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Native Americans Historical Markers

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Autauga County Courthouse image, Click for more information
By Tim Carr, August 1, 2009
Autauga County Courthouse
Alabama (Autauga County), Prattville — A County Older Than the State, Autauga County
Created in 1818 by an act of Alabama Territorial Legislature. Autauga Indians lived on creek from which the county takes its name. Autaugas were members of the Alibamo tribe. They sent many warriors to resist Andrew Jackson's invasion in . . . — Map (db m27907) HM
Alabama (Autauga County), Prattville — Old Kingston Historical Cemetery
This cemetery is one of the oldest cemeteries in Autauga County having been established as a burial ground by at least 1841. The land was officially set aside as a burial ground when the county seat was in this area from 1834 to 1868. The area . . . — Map (db m82561) HM
Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — Indian Village Achuse
This Shell Banks Baptist Church rests near the location of the first Indian village in America visited by a white man. This was the Indian village of “Achuse” visited by Admiral Maldonado who was one of De Soto’s officers. He scouted . . . — Map (db m66295) HM
Alabama (Baldwin County), Stockton — Fort Mims And The Creek Indian War, 1813-14
Front: In 1813, people on the United State’s southwestern frontier were fearful. The Redstick faction of the Creek Indian Nation opposed growing American influence in the area and had voted for war. However, Creeks living in the Tensaw . . . — Map (db m66394) HM
Alabama (Baldwin County), Stockton — Historic Stockton / Old Schoolyard Park
Front: Historic Stockton Modern Stockton is situated on a hill just above the original settlement, which was abandoned around 1840 because of Yellow Fever outbreaks. No verified source for the town name exists. Most likely it was . . . — Map (db m66390) HM
Alabama (Barbour County), Batesville — Providence Methodist Church & Schoolhouse
Side 1 In 1828, Reverend John Wesley Norton left his native South Carolina with his family and a wagon train of followers, crossed into the Creek Indian Nation and just into the edge of what was then Pike County, settling near the . . . — Map (db m78123) HM
Alabama (Barbour County), Eufaula — Creek Indian Removal
At the dawn of the recorded history of this land, the Creek Indians owned it. Before the men who built the great houses and the men who made the laws settled this area, the United States of America ceded this land to the Creek Indians for “As . . . — Map (db m89608) HM
Alabama (Blount County), Blountsville — Blountsville
1820-1889 seat of Blount County a county older than the State. Named for Tennessee Governor W. G. Blount who sent Andrew Jackson to aid Alabama settlers in Creek Indian War, 1812-1814. Indian Chief Bear Meat lived here at crossing of . . . — Map (db m28038) HM
Alabama (Blount County), Oneonta — Blount County — A County Older Than the State
Created Feb. 7, 1818 by Alabama Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by the Creek Indian Nation. Named for the Tennessee Governor W. G. Blount, who sent militia under Andrew Jackson to punish the Creeks for Fort Mims massacre. Jackson fought and . . . — Map (db m24353) HM
Alabama (Bullock County), Union Springs — Indian Treaty Boundary Line
The Treaty of Fort Jackson of August 9, 1814, by Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States of America and the Chiefs, Deputies and Warriors of the Creek Nation, established a boundary line between the Mississippi . . . — Map (db m61025) HM
Alabama (Bullock County), Union Springs — Indian Treaty Boundary Line
The Treaty of Fort Jackson of August 9, 1814, by Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States of America and the Chiefs, Deputies and Warriors of the Creek Nation, established a boundary line between the Mississippi . . . — Map (db m61026) HM
Alabama (Butler County), Forest Home — The Butler Massacre / Fort Bibb
(obverse) The Butler Massacre On March 20, 1818, Capt. William Butler, Capt. James Saffold, William Gardener, Daniel Shaw and John Hinson left Fort Bibb to meet Col. Sam Dale. They were attacked near Pine Barren Creek by Savannah . . . — Map (db m83259) HM
Alabama (Butler County), Greenville — Butler County — A County Older Than The State
Side 1 Created in 1819 by Act of Alabama Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by the Creek Indian Nation by the Treaty of Fort Jackson, 1814. Named for Captain William Butler, soldier of Creek Indian War, 1813-14, early settler . . . — Map (db m70755) HM
Alabama (Butler County), Greenville — Pioneer Cemetery
