|British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Semiahmoo — Peace Arch — The Signing of the Columbia River Treaty|
This unfortified boundary line between the
Dominion of Canada
United States of America
should quicken the remembrance of the more than century old friendship between these countries
A lesson of peace to all nations.
In commemoration of
One hundred and fifty years of peace, 1814 - 1864, between Canada and the United States of America.
The signing of the Columbia River Treaty on September 16th, 1964, at this international . . . — Map (db m27450) HM|
|New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Andrews — Blockhouse 101 — Introduction aux blockhaus|
|English on left
What kind of house?
A blockhouse is a modest fortified building with a distinctive overhanging upper level. In 18th- and 19th-century North America, both Britain and the United States built many blockhouses for defence purposes. They were usually constructed of local material such as wood and could be put up relatively quickly and cheaply. This blockhouse is one of three built in St. Andrews to defend the batteries of guns that protected the harbour and river, . . . — Map (db m77366) HM|
|New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Andrews — St. Andrews Blockhouse — Le Blockhaus de St. Andrews — (West Point Blockhouse)|
|This marker consists of two side-by-side plaques, one in English and the other in French. English:
The West Point Blockhouse and a battery were erected by the townspeople of St. Andrews at the outbreak of the War of 1812-14 in anticipation of a seaborne attack from the United States. Along with other defensive positions they were manned by local militia and British regulars throughout the War. Later the Blockhouse served as a barracks and as a storehouse. It is one of the few examples . . . — Map (db m77240) HM|
|New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Andrews — Two hundred years and counting — Jeune de deux cents ans|
|English on left
Against the odds
Many blockhouses were built in North America, but few have survived. Why is this one still here? Throughout the 19th century the St. Andrews Blockhouse was used for storage and occasionally as a barracks by the militia. In the 1860s, during a brief period of tension with the United States, it again became an important component of civic defenses, but its military role declined soon after.
Part of who we are
By the late 1800s, St. . . . — Map (db m77241) HM|
|New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Andrews — War of 1812: Defending St. Andrews — Guerre de 1812: La defense de St. Andrews|
|English on left
No hard feelings
Have a look across the St. Croix River to the land on the other side of Navy Island; that’s the United States you can see! When the War of 1812 broke out, the citizen of St. Andrews had little to fear from their neighbors in Maine. Not everyone in New England was in favor of the war: trade with Atlantic Canada was brisk and around here the main threat to security was from privateering, not invasion. Despite the conflict, resolutions were passed . . . — Map (db m77363) HM|
|New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Andrews — Wartime legacies — L’heritage de la guerre|
|English on left
St. Andrews’ citizens step up
In 1812, St. Andrews was a young town, founded not long before by Loyalists from New England fleeing the American Revolution. A modest fortification - Fort Tipperary - had been built in 1808 above the town. Citizens were concerned that the fort did not provide enough protection for the harbour and river from privateering raids. The town quickly built three batteries, which military engineers believed ineffective - and indeed possibly . . . — Map (db m77362) HM|
|New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Andrews — Welcome, Enjoy your visit! — Bienvenue, Bonne visite!|
|English on left
Welcome to St. Andrews Blockhouse National Historic Site, part of Parks Canada’s diverse and ever-growing system of national park, national historic sites and national marine conservation area.
Wartime building spree
The War of 1812 was fought between Great Britain and the United States from 1812 to 1815, mostly on battlefields in present-day Ontario, Quebec, and several American states. In Atlantic Canada, the war brought about increased economic prosperity . . . — Map (db m77361) HM|
|New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Carleton Martello Tower|
|Construction of this tower was begun by the British Army during the War of 1812 as one of the projected series of fortifications intended to block the western land approach to Saint John. Subsequent to its completion in 1815 the tower was largely neglected, seeing only occasional use in times of emergency, including service as a fire control headquarters in the second world war. The original structure typifies the English martello tower design, a popular form of coastal defence in the British . . . — Map (db m539) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Deadman's Island|
|These men died in captivity while serving the United States of America on land and sea during the War of 1812. They lie in unmarked graves here on Deadman's Island.|
Followed by a list of 188 men identified by Name, Rank, Ship/Unit, and Date of Death. — Map (db m44062) HM
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Major General / Major-Général Robert Ross 1766-1814|
Major General Ross sailed to North America in the summer of 1814 from the Peninsular War against France to command the British army on the east coast of the United States, opening a second front to relieve the pressure on the Niagara Peninsula. He personally lead the British troops ashore and marched through Maryland to attack the Americans at Bladensberg on August 24, 1814. From Bladensberg Ross captured Washington D.C. and burned the public buildings of the city, . . . — Map (db m77877) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Mr. John Samwell — Mr. William Stevens|
|On your left near this spot lie the remains of … / À votre gauche, près d’ici se trouvent les restes de ….
Mr. / M. John Samwell
Midshipman / Aspirant de marine • 1797-1813
Mr. / M. William Stevens
Boatswain / Maître de manoeuvre • 1757-1813
Sacred to the Memory
Of Mr John Samwell Midshipman of HMS Shannon who red at the nav(e)l hospital on the 13 of June 1813 aged 18 years Also Mr William Stevens boatswain of . . . — Map (db m77897) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Why Aren’t We Americans? • Pourquoi ne sommes-nous pas des Américains? — The Old Burying Ground Remembers The War of 1812-1814 • Le vieux cimetière souvient de la guerre de|
| This marker may be conveniently divided into three section; left, center and right. The center sections is presented first.
We are not Americans because of the service men like the sailors and soldiers, casualties of the War of 1812, buried in this historic burying ground. They fought and died at sea and ashore to prevent the United States’ invasion and annexation of our country.
Grâce aux hommes comme les marins et . . . — Map (db m78073) HM|
|Ontario (Algoma County), Thessalon — Capture of "Tigress" and "Scorpion"|
| Some 25 miles southwest of here lies the Detour Passage between Drummond Island and Michigan's upper peninsula. In August, 1814, it was occupied by the armed U.S. schooners "Tigress" and "Scorpion", whose intention it was to prevent supplies reaching the British garrison at Michilimackinac. On September 1 a British force of seamen, soldiers and Indians under Lieutenants Miller Worsley, R.N., and Andrew Bulger left Michilimackinac in small boats to attack the enemy. The "Tigress" was boarded on . . . — Map (db m86040) HM|
|Ontario (Brant County), Oakland — The Battle of Malcolm’s Mills — 1814|
|In October, 1814, an invading American force of about 700 men under Brigadier-General Duncan McArthur advanced rapidly up the Thames Valley. He intended to devastate the Grand River settlements and the region around the head of Lake Ontario which supplied British forces on the Niagara frontier. McArthur reached the Grand, and after an unsuccessful attempt to force a crossing, attacked a body of some 150 militia here at Malcolm’s Mills (Oakland) on November 6th. Canadian forces, comprising . . . — Map (db m78341) HM|
|Ontario (Brant County), Ohsweken — The Six Nations|
Commemorating the loyal services and unswerving fidelity of the Six Nations of Iroquois Indians to the British Empire in the Seven Years War, 1755 - 1763, the War of the American Revolution, 1775 - 1783, and in the defence of Upper Canada in 1812 - 1814 and in 1837- 38.
Par leurs loyaux services et leur fidélité inébranlable durant la guerre de Sept ans, 1755-1763, la guerre de la Révolution américaine, 1775-1783 et dans la défense du Haut-Canada, . . . — Map (db m83712) HM|
|Ontario (Brant County), Ossweken — Ahyouwaeghs - John Brant — 1794 - 1832|
John Brant was born in the Mohawk Village (Brantford), the youngest son of the renowned Joseph Brant. He was educated at Ancaster and Niagara, and fought with distinction during the War of 1812. Brant devoted his life to improving the welfare of his people. He initiated the establishment of schools ad from 1828 served as superintendent of the Six Nations, the first native person appointed to that post. Around 1830 his mother Catharine (Ohtowa? kéhson), clan mother of the Turtle . . . — Map (db m78340) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — British Army River Crossing to Dolsen's Landing — Friday, October 1, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway|
|Upon sighting American war ships at the mouth of the Thames River on October 1, 1813, the British Army boarded scows and bateaux near this site. One by one, the boats and their cargo were pulled across the river to their next encampment site at Dolsen's Landing, a small but important commercial site in Dover Township established by Matthew and Hannah Dolsen. The settlement consisted of the Dolsen's log home, a store, a blacksmith shop, a distillery, and other outbuildings. Dolsen's Landing had . . . — Map (db m78346) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — British Encampment: Forks of the Thames — Sunday, October 3, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway|
|While British Army was encamped at Dolsen's, Procter travelled to Fairfield to investigate the site as a defensive position. At Tecumseh's urging, and learning that the Americans were closing rapidly, Colonel Warburton, Procter's second-in-command, ordered the army to break camp and move up-river. The British departure from Dolsen's caused a rift among the warriors because many of them wanted to engage the Americans at Dolsen's despite Tecumseh's desire to fight at the Forks. By militia officer . . . — Map (db m71360) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — Burning of British Ships / American Encampment — Monday, October 4, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway|
|East of the Forks, the Thames River becomes shallower and not navigable for larger ships. With the American forces close behind, the British vessels were threatened with capture. One cargo ship, probably the Miamis, had already been set on fire closer to the Forks. Near this site, two other ships, the Mary and the Ellen, were moored perpendicular to the shore and much of their contents dumped into river. They were then set on fire to block the river to any American gunboats.
The American . . . — Map (db m71398) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — Casualties of the Skirmish — Monday, October 4, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway|
|There were many casualties at the skirmish at the Forks. Although we do not presently know the identities of the warriors who were killed, we do know that two Kentucky men in Colonel Johnson's Mounted Infantry lost their lives at this site on that day:
• Private Foster Bartlett of Captain William Rice's Company who enlisted on August 15, 1813.
• Private William (or Wilham) Hardwick of Captain Samuel Combs' company who enlisted on May 20, 1813. — Map (db m71379) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — First Nations Encampment: Thomas McCrae Farm — Friday, October 1, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway|
|Thomas McCrae was an early settler, innkeeper, and political figure in Raleigh Township along the Thames River. He served as a captain and company commander in the Kent Militia and was present at the capture of Fort Detroit. Family tradition relates that McCrae used the prize money he received from the capture of the fort to complete his Georgian brick home in 1813.
On October 1, with the British now encamped across the river and to the east at Dolsen's Landing, the First Nations . . . — Map (db m71308) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — Skirmish at McCrae's House|
|Following the defeat of the British at the Battle of the Thames on October 5, 1813, American forces controlled the Thames Valley west of Moraviantown. In early December a detachment of 3 officers and 36 men of the American 26th Regiment established a post near here at the house of Thomas McCrae. Before daybreak on December 15, 1813, they were surprised by Lieutenant Henry Medcalf and 32 members from the Norfolk and Middlesex Militia, the Kent Volunteers and the Provincial Dragoons. After a . . . — Map (db m71292) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — Skirmish at McCrae's House — Wednesday, December 15, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway|
|During the American occupation of the lower Thames, this house was used as a base for U.S. troops. In mid-December 1813, the house was occupied by 39 officers and men of the 26th Regiment led by Lieutenant Larwill.
At the same time, a group of 27 men of the Canadian militia from Norfolk and Middlesex Counties under the command of Lieutenant Henry Medcalf, had marched, through heavy snow, to Rondeau to collect cattle that were grazing in the area before they were found by the Americans. . . . — Map (db m71310) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — Skirmish at the Forks — Monday, October 4, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway|
|On October 2, 1813, Tecumseh moved his warriors up-river to the Forks where he had been led to believe that fortifications would be prepared for a full-scale confrontation with harrison's army. When Tecumseh arrived, he was enraged to find no fortifications and only three or four dismounted cannon and a log cabin containing small arms.
Despite his dismay, Tecumseh convinced his warriors to stage a rearguard action at the Forks on October 4 to slow the American advance. That morning, the . . . — Map (db m71335) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — Skirmish at the Forks — Monday, October 4, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway|
|Robert McAfee, a member of Colonel Johnson's Kentucky Mounted Regiment, described the skirmish in his journal. He wrote:
Oct 4: …a woman … informed us that about six miles above the River forked, that there was a large bridge across the mouth of the Right hand fork and a mill and a bridge about about about a mile and a half up the fork where the Indians were encamped [sic] and she expected that they would make a stand and fight … about twelve o'clock the firing commenced on our left and . . . — Map (db m71378) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — Tecumseh|
|On this site, Tecumseh, a Shawnee Chief, who was an ally of the British during the War of 1812, fought against American forces on October 4, 1813. Tecumseh was born in 1768 and became an important organizer of native resistance to the spread of white settlement in North America. The day after the fighting here, he was killed in the Battle of the Thames near Moraviantown. Tecumseh Park was named to commemorate his strong will and determination. — Map (db m71322) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — The Forks — Tecumseh Parkway|
|The Forks of the Thames are formed by the joining of the Thames River and McGregor Creek creating a peninsula that is present day Tecumseh Park in Chatham, Ontario. The strategic importance of the site was recognized by Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe when he visited the region in 1793.
The first settlement at the Forks occurred in 1794 when Simcoe commissioned Captain William Baker to establish a shipyard. Baker constructed a log blockhouse, a 72 foot-long frame workshop, forges, . . . — Map (db m71331) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — The Legend of the Paw Paw — Tecumseh Parkway|
|The Paw Paw tree (Asimina triloba) is native to the southern, eastern, and mid-western United States and extends to Canada only in the extreme southern part of Ontario. It has the largest edible fruit native to North America. The fruit looks somewhat like a small banana and has a custard taste.
