional De Baja California Sur que crea el municipio de Los Cabos, como justo reconocimiento a los esforzados hombres de las delegaciones de Santiago, San Jose Del Cabo y Cabo San Lucas III Ayuntamiento Del . . . — Map (db m60933) HM
Philippines, Cebú Province, Cebu City — Fort San Pedro
The Fort of San Pedro, described in an official report of 1739, is triangular in shape and made of stone and mortar. The three bastions are La Concepcion, San Ignacio de Loyola, and San Miguel - Powder Magazine. [Inscriptions in the stone above the fort’s main [west side] gateway:] Fuerza de San Pedro, 1565 Sereformo, Año, 1833 Siendoalca lndem Dnmaniro … [Coat of Arms of the Spanish monarch] Note also, a statuette of the Santo . . . — Map (db m64435) HM
South Africa, Eastern Cape, Grahamstown — The Bible
In this vicinity - at that time an outspan - in April 1837, Thomas Philipps, J. P. on behalf of the British Settlers of 1820 presented a bible to a party of Voortrekkers led by Jacobus Uys encamped here on their way to the North.

The bible was taken out to the encampment by a deputation of gentlemen accompanied by about 100 of the inhabitants of Grahamstown who were received with much respect by the assembled farmers and their families in front of their wagons. William Rowland Thompson . . . — Map (db m62619) HM

South Africa, Eastern Cape, Grahamstown — The Yellow House
The erection of this building - the oldest in this town, was commenced in 1813 or 1814. It served as a gaol until 1824. Later it became the Grahamstown Public School, and subsequently the first public library (1842 - 1863). The north wall was taken as the line of the High Street when the town was laid out in 1814. — Map (db m62649) HM
Turks and Caicos Islands, Grand Turk, Cockburn Town — The History of the West( Grand Turk )
The western side of Grand Turk is the leeward side of the island. This is the side protected from high winds and storms. Because of this, it was the primary anchorage for the sailing vessels that came and went from Grand Turk for hundreds of years. The west coast is littered with artifacts left by these ships. Anchors, cannons, stone ballast, and even bottles lay sometimes within a few feet of shore. These remnants of our maritime past can be seen almost anywhere you snorkel on the west side . . . — Map (db m40351) HM
U.S. Virgin Islands, St Thomas, Charlette Amalie — Fort Christian
A Brief History... Fort Christian, at the grand age of 326 years, is the oldest standing structure in continuous use in the Virgin Islands and the oldest Danish fortication under the American flag. In 1977, Fort Christian was designated a National Historic Landmark by the United States Department of Interior's National Park Service. The first group of Danish Colonizers landed on the island of St. Thomas in 1666, but was unseccessful in establishing a permanent settlement. Work on Fort . . . — Map (db m40333) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (Castle Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Bishop's Gate
It was here that James II demanded entry to the city during the 1689 siege. The present gate was built at the suggestion of Bishop Hervey in 1789 to celebrate the centenary of the siege. The head facing Bishop Street represents the river Boyne crowned by a laurel wreath: the date refers to the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. The head facing outwards is the river Foyle: the date 1689 and the ship breaking the boom recall the relief of the 1689 siege. — Map (db m71021) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Antrim), Bushmills — Alphabet Angel
Symbols and Meanings Backpack with Hearts Contains forgotten words and meanings of the Ulster Scots tongue. Heart 1 Represents the heart of the land and the soul of the place. Heart 2 Represents the heart of the people, the spirit of the language. Flying Goggles The protection of vision for the insight of dialect. Belt Pouch Symbol of renewed currency of an ancient spoken tongue. Thistle Icon Represents the shared cultural . . . — Map (db m70763) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Antrim), Bushmills — Bushmills History & Heritage
The Salmon The natural life cycle of a salmon is one of nature's wonders. A salmon begins its life in the shallow water and gravel beds of the river as eggs then fry. These small fry stay in the river until they mature into par. The next stage of their life is when they mature into smolts and take on the colouring of the mature salmon. The smolts move downstream around May or June to begin their epic migration to feeding grounds in the north Atlantic. Here, they feed on fish, such . . . — Map (db m70892) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Antrim), Bushmills — Dunluce CastleCauseway Coastal Route
Side A Welcome to Dunluce Castle Dunluce Castle, dramatically positioned on this sheer headland between the Giant's Causeway and Portrush, was built between the 15th and 17th centuries. At this time it was one of the finest castles in the region and served to control the land and sea routes of North Ulster. Inside the castle you will discover centuries of stories and legends that reveal the turbulent history of the MacQuillans, the MacDonnells and the Scottish settlers who . . . — Map (db m70900) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Antrim), Bushmills — Hamill TerraceCauseway Coastal Route