Greenville's oldest, established 1819. Captain William Butler, for whom the county was named, buried here. He was killed fighting Indians led by Savannah Jack in March, 1818. Greenville's oldest church, a community church established in 1822, . . . — Map (db m70751) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Alexandria — Lincoyer — and The Battle of Tallasehatchee
At this site, on Nov. 3, 1813, after the Battle of Tallasehatchee, known then as Talluschatches, during the Creek Indian War, Gen. Andrew Jackson found a dead Creek Indian woman embracing her living infant son. Gen. Jackson, upon hearing that . . . — Map (db m36551) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Alexandria — Tallasseehatchee — Creek Indian War 1813-14 — Nov. 3, 1813
Gen. John Coffee, commanding 900 Tennessee Volunteers, surrounded Indians nearby; killed some 200 warriors. This was first American victory. It avenged earlier massacre of 517 at Ft. Mims by Indians. — Map (db m27610) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Jacksonville — Chief Ladiga Trail - Jacksonville
The Chief Ladiga Trail was named for a Creek Indian leader who signed the Cusseta Treaty in 1832. Under the terms of that agreement, the Creeks gave up claim to their remaining lands in northeast Alabama. Because he had signed the treaty, Ladiga was . . . — Map (db m36438) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Jacksonville — Jacksonville, Alabama — “Gem of the Hills”
Life here has long centered on education beginning in 1834 when a one-acre plot of land was reserved for a schoolhouse. Through the years, various institutions of higher learning developed that culminated into present-day Jacksonville State . . . — Map (db m36429) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Jacksonville — Site of Indian Trading Post
This is the place where one of the original Creek Indian Trading Posts stood in 1830. Ladiga was Chief of the tribe. — Map (db m36483) HM
Alabama (Chambers County), LaFayette — Chambers County
Chambers County, created December 18, 1832 from Creek Indian cession. Named for Dr. Henry C. Chambers of Madison County, member of Constitutional Convention 1819, legislature of 1820, elected U.S. Senator 1825 but died enroute to Washington. . . . — Map (db m18162) HM
Alabama (Chambers County), LaFayette — Muscogee Indians
. . . — Map (db m71639) HM
Alabama (Chambers County), Lanett — 141-10 — Ocfuskooche Tallauhassee
A flourishing, ancient town of the Muscogee Indians known as Ocfuskooche Tallahassee (Old Town) stood on this site. English traders from Charles Town visited it about 1685. A trail known as "Old Horse Path" led from this village to the Tallapoosa. . . . — Map (db m36315) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Claiborne — 93001517 — Dellet-Bedsole Plantation — C. 1850 — National Register of Historic Places
This 4000 acre complex has been recognized for its contribution to our understanding of the history of Monroe County and the State of Alabama. Originally developed as a cotton plantation during the Antebellum period, this farm has been in continuous . . . — Map (db m80345) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Thomasville — Choctaw Corner
Established by Choctaw and Creek Indians about 1808 as the northern limit of boundary line between their lands. This line begins at the cut-off in South Clarke County, follows the watershed between Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers without crossing . . . — Map (db m83271) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Whatley — Kimbell - James Massacre — ←½ mile—
Sept. 1, 1813 Creek Indian War. 1813-14 Part of War of 1812. British used Pensacola as base to arm, incite Indians against U.S.. Prophet Francis led Indians in this raid on Kimbell home. They Killed and scalped 12 of 14 (two survivors . . . — Map (db m47635) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Whatley — Old Indian Trail
Here passed the Old Indian Trail used as a dividing line between the Choctaw and Creek Tribes. General Andrew Jackson and his troops rested here for the night in 1813. — Map (db m47633) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Whatley — Old Line Road
Commences at the Cut-Off, or the first high ground in that vicinity, follows the watershed between the Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers, and ends at Choctaw Corner. Established in 1808 by the Creek and Choctaw Indians as the dividing line between their . . . — Map (db m47628) HM
Alabama (Clay County), Ashland — Clay County and the Creek Indian War of 1813-14 / Clay County and the Creek Indian Confederacy
Side 1 Clay County and the Creek Indian War of 1813-14 During the Creek Indian War of 1813-14, a subset of the War of 1812 with England, numerous figures prominent in American history marched over what would become Clay . . . — Map (db m95100) HM
Alabama (Clay County), Goodwater — Battle of Enitachopko — Creek Indian War 1813-14. — ← 4 mi. E.