Popular attributes relates the presence of several groves of this thicket-forming understory tree along this section of the Thames River to American soldiers who carried the fruit with them from . . . — Map (db m71405) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Assault on Backmetack Marsh — Tuesday, October 5, 1813, 4:00 p.m. — Tecumseh Parkway|
|As Lieutenant Colonel James Johnson's horsemen were charging the British front line, his brother, Colonel Richard Johnson led an attack against the First Nations warriors in Backmetack Marsh. The mounted infantry charged the Native left flank led by 20 riders, called "The Forlorn Hope," who were intended to draw the warriors' fire and empty their guns. Tecumseh's allies fired a devastating volley at close range that cut down 15 of the riders. The casualties included Colonel Johnson who was . . . — Map (db m72397) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Battle of Moraviantown, 1813 — Bataille de Moraviantown, 1813 — (Battle of the Thames) / (Bataille de la Thames)|
In September 1813, during the second year of the War of 1812, the United States won control of Lake Erie, cutting British supply lines with the east and forcing the British to withdraw from the Detroit River region. Then, on October 5, 1813, 3,000 Americans, including their Aboriginal allies, defeated 950 British, Canadians, and Natives at this site. Among those killed was the famous Shawnee leader, Tecumseh, who had worked to unite the First Nations in neighbouring American . . . — Map (db m78367) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Fairfield — Tecumseh Parkway|
|The Moravians or "Bohemian Brethren" were a protestant sect that originated in the 1400s in Moravia and Bohemia, the present day Czech Republic. They faced persecution in their homeland and in 1722 many moved to Saxony (now part of Germany) where they were given security and land on the estate of Nikolaus Ludwig Von Zinzendorf. There they built a community called Hernhut and subsequently sent missionaries to North America where they established settlements in Pennsylvania (Bethlehem and . . . — Map (db m72448) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the Thames — Tuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway|
|Jacques (James) Baby 1763-1833: A member of the Legislative and Executive Council for Upper Canada, judge for the Western District, and in command of the 1st Kent Militia, Baby was captured by the Americans at the Battle of the Thames.
Billy Caldwell 1780-1841: The son of William Caldwell and his Mohawk wife, Billy was a captain in the Indian Department and became a Potowatomi chief after the war.
William Caldwell 1750-1822: Of Scots-Irish descent, Caldwell fought in Butler's Rangers . . . — Map (db m71415) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the Thames — Tuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway|
|Makataimeshekiakiak, Black Hawk, 1767-1838: A Sauk war leader and experienced warrior, Blackhawk was a veteran of the Battles of Fort Meigs and Fort Stephenson. Although he left the war for a period of time, he rejoined the British, and scholars feel that he was probably at the Battle of the Thames. Following the war, Black Hawk continued to oppose American encroachment on native lands that culminated in "The Black Hawk War" in 1832.
Naiwash: Ottawa chief
Naw Kaw: Winnebago chief. . . . — Map (db m71418) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the Thames — Tuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway|
|Shabbona 1775-1859: A Potawatomi chief, grand nephew of Pontiac, and veteran of Tippecanoe, Shabbona was an accomplished warrior and strong supporter of Tecumseh. He persuaded many natives to join the confederacy.
Sou-veh-hoo-wah, Split Log, 1765-1825: Huron chief and veteran of the River Raisin and Fort Meigs, Split Log helped defeat Brigadier General McArthur's American force at the Grand River in October 1814.
Tecumseh 1768-1813: Leader of the First Nations confederacy. . . . — Map (db m71419) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the Thames — Tuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway|
|John Adair 1757-1840: Pioneer, soldier, and statesman, Adair was a veteran of the American Revolution, was 8th governor of Kentucky, and represented that state in both the U.S. House of Representatives and the Senate. He fought at the Battle of the Thames and was subsequently rewarded for his service, being appointed adjutant general of Kentucky.
Lewis Cass 1782-1866: A military officer and politician, Cass was governor of the Michigan Territory and, later, U.S. senator representing . . . — Map (db m72381) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the Thames — Tuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway|
|James Johnson 1774-1826: The brother of Richard Johnson, James was elected as a Kentucky State senator in 1808. He served as a lieutenant colonel in Johnson's Mounted Infantry and led the charge on the British lines at the Battle of the Thames along with his two sons. Following the war, he served in the U.S. House of representatives.
Richard Mentor Johnson 1780-1850: From Kentucky, Johnson was elected to the House of Representatives in 1806. He served as a colonel in the American Army . . . — Map (db m72385) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the Thames — Tuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway|
|Isaac Shelby 1750-1826: Shelby was the 1st and 5th governor of Kentucky and a veteran of the American Revolution. As governor and at 63years of age, Shelby personally led the Kentucky Militia at the Battle of the Thames.
Tarhe 1742-1816: A Wyandot chief and loyal American, he marched with his warriors throughout General Harrison's campaign in Canada and fought at the Battle of the Thames despite being 72 years old.
William Whitley 1749-1813: Veteran of the Indian Wars, militia leader, . . . — Map (db m72388) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Prelude to Battle — Tuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway|
|By the early morning of October 5, 1813, the American Army had forded the Thames River and was advancing quickly. The British rearguard was able to destroy Cornwall's mill, west of Sherman's farm (present-day Thamesville, Ontario) but not the mill dam over which the road ran, which aided the American pursuit.
In Procter's absence, Colonel Warburton decided to move the British troops as far as Fairfield. At 1:00 p.m., however, Procter, who had met them en route, ordered battle lines to be . . . — Map (db m71413) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Tecumseh — 1768-1813|
|Born in a Shawnee village in what is now Ohio, Tecumseh became in the 1770s co-leader with his brother, the Prophet, of a movement to restore and preserve traditional Indian values. He believed a union of all the western tribes to drive back white settlement to be the one hope for Indian survival and spread this idea the length of the frontier. Seeing the Americans as the immediate threat, he allied himself with the British in 1812, assisted in the capture of Detroit and was killed near here at . . . — Map (db m71410) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — The Bugles Sound — Tuesday, October 5, 1813, 4:00 p.m. — Tecumseh Parkway|
|Many of the men of the 41st Regiment had been stationed in Canada for 13 years. By October 5, 1813, they had not been paid for 6 to 9 months; they lacked tents and blankets; their uniforms were in rags; they were plagued by a variety of diseases; and they had not had proper food for days. British Ensign James Cochran observed, "The attack was silently awaited, each determined to do his duty, but few with any doubt as to the result."
The British, numbering about 450, faced 3000 American . . . — Map (db m72393) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — The Burning of Fairfield — Tecumseh Parkway|
|Robert McAfee, a soldier in Colonel Johnson's Mounted Regiment, kept a journal of his experiences, and wrote on October 7, 1813:
Spent the day in collecting in plunder ... Colonel Owings Regiment of Regulars came up and took charge of the plunder and the whole army marched off and we sett [sic] fire to the town, putting the first torch to the Moravian Church and consumed the whole to ashes and we continued our march down the river to the large plantation where the bake ovens were and . . . — Map (db m72414) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — The Death of Tecumseh — Tuesday, October 5, 1813, Approximately 4:20 p.m. — Tecumseh Parkway|
|At some point during the attack on Backmetack Marsh, Tecumseh was fatally shot. As word spread of their leader's death, one American account tells of the warriors giving, "the loudest yells I ever heard from human beings and that ended the fight."
Who killed Tecumseh is a matter of debate. Many accounts claim that the badly-wounded Colonel Richard Johnson shot Tecumseh just before he lost consciousness although, until much later in his political career, Johnson only claimed to have shot an . . . — Map (db m72405) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Why Choose This Site? — Tecumseh Parkway|
|Some British officers involved reported that, due to the proximity of the enemy and the fact that the troops were exhausted and hungry, they were unable to outpace the American mounted units to Fairfield. Another theory is that Procter sought to avoid a military confrontation at Fairfield due to the number of civilian refugees and wounded still at the village. — Map (db m71414) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Amherstburg Navy Yard|
|[West Historic Marker]:Amherstburg Navy Yard
A Navy Yard was built here in 1796 to replace Detroit as the base and supply depot for the Provincial Marine on Lakes Erie and Huron. In 1812 the GENERAL HUNTER and QUEEN CHARLOTTE, built here, took part in the capture of Detroit. The next year, his supply lines cut, Robert Barclay's poorly equipped fleet, including the DETROIT, was defeated by Oliver Perry, U.S.N., in the battle of Lake Erie. This reverse led the British to burn the . . . — Map (db m37552) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Boblo Island|
| Boblo Island
For many centuries the island you see in front of you was used for hunting and fishing by First Nations people. Called Île aux Bois Blancs by the French, Boblo Island's key location made it a site for blockhouses during the War of 1812 and the Upper Canada Rebellion. In 1837 a lighthouse was erected on the southern end; about sixty years later the island became the site of a popular amusement park that lasted for nearly a century.
The Detroit . . . — Map (db m71185) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Colonel Matthew Elliott — 1739 - 1814|
|Near this site stood the house erected in 1784 by Matthew Elliott. Born in Ireland, he emigrated to the American Colonies in 1761, and during the Revolution served with the British forces as a captain in the Indian Department. He was an Indian agent for the western tribes 1790-95 and deputy superintendent of the Indian Department 1795-98. Elliott represented Essex in the legislative assembly 1801-12. As colonel of the 1st Essex Militia he took part in the capture of Detroit , August 16, 1812, . . . — Map (db m37286) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Detroit River Heritage|
| Detroit River Heritage
This river not only forms the border between two great nations, but is also a vital transportation artery into the upper Great Lakes. Imagine the vessels that have travelled on it … First National canoes, sailing vessels loaded with furs, British and American warships, steamers bringing holidayers to Boblo Island, and giant freighters filled with iron ore.
British war vessels used the Detroit River during the War of 1812. After the war, an . . . — Map (db m71160) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Fort Amherstburg (Fort Malden)|
|The post was begun by the Royal Canadian Volunteers in 1796 to replace Detroit and to maintain British influence among the western Indians. As the principal defense of the Detroit frontier in 1812, it was here that Isaac Brock gathered his forces for the attack on Detroit. The next year with supply lines cut and control of Lake Erie lost to the Americans, the British could not hold the fort, which they evacuated and burned. Partially rebuilt by the invading Americans, it was returned on 1 July . . . — Map (db m34353) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Fort Defences|
| Fort Defences
In front of you is a recreated piece of the fort's palisade, a vertical wall of sharpened logs. This wall surrounded the fort, linking the four diamond-shaped corner projections, called bastions. Around each bastion, the palisade ran in the bottom of a ditch that served as an additional defence against attacking soldiers.
The diamond shape of the bastions allowed cannons to fire on soldiers approaching adjacent areas of the palisade.
This . . . — Map (db m71173) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Indian Council House|
| Indian Council House
Two hundred years ago a small building stood about 100 metres north of here, close to the water's edge. This was where meetings took place between the representatives of the British government and those of the First Nations. These meetings were a crucial factor in creating an alliance between the two groups during the War of 1812. No images survive of this important structure, except a small rectangle on this map.
In this 20th-century . . . — Map (db m71170) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Lt. - Colonel William Caldwell|
|Born about 1750 in Fermanagh County, Ireland, Caldwell emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1773. During the American Revolution he served with the British forces as a captain in Butler's Rangers at Niagara and Detroit. In 1784 he obtained land near the mouth of the Detroit River and became one of this area's earliest settlers. Caldwell's exceptional influence with the local Indians enabled him to obtain control of some 11,000 additional acres on the north shore of Lake Erie where he encouraged former . . . — Map (db m37291) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Major John Richardson — (1796 - 1852)|
|Born at Queenston in Upper Canada, John Richardson served as a volunteer at Fort Malden during the War of 1812 and was taken prisoner by the Americans at Moraviantown. He was released at war's end, retired on half-pay in 1818, and spent most of the next 20 years in Europe. There he won a certain literary reputation with works such as the poem Tecumseh and Wacousta, a historical novel. Returning to Canada as a journalist, he founded the New Era in Brockville where, in 1842, . . . — Map (db m76737) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Skirmishes at the Canard River|
|In the War of 1812, the first engagement in Canada involving British and American forces in significant numbers occurred here on the Canard River. On July 12, 1812, Brigadier-General William Hull invaded Canada and encamped near Sandwich. British commander, T.B. St. George, consolidated his forces consisting of regulars of the 41st Regiment, Indians, and Canadian militia at Fort Malden, south of the Canard and stationed at picquet at the bridge. This outpost was attacked on July 16th by Colonel . . . — Map (db m34336) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The "Tecumseh Stone"|
|Tradition has it that the Indian leader Tecumseh stood upon this stone to deliver a final address to the British at Amherstburg after the Battle of Lake Erie. Donated in 1939, it originally stood near the corner of Dalhousie and Gore Streets. In his speech Tecumseh asserted, in part:
Father, listen...You always told us to remain here and take care of our lands. It made our hearts glad to hear that was your wish; our great father the king is the head, you represent him. You always told . . . — Map (db m34412) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The Battle of Lake Erie|
|In September 1813 the British squadron under R. Barclay sailed from Amherstburg to collect desperately needed food supplies. They were met by the larger, more heavily armed American squadron commanded by O. Perry. The British had the initial advantage of the wind and used their long range guns to disable the American flag ship LAWRENCE.