Side A Welcome to Hamill Terrace Renowned as the gateway to the Giant's Causeway and for the oldest licensed whiskey distillery in the world, Bushmills has a unique heritage of historic buildings and mills. Images (clockwise from top): Bushmills Mills, Bushmills Distillery sign, The Causeway Tram c.1890 [Map and Causeway Coastal Route Journey linear locator] Side B Among many prizes, Bushmills whiskey was awarded a gold medal at the Paris Exhibition of . . . — Map (db m70873) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Antrim), Dunseverick — Dunseverick CastleCauseway Coastal Route
Dunseverick Castle and its rocky peninsula were given to the National Trust in 1962 by farmer Jack McCurdy. The term Dun (fort) indicates a royal site. This was the fort of Sobhairce. It may have been a royal stronghold in the Iron Age (around 500 B.C.) and traditionally was one of the great duns of Ireland. St. Patrick reputedly visited Dunseverick in the 5th Century. The extensive earthworks on the headland may be the remains of the royal fort from which the Antrim kingdom of . . . — Map (db m70859) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Fermanagh), Belleek — Welcome to Belleek
Beal Leice, meaning 'the mouth of the flagstone', lies in the most westerly point of Northern Ireland, hidden in the Erne valley between the Sligo mountains and the Atlantic. The village, which was first laid out during the Plantation of Ulster about 1610, originated as a fort standing at the highest crossing point on the River Erne, a river which is part of the most extensive inland waterway in Western Europe. Today it has a population of 790. Belleek Pottery Established in 1857, . . . — Map (db m72553) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Fermanagh), Enniskillen — The Watergate and Flag of St George
The Watergate The Watergate is the name given to the twin turreted building added to the outer wall of the castle c. 1615. Scottish in style, it was almost certainly built by William Cole, constable of the castle and founder of Enniskillen town. Its name may have come from an earlier gate nearby, marked 'Watergatte' on a map of 1594, which opened on to the water but has long since disappeared. Immediately inside the 'Watergate' is a deep well, an important feature for a castle under . . . — Map (db m72648) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Fermanagh), Irvinestown — Centenary Gardens House 1St. Patrick Meets the Mystery, Legends and Religion of Ireland
In this house the story of St. Patrick meeting the legends and spiritual traditions of the Celtic People in Ireland is presented. St. Patrick became familiar with them during his time of captivity. The Celtic Religion of Ireland Before St. Patrick The Celts believed that gods and spirits were everywhere. They had sun worship, tree worship and wind worship. This is a hymn to nature by the Celtic poet Amergrin who lived 500 years before Christ. 'I am the wind that breathes upon . . . — Map (db m72630) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Fermanagh), Irvinestown — Memorials to the Great Irish Famine in County FermanaghIn Memory of All Buried Here — 1845 • The Great Famine • 1850
In 1836 the Poor Law Enquiry found that over one third of people in Ireland were dependent on the potato as their main source of food. The population had grown to 8.2 million by 1841, and was vulnerable to any failure of the potato crop. The Great Famine (1845-1849), caused by potato blight, resulted in a national catastrophe. The Poor Law In an attempt to alleviate the problems arising from widespread poverty in early 19th century Ireland a new Poor Law was enacted in 1838. . . . — Map (db m72600) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Fermanagh), Irvinestown — Welcome to Irvinestown
The town takes its name from the Irvine family who were the landlords of the district and came from Bonshaw in Scotland in the 17th century. They lived at Castle Irvine which today is known as Necarne Castle. The town was first known as Lowtherstown but in the 1860's its name was changed to Irvinestown. It is the third largest town in Fermanagh with a population of 2,244. It is famous for its wide Main Street and ample parking facilities. The town is proud of its vision, innovation and . . . — Map (db m72609) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Fermanagh), Lisnaskea — Lisnaskea Market Cross
This cross was set up in the Corn and Potato Market when it was built by Mr John Crichton, later third Earl of Erne, in 1841. At that time the small stone cross was made and placed on the ancient and much more massive shaft. The original site of the cross is unknown, though there are several traditions about it. One is that the shaft formerly stood at Fawney cross-roads, east of Lisnaskea, and was used for swearing oaths. The base is said to have been dug up somewhere near the town, or . . . — Map (db m72653) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — ... Free, entire and perfect
A city fit for war and merchandise...for ever a free, entire and perfect city and county of itself, to be called the city and county of Derrie. Charter from James I, 1604 One City...Fifty Names All of the city's names over the centuries refer back to the Irish 'daire' or 'doire' - the oak grove. The oldest is Daire Calgach, suggesting that a fierce warrior may have had a fortress here in pre-Christian times. In the 12th century the settlement was known as Doire Cholmcille . . . — Map (db m70942) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Artillery Bastion