Hostile Creeks attacked Andrew Jackson, withdrawing to Ft. Strother, Jan. 24, 1814. His troops broke through lines, kept on to Ft. Strother. But Creeks boasted that they defeated 'Capt. Jack', drove him to the Coosa. — Map (db m95076) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Sheffield — History of Sheffield
Side A Prehistoric man arrived in this area bout 10,000 years ago. Later Indian cultures left many stone artifacts and pottery vessels. In the 1780s, a French trading post and Indian village were located near the mouth of Spring Creek. . . . — Map (db m83389) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Tuscumbia — American Indian History
Side 1 Oka Kapassa (Ococoposa), meaning "Cold Water", was the Chickasaw name given to Spring Creek and to a trading post established near the Tennessee River about 1780. About 1817, Michael Dickerson and others were greeted at what by . . . — Map (db m83393) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Tuscumbia — History of Tuscumbia, Alabama
(Obverse): The area around the Big Spring was inhabited by prehistoric Native Americans as early as 10,000 years ago. The first settlement was a French trading post and Indian village about 1780 on Cold Water Creek (Spring Creek) near the . . . — Map (db m83396) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Tuscumbia — Sacred Tears — By Branko Medenica — September 19, 2003
Panel 1 Tuscumbia and much of the Shoals area played an integral part in the "Trail of Tears" with the Tennessee River route and the overland routes. In 1825, the U.S. Government formally adopted a removal policy, which was carried out . . . — Map (db m83403) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Tuscumbia — Tuscumbia Big Spring
Big Spring (average daily flow 35,000,000 gallons) provided water for town founded on its banks. Michael Dickson of Tennessee was first settler (about 1817). Town laid out in 1819 and incorporated as Ococoposo (Cold Water, 1820). Name changed to . . . — Map (db m83453) HM
Alabama (Conecuh County), Bermuda — Old Federal Road
Near Bermuda was the home of Jeremiah Austill, who won fame in the canoe fight on the Alabama River during the Creek Indian War. His first wife, Sarah, died of injuries from falling off a fence during an Indian raid. — Map (db m81280) HM
Alabama (Conecuh County), Evergreen — City of Evergreen — The Emerald City
Side 1 Evergreen, the county seat of Conecuh County, is located in the central part of the county on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad. Founded in 1819 by James Cosey, George Andrews and the Clough Brothers, Evergreen was originally . . . — Map (db m81287) HM
Alabama (Conecuh County), Midway — Midway
Midway was one of the first settlements established in Conecuh County along the Post Road which later became the Old Federal Road. Long serving as a hub for Indian trails branching out to the north, northeast and northwest, the Midway town site once . . . — Map (db m81277) HM
Alabama (Dale County), Daleville — Daleville, Alabama
Daleville, originally called Dale, was the county seat of Dale County from 1831-1841. William Harper was probate judge of Dale County, which was originally included in present-day Coffee County until 1841, present-day Geneva County until 1868, and . . . — Map (db m41145) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Beloit — Cahawba
Site of Alabama's first permanent capital 1820-26. County seat Dallas County, 1820-66. Prison for Union soldiers during the War Between the States 1863-65. Indians were the first inhabitants over 4000 years ago. Their large fortified village could . . . — Map (db m75779) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Ecor Bienville — 1702-1743 — The first recorded name of Selma
. . . — Map (db m37658) HM
Alabama (DeKalb County), Fort Payne — Cherokee Indian Removal
Under the provisions of the Cherokee Removal Act of 1830, a log stockade was built, “Two hundred yards Northeast of Big Spring.” The spring supplied abundant water for the Cherokees, the soldiers and livestock. Fort Payne was used as . . . — Map (db m36743) HM
Alabama (DeKalb County), Fort Payne — Fort Payne’s Fort
The fort, consisting of a log house and large stockade, was built in 1838 by order of General Winfield Scott, commander of military forces responsible for the removal of Cherokee Indians. Soldiers occupying the fort were commanded by Captain . . . — Map (db m28030) HM