With his own ship crippled, Perry was rowed to the NIAGARA which had held back from the fighting. With the wind now to his advantage, Perry bore down on . . . — Map (db m37707) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — Hull's Landing 1812|
|On July 4, 1812, Brigadier-General William Hull, commander of the North Western Army of the United States, landed with about 2,000 men near this site. He issued a proclamation stating that he came here to liberate Canada from oppression. The British garrison at Amherstburg was too weak to oppose the invasion, but it later fought several skirmishes at the River Canard. On July 26, British reinforcements under Colonel Henry Proctor arrived and, on August 7-8, Hull withdrew to Detroit, leaving a . . . — Map (db m34302) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Capture of Detroit|
|Confident of victory, General Hull had invaded Canada in July 1812, but failed to take advantage of his early success and the demoralization of the defenders. Fear of the Indians then rallying to the British cause and an inability to maintain supply lines dictated Hull's withdrawal to Detroit. In a daring move on 16 August General Brock embarked his troops at McKee's Point, crossed the river and forced the surrender of the Americans. This important victory raised the spirits of the Canadians . . . — Map (db m34321) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Francois Baby House|
|This house and adjacent farmland were the property of François Baby (1763-1856), first member for Kent in the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada (1792-96), militia officer and Assistant Quarter Master General during the War of 1812. When the Americans invaded Canada in July 1812, Brigadier General William Hull set up his headquarters in François Baby's house and camped his troops on the farm. After Hull's withdrawal, British guns mounted here covered Isaac Brock's advance across the river to capture Detroit on 16 August 1812. — Map (db m34303) HM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Commodore’s Residence, 1815 — La Résidence du Commodore, 1815|
On 19 March 1813 Sir James Yeo, a brave and audacious commander earlier in the Napoleonic War, was appointed Commodore and senior officier on the Lakes of Canada. Having never commanded a Squadron before, he was instructed by the Admiralty not to undertake operations without “the full concurrence and approbation” of Sir George Prevost, the Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief of British North America. Moreover, Yeo speedily
discovered that his instinct for . . . — Map (db m83570) HM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Fort Frederick|
With the outbreak of the War of 1812, a blockhouse was quickly constructed on Point Frederick complementary to and earlier one built on Point Henry. Both provided protection for the Kingston dockyard which was the pivotal point of the Provincial Marine on Lake Ontario. Defences were strengthened throughout the war, with signifiant log-and-earth fortifications added on both sides. Guns within the original Point Frederick earthwork installation were used on 10 November, 1812, . . . — Map (db m83613) HM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Fort Henry|
| The first Fort Henry was built during the War of 1812 to protect the British dockyards in Navy Bay. The present limestone citadel, constructed between 1832 and 1837, replaced the old fort as part of a larger plan for the defence of the recently completed Rideau Canal. Commissariat stores were built to join the advanced battery with the main fort in 1841-42. Fort Henry was garrisoned by British troops until 1871, when Canadian Gunnery Schools (forerunner of the Royal Canadian Artillery) took . . . — Map (db m39364) HM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Point Frederick|
|English: A strategic location for the defence of the Loyalist settlement at Cataraqui (Kingston), this point was reserved in 1788 and named after Sir Frederick Haldimand, Governor of Quebec (1778-86). In 1790-91 a guardhouse and storehouse were built. By 1792 a dockyard was in operation and during the War of 1812 this vital naval base was fortified. On November 10, 1812, the Fort Frederick battery took part in repulsing an American naval squadron under Commodore Isaac Chauncey. This . . . — Map (db m83571) HM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Point Frederick Artillery Battery — Batterie d’artillerie de la Pointe Frederick|
|In November 1812, guns of the original fort here were fired against American ships attacking Kingston. Perhaps this attack came as retaliation for the earlier Canadian one on Sackets (sic) Harbor, but more likely American commander Chauncey felt his squadron sufficiently strong to destroy Anglo-Canadian power on the lake and centered at Kingston. But that failed, giving the British Army the opportunity to build here a new, more powerful battery of 6 and 9 pounder guns with a 45-foot square . . . — Map (db m83615) HM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Point Frederick Buildings|
|English: This peninsula, headquarters of the Provincial Marine (c. 1790-1813), and of the Royal Navy (1813-1853), was the major British naval base on Lake Ontario during the War of 1812. Buildings surviving from this period include the Naval Hospital, the Guard House complex, and the Stone Frigate. On the southern part of the peninsula stands Fort Frederick, erected in 1812-13 but completely rebuilt in 1846. In 1875 the Point was chosen as the site of the Royal Military College of . . . — Map (db m83618) HM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Pro Patria 1812-1814|
In memory of the officers and seamen of the Royal Navy and Provincial Marine, and the officers and soldiers on the Royal Marines, Royal Newfoundland, King’s (8th) and 100th Regiments, who served on Lake Ontario in defence of Canada in 1812-1814.
À la mémoire des officiers et de matelots de la Royal Navy et de la Marine provinciale, des fusiliers des Royal Marines, des officiers et des soldats du Royal Newfoundland Regiment, du . . . — Map (db m83620) WM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Sir James Lucas Yeo — 1782-1818|
Born at Southampton, England, Yeo entered the British Navy, served throughout the Napoleonic Wars and won rapid promotion by his ability. In 1813, already a Commodore, he came to Canada to command British forces on the Great Lakes. Yeo successfully blockaded the American fleet in Sackett's Harbour for some months and subsequently commanded the naval forces at the capture of Oswego in 1814. Returning to England after the war he was posted to the West African Coast and died at . . . — Map (db m83616) HM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Strategic Importance / Importance Stratégique|
|English: During the entire War of 1812, Canadian, British, and American land and naval forces campaigned across a vast territory from the Mississippi Valley, through the region south of Montreal, and well into the territories of the Atlantic coast. But the conflict’s outcome would be determined, in particular, by events on and around the Great Lakes. For the Anglo-Canadian forces, the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario was the strategic linkage for manpower and vital supplies for all . . . — Map (db m83534) HM|
|Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — "The Burlington Races" 1813|
|On the morning of September 28, 1813, a powerfully-armed United States fleet comprising ten ships under the command of Commodore Isaac Chauncey appeared off York (Toronto). The smaller British fleet of six vessels, commanded by Commodore Sir James L. Yeo, was in the harbour, but on the approach of the enemy set sail to attack. After a sharp engagement, the British squadron was forced to withdraw toward Burlington Bay where it could take refuge under the batteries on the adjacent heights. A . . . — Map (db m56759) HM|
|Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — Burlington Heights 1813 - 1814|
Here in June, 1813, General John Vincent assembled troops that made the successful night attack on the invaders at Stoney Creek. From this point of vantage, in December, 1813, the force which retook Fort George and carried Fort Niagara by assault, began its march. On these heights stood the strong point of reserve and depot of arms for the defence of the Niagara Peninsula and support of the navy on Lake Ontario.
Ici, en juin 1813, le . . . — Map (db m56725) HM|
|Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — Defensive Outwork|
|About this spot
was an outwork of
the first line of defense
1812 - 1815 — Map (db m56758) HM|
|Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — First Line of Defense|
|This Stone Marks
The Line of Earthworks
In First Line of Defense
1812 - 1815 — Map (db m56740) HM|
|Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — Hamilton - Scourge Project — War of 1812 Naval Memorial Garden|
|We honour here fifty-three sailors who lost their lives when their ships, HAMILTON and SCOURGE, capsized during a storm in the early morning hours of Sunday, 8th August 1813. These two armed merchant schooners lie in 90 metres of water, 30 kilometres northeast of this site, intact and perfectly preserved with their guns and equipment still in place. A replica of the foremast of SCOURGE is flanked by fifty-three markers similar to those in Allied military cemeteries throughout the world. — Map (db m56928) HM|
|Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — March to Stoney Creek|
|These ramparts were
erected by the British troops
during the War of 1812-15.
From this place on the night
of June 5th 1813,
700 men under the command
of Lieut. Colonel Harvey,
marched to Stoney Creek
where they surprised and routed
an American force of 3750 men
ridding the Niagara Peninsula
of the invaders. — Map (db m56756) HM|
|Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — Sir John Harvey — 1778 - 1852|
|From these heights, Lieutenant-Colonel John Harvey set out with about 700 men on the night of June 5, 1813, to launch a surprise attack on an invading United States force of some 3,000 men camped at Stoney Creek. His rout of the troops commanded by Brigadier-General John Chandler under cover of darkness in the early hours of June 6, is generally credited with saving Upper Canada from being overrun by the enemy. Harvey was knighted in 1834, served as Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick 1834-41, . . . — Map (db m56743) HM|
|Ontario (Hamilton County), Stoney Creek — Battle of Stoney Creek — 1813|
|On June 5, 1813, an invading United States army of about 3,000 men, commanded by Brigadier - General John Chandler, camped in this vicinity. That evening some 700 British regulars of the 8th and 49th Regiments, under the command of Lieutenant - Colonel John Harvey, left their encampment on Burlington Heights to attack the enemy. The assault was launched early the following morning under cover of darkness. In the fierce fighting which followed, heavy losses were suffered on both sides, but the . . . — Map (db m56720) HM|
|Ontario (Hamilton County), Stoney Creek — Battle of Stoney Creek|
|[English Text]: Battle of Stoney Creek
During 1813 the Americans planned to invade Upper Canada from Detroit and the Niagara Peninsula. In late May, an American force crossed the Niagara River, seized Fort George, and with about 3500 troops moved inland in pursuit of the British who retreated to Burlington Heights. At Stoney Creek, a surprise night attack by about 700 regulars of the 8th and 49th Regiments of Foot under Lt.-Col. John Harvey halted the American advance and . . . — Map (db m56762) HM|
|Ontario (Hamilton County), Stoney Creek — Battlefield House|
|[Text on First Historic Marker]:
Fifteen and one-half acres of
The women's Wentworth Historical Society
Given by this society to the
Niagara Parks Commission
as a National Historic Site
January 19, 1962
[Text on Second Historic Marker]:
Battlefield House (circa 1796)
Battlefield Monument (1913)
Designated under the Ontario Heritage Act
City of Stoney Creek Council . . . — Map (db m56805) HM|
|Ontario (Hamilton County), Stoney Creek — Billy Green Monument|
|[Text on West Side of Monument]:
In Memory Of
Who led British troops
in surprise night
attack winning decisive
Battle of Stoney Creek.
Born Feb. 4, 1794
Died Mar. 15, 1877
[Text on North Side of Monument]:
In Memory Of
Who gave the password
to Billy Green who in
turn gave it
to Gen. Harvey
Burlington Heights . . . — Map (db m56822) HM|
|Ontario (Hamilton County), Stoney Creek — The Battlefield of Stoney Creek|
|The Battlefield of Stoney Creek
6th June 1813
In memory of 20 good and true King's Men who,
in fighting in defence of their country, died
and were buried on this knoll.
This revised inscription and stone re-dedicated
June 6th 1956
Her Majesty's Army & Navy Veteran's Society of
Hamilton — Map (db m56798) HM|
|Ontario (Hamilton County), Stoney Creek — The Nash-Jackson House|
|Originally located at the north-east corner of king Street East and Nash Road in the city of Hamilton, the house known as the Nash=Jackson House was built in 1818. The property on which the house stood, part of William Gage's original land grant, was deeded to his eldest daughter, Susannah (Gage) Nash, in 1815. William Gage was uncle to James Gage, original owner of what is now Battlefield House Museum.
The Nash-Jackson House, once named Grandview, with its Loyalist Neo-Classic style of . . . — Map (db m56859) HM|
|Ontario (Hamilton County), Stoney Creek — Their Fame Liveth|
Lieutenant Samuel Hooker,
Sergeant Joseph Hunt, Pri-
vates James Daig, Thomas
Fearnsides, Richard Hugill,
George Longley, Laurence
Meade, John Pegler, John Smith,
and John Wale of the First
Battalion of the Eighth
(King's) Regiment of Foot; and
Sergeant Charles Page, Pri-
vates James Adams, Alexander
Brown, Michael Burke, Henry
Carroll, Nathaniel Catlin,
Martin Curley, Martin Don-
nolly, Peter Henley, John
Hostler, Edward . . . — Map (db m56819) HM|
|Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — Forsyth’s Raid 1813|
|On the night of February 6-7, 1813, Major Benjamin Forsyth of the United States Army, with a detachment of regulars and militia numbering about 200 men, crossed the frozen St. Lawrence River from Morristown, N.Y., and attacked Brockville. The village garrisoned by a company of Leeds Militia who, taken by surprise, could offer no resistance. The invaders released prisoners from the jail, took a quantity of arms, horses and cattle, and carried off an number of residents. The resentment aroused by . . . — Map (db m83482) HM|
|Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — Gen. Sir Isaac Brock. K.C.B. — (1769-1812)|
|Brockville was named after the Provisional Civi Administrator of Upper Canada and the Commanding Officier of the British forces in Upper Canada during the War of 1812-1814.
The government of Upper Canada first named this community “Elizabethtown” after moving the site of district administration here in 1809. The building of the first Court House and Gaol in the village was completed in 1810. The surrounding township was also named Elizbethtown, so the local citizens were . . . — Map (db m83527) HM|
|Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Gananoque — Gananoque|
A vulnerable point on the vital line of supply from Lower Canada in the War of 1812-14. Raided on the 21st September, 1812, when the bridge was broken up. Fortified by the Leeds Militia and garrisoned in turn by the 104th, 41st, 89th, Canadian Voltigeurs, Royal Newfoundland, 57th and 70th Regiments, with Royal Artillery, it became the base for a division of gunboats cruising among the Thousand Islands for the protection of transport.
Point vulnérable . . . — Map (db m83528) HM|
|Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Gananoque — Raid on Gananoque — 1812|
| On September 21, 1812, a United States force of some 200 regulars and militia under Capt. Benjamin Forsyth attacked Gananoque. The village was an important forwarding point for supplies moving up the St. Lawrence from Montreal to Kingston and was garrisoned by a detachment of the 2nd Leeds Militia under Col. Joel Stone. After a spirited resistance, Stone withdrew his force comprising two subalterns and about forty soldiers, and the Americans seized the stores and burned the government depot. . . . — Map (db m83531) HM|
|Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Johnstown — Eastern Ontario's First Court House and Gaol|
| Eastern Ontario's first Court House and Gaol was constructed on the waterfront south of this site between 1795 and 1797. The complex included a chamber for the District Court on the upper floor as well as cells and a room for the jailer on the lower level. Later a pillory and stocks were erected next to the Court House. The entire area was enclosed with a picket fence constructed with cedar posts eight feet high. In 1810 the Court and Gaol were moved to new facilities in Brockville, despite . . . — Map (db m86949) HM|
|Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Mallorytown — Chimney Island (Bridge Island)|
| During the War of 1812 the St. Lawrence was the life-line of Upper Canada along which virtually all military and civilian supplies were transported from Montréal to Kingston. Fear that the Americans might attempt to block the passage of materiel prompted the fortification of Bridge Island as a shelter for the supply batteaux and a base for British gunboats. A blockhouse was completed early in 1814 and a circular battery with an 18-pounder constructed. These defence works were maintained by a . . . — Map (db m87163) HM|
|Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Prescott — Capture of Ogdensburg — 1813|
| On the morning of February 22, 1813, Lieutenant-Colonel "Red George" Macdonell of the Glengarry Light Infantry set out from Prescott with a force of some 480 regulars and militia to capture the strong United States military post at Ogdensburg. The attack was made in retaliation for the recent American raid on Brockville and was contrary to the orders of the commander-in-chief, Sir George Prevost. Advancing across the ice, Macdonell's force presented an easy target for the enemy artillery, but . . . — Map (db m86971) HM|
|Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Prescott — Fort Wellington|
|English: The first Fort Wellington was erected on this site during the War of 1812 to shelter British regular troops and Canadian militia defending the vital St. Lawrence River transportation route. In February 1813 those soldiers crossed the ice to capture Ogdensburg, N. Y. When rebellion threatened Upper Canada in 1838 the fort was in ruins. Construction had scarcely begun on the present fort in November 1838 when a band of Canadian rebels and American sympathizers attacked, they were . . . — Map (db m83365) HM|
|Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Prescott — Prescott Barracks and Hospital|
| The front portion of this structure one of the earliest surviving military buildings in Ontario, was constructed as a residence about 1810 by Colonel Edward Jessup, the founder of Prescott. Following the outbreak of the War of 1812, the stone house was appropriated for use as a barracks by local militia and, later, British regulars. It was soon enclosed within a stockade with other buildings, including a log schoolhouse also converted for barracks. Although a fort was completed nearby in 1814, . . . — Map (db m86950) HM|
|Ontario (Lennox & Addington Counties), Greater Napanee — Escape of the Royal George 1812|
|Opposite here is the gap between Amherst Island and the eastern tip of Prince Edward County. On November 9, 1812, the British Corvette "Royal George" (22 guns), commanded by Commodore Hugh Earl(e), was intercepted off False Duck Islands by an American fleet, comprising seven ships under Commodore Isaac Chauncey. Pursued by the enemy, "Royal George" escaped through this gap into the Bay of Quinte's North Channel. The chase resumed in light winds the following day when she arrived safely in . . . — Map (db m83643) HM|
|Ontario (Middlesex County), Glencoe — Battle Hill|
Here was fought the Battle of Longwoods, 4th March, 1814. United States troops were entrenched on this hill. The British losses were Captain D. Johnson and Lieutenant P. Graeme and twelve men of the Royal Scots Light Company and the 89th Light Company, fifty-two officiers and men of these companies of these companies and of the Loyal Kent Volunteers, wounded.