A night at Talbot's theatre Actor/manager Michael Atkins opened the city's first purpose-built theatre at the top of Artillery Street in 1774. It soon became the fashionable place to be seen especially at grand social occasions when the Assize judges were in town. Dashing young military officers scanned the audience to pick out the belles. By 1830, however, polite society had deserted the theatre on the grounds that audiences were rowdy and made up of 'the lower orders'. The building . . . — Map (db m71080) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Butcher Gate
Two million gallons of whisky Smoke from illicit poteen whisky stills used to waft over the walls from the Bogside. Legal distilleries opened in the Waterside and in the Bogside in the 1820s. Watt's Abbey Street distillery became the largest in Ireland producing two million gallons of grain whisky a year by the 1880s. The works was as large as two football pitches, its seven-storey high building still being the city's tallest after St Columb's Cathedral. The distillery closed in 1921. . . . — Map (db m70971) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Butcher Gate
This was one of the four original gates of 1617. It was initially called the 'Nugate' or King's Gate, later being renamed Butcher Gate after the nearby meat market and slaughterhouse. The gate was nearly destroyed by cannon fire during the 1689 siege. The present gate, built in the 1800s, is nearly twice the height of the original. — Map (db m70972) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Castle Gate
Demolish the walls The Maiden City withstood two sieges without its walls being breached. In the 18th century the city grew too big for its walls and increasingly houses and factories were built on the slopes below. Castle Gate (1803) was the second breach in the walls to deal with increased traffic. Thirty years later businessmen campaigned to demolish the walls entirely to solve the traffic problems. They failed and traffic continued to clog the city's streets. The . . . — Map (db m70960) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Castle Gate
Constructed in 1803 this was the second of the three new gates into the city. Although originally named New Gate, by the mid 19th century it was known as Castle Gate after the medieval tower house built by the O'Doherty family. — Map (db m70970) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Demi-culverin Cannon
Livery Companies of the City of London Demi-culverin (C4) Bore 4.92," Length 90," Weight 2795lb Sent to the city in May-June 1642 by the Worshipful Company of Salters. Probably cast by John Browne at one of his works in Kent. — Map (db m71083) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Demi-culverin Cannon
Livery Companies of the City of London Demi-culverin (C9) Bore 4.8," Length 120," Weight 3977lb Sent to the city in May-June 1642 by the Worshipful Company of Mercers. Probably cast by John Browne at one of his works in Kent. — Map (db m71099) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Double Bastion
The city has always expressed its soul in verse. Derry mine! My small oak grove Little cell, my home, my love! Attributed to St. Colmcille The saint's story is told as St Columb in the Cathedral and as St Colmcille in Long Tower Church. The purple headed mountains, The river running by, The sunset and the morning That brightens up the sky.' Mrs Cecil Frances Alexander The 19th century hymn writer was inspired by the view of the Creggan Hills. 'My heart . . . — Map (db m71005) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Double Bastion
Roaring Meg Roaring Meg is the most famous of the city's cannon. She weighs a mighty 1794 kilograms. The Fishmongers' Company of London presented her to the city in 1642. She saw action in the 1689 siege, probably from this bastion. It could take up to six men to fire a large cannon. Two packed the gunpowder into the barrel and inserted the cannon ball. A third lit the fuse while the fourth aimed the cannon at the target. The force of the explosion could cause the gun carriage to roll . . . — Map (db m71007) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Ferryquay Gate
Locking the gates In 1688 James II proposed to replace the Protestant garrison in the city with Catholic troops. Rumours were rife that the citizens were to be massacred. Meeting in the Diamond, the city leaders could not make up their minds whether to admit the new garrison. Fourteen young men - the 13 Apprentice Boys and their look-out - lost patience. They drew their swords, ran to the guard house, seized the keys to the city, raised the drawbridge of Ferryquay Gate, and shut and . . . — Map (db m71097) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Ferryquay Gate
This gate was built in 1865 on the site of one of the four original entrances to the city. Like Bishop's Gate it had a drawbridge, which could be pulled up in times of troubles, to allow people to cross the dry moat. This was the gate that the Apprentice Boys locked in December, 1688. The carved heads are of Governor George Walker and Rev James Gordon who urged the citizens to refuse to admit James II's troops. — Map (db m71104) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Grand Parade
Fourteen sycamores There are 14 sycamore trees on the Grand Parade, one for each of the 13 Apprentice Boys and one for James Morrison, their look-out on Ferryquay Gate. The fruit of the sycamore are like bunches of keys. They represent the keys of the city with which the Apprentice Boys locked the gates. Parading and promenading In the 18th century the city garrison used this part of the walls for exercises and parades. It later became fashionable to promenade along the Grand . . . — Map (db m70984) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Guildhall Square