Alabama (DeKalb County), Fort Payne — Sequoyah — (1760-1843)
Born in Tennessee, Sequoyah moved to Wills Town (DeKalb County, Alabama) area of the Cherokee Nation in 1818. Here, in 1821, he invented an 86 symbol alphabet providing the Cherokees with the only written Indian language in the United States. . . . — Map (db m28033) HM
Alabama (DeKalb County), Fort Payne — Site of the Willstown Mission — 1823-1839
Also resting place of Supt Ard Hoyt 1770-1828 Missionary to the Cherokee Indians Here and at Brainerd 1818-1828 — Map (db m36965) HM
Alabama (DeKalb County), Fort Payne — Wills Town Mission
The mission was established in 1823 by the American Board of Missions to further education and Christianity among the Cherokee Indians. Mission operated until the Indian removal in 1838. Grave site of Reverend Ard Hoyt, first superintendent, . . . — Map (db m28035) HM
Alabama (DeKalb County), Valley Head — Site of Cherokee Council Tree
Here stood The giant Black Spanish Oak Under which Traditionally Sequoyah Taught his newly invented Alphabet Tree felled by a storm 1934 — Map (db m28036) HM
Alabama (Elmore County), Millbrook — Robinson Springs Neighborhood
Side 1: Clear, bubbling springs have enticed people to this vicinity for thousands of years. Native American hunting paths led to them and after the defeat of the Creek Indians by the United States in 1813, old trails became the Jackson and . . . — Map (db m71177) HM
Alabama (Elmore County), Tallassee — Tukabatchee / Tokvpvcce
(north side) Tukabatchee On this bend of the Tallapoosa River, stretching out before you, lay one of the ancient towns of the Muscogee Creek People, called Tukabatchee. Tukabatchee is one of the original four mother towns of the . . . — Map (db m92945) HM
Alabama (Elmore County), Wetumpka — Here Stood Fort Toulouse
Here stood Fort Toulouse A defense against the Indians Built by Bienville 1714 The Alabama Society of Colonial Dames preserves the memory of faithful service 1912 — Map (db m69567) HM
Alabama (Elmore County), Wetumpka — Wetumpka Historical Marker
(obverse) The land area which now comprises the City of Wetumpka was inhabited by various Indian cultures prior to the inward migration of the white man at the turn of the 19th century. The largest Indian village near here was located on . . . — Map (db m67936) HM
Alabama (Escambia County), East Brewton — Site of Fort Crawford
 Fort Crawford was established in 1816 by elements of the 7th U.S. Infantry under orders from Major General Andrew Jackson. Purpose was to monitor Spanish activities in West Florida and curtail hostile Creek Indian activities.  Named after . . . — Map (db m84373) HM
Alabama (Etowah County), Attalla — “The Junction” — Attalla
For thousands of years, two important Indian trade routes ran across what was to become Etowah County. The “High Town Path” ran from Charlestown, S.C. west to the Mississippi River, near Memphis, TN. The “Creek Path” begins . . . — Map (db m39226) HM
Alabama (Etowah County), Gadsden — The Legend Of Noccalula
White settlers in the hills of Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina pushed the Cherokee Indian tribes into North Alabama. The Cherokee in turn encroached upon Creek Territory. There were sporadic battles between the . . . — Map (db m83738) HM
Alabama (Etowah County), Gadsden — Turkey Town Monument — Chief Turkey-Turkey Town Valley Expedition-May We Never Forget
The surrounding area and this well was part of Turkey’s Town, once a capital of the proud Cherokee Nation. Chief Turkey was the principal chief during the late 1700’s. On October 25, 1864, the Turkey Town Valley Expedition of the XV Corps Union . . . — Map (db m83740) HM
Alabama (Greene County), Eutaw — Welcome to Eutaw, Alabama: The Gateway To The Black Belt — County Seat of Greene County
In 1838, Greene County citizens voted to change the town seat from Erie to Eutaw. The City of Eutaw, Alabama was incorporated as a town by an act of the State Legislature on January 2, 1841. Greene County had been named for General Nathaniel Greene. . . . — Map (db m83752) HM
Alabama (Hale County), Moundville — Moundville