Ici se déroula la bataille de Longwoods, le 4 mars 1814. Des troupes des États-Unis s’étaient . . . — Map (db m78370) HM|
|Ontario (Middlesex County), Glencoe — Battle of Longwoods — March 4, 1814|
|The view from the British side (left side)
Commanded by Captain James Basden
Royal Scots Light • Western (Caldwell) Rangers • 89th Foot Light • Kent and Middlesex Militia • British Indian Department
On March 3, 1814, the Western (Caldwell) Rangers observed an American military camp on the western edge of Twenty Mile Camp (20 miles west of Delaware), straddling the Longwood’s Road. Captain William Caldwell sent word to the British detachment in Delaware. The next . . . — Map (db m78369) HM WM|
|Ontario (National Capital Region), Ottawa — Lieutenant Colonel Charles-Michel d’Irumberry de Salaberry, CB — Le lieutenant-colonel Charles-Michel d’Irumberry de Salaberry, C.B. — (1778-1829)|
A skillful professional soldier, Salaberry formed the celebrated Voltigeurs canadiens. In 1813, he outwitted and defeated a vastly superior American force at the Battle of Châteauguay, helping to save Lower Canada from invasion.
War of 1812
Militaire de carrière exceptional, Salaberry met sur pied les célèbres Voltigeurs canadiens. En 1813, il use de stratégie et défait de troupes américaines largement supérieures en nombre à la bataille de . . . — Map (db m83313) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Battle of Chippawa|
|[Text on the West Side]:
Battle of Chippawa
5 July 1814
In memory of all those who fought on this ground, many of whom are buried nearby,
and to commemorate the peace that has prevailed between Canada and the United States
since that time.
This monument was erected and dedicated by
The Niagara Parks Commission.
Brian E. Merrett, Chairman
The Niagara Parks Commission
[Text on the South Side]: . . . — Map (db m49393) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Chippawa Battlefield Panel 1 — Background to a Battle|
|On these fields and the surrounding woods 4,000 American, British, Canadian and Native forces fought the first major battle of the Niagara campaign of 1814. When the last shots died away on Samuel Street's farm, more than 800 lay dead and wounded. Since 18 June 1812, when the United States declared war on Great Britain, a small force of British Regulars, Canadian Militia and Native Warriors had turned back seven American invasions of Canada.
On 3 July 1814, Major General Jacob Brown, . . . — Map (db m49398) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Chippawa Battlefield Panel 2 — Opening Strikes — July 5, 1814 3:00 p.m.|
|At dawn 5 July 1814, parties of Canadian-Militia and British allied Native Warriors scouted the American camp. They began sniping from the bushes on the north side of Street's Creek and this continued throughout the morning. Around noon, General Brown ordered General Porter to take some of his men and end this harassing fire.
At about 2pm, Porter led his New York and Pennsylvania Militia and allied Warriors into the woods to the west, crossed the creek and drove the scouting parties . . . — Map (db m49399) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Chippawa Battlefield Panel 3 — Advance to Contact — July 5, 1814 3:30 p.m.|
|Major General Phineas Riall, the British commander, had repaired the bridge over the Chippawa and ordered his own Regular light infantry, the local Canadians of the 2nd Lincoln Militia and a force of Native Warriors, to clear out the now scattered American skirmishers. The remainder of Riall's brigade 1st, 8th and 100th Regiments of Foot (1,400 men) marched south along the river road toward General Brown and his outpost. Brown could not see the British troops through the strip of trees just . . . — Map (db m49400) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Chippawa Battlefield Panel 4 — Battle on the Plain — July 5, 1814 4:30 p.m.|
|British General Riall was convinced that the greater part of Brown's army was still surrounding Fort Erie. He did not know the Fort had surrendered and he was facing the entire U.S. division. Still, the number of men deployed on both sides was virtually the same: 6 British guns verses 7 U.S., with each side mustering about 1400 regulars, 200 militia and 300 warriors.
Confident in the abilities of his regulars, Riall advanced towards the waiting grey-coated line. The Redcoats pushed to . . . — Map (db m49402) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Chippawa Battlefield Panel 5 — Final Stages — July 5, 1814 5:30 p.m.|
|As the battle raged, more American artillery deployed to the middle of the plain between the 11th U.S. and the lone 25th U.S. company, less than 100 meters (109 yards) from the British line. General Brown then led Ripley's brigade across Street's Creek to the west in an effort to envelop the entire British Force. However, the creek was chest deep, the undergrowth thick and Ripley's men never did join the fight on the plain. Meanwhile, with point blank canister raking his line, the enemy's . . . — Map (db m49403) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Chippawa Battlefield Panel 6 — The Aftermath|
|The Aftermath. In the days following the battle, General Brown's victorious troops advanced another 25 kilometers (18 miles) north to Fort George before retiring back to Niagara Falls when more British troops arrived in the area. They met the British forces again on 25 July along another farmer's lane where 1,800 more men were killed and wounded. Following the bloody Battle of Lundy's Lane the American forces passed the field and graves of the Battle of Chippawa as they withdrew to Fort Erie. . . . — Map (db m49404) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Fort Chippawa 1791|
|The fortifications which stood on this site were built in 1791 to protect the southern terminus of the Niagara portage road, and serve as a forwarding depot for government supplies. Known also as Fort Welland, the main structure consisted of a log blockhouse surrounded by a stockade. During the War of 1812 several bloody engagements were fought in this vicinity including the bitterly contested Battle of Chippawa, July 5, 1814, and possession of the fort frequently changed hands. A barracks, . . . — Map (db m49164) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — The Battle of Chippawa — La Bataille de Chippawa|
|Here, on 5 July 1814, an American army under Major-General Jacob Brown launched the last major invasion of Canada during the War of 1812. The Americans defeated a British and Canadian force commanded by Major-General Phineas Riall consisting of regulars, militia and Aboriginal warriors. During the engagement, about 200 men were killed and over 500 hundred wounded. After four months of heavy fighting, with major action at Lundy's Lane, Fort Erie and Cook's Mills, the invaders were forced back to . . . — Map (db m49050) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — The Battle of Chippawa|
|On this site was fought
The Battle of Chippawa
July 5, 1814.
Preservation of the Battleground
was made possible by
The Niagara Parks Commission
with the cooperation of
Frank and Mildred Branscombe,
River Realty Development (1976) inc.
and Group 2 Development Limited
of Niagara Falls, Ontario — Map (db m49460) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — The Founding of Chippawa|
|In 1792-94 a village grew up near Fort Chippawa on Chippawa Creek at the end of the new portage road from Queenston. In 1793 the creek was renamed the Welland River, but the village, where a post-office was opened before 1801, remained "Chippawa". It was largely destroyed 1813-14 when British and American forces fought for control of the Welland River. Portage traffic revived after the war and continued until Chippawa became an outlet for the original Welland Canal from 1829 to 1833. A . . . — Map (db m54124) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippiwa — Raid on Fort Schlosser 1813|
|At daybreak on July 5, 1813, a British and Canadian force, consisting of some 35 militia and a small detachment of the 49th Regiment, embarked in this vicinity to attack Fort Schlosser. This American depot (now within Niagara Falls, New York) was situated at the southern terminus of the Lewiston Portage, and was an important military trans-shipment point. The attacking force, commanded by Lieut.-Col. Thomas Clark of the 2nd Regiment, Lincoln Militia, surprised the U.S. garrison and encountered . . . — Map (db m49163) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Crystal Beach — Capture of the "Somers" and "Ohio"|
|On the night of August 12, 1814 seventy seamen and marines, led by Captain Alexander T. Dobbs, R.N.,embarked in this vicinity to attempt the capture of three armed U.S. schooners lying off American-held Fort Erie. One of the six boats used had been carried some 25 miles from Queenston, while the others were brought overland from Frenchman's Creek. Masquerading as supply craft, the force boarded and seized the "Somers" and "Ohio," the "Porcupine" alone escaping. Two of the attackers, including . . . — Map (db m53441) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Fort Erie — Capture of the "Ohio" and "Somers" — Prise des Goelettes "Ohio" et "Somers"|
|On the night of 12 August 1814, as a prelude to a British attack on Fort Erie, an expedition was mounted against three armed American schooners anchored off the fort. Captain Alexander Dobbs, R.N., embarked with 70 seamen and marines in six batteaux which had been portaged from Frenchman's Creek, and by a ruse got close enough to cut the hawsers and board and capture the OHIO and SOMERS. The third vessel, PORCUPINE, escaped. Dobb's victory was the last naval action fought on the Great Lakes in . . . — Map (db m48913) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Fort Erie — Fort Erie|
|Three fortifications occupied this site. The first (1764-1779) and second (c. 1783-1803), located at lower levels, were abandoned when ice and water inundated the works. The third Fort Erie, built between 1805 and 1808, was repaired in January 1814 but was captured by an invading American army in July of that same year. The Americans used it as a base for subsequent operations, retreated here after their defeat at Lundy's Lane, survived a siege by the British in August and September, and . . . — Map (db m48912) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Fort Erie — Fort Erie, Pro Patria Mori Cairn|
|[Text on the base of the Cairn];
Here are buried
150 British Officers and Men
Who fell in the attack on Fort Erie
On the 26th day of August, 1814, and three
of the defenders, men of the United States
Infantry, whose remains were discovered
during the restoration of Fort Erie,
1938 & 1939
[Text on first of 2 plaques mounted on the Cairn]:
In Memory of the
Officers and Seamen of
the Royal Navy, The Off-
icers, Non commissioned
Officers and . . . — Map (db m54139) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Fort Erie — Frenchman's Creek|
|In an effort to regain the initiative lost at Queenston, the Americans planned a general invasion for 28 November 1812. Before dawn advance parties crossed the Niagara River to cut communications between Fort Erie and Chippawa and to silence the British shore guns. The attackers failed to destroy the bridge over Frenchman's Creek and the batteries they had overrun were soon retaken by British reinforcements. After confused fighting the advance parties returned to the American shore. The main . . . — Map (db m49049) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Grimsby — Engagement at the Forty|
|[English Text]: Engagement at the Forty
Here at the Forty Mile Creek, on 8th June, 1813, American forces, retreating after the Battle of Stoney Creek, were bombarded by a British flotilla under Sir James Lucas Yeo.
Indians and groups of the 4th and 5th Regiments Lincoln Militia joined in the attack and created such confusion in the enemy ranks that they abandoned this position and retreated to Fort George.
[French Text]: L'Engagement de Forty Mile Creek . . . — Map (db m56704) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Grimsby — Grimsby 1812 Bicentennial Flagpole|
|We dedicate this flagpole to the
Grimsby 1812 Bicentennial peace garden
in honour of the "Encounter at the Forty"
at this site on June 8, 1813, a turning point in
the War of 1812 by the United States and the British.
Also, to celebrate 200 years of peace and
prosperity that has existed between
Canada and the United States. — Map (db m56993) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Grimsby — Grimsby 1812 Bicentennial Gazebo|
|We dedicate this gazebo to the Grimsby 1812 Bicentennial Peace Garden and to the residents of Grimsby, In commemoration of 200 years of peace between Canada and the United States.
The design of the gazebo was inspired by elements of Fort George in Niagara. The north "Bastion" of the gazebo points towards Lake Ontario and the location of the British fleet during the "Engagement at the Forty". The American cannon ball mounted on the Bastion wall was found near this site by Erwin Phelps, . . . — Map (db m57034) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — 3. The Capture of the Redan and the Death of Brock|
|On the river banks below here, the Americans were trapped. To the right the Americans scaled the river cliff and seized the Heights above. To the left the British held the Village of Queenston. A British 18-pounder cannon situated here within an earthwork called a "redan". On October 13, 1812, this cannon hindered the reinforcement of the American troops trapped below. Arriving from Fort George, Major-General Brock came here to direct the defence of Queenston and await reinforcements, however . . . — Map (db m75875) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Battle of Lundy's Lane — Bataille de Lundy's Lane|
|This was the site of the bloodiest battle of the War of 1812. On the afternoon of 25th July, 1814, Lieutenant-General Gordon Drummond with about 2800 men engaged the invading American army which had recently been victorious at Chippawa. The armies were evenly matched and the six-hour battle lasted until darkness and heavy losses put an end to the fighting. Each force had lost over 800 men. Although each claimed victory, the Americans had failed to dislodge Drummond from his position. They . . . — Map (db m49053) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Bridgewater Mills|
|In the late 1790's the river flowed swiftly around these islands. The Bridgewater Mills, a water powered saw and grist mill and an iron foundry, where the first bar iron was made in Canada, were located here. The Mills were burned by the retreating American Army after the Battle of Lundy's Lane on July 26, 1814, and were not rebuilt. — Map (db m53402) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Burch’s Mill|
|In 1786 John Burch, a United Empire loyalist, constructed a water-powered grist and sawmill on this site. He was the first to use the waters on the west bank of the Niagara River for industrial purposes. The mills were burned by the retreating American Army on July 26, 1814, after the Battle of Lundy’s Lane. — Map (db m79766) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Holding the High Ground|
|Early on the morning of July 26th, 1814, Lieutenant-General Sir Gordon Drummond awaited another attack on the Lundy's Lane hill near Niagara Falls. Throughout the previous night, this hill had been taken and retaken in the bloodiest, most hard fought battle of the War of 1812-14.