The roaring cannon The city claims Europe's largest collection of cannon whose precise origins can be traced. These are the earliest surviving cannon. Some were shipped over for Sir Henry Docwra's campaign of 1600-3: others were sent to defend the Plantation city. Look for the marks stamped on the cannon - the rose and crown of the Tudor English kings, club and arrow marks, the date '1590' and the initials T.J. for Thomas Johnston, Queen Elizabeth I's gun founder. 'Wish you were . . . — Map (db m71131) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Hangman's Bastion
Bulwarks and bastions When first built, the bastions were known as bulwarks, each called after a person associated with the city from King James I to the Governor of the Plantation. They were renamed during the 1689 siege. This is Hangman's Bastion where a man nearly killed himself when he became entangled in the rope which he was using to escape. The nearby Coward's Bastion, one of the three bastions that have been demolished, was the safest place in the city. Defending the . . . — Map (db m70957) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Magazine Gate
Fire power Magazine Gate takes its name from the Plantation city's gunpowder store. The mixture of saltpetre, sulphur and fine charcoal had to be kept very dry as it easily absorbed water. A barrel of gunpowder and a pile of shot was placed beside each cannon when in use. The powder was carefully weighed and scooped into cloth or paper bags with a shovel before being packed inside the barrel of the cannon. Ramrods, linstocks and wadhooks Tools helped the team of gunners to . . . — Map (db m70956) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Michael Browning
Near this spot was landed the body of Michael Browning Master of the ship Mountjoy of Londonderry - killed in action at the breaking of the boom, July 28th 1689.o.s. while leading the van of the relieving squadron against the forces of James II & Louis XIV. "He died by the most enviable of all deaths, in sight of the city which was his birth place, which was his home, and which had just been saved by his bravery and self-devotion from the most frightful form of . . . — Map (db m70925) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — New Gate
In 1787 the walls were breached for the first time to improve access to the city centre. It is said that the gate was built to cope with crowds flocking to the New Theatre in Artillery Street but was closed in 1799 due to complaints from the audience that the noise outside disturbed the performance. The gate was reopened and widened in the 1860s. — Map (db m71085) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Newgate Bastion
The first shot On 13th April, 1689 the first shot of the siege was fired. Citizens on the walls spotted the vanguard of the Jacobite army approaching under Lieutenant General Richard Hamilton. To make his presence known, Hamilton fired a shot which hit Newgate Bastion. The defenders could not retaliate as they had not yet been issued with arms. Goods to market Markets were always a feature of life in the city which served a large agricultural area. Over the centuries there . . . — Map (db m71098) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Royal Bastion
The siege governors The Royal Bastion is associated with the city's four governors during the 1689 siege. Professional soldier Robert Lundy was unconvinced that the city could be defended against Jacobite attack. His indecisiveness and refusal to admit additional troops into the overcrowded city led to his overthrow and flight. Major Henry Baker and Rev George Walker replaced him as joint governors. When Baker died of fever, Colonel John Mitchelburne took over his military duties. . . . — Map (db m70987) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Shipquay Gate
This was one of the four original 17th century gates to the city. It had a watch tower, battlements and a portcullis. The carvings on the outside of the present gate, built between 1803-5, celebrate the city's wealth. The cornucopia is a symbol of plenty and the caduceus is a magic wand used by the Greek god Hermes to protect merchants. — Map (db m70927) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Shipquay Gate
'A city fit for war and merchandise' In 1600 Elizabeth I of England instructed Sir Henry Docwra to establish and fortify a new settlement on the Foyle. An explosion in the cathedral in 1567 had largely destroyed the town. Docwra and his 4200 troops re-used the stones and rubbish of the old buildings. He surrounded the main fort with earthen walls to protect it from attack by powerful local chiefs. Plantation city The Plantation city was the first planned town in . . . — Map (db m71123) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Shipquay Street
Living above the 'shop' Many banks and offices started life as 18th and 19th century family houses. The building at the corner of Shipquay Street and Bank Place was both home and place of business for the manager of the Belfast Bank. On 7th December 1888 there was much excitement when the manager's daughter gave birth to a son in one of the bedrooms. The son became the famous 20th century novelist Joyce Cary. Childhood holidays in Inishowen inspired his prize-winning 'House of . . . — Map (db m71140) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — St Columba