Site of a prehistoric Native American political and ceremonial center from about A. D. 1100-1500 that, at its height in the 13th century, was America’s largest community north of Mexico. Between 1,000 and 3,000 people lived in this town fortified by . . . — Map (db m30700) HM
Alabama (Henry County), Screamer — Indian Treaty Boundary Line
The Treaty of Fort Jackson on August 9, 1814 by Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States of America and the Chiefs, Deputies and Warriors of the Creek Indian Nation, established a boundary line between the . . . — Map (db m71836) HM
Alabama (Henry County), Screamer — Indian Treaty Boundary Line
The Treaty of Fort Jackson on August 9, 1814 by Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States of America and the Chiefs, Deputies and Warriors of the Creek Indian Nation, established a boundary line between the . . . — Map (db m71838) HM
Alabama (Henry County), Shorterville — "Irwin Empire"
Site of the 1831 Irwin homeplace where over 50,000 acres of land was owned by Major General William Irwin (1794-1850). He was an Indian fighter, farmer, politician, statesman and considered one of the nation’s richest and most influential men. A . . . — Map (db m71824) HM
Alabama (Henry County), Shorterville — Franklin - First Beachhead into East Alabama
The frontier village of Franklin was established here by Colonel Robert Irwin in 1814 on the site of the Indian town of Cheeska Talofa. It was the first colonial village in east Alabama. Fort Gaines, Georgia, was constructed in 1816 to protect the . . . — Map (db m71844) HM
Alabama (Houston County), Dothan — Poplar Head Spring
Located near this marker is the Poplar Head Spring which served as a meeting place for Indian traders prior to the arrival of the white and black settlers. The Alibamu Indians of the Chattahoochee River basin met the Creeks of the Choctawahatchee . . . — Map (db m41141) HM
Alabama (Jackson County), Rocky Springs — Trail of Tears
In May 1838 soldiers, under the command of U.S. Army General Winfield Scott, began rounding up Cherokee Indians in this area who had refused to move to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. About 16,000 Cherokees were placed in stockades in . . . — Map (db m18047) HM
Alabama (Jackson County), Stevenson — Crow Town
Side A One of the Five Lower Towns established by the Chickamauga Cherokees in 1782 under the leadership of Dragging Canoe. Territorial Governor William Blount reported to the Secretary of War in 1792 that: “Crow Town lies on the north . . . — Map (db m28473) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Before Birmingham: Jones Valley
Red Mountain, where you are standing, and Jones Valley, which stretches before you, were sites of human activity long before Birmingham's founding in 1871. Native American presence Recorded history and archaeological evidence indicate the . . . — Map (db m83805) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — East Lake Community
The Creek Indian Cession of 1814 opened this section of Alabama to settlement. At the time of statehood in 1819 many pioneer families had located here in what later became known as Jones Valley. By 1820 the area was called Ruhama Valley as a result . . . — Map (db m26680) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Center Star — Center (Centre) Star
(side 1) Center Star was spelled Centre Star into the 1900s. The name evolved from the US Postal Service, which served remote areas by "star routes." The Post Office here, which existed from 1850 to 1914 (except between 1902 and 1913), . . . — Map (db m82398) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Andrew Jackson's Military Road — -1817-
Construction of this road, as ordered by General Andrew Jackson, began in May 1817 by troops of the U.S. Army for national defense purposes. Beginning near Nashville, Tennessee and continuing to Madison, Louisiana, it shortened the distance from . . . — Map (db m80321) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Cherokee Chief Doublehead's village around 1800
About 1800 Doublehead located his village at this site, where his brother-in-law Tahlonteeskee had previously lived. Doublehead's log house was built along the same style of those of the white settlers. Chief Doublehead had previously led raids . . . — Map (db m83942) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Prehistoric Mound — (Probably Built Between 100 B.C and 400 A.D.)