The expected attack did not occur. The Americans, exhausted, withdrew to Fort Erie. In November, they abandoned Fort Erie and retired across the Niagara River.
Drummond and his troop's had successfully . . . — Map (db m49693) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Laura Secord|
|[Front Side of the Monument]:
the name and fame of
who walked alone nearly 20
miles by a circuitous difficult
and perilous route, through woods
and swamps and over miry roads
to warn a British outpost at
DeCew’s Falls of an intended attack
and thereby enabled Lt. FitzGibbon
on the 24th June 1813, with less
than 50 men of H.M. 49th Regt.,
about 15 militiamen and a small
force of Six Nations and other . . . — Map (db m49694) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Lundy's Lane Battlefield Commemorative Wall — Celebrating 100 Years — July 25, 2004|
|In celebration of the City of Niagara Falls Centennial, and the 190th Anniversary of the Battle of Lundy's Lane, fought on July 25, 1814. These limestone panels were created to pay tribute to those who lost their lives in the battle. Let us remember and honour those that have come before us and celebrate the peace that now exists between the two nations. — Map (db m49739) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — One Hundredth Anniversary of the Battle of Lundy's Lane|
– is –
Erected to Commemorate
the celebration of the
Anniversary of the
Held here July 25th 1914
Under the Auspices
– of –
The Lundy's Lane
Historical Society — Map (db m54045) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Ruth Redmond — 1903 - 1999|
|Ruth Redmond was a teacher at nearby Stamford Collegiate from 1926 to 1967.
In 1954, Miss Redmond began purchasing properties that were adjacent to her home here on the north side of Lundy's Lane. This valuable land was part of the Lundy's Lane Battleground from the War of 1812. Her sole objective was to protect this historic ground from commercial development. Miss Redmond beautified much of her property with lovely flower gardens in memory of "her boys" - those who had perished in the . . . — Map (db m57035) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Site of Redan Battery|
|Near this spot Lieut-Col. John MacDonnell Attorney General of Upper Canada was mortally wounded 13th October 1812. — Map (db m75855) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Soldier's Monument — Lundy's Lane|
|[Front Side of Monument]:
Erected by the
in honour of the victory
gained by the
British & Canadian Forces
on this field on the
25th day of July, 1814
and in grateful remembrance
of the brave men
who died on that day
fighting for the unity
of the Empire.
[Left Side of Monument]:
In enduring memory of . . . — Map (db m49790) WM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — A Fort Evolves — Fort Mississauga|
By 1813, the British were planning to build "a tower in small redoubt to command the entrance of the River...at Mississauga Point." Begun in the Spring of 1814, this tower rests on the remains of the first Capital of Upper Canada (today's Ontario). After the Americans burned the town of Newark in 1813, the British tore down the remaining brick walls and chimneys to provide a foundation. The tower was only two feet high in July when an American force under General . . . — Map (db m52200) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — A Strategic Location|
|A Strategic Location
You are standing at Mississauga Point where the Niagara River flows into Lake Ontario. Long ago the lakes and rivers were military supply and transportation routes and forts were built to protect them.
The large stone fort across the river is Fort Niagara. The French built a fort here in 1687, and the present one was begun in 1720. In August 1759 the British captured the fort after a lengthy seige. Prideaux and Johnston streets in Niagara-on-the-Lake . . . — Map (db m52610) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — A Strategic Site|
|Fort Niagara was only 1200 metres from Fort
George, well within artillery range. In May, 1813, combined artillery fire from Fort Niagara, its detached batteries, and American warships at the river's mouth completely destroyed Fort George
and forced the British to abandon it to the
invading Americans. Only the powder magazine
survived. By the end of the war, the British had re-
occupied Fort George and captured Fort Niagara. — Map (db m53604) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Action at Butler's Farm — Engagement a Butler's Farm|
|On the 8th of July, 1813, an outpost of the invading force, encamped near Fort George, was defeated by a band of Six Nations and Western Indians led by Chiefs John Norton and Blackbird and interpreters Michel Brisebois, Louis Langlade and Barnet Lyons. Lieutenant Samuel Eldridge and 22 soldiers of the 13th United States Infantry were killed and 12 taken prisoners.
Le 8 juillet 1813, une bande d'Indiens des Six-Nations et d'Indiens de l'Ouest, conduite par les chefs John Norton et Blackbird . . . — Map (db m48747) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Brown's Point|
|Brown's Inn was located here. Both the Canadian York Militia and the American Army bivouacked near here on separate occasions during the War of 1812. Adam Brown later added a store to his inn, and built a wharf on the river shore below, where sailing ships loaded settlers' produce, potash and lime destined for Montreal and overseas. — Map (db m49166) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Brown's Point|
Here Gen. Sir Isaac Brock
called out on his way to
13th October 1812
York Volunteers." — Map (db m49482) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Capture of Fort Niagara — 1813|
|In the early morning of December 19th, 1813, a force under Colonel John Murray, consisting of detachments of the 100th and 41st Regiments. Royal Scots, Royal Artillery and Canadian Militia embarked in bateaux at the foot of this ravine. Crossing silently to a point above Youngstown, New York, they attacked Fort Niagara killing or capturing its American garrison. — Map (db m49158) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort George — Ie Fort George|
|Constructed by order of Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe 1796-99, Fort George served as the headquarters for Major-General Brock in 1812. In May, 1813, it was bombarded and captured by the Americans who constructed fortifications of their own on the site. These in turn were retaken by the British in December 1813. In 1815 Fort George was described as "tumbling into ruins" and ordered abandoned. The present works are a reconstruction done in 1937-40, and represents the fort as it was in 1799-1813. . . . — Map (db m48743) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort Mississauga — Le Fort Mississauga|
|This tower and earthwork are all that survive of the barracks, guardroom, and cells of Fort Mississauga. Built between 1814 and 1816 to replace Fort George as the counterpoise to the American Fort Niagara immediately opposite, it was garrisoned until 1826. Repaired and rearmed following the Rebellion of 1837, it continued to be maintained until 1854 in response to border disputes with the United States. It was manned during the tense years of the American Civil War and the Fenian scare of 1866, . . . — Map (db m48745) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort Mississauga is a National Historic Site — an impotant part of Canada's story!|
|• Mississauga Point was the location of a Neutral First Nation fishing settlement by the 15th century.
• The area was under the control of the Seneca Nation during the late 17th century, and it became home to the Mississauga Nation by the 18th century.
• Fort Mississauga was begun during the War of 1812, and helped the British and Canadians defend the Niagara frontier against a powerful invading American army in 1814.
• It was completed after the War, and was a part of a defense . . . — Map (db m52236) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort Mississauga Trail — Sentier du fort Mississauga|
|Explore a part of our heritage - visit a fort almost 200 years old and discover part of the Lake Ontario shoreline.
Explorez un volet de notre patrimoine - visitez un fort qui a presque 200 ans d'histoire et decouvrez une partie du rivage du lac Ontario. — Map (db m48632) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort Niagara|
|Across the Niagara River is the imposing American stronghold, Fort Niagara. Originally built by the French, then occupied by the British, and finally by the Americans, this fort for nearly 150 years stood guard over the traditional supply route to the Upper Great Lakes. — Map (db m53630) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Guns Gins and Devil Carts|
|Garrison guns were heavy and awkward to move. To be transported, the barrel had to be taken off the carriage with the help of a tripod hoist or gun gin. The gin was equipped with a pulley system that made it possible for two men to lift the barrel. The barrel was then attached to a horse-drawn carriage known as a sling or devil cart. The gun gin was also used to hoist a barrel when the carriage had to be replaced. — Map (db m54006) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — McFarland House 1800|
|This Georgian style house was built in 1800 by John McFarland (1757-1815) and his sons, on land granted by the Crown. It is one of the oldest surviving structures in the Niagara district. During the War of 1812 it was used as a hospital by both British and American forces and a British battery, located behind the house, protected the river. In 1813, John McFarland was taken prisoner by the Americans following their capture of Fort George. When he returned in 1815, much of his property had been . . . — Map (db m49480) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Navy Hall|
|The facilities of this strategic location have served British and later Canadian troops stationed at Niagara from 1765 to the 1920's. — Map (db m49477) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Niagara National Historic Sites|
|Brock's Monument and
This striking commemoration and final resting place of Major General Brock marks the site of the Battle of Queenston Heights. Visitors can climb the 235 stairs to take in spectacular views, or set off on a self-guided tour which covers every major scene of the historic battle
Navy Hall survives as the last building of what was once a large military complex and key supply depot for British forts on the Upper . . . — Map (db m54037) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Point Mississauga Lighthouse — Le Phare de Point Mississauga|
|The first lighthouse on the Great Lakes was built of stone at Point Mississauga in 1804 by John Symington, under orders from Lieutenant-Governor Peter Hunter. Demolished in 1814 to make room for this fort, its materials with debris from the ruined town of Niagara, were incorporated into this tower.
En 1804, John Symington, sur l'ordre du lieutenant-gouverneur Peter Hunter, construisit le premier phare des Grand lacs à Point Mississauga. Ce phare, qui était en pierre, fut démoli en 1814 . . . — Map (db m48746) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Sir Isaac Brock's First Burial Site|
|Placed Here by the Niagara
The Spot Where
Gen. Sir Isaac
was buried from
1812 To 1824 — Map (db m53535) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Six Pounder Field Gun|
|Field artillery was designed for mobility. Cannons mounted on carriages with large wheels could be moved quickly, even over rough terrain. This six pounder has a limber to carry ammunition and supplies and would be harnessed to a team of horses. Field guns like this were used by the Royal Artillery on battlefields around the world.
After the defeat of the British forces at the Battle of Fort George, field guns manned by the Royal Artillery and the local militia were critical in delaying . . . — Map (db m54000) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — The Battle of Fort George — La Bataille de Fort George|
|On the 25th May, 1813, the American Fleet and the Batteries at Fort Niagara across the river began a devastating two-day bombardment of Fort George. On the 27th a large American force was landed and after a brief engagement in which his outnumbered garrison sustained heavy casualties, Brigadier-General John Vincent made an orderly withdrawl towards Burlington. The capture of Fort George left the Americans in control of the Niagara Frontier, but Vincent's troops a week later won a decisive . . . — Map (db m48628) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — The Early Years|
|[Text on Marker]:
Navy Hall originally consisted of a small shipyard, storehouses, residences and docks which served as a depot for local supplies; it also served as a trans-shipment point for the posts on the upper Great Lakes. From 1792 to 1796 Lieutenant Governor Simcoe had offices and his residence in the complex. These buildings were later converted to military use until destroyed by American artillery fire during the War of 1812.
[Caption for Background Picture]: . . . — Map (db m49476) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — The Field House|
|One of the oldest brick houses in Ontario, this handsome Georgian structure was built about 1800. Originally a farm house, it was the home of Gilbert Field (1765-1815), a United Empire Loyalist who was in possesion of the land by 1790. During the War of 1812 the house was used by British forces and was subjected to a brief bombardment from an American battery. Though damaged, it was one of the few homes in the area to survive the hostilities. It remained in the Field family until about 1925, . . . — Map (db m56718) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — The Fortified Mouth of the Niagara River|
|The St.Lawrence and Great Lakes system was the most efficient route to the interior of the continent of North America. Large waterways allowed for substantial sailing vessels to trade and maintain contact with Native allies from Montreal to the Mississippi with minimal portages and transhipment in smaller boats. The one great obstacle along the chain of waterways was Niagara Falls whose dramatic height required some control of the land to allow for a portage around the escarpment and the falls . . . — Map (db m53624) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — The Remains of Three Soldiers|
|Here was found in
The remains of three
Soldiers who fell on
27th May 1813
In defense of our country — Map (db m48629) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Ubique|
Artillery was vitally important to the defense of Upper Canada. Due to a shortage of heavy cannons available in the province, there were only five garrison guns mounted inside Fort George in May of 1813.
Moving large cannons weighing several tons was a challenge. The easiest way to move guns was by water. Movement by land was slow and labour intensive and could expose the men moving them to enemy fire. Bad weather and poor roads could also make the . . . — Map (db m53989) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Vrooman's Battery — La Batterie Vrooman|
|Manned by Captain Samuel Hatt's 5th Lincoln (Militia) Regiment and a small party of the Lincoln Militia Artillery under Lieutenant John Ball, and consisting of one 24-pounder cannon mounted within a crescent-shaped earthwork, this Battery was engaged in the Battle of Queenston Heights on the 13th of October, 1812. Commanding the Niagara river, its continuous fire harassed the Americans crossing from Lewiston, provided cover for the British when they were first repulsed from the heights, and . . . — Map (db m48750) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Welcome to Fort George|
|Built in 1796, Fort George was the scene of fierce engagements during the War of 1812. It was captured and destroyed then refortified by the Americans in 1813. It was re-taken by the British later that same year. The fort was abandoned in the 1820's, and only the original stone powder magazine survives today. Fort George was reconstructed between 1937-40.
Today we invite you to pass through the fort gates and re-live this exciting era in history. — Map (db m54038) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Queenston — 1. Attack — The Battle of Queenston Heights Walking Tour — Stop 1 of the 5-stop walking tour|
|If you go to the lookout behind the Laura Secord monument you will see across the river and slightly to your right the area where a huge American force assembled for the invasion of Canada. In the early hours of October 13, 1812, six hundred American soldiers crossed the river and landed on the Canadian shore somewhere above the present docks. Queenston was chosen as the target because it was an important point on the British supply line and because the only other possible landing spot was the . . . — Map (db m55029) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Queenston — 2. The Treacherous River Cliff — The Battle of Queenston Heights Walking Tour — Stop 2 of the 5-stop walking tour|
|"An unguarded trail up this steep cliff was the only route which the Americans had to the heights of Queenston. The trail was to your right but does not exist any longer. Trapped on the river shore by unrelenting gunfire, the Americans contemplated a desperate action: the ascent of this cliff. The British, positioned on a ledge between here and the Village of Queenston did not detect the movement and the attackers took the Heights by surprise. However, later in the battle this cliff became a . . . — Map (db m55030) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Queenston — 4. The Counter-Offensive Takes Shape — The Battle of Queenston Heights Walking Tour — Stop 4 of the 5-Stop Walking Tour|
|The Niagara escarpment rises above you. The British reinforcements arriving here from Fort George, in battle dress and exhausted from a "double quick march", struggled up this slope some distance to your right. While the Americans controlled Queenston Heights they were prevented from properly establishing their position by the harassment of 120 Indians under Chief Norton. In the meantime, Regular British troops and Canadian militia were arriving from Fort George and other outposts. Under the . . . — Map (db m55533) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Queenston — 5. The Decisive Battle — The Battle of Queenston Heights Walking Tour — Stop 5 of the 5-stop walking tour|
|On the plateau before you, the British and Americans met for battle. The British formed a line to your right, the Americans to your left. General Sheaffe formed a British counter-offensive force of nine hundred men in a line shoulder to shoulder. The Americans were slightly greater in number but had not been reinforced with troops or arms since the arrival of the Indians. They had to meet the British with their backs to the river precipice. The British combined force advanced with fixed . . . — Map (db m55028) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Queenston — 'Alfred'|
|Early in the morning of October 13, 1812, after galloping seven miles from Fort George, General Brock tethered his gray horse ‘Alfred’ here in the Village of Queenston in order to lead a charge on foot to repel the invading enemy. Brock was killed leading the attack.