On this site of St Augustine's Church, St Columba built his Abbey circa 543AD, and departed from Derry down the River Foyle with his supporters to the Island of Iona in 563AD. — Map (db m70989) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — St Columb's Cathedral
The Mother Church The first settlers worshipped in the ruins of the former Augustinian abbey. In 1613 the London merchant companies sent over a silver-gilt chalice as a promise of their commitment to build a cathedral to grace their new city. The chalice remains a treasured possession of St Columb's Cathedral, originally built between 1628-33. It was the first cathedral to be erected in the British Isles after the Reformation and unusually was consecrated both as parish church of . . . — Map (db m71072) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — The Platform
The Apprentice Boys From the early 18th century clubs have celebrated the role of the 13 apprentices who locked the gates of the city in December, 1688 rather than admit the new Jacobite garrison. Local architect, John Guy Ferguson, designed The Apprentice Boys' Memorial Hall in the mid 1870s. The 1937 extension in Society Street was dedicated to those who died in the First World War. The Hall houses the headquarters of the Apprentice Boys of Derry Association. Every December the . . . — Map (db m70974) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — The Walled City
If 'stones could speak', what a story they would have to tell. Their voices still echo on the walls and in the city streets. According to tradition St. Colm Cille chose the oak grove on top of the hill for his monastery in 546 AD. His community became a beacon of light and learning throughout Europe. Around it grew a settlement with a stronghold, cathedral and port. In 1610 the City of London Companies agreed to build a new city on the Foyle in return for land in King James I's . . . — Map (db m70928) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — The Walled City
[Keyed photo of Double Bastion overlook] 1. Lumen Christi College - co-educational school on the site of Bishop Hervey's casino. 2. The Windmill - the stump of the building fought over during the 1689 siege. 3. St Columba's, Long Tower - the city's first Roman Catholic church. 4. Creggan Country Park - watersports and outdoor centre with some of the best views over the city. 5. Brandywell - home of soccer and Gaelic football. 6. The City Cemetery - a sacred, shared place . . . — Map (db m71004) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — The Walled City
If 'stones could speak', what a story they would have to tell. Their voices still echo on the walls and in the city streets. According to tradition St. Colm Cille chose the oak grove on top of the hill for his monastery in 546 AD. His community became a beacon of light and learning throughout Europe. Around it grew a settlement with a stronghold, cathedral and port. In 1610 the City of London Companies agreed to build a new city on the Foyle in return for land in King James I's . . . — Map (db m71026) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — The Walled City
If 'stones could speak', what a story they would have to tell. Their voices still echo on the walls and in the city streets. According to tradition St. Colm Cille chose the oak grove on top of the hill for his monastery in 546 AD. His community became a beacon of light and learning throughout Europe. Around it grew a settlement with a stronghold, cathedral and port. In 1610 the City of London Companies agreed to build a new city on the Foyle in return for land in King James I's . . . — Map (db m71121) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Walker Memorial Pillar
This monument was erected to perpetuate the memory of the Rev. George Walker, who, aided by the garrison and brave inhabitants of this City, most gallantly defended it through a protracted siege, viz., from the 7th Dec. 1688 O.S. to the 12th of August following against an arbitrary and bigoted Monarch, heading an army of upwards of 20,000 men, many of whom were foreign mercenaries, and by such valiant conduct in numerous sorties, and by patiently enduring extreme privations and . . . — Map (db m70988) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Water Bastion
Feabhail The river Foyle lapped against the Water Bastion until the late 18th century. The name Foyle probably arose because English-speaking settlers had difficulty saying the Irish 'Feabhail', used traditionally to describe the stretch of water from the sea to Strabane. Some say that it took its name from the legendary chieftain Feabhail who was drowned by a giant wave. The truth is simpler. The word comes from the Welsh for a 'lip', describing the shape of the estuary. Lundy's . . . — Map (db m71122) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Garvagh — Welcome to Garvagh
The town of Garvagh owes its 17th century origins and subsequent development to the Canning family. George Canning was the first family member to come to Ireland when, in September 1614, he arrived at Agivey on the banks of the Bann as an agent for the Ironmongers' Company of London. He established the hamlet of Ballinameen to the south of the town in 1620, but this was destroyed during the 1641 rebellion. The hamlet was re-established in subsequent years and is still known as . . . — Map (db m70740) HM
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