Colonel Macdonell then took command until General Sheafe could arrive from Fort George with reinforcements. Macdonell rode ‘Alfred’ to lead another charge; he was mortaly wounded and ‘Alfred’ was killed, part of the price of . . . — Map (db m49167) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Queenston — Brock Dead House — The first of five places where Sir Isaac Brock's body rested after the Battle of Queenston Heights|
|During the War of 1812, the Brock Dead House was owned by Patrick McCabe. The façade was oriented in an easterly direction, facing the Niagara River.
Courtesy Brock University Library,
Special Collections and Archives
Brock Dead House
On 13th of October 1812, Major-General Sir Isaac Brock was killed at the Battle of Queenston Heights. In the midst of a deadly gunfire, his body was carried off the field and hidden in a nearby house. This improvised mortuary, or dead house. was . . . — Map (db m75882) HM WM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Queenston — Brock's Cenotaph|
|[Text on North Side of Marker]:
Near the spot
Sir Isaac Brock, K.C.B.
Governor of Upper Canada
fell on 13 - October, 1812
while advancing to repel
the invading enemy.
[Text on South Side of Marker]:
Was placed by His Royal Highness
Albert Edward, Prince of Wales
on 18th September, 1860. — Map (db m49483) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Queenston — Brock's Monument|
|Upper Canada has dedicated this monument
to the memory of the late
Major-General Sir Issac Brock K.B.
Provisional Lieut.Governor and commander of the forces
in this province whose remains are deposited in the vault beneath.
Opposing the invading enemy he fell in action near these heights
on the 13th of October 1812, in the 43 year of his age.
Revered and lamented by the people whom he governed
and deplored by the sovreign
to whose service his life had . . . — Map (db m49926) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Queenston — Brock's Monument - Queenston Heights Battlefield|
|The monument towering above you is a memorial to Major-General Sir Isaac Brock commander of British forces in Upper Canada at the beginning of the War of 1812. Brock died on the slopes below Queenston Heights on October 13, 1812, during an engagement between British and American forces. It was a battle that had great significance for Canada. This monument was constructed between 1853-56. It is 56 metres (184 feet) high and is constructed entirely of cut stone. Parks Canada maintains the . . . — Map (db m52137) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Queenston — Fort Drummond|
|[English Text]: Fort Drummond
This small redoubt, or square fortification, and the U-shaped advance battery, named in honour of Sir Gordon Drummond, were built in the late spring of 1814 to defend the main portage road from Chippawa to Queenston. The earthworks enclosed a blockhouse which sheltered 100 men. After the British defeat at the battle of Chippawa, these men abandoned Fort Drummond and joined Major-General Riall's forces retiring to Fort George on 10 July 1814. For . . . — Map (db m56658) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Queenston — Home of Laura Ingersoll Secord|
|[Text inscribed on stone monument]:
[Text on lower plaque]:
This stone marker was placed in 1901 by the Women's Literary Club of St. Catharines
to honour Laura Secord and was re-
dedicated in 1972 by members of the
Club on the occasion of their 80th
annual pilgrimage. — Map (db m51612) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Queenston — Indians at Queenston Heights — October 13, 1812|
|Warriors of the Six Nations of Iroquois (Mohawks, Oniedas Onondagos, Cayugas, Senecas, Tuscaroras), mainly from the Grand River, fought as allies of the British in this historic battle with the Americans. Speaking distinctive dialects and with different religious beliefs, these Indians were drawn together for the battle by John Norton, a resourceful and courageous commander. Norton, a man of Cherokee and Scottish ancestry, was a Mohawk (Teyoninhokarawen) by adoption. With John Brant . . . — Map (db m49168) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Queenston — Laura Ingersoll Secord|
|[Front side of Monument]:
This monument has been
erected by the
Government of Canada
Laura Ingersoll Secord
who saved her husband's life
in the battle on these heights,
October 13th, 1812,
and who risked her own
in conveying to Capt. Fitzgibbon,
information by which he won
the victory of Beaver Dams
[Back side of Monument]:
United Empire Loyalist
Born July 7th, 1773
Died . . . — Map (db m75866) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Queenston — Laura Ingersoll Secord 1775-1868|
|Born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, Laura Ingersoll came to Upper Canada with her father in 1795, and settled in this area. About two years later she married James Secord, a United Empire Loyalist, and within seven years they had moved to this site from nearby St. David's. From here during the war of 1812, Laura Secord set out on an arduous 19-mile journey to warn the local British commander, Lieutenant James Fitzgibbon, of an impending American attack. The courage and tenacity displayed . . . — Map (db m49160) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Queenston — Laura Secord (1775-1868)|
The celebrated heroine of the war of 1812 is a renowned figure in Canadian History. Determined to warn the British of an impending attack on Beaver Dams, Secord set out from her home on June 22, 1813, on a dangerous mission. She traveled alone for over 30 kilometers, behind enemy lines, struggling to make it to the De Cew farmhouse, where she informed Lieutenant Fitzgibbon about the American plan. Later in the 19th century, a first generation of women historians . . . — Map (db m51613) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Queenston — Sheaffe's Path to Victory|
Path to Victory
1812 — Map (db m53530) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Queenston — Sir Roger Hale Sheaffe — 1763 - 1851|
|On October 13, 1812, following Isaac Brock's death in a preceding assault, Major-General Sheaffe assumed command and led a successful attack which dislodged an invading American force from Queenston Heights. Born in Boston, Mass., Sheaffe was commissioned in the British army in 1778 and fought in the American Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. Arriving in Upper Canada in 1812, he served as Administrator of the province 1812-13, and returned to England in the latter year. He was created a . . . — Map (db m49161) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Queenston — The "Colored Corps" 1812 - 1815|
|[Side of Marker Using English Text]:
When the War of 1812 began, people of African descent in the Niagara peninsular feared an American invasion. They were anxious to preserve their freedom and prove their loyalty to Britain. Many joined the militia; others offered to raise their own militia company. Authorities responded by forming a "Colored Corps" of about thirty men commanded by white officers. Based in the Niagara region throughout the war, it fought at Queenston Heights in . . . — Map (db m49162) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Queenston — The Battle of Queenston Heights — La Batatille des Hauteurs de Queenston|
|In the early morning of 13 October 1812, American troops under Major-General Stephen Van Rensellaer crossed the Niagara River and took possession of Queenston Heights. Major-General Isaac Brock hurried from Fort George to lead a small force against the invaders and was killed in an attempt to regain the heights. In the afternoon, Major-General Roger Hale Sheaffe with his force of British regulars, militia and Indians from Fort George strengthened by reinforcements from Chippawa, took the hill . . . — Map (db m48908) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Queenston — The Battle of Queenston Heights — The Battle of Queenston Heights Walking Tour|
|The Battle of Queenston Heights
The village below you and the heights on which you are standing were the stage for the famous Battle of Queenston Heights.
It took place during the Anglo-American conflict 1812-1815 known as the War of 1812. During the early morning hours of October 13, 1812 an American invasion force camped at Lewiston crossed the Niagara river and gained control of the heights of Queenston. After many hours of fierce combat, they were crushed by a combined . . . — Map (db m51682) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Queenston — The Founding of Queenston|
|Following the loss, after the American Revolution of the Niagara River's east bank, a new portage around Niagara Falls was established in the 1780s' with Queenston its northern terminous. Wharves, storehouses and a block-house were built. Robert Hamilton, a prominent merchant considered the village's founder, operated a thriving trans-shipment business. Known as the "Lower Landing" it was named "Queenston" by Lieut.-Governor Simcoe. During the war of 1812 the village was badly damaged. Here . . . — Map (db m51621) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), St. Catharines — Richard Pierpoint c.1744-c.1838|
|One of the first Black settlers in this region, Pierpoint was born in Senegal. At the age of about 16 he was imprisoned and shipped to America where he became the slave of a British officer. During the American Revolution he enlisted in the British forces, thereby gaining his freedom, and served with Butler's Rangers. Disbanded at Niagara, "Captain Dick" settled near here. At the outbreak of the War of 1812 he joined the Coloured Corps and in 1821, recalling his militia service, he petitioned . . . — Map (db m75872) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), St. Catharines — This Statue of the Honourable William Hamilton Merritt|
|has been erected by his grandson William Hamilton Merritt of the City of Toronto, son of William Hamilton Merritt Jr. of St. Catharines, as a tribute to the father of Canadian transportation who through initiatory steps in first waterways and railways earned that title.
He projected and carried to a successful completion the bridging of the cataract of Niagara by the Welland Canal 1824-29, the first railway suspension bridge in the world spanning the gorge of the same river 1846-55, and . . . — Map (db m76186) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), St. Catharines — William Hamilton Merritt 1793 - 1862|
|A pioneer in the field of transportation, Merritt was born in Bedford, New York and settled at Twelve Mile Creek (St. Catharines) with his Loyalist family in 1796. He served with the provincial cavalry during the War of 1812, then operated mercantile and milling enterprises here. Primarily responsible for the construction of the first Welland Canal (1824-33). Merritt worked tirelessly to promote this ambitious venture, both by raising funds and by enlisting government support. During his long . . . — Map (db m76184) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), St. Davids — Headquarters of DeRottenberg|
1812 — Map (db m58109) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), St. Davids — The Burning of St. Davids 1814|
|On July 18th, 1814, during the final American campaign on the Niagara frontier, Major-General Peter B. Porter sent a detachment of militia from the United States encampment at Queenston to attack St. Davids. This force, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Isaac W. Stone, was joined later by a small group of American regulars. Despite opposition from the 1st Lincoln Militia, the enemy captured the village, looted it and burned most of the buildings. Stone was severely censured for this destruction . . . — Map (db m58172) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Thorold — Beaver Dams|
|Following their repulse at Stoney Creek the Americans sent a force from Fort George to destroy a British advanced post at Beaver Dams. Warned of their approach by an Indian scout and by Laura Secord, a force of Indians from Caughnawaga and the Grand River, led by Captains Dominique Ducharme and William Kerr, ambushed the attackers near here on 24 of June 1813, and compelled them to surrender to Lieutenant James Fitzgibbon of the regular British army. After this defeat the Americans did not . . . — Map (db m48909) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Thorold — DeCou House Monument|
|DeCou's Stone House
This house of Captain John DeCou (the name was variously spelled by his relatives and descendants and latterly as DeCew) was the Headquarters of the British outpost under Lieut. James Fitzgibbon to which came Laura Secord through the woods and swamps below the Niagara Escarpment from Queenston on June 24, 1813 to warn of the American advance. Thus warned, the small British force with its Indian allies captured, by bold strategy, at . . . — Map (db m56826) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Thorold — In Memory of Unknown American Soldiers|
|In Memory of Unknown
Who Died in the
War of 1812 — Map (db m54120) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Thorold — Laura Ingersoll Secord — 1775 - 1868|
|Who set out from her home in Queenston early in the morning of June 22, 1813, to walk an arduous nineteen miles to warn the British outpost at DeCew Falls of an impending American attack. The information enabled the local British commander, Lieutenant James Fitzgibbon, and his detachment, to surprise and capture the entire enemy force at the Battle of Beaver Dams on June 24, 1813, thereby marking the turning point in the War of 1812.
To perpetuate her memory. — Map (db m53392) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Vineland — Ball's Grist-Mill|
|By 1809 John and George Ball had constructed a four-storey grist-mill here on Twenty Mile Creek. Equipped with two run of stones, the mill provided flour for British Troops during the War of 1812. It was expanded during the 1840's and by the end of the decade was part of a complex which included sawmills and woollen factories. About that time George Peter Mann Ball laid out a village plot named Glen Elgin. His plans for an industrial community were thwarted, however, when the Great Western . . . — Map (db m57064) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Welland — Battle of Cook's Mill|
|[English Text]: Battle of Cook's Mills
In October 1814 an American army advanced from Fort Erie toward the British line along the Chippawa River. Lieutenant-General Drummond ordered a reconnaissance towards Cook's Mills on his right flank in hopes of finding the Americans vulnerable to attack. On the 19th a heavy skirmish took place, involving men of the Glengarry Light Infantry and the 82nd, 100th and 104th Regiments, supported by a gun and rockets. The British-Canadian force . . . — Map (db m56657) HM|
|Ontario (Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry Counties), Dalkeith — MacLeod Settlement|
| In 1793 some forty families, including members of several clans, emigrated from Glenelg, Scotland, under the leadership of Alexander MacLeod and landed at St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island). The following year they came to Glengarry County and petitioned for land. In August, 1794, the majority were authorized to occupy 200 acres each in the vicinity of Kirkhill, which was for many years known as Glenelg. Alexander MacLeod, who was located on this property in 1794, was instrumental in . . . — Map (db m76853) HM|
|Ontario (Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry Counties), Morrisburg — Battle of Crysler’s Farm — Bataille de la ferme Crysler|
Here, on the farm of John Crysler, was fought one of the decisive battles of the War of 1812. On 11 November 1813 Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Morrison, with 800 British and Canadian regulars, militia and Indians, engaged an American force of 4,000 under Brigadier-General John Boyd. The open terrain was suited to the training of the well-drilled British regulars, who, after two hours of heavy fighting, routed the enemy. This victory ended a major American thrust at Montreal. . . . — Map (db m82184) HM|
|Ontario (Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry Counties), Morrisburg — Battle of Crysler’s Farm 1813|
|In November, 1813, an American army of some 8000 men, commanded by Major-General James Wilkinson, moved down the St. Lawrence en route to Montreal. Wilkinson was followed and harassed by a British “corp of observation” consisting of about 800 regular militia and Indians commanded by Lieut.-Col. Joseph Morrison. On November 11, Morrison’s force, established in a defensive position on John Crysler’s farm, was attacked by a contingent of the American army numbering about 4000 men . . . — Map (db m82180) HM|
|Ontario (Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry Counties), Morrisburg — Battlefield of Crysler’s Farm — Pro Patria|
|These plaques are found in the British Court of Honour and the Canadian Court of Honour at the Crysler's Farm Battlefield visitors center.
of Chrysler’s Farm
In Memory of
Captain Thomas Nairne and Lieutenant Daniel Claus of the 49th Regiment, Lieutenant Charles de Lorimier of the Canadian Fencible Regiment and the non-commissioned officiers and men of the 49th, 39th and Canadian Fencible Regiments and the Canadian Voltigeurs killed in . . . — Map (db m82182) WM|
|Ontario (Toronto, Municipality of Metropolitan), Toronto — The Battle of York 1813 — La Bataille de York de 1813|
Loyal residents of York (Toronto) were encouraged by early British victories in the War of 1812, but in 1813, they experienced first-hand the hardships of war. On the morning of April 27th, an American fleet appeared offshore and began to send 1,700 soldiers ashore two kilometres west of here. At first only a small force of Ojibwa warriors was in position to resist the landing. After fierce skirmishing the invaders advanced, overcoming defensive stands by outnumbered British . . . — Map (db m83668) HM|
|Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Québec Martello Towers — Les tours Martello de Québec|
Four Martello towers (three of which remains) were an integral part of the defences of Québec, the key to the control of the continental interior of North America. Works had been proposed in the Plains of Abraham since the early 1790s, but only after the Anglo-American crisis of 1807 did Governor Sir James Craig order construction of the towers. Built between 1808 and 1812, they were intended to prevent an attacker drawing close enough to lay siege to the walls of Québec. . . . — Map (db m80891) HM|
|Quebec (Haut-Richelieu MRC), Lacolle — Bataille du Moulin de Lacolle / Battle of the Lacolle Mill|
|Sur ce site, le 30 mars 1814, le major R.B. Handcock, avec quelque 500 soldats du 13e régiment des Royal Marines, de Canadian Fencibles, des Voltigeurs ainsi que des Indiens, a combattu vigoureusement contre 4,000 soldats américains commandes par le général Wilkinson. Epuise par cette résistance, celui-ci replia sur la frontière américaine. La bataille du moulin de Lacolle mit fin a la dernière invasion américaine du Bas-Canada durant la Guerre de 1812
Here, on 30 . . . — Map (db m74538) HM|
|Quebec (Haut-Richelieu MRC), Lacolle — 15 — Blockhaus de la Rivière-Lacolle — Lacolle Mills Blockhouse|
Built prior to the War of 1812, the Lacolle Blockhouse is one of the last military defense works of of its kind still standing in Canada. After the American invasion of 1775 and 1776, the British authorities wished to exert better control over access to the Saint Lawrence River via the Richelieu River. In 1778, the Royal Engineers began building a defence network of forts, redoubts and blockhouses such as the one on the Lacolle River. Lacolle became an important outpost . . . — Map (db m82069) HM|
|Quebec (Haut-Richelieu MRC), Lacolle — Blockhaus de la Rivière-Lacolle — The Lacolle River Blockhouse|
The Lacolle River Blockhouse
Back in the XVIII Century …
In Canada, blockhouses first appeared in Acadia around 1750, at the time of the British conquest. The Lacolle River blockhouse, built in 1781, was part of the colony’s defence network, and served as an outpost for British soldiers on missions in the Upper-Richelieu region. It was abandoned after a peace treaty was signed on December 24, 1814, by the United States and Great Britain, and today is the only . . . — Map (db m82728) HM|
|Quebec (Haut-Richelieu MRC), Saint-Paul-de-l'Île-aux-Noix — 16 — Chantier Naval de Île-aux-Noix — The Île-aux-Noix Naval Shipyard|
When war was declared between the United States and England, in June of 1812, Canada again risked being attacked from the south. The Lake Champlain-Richelieu River corridor represented the easiest way to invade Montrêal. Île-aux-Noix quickly acquired key strategic significance. Sir George Prevost, then governor-in-chief of British North America chose to act swiftly. As the Americans and British raced for military supremacy on Lake Champlain, the naval shipyard of Île-aux-Noix . . . — Map (db m82067) HM|
|Quebec (Haut-Richelieu MRC), Saint-Paul-de-l'Île-aux-Noix — Fort Lennox — Le Fort Lennox|
Fort Lennox was the third fortification built on Isle-aux-Noix as a barrier to invasion along the Richelieu River from the south. The island was first fortified by the French in 1759 but the British captured it the next year. In 1775 the Americans occupied the island as a base for their attack on Canada. After they retreated the British erected a new fort to deter further American invasion. During the War of 1812 it protected an important naval base. Later this fort was razed . . . — Map (db m82065) HM|
|Quebec (Haut-Richelieu MRC), Saint-Paul-de-l'Île-aux-Noix — The Royal Navy|
In enduring memory of the services of the officiers, seamen, and soldiers of the Royal Navy, Provincial Marine, and Royal Marines, who fought in defence of Canada on Lake Champlain in 1776-77 and 1812-1814.
Pour perpétuer le souvenir des services des officiers, marins et soldats de la marine royale, de la marine provinciale et des fusiliers marins royaux qui ont combattu pour la défense du Canada sur le lac Champlain en 1776-77 en 1812-14. — Map (db m82066) WM|
|Quebec (La-Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM), Chambly — Fort Chambly|
Chambly — A.D. 1665.
Courage et Loyaute
Sous le regne de Louis XIV,
Roi de France et de Navarre,
Le Marquis de Vaudreuh,
Gouverneur général de la Nouvelle France
Ce Fort fut érige en 1771
Incendié en 1776.
Restauré par Guy Carleton en 1777.
Abandonné en 1817
Il fut réparé en 1882 et 1888;
Sous le regne de Victoria,
Reine de la Grande Bretagne.
Le Marquis de Lorne
Gouverneur Général du Canada
Théodore . . . — Map (db m82025) HM|
|Quebec (Le Haut-Saint-Laurent RCM), Ormstown — The Battle of the Châteauguay — Bataille de la Châteauguay|
|English: Here, on 26 October 1813, a Canadian force of about 300 consisting of Voltigeurs, Canadian Fencibles, Sedentary and Select Embodied Militia and Indians, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Charles Michel de Salaberry, halted 5,700 American troops led by Major General Wade Hampton. In turning back the American advance on Montréal de Salaberry and his militiamen thwarted the most ambitious enemy invasion of the War of 1812 and saved the province.
Ici, le 26 . . . — Map (db m82104) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — A canal excavated in the rock — Un canal creusé dans le roc|
|English: The point at Coteau-du-Lac is formed by superimposed layers of dolomite (rock containing lime and magnesium). The British military used various excavation techniques to build a canal at this spot.
In general, they removed the rock layer by layer by driving iron wedges in between the strata with sledgehammers. In the case of large, un-cracked surfaces, they drilled holes and then partially filled the with gunpowder which was ignited to blast the rock. We also presume that . . . — Map (db m83819) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — A canal that must be preserved — Un canal à protéger|
|English: The Canadian Parks service has a mission to preserve certain sites that bear witness to the history of our country and to the accomplishments of our ancestors. Of exceptional historic and archaeological importance, the Coteau-du-Lac National Historic Park is an example of the kind of site that must be protected. Its structural features and other remains are unique and non-renewable.
Abandoned in the middle of the 19th century, the canal at Coteau-du-Lac was excavated by . . . — Map (db m83817) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — A dry canal — Un canal à sec|
Located at the confluence of the Delisle and St. Lawrence rivers, the point of land at Coteau-du-Lac was originally surrounded by water.
However, with the construction of hydroelectric dams and the St. Lawrence Seaway, the water level of the St. Lawrence has been lowered by 2.5 m. As a result, water no longer surrounds the point or enters the canal.
The basin at the entrance to the canal right in front of you looks very different from the way it did when boats from . . . — Map (db m83794) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — A strategic site / Un lieu stratégique|
During the American Revolution, Governor Haldimand decided to establish a supply centre at Coteau-du-Lac, since it was well situated on the line of communication between Montréal and the Great Lakes. As early as 1779, blockhouses, palisaded works and abattis protected the installations from possible raid or surprise attack by a small force.
The War of 1812 changed Coteau-du-Lac’s defensive role considerably. Now that the American border was only a few kilometres away, the . . . — Map (db m83771) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — A supply centre / Un poste de ravitaillement|
Even before the canal was constructed, Coteau-du-Lac was used as a supply centre for goods being shipped to the Great Lakes posts. In 1779, two storehouses were built on the site: one was reserved for general merchandise, while the other was designed for liquid merchandise, such as rum.
The supply system developed at this time made it possible to gain several days in the spring, when provisions were needed by the more distant posts, which generally ran out of stock by . . . — Map (db m83770) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — A very busy canal — Un canal très fréquenté|
Although the Coteau-du-Lac canal was built primarily to accelerate the transport of troops and military supplies to the forts around the Great Lakes, it was also used for commercial purposes.
Traffic through the canal, which was opened to navigation in 1781, did not reach its peak until after the War of 1812, when shipping on the St. Lawrence River was in full swing. Boats heading toward the Great Lakes carried food, spirits, farming implements, hardware, clothing, tools . . . — Map (db m83798) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — Adapting the canal to new needs — Un canal qui évolue|
The settlement of Loyalists in Upper Canada after the American Revolution led to a substantial increase in trade between Upper and Lower Canada in the early 19th century. Since merchandise was transported mainly by water, the British were obliged to use increasingly larger “batteaux” to cope with the volume of goods forwarded. They even resorted to a type of vessel called the “Durham boat”, which was employed in the United States and whose dimensions . . . — Map (db m83799) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-lac — Coteau-du-lac|
From 1778 until the mid-19th century Coteau-du-Lac was the site of a British military post which defended the passage and facilitated the transportation of supplies along the St. Lawrence. It was of strategic importance to the defence of Canada during the American Revolution and during the War of 1812 when its fortifications were added to strengthen its position. In addition to the supply depot and fort, one of the earliest locks in North America was constructed here in . . . — Map (db m82178) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — Destination: Great Lakes / Destination: Les Grands Lacs — Coteau-du-Lac: Supply Post / Coteau-du-Lac: Centre de ravitaillement|
During the American War of Independence, Frederick Haldimand, Governor of the Province of Quebec, had a supply post built at Coteau-du-Lac, given the site’s strategic location between Montreal and the Great Lakes. As early as 1779, blockhouse, palisades and abatis protected the canal and the post from a possible surprise attack by the American “rebels.”
Explore the remains of the two storehouses built on the site in 1779-1780:
— the North storehouse . . . — Map (db m83768) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — North blockhouse / Le blockhaus nord — Temporary officers’ quarters - North storehouse / Le logement temporaire des officiers - L’entrepôt|
These masonry features are the remains of the north blockhouse built by the British army during the American Revolution (1775-1783). Erected to protect the canal, this building was also used as a barracks and as a storehouse for food and munitions. It was destroyed sometime after 1779, then rebuilt during the War of 1812. The new blockhouse had the same trapezoidal shape as the old one but was oriented in a different direction. Plans from the 1850s no longer show a blockhouse . . . — Map (db m83769) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — The “rigolet” canal — Le canal rigolet|
|English: Since the “batteau” was difficult to portage, the French has to find another means of getting this heavy boat past the rapids. As a result, they constructed a “rigolet” canal at Coteau-du-Lac in the 18th century.
A “rigolet” canal was simply a dike consisting of rocks piled up to form a line parallel to the shore, at about a dozen feet from it. This shallow navigable channel offered boats protection from the violent currents of the nearby . . . — Map (db m83846) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — The construction of the canal — La construction du canal|
The construction of the canal at Coteau-du-Lac began in the summer of 1779.
William Twiss, Commanding Royal Engineer of the British army, was in charge of the project. Most of the labourers who worked on the canal were soldiers of the King’s Royal Regiment of New York, a colonial regiment made up of Loyalists.
The soldiers dug the canal in the rock using fairly primitive tools and techniques. Gunpowder was used for blasting. The British army probably brought over . . . — Map (db m83820) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — The Durham boat — Le bateau Durham|
Of American origin, the Durham boat was introduced into Canada in around 1810. Since it was a flat-bottomed, shallow-draught vessel, it could be used in rapids, and shoal without running aground. It was equipped with an oar that served as a rudder. Even though it did not have a keel or a centreboard, it could still be handled with ease on the turbulent waterways of North America. The Durham boat was propelled downstream by oars and upstream by poles. It could also be navigated . . . — Map (db m83796) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — The first lock canal in North America — La premier canal à écluses en Amérique du Nord|
Captain William Twiss, Commanding Royal Engineer of the British army, initiated and supervised the construction of the Coteau-du-Lac canal.
This canal was intended to reduce the amount of time it took for “batteaux” to pass the most treacherous rapids on the St. Lawrence above Montréal. It constituted the third solution, as it were, to the navigation problems posed by the rapids at Coteau-du-Lac. For thousands of years, Amerindians had portaged around these . . . — Map (db m83822) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — The War of 1812 - 1814 — La guerre de 1812 - 1814|
With the development of lighter artillery, the art of warfare underwent important changes in the second half of the 18th century and early 19th century. Sudden, rapid manoeuvers (sic) began to replace the slow and stationary siege. Many new light infantry and artillery corps were created at this time and an increasing number of militia corps were called up; these measures resulted in greater mobility for the armed forces.
The strategy and tactics developed during the . . . — Map (db m83767) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — What is a lock canal? — Qu’est-ce qu’un canal à écluses?|
|English: A canal is an artificial waterway designed to improve navigation on a river or other watercourse.
A lock is a water-filled chamber with gates and sluices which allows vessels to travel between bodies of water that are located at different levels.
When a vessel passes through a lock canal, it’s almost as though it were going up or down stairs.
Originally, the canal at Coteau-du-Lac had three locks. However, only two locks remained after major repair work was done in . . . — Map (db m83818) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — Why a canal at Coteau-du-Lac? — Pourquoi un canal à Coteau-du-lac?|
|English: Plans to launch an invasion of Canada during the Revolutionary War (1775-1783) brought to light a major weakness in the country’s system of defence.
At the time, the St. Lawrence River was the only line of supply for the military posts around the Great Lakes. To reach these posts, which defended Canada’s western border, the British as to bypass several stretches of rapids located upstream from Montréal. The need to transport troops and merchandise around these obstacles by . . . — Map (db m83823) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — Worth Defending! / Mission: Parry Any Land-based Movements — Une place à défendre! / Mission: Empêcher les mouvements terrestres|
|This marker has material on both sides
Coteau-du-Lac: A Strategic Site
The War of 1812 changed Coteau-du-Lac’s defensive role. It was no longer simply a supply post. With the American border just a few kilometres away, their were fears that the enemy might bypass Kingston and attack Montreal directly, cutting the military forces in Upper and Lower Canada off from each other. Defensive works were built on either side . . . — Map (db m83792) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Fort Morgan — The Pride of Seven Flags|
Tribute dedicated to the memory of the soldiers who gave their lives in the defense of our country here at Fort Morgan.
Here lies the pride of seven flags entombed in our ancestor’s worth, who heard the thunder of the fray break o’er the field beneath knew the watchword of the day was “Victory or Death.”
Dates of battles and some events relative to Fort Morgan.
1711 – Battle, France – England
1719 – Battle, . . . — Map (db m4649) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — Fort Bowyer War of 1812|
|At, or near, this site, the United States, after seizing this point of land from the Spanish in 1813, built Fort Bowyer, a structure of wood and sand.
A small garrison of men courageously fought to defend the fort against two British attacks, one in September, 1814, again in February, 1815. — Map (db m28692) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Tensaw — Fort Mims Massacre|
In honor of the
men, woman and children
massacred by Creek Indians
in brave defence of
Fort Mims Aug. 30, 1813. — Map (db m86716) HM|
|Alabama (Clarke County), Grove Hill — Elijah & Issac Pugh|
| Side 1
Near this spot are the graves of American Revolution soldier Elijah Pugh and his son Issac, a War of 1812 veteran. Elijah, born in Guilford Co., N.C. in 1760, was 18 when he joined a patriot band led by Col. Elijah Clarke at the end of 1778. He saw fierce fighting for three years, most notably at Kettle Creek in Georgia where his life was spared when a pewter flask on his body deflected a bullet. In 1784, he married Ruth Julian, a fellow patriot who as a teenager carried . . . — Map (db m83270) HM|
|Alabama (Clarke County), Whatley — Kimbell - James Massacre — ←½ mile—|
| Sept. 1, 1813
Creek Indian War. 1813-14
Part of War of 1812. British used Pensacola as base to arm, incite Indians against U.S..
Prophet Francis led Indians in this raid on Kimbell home. They Killed and scalped 12 of 14 (two survivors left for dead); pillaged house, Killed livestock. — Map (db m47635) HM|
|Alabama (Conecuh County), Burnt Corn — John Green Cemetery — Conecuh County|
War of 1812 veteran John Green (1790-1882) settled in Burnt Corn in 1816. He held many public offices, established the first school, and represented Conecuh County in the state legislature in 1824 and 1829. He was the Conecuh delegate to the 1861 (Secession) Convention of the People of Alabama and the 1875 Constitutional Convention. ‘He is allowed to be, even by those who oppose his sentiments, a man of unimpeachable character, a worthy citizen, and a kind obliging neighbor’ (The . . . — Map (db m81285) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Clay — Pioneer Massey Cemetery|
|Samuel Massey and his brother - in - law, Duke William Glenn, first came to this Territory in February 1814 with Lt. Col Reuben Nash's Regt. South Carolina Volunteer Militia to help defeat the Creek Indians in the War of 1812. Samuel Massey returned to settle this land months before Alabama became a state on December 14, 1819. Samuel's son, William Duke Massey, married Ruth Reed, daughter of William 'Silver Billy' Reed. Born October 28, 1817, she was the first white girl born in Jefferson County. — Map (db m25088) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Clay — Wear Cemetery|
|Established about 1850, Wear Cemetery is located off Old Springville Road to the northeast at Countryside Circle. In the 1800's the Wear family was among the first settlers of the community later known as Clay. Twenty-three remaining graves were identified and documented in 2008. The earliest known burial is that of Samuel Wear (1766-1852), an American Revolutionary War soldier who fought the British in the Battle of King's Mountain at 14 years of age. Other military veterans buried here . . . — Map (db m25113) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Andrew Jackson's Military Road — -1817-|
|Construction of this road, as ordered by General Andrew Jackson, began in May 1817 by troops of the U.S. Army for national defense purposes. Beginning near Nashville, Tennessee and continuing to Madison, Louisiana, it shortened the distance from Nashville to New Orleans by 200 miles. This road followed early Native American trails that were used by Jackson's Army during the War of 1812. The military road served as a major transportation route for early settlers of North Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and the Old Southwest Territory. — Map (db m80321) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — General John Coffee — City of Florence Walk of Honor|
Through his personal and business relationship with Andrew Jackson, Gen. Coffee led Jackson's cavalry in the Battle of New Orleans in 1815 and became a celebrated American hero. — Map (db m28896) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — General John Coffee — Home Site and Grave|
|Cavalry Commander under Andrew Jackson throughout War of 1812:
(Creek War, Pensacola, New Orleans).
Negotiated many treaties ceding Indian lands to U.S.
Made original surveys of Tennessee Valley. — Map (db m35259) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Lauderdale County|
|A County Older Than the State
created Feb. 6, 1818
by Alabama Territorial Legislature (Alabama became a state in 1819).
Named for Col. James Lauderdale, cavalryman under Gen. John Coffee and Andrew Jackson, War of 1812; Killed in battle of New Orleans.
Coffee planned Florence, the county seat.
Jackson, President Madison owned lots. — Map (db m35185) HM|
|Alabama (Lawrence County), Moulton — A County Older Than The State — Lawrence County|
|Created by Territorial Legislature
in 1818 from lands ceded by
Cherokee and Chickasaw Indians
Named for U.S, Navy hero of War of 1812
Capt. James Lawrence
Fatally wounded, his famous command was
"Don't Give Up The Ship"
County seat since 1820 has been
at Mouton which was named for
hero of Creek Indian War. 1813-14. — Map (db m69672) HM|
|Alabama (Limestone County), Capshaw — Nicholas Davis|
|Born April 23, 1781 in Hanover Co. Virginia, married there to Martha Hargrave of a wealthy Quaker family. He served as U.S. Marshall and in other positions. Moved to Kentucky in 1808. Was a Captain in the WAR OF 1812 and became a political and personal ally of Henry Clay.
He settled here on several hundred acres and built his large log home "WALNUT GROVE" in 1817. Here he entertained large numbers of guests for days at a time, raced his blooded horses and lived the life of a much admired . . . — Map (db m29284) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Andrew Jackson|
|On this spot, camped his army, October 11, 1813, after marching from Fayetteville, Tenn.,~"32 miles without halting,"~ enroute to the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. — Map (db m30382) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Barbary Coast Wars — 1801 - 1805, 1815|
|I am Sergeant Michael Dunn of the 1st Marine Battalion. I fought in the First Barbary War, also known as the Tripolitan War, because we battled pirates off the coast of Tripoli. The Mediterranean coast of North Africa had been a hotbed of piracy for a long time. Our country and many others had to pay bribes to the rulers of the Barbary States of Morocco, Algiers, Tripoli and Tunisia to keep pirates from attacking our ships and ransoming captured sailors. We sent Navy ships in 1801-1804 to fight . . . — Map (db m85488) WM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — The Leroy Pope Mansion 1814|
|During the original Madison County Land Sales of 1809, LeRoy Pope of Petersburg, GA, secured among other purchases a majority of Section 36, Township 3, Range 1 West, the site of the future town of Twickenham, as Huntsville was originally known. Pope created Poplar Grove Plantation on this site and erected his home in 1814 in time to entertain Gen. Andrew Jackson on his return from the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. The residence was among the earliest brick structures in Alabama. Inherited by his . . . — Map (db m32480) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — War of 1812 — 1812 - 1815|
|I am Private Darbin Abolt of the 7th US Infantry Regiment, part of which is commanded by Captain Zachary Taylor, our future president. I was already in the Army when we declared war on the British in June 1812. We were fed up with the British interfering with our trade with France, whom they were already at war with, attacking and boarding our ships and impressing our sailors into their Navy, and supporting the Indians against our settlements. It was insulting to our national honor and we were . . . — Map (db m85617) WM|
|Alabama (Monroe County), Perdue Hill — Fort Claiborne — Creek Indian War 1813-1814|
|Built by Gen. Ferdinand L. Claiborne as a base for his invasion of the Alabama country with U.S. Regulars, Lower Tombigbee Militia, and friendly Choctaws. Claiborne’s campaign culminated in the American victory over the Creeks at the Holy Ground. — Map (db m47641) HM|
|Alabama (Morgan County), Decatur — A County Older Than The State, Morgan County|
|Alabama Territorial Legislature created this county in 1818 from lands ceded by Cherokee Indians in 1816. County first named Cotaco, for large creek in county. Named Morgan County in 1821 for Maj. Gen. Daniel Morgan, Revolutionary hero, winner over British at Battle of Cowpens. County was often invaded by both armies in War between the States. Until 1891 county seat at Somerville. Then county seat moved to Decatur. Named for Stephen Decatur, naval hero against Tripoli pirates and in War of 1812. — Map (db m27759) HM|
|Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Fort Mitchell — <----- 5 miles -----|
|Built during Creek War 1813 by Georgia Militia on main Indian trade route to Tombigbee River.
U.S. Troops stationed here until 1837. 1836 Lower Creeks corralled here for forced removal to the West. — Map (db m26069) HM|
|Alabama (Saint Clair County), Pell City — None — A County Older Than The State — St. Clair County|
|Created in 1818 by territorial legislature. Named for Revolutionary hero, Gen. St. Clair. First settlers from Tennessee, Georgia – veterans of Creek Indian War, 1813-14.
Pell City established as industrial town in 1890 by George H. Pell of New York.
Growth of population south of Backbone Mt. and difficulty of crossing mountain led to branch county seat here in 1902. County seat at Ashville since 1822.
Old Indian trails thru this county used by: DeSoto’s Spanish conquistadors . . . — Map (db m49666) HM|
|Alabama (Shelby County), Chelsea — Old Quinn Burying Ground|
|Established June 2, 1849 by
Veteran of War of 1812
In Consideration of His Love for the Church, He Conveyed the Burying Ground to the Trustees of Liberty Church And Their Successors.
Listed on the Alabama Historic Cemetery Register
Erected by Friends of Old Quinn Burying Ground — Map (db m28519) HM|
|Alabama (Talladega County), Fayetteville — To The Memory of General Jackson|
|To The Memory of General Jackson and his Tennessee Volunteers while camped here 1814. He fought the Battle of Horseshoe Bend and discharged his Volunteers. — Map (db m45706) HM|
|Alabama (Talladega County), Sylacauga — Sylacauga|
|Settled in 1748 by Shawnee
Indians from Ohio.
They joined Creek Confederacy,
fought against U.S. in War of 1812,
were moved west in 1836.
Settled before 1836 by men
who had fought in this area
under Andrew Jackson.
Indian name: Syllacogga or Chalakagay. — Map (db m40595) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Alexander City — Menawa, War Chief — About 1766 - 1837|
|Indian farmer - merchant chose to resist whites' advance on Indians' lands. In Creek War he led Creeks at Battle of Horseshoe Bend. His warriors were beaten by Jackson's superior force but Menawa escaped. — Map (db m66680) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Dadeville — Battle Of Horseshoe Bend — One hundredth anniversary — 1814 - 1914|
|This tablet is placed by
in commemoration of the
one hundredth anniversary
Battle Of Horseshoe Bend,
fought within its limits
on March 27, 1814.
There the Creek Indians, led by
Menawa and other chiefs, were
defeated by the American and
allied indian forces under
Gen. Andrew Jackson.
This battle broke the power
of the fierce Muscogee, brought
peace to the Southern frontier,
and made possible the speedy
opening up of a large part of the
State of . . . — Map (db m28751) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Dadeville — Horseshoe Bend Battle Ground — 12 Miles North|
|There on March 27, 1814 General Andrew Jackson commanding U. S. forces and friendly Indians, broke the power of the Creek Confederacy. — Map (db m39812) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Futile Escape — Horseshoe Bend National Military Park|
| I ordered [Lt. Jesse] Bean to take possession of the Island below, with forty men, to prevent the enemy's taking refuge there...as many of the enemy did attempt their escape...but not one were landed-they were sunk by [Lt.] Beans command ere they reached the bank.
Gen. John Coffee, Tennessee Militia
Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson sent Gen. John Coffee and 1,300 men to surround Horseshoe Bend here on the banks of the Tallapoosa River. Jackson hoped Coffee's 700 Tennessee mounted . . . — Map (db m46389) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Gun Hill|
|Here at 10:30 on the morning of March 27, 1814, General Jackson quickly emplaced his single battery, one 3-pounder and one 6-pounder. He immediately opened a lively but ineffective fire on the center of the sturdy log barricade. After his Indian allies entered the peninsula stronghold from the rear, he ordered a frontal assault on the stubborn wall. — Map (db m51671) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Horseshoe Bend Battleground Monument|
|Here on the Horseshoe Battleground General Andrew Jackson and his brave men broke the power of the Creek Indians under Chief Menawa March 29, 1814 — Map (db m51673) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Jackson Trace|
|This stone marks the terminus of the route traced through the wilderness by Jackson's army during the Horseshoe Bend campaign. — Map (db m51670) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Major Lemuel P. Montgomery — "He Acted With The Greatest Gallantry" — March 27, 1814|
|Leading the charge on the Indian defenses, Major Montgomery fell while storming the log barricade, Horseshoe Bend was his first battle. But the 28 year old Tennessean already a distinguished lawyer, was among the most promising of Jackson's officers. — Map (db m51667) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — They Fought to the Last — Horseshoe Bend National Military Park|
| By dark, more than 800 Red Stick warriors were dead and at least 350 women and children were prisoners. Jackson's army suffered 154 men wounded and 49 killed. The Battle of Horseshoe Bend effectively ended the Creek Indian War. Five months later, with the Treaty of Fort Jackson, the Creeks ceded to the United States nearly 23 million acres of land in what is now Alabama and Georgia.
No other evening will come, bringing to [my] eyes the rays of the setting sun upon the home [I have] left . . . — Map (db m51665) HM|