This is the highest domiciliary mound in the Tennessee Valley. It was probably built between 100 B.C. and 400 A.D. by a prehistoric people of the ancient Woodland Culture. Such mounds served as bases for ceremonial temples or chief's houses. This . . . — Map (db m28457) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Prehistoric Native Americans / Historic Native Americans — (Circa 8,000 B.C. ~1500 A.D.) / (Circa 1550 A.D.~ 1816 A.D.)
Side A This area near the mouth of Cypress Creek was inhabited by Archaic People as early as 8,000 B.C. Their main food consisted of freshwater mollusks from the river. (These mussels were the origin of the name "Muscle Shoals.") The . . . — Map (db m84044) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Rogersville — Heritage Park
Side A The settlement of what is now eastern Lauderdale County (known as "Over Elk)" by non-Native Americans commenced by 1807. Federal land sales were held in Huntsville during the spring of 1818. Although much of the land was described . . . — Map (db m84296) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Waterloo — Trail of Tears
Thousands of Cherokee Indians passed through Waterloo in the 1830s when they were forced by the U.S. government to move West on the "Trail of Tears". Most came by boat from Tuscumbia and camped here to await transfer to larger steamboats. During the . . . — Map (db m84301) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Moulton — A County Older Than The State — Lawrence County
Created by Territorial Legislature in 1818 from lands ceded by Cherokee and Chickasaw Indians Named for U.S, Navy hero of War of 1812 Capt. James Lawrence Fatally wounded, his famous command was "Don't Give Up The Ship" County . . . — Map (db m69672) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Moulton — Warrior Mountains
This area was the home to Indians, settlers, people of mixed ancestry and their descendants. Local bluff shelters contain evidence of occupation from Paleo Indian (10,000 BC) through the Mississippian Period (1540 AD). Chief Tuscaloosa (Black . . . — Map (db m84313) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Cherokee Council House Museum
The Oakville Indian Mounds Museum is based on a seven sided Cherokee council house. This type of council house was used during the cooler months and an open sided rectangular pavilion during warmer weather. The descriptions used for the museum's . . . — Map (db m84314) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Cherokee Indian Removal
In the early 1800's Cherokees of this area were under the leadership of Doublehead and Tahlonteskee. After Doublehead's assassination in 1807, Tahlonteskee notified President Jefferson that he and his people were ready to move west. In 1808 . . . — Map (db m36030) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Copena Burial Mound
Copena Indians built this mound with baskets of dirt some 2000 years ago. The Copena name was derived from their use of copper and galena (lead ore) found in their burials along with gorgets and celts. The mounds were a burial site with the dead . . . — Map (db m84315) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Creek Indian Removal
Black Warriors' Path played a critical role as a route for Creek Removal. On December 19, 1835, some 511 Creek emigrants passed along the path through present ~ day Oakville Indian Mounds Park. In September 1836, a group of Creeks left Tallassee in . . . — Map (db m36027) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Doublehead
Doublehead, (c1744-1807), aka Dsugweladegi or Chuqualatague, was the son of Great Eagle (Willenawah) and grandson of Moytoy. Among his siblings were Pumpkin Boy, Old Tassel and the unnamed grandmother of Sequoyah. After his sister's son John Watts . . . — Map (db m84316) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Historic Indians
Five Historic Indian tribes lived in this area. By 1701, The Yuchi were living at the shoals on the Tennessee River. In early 1700s the Yuchi left, some moving to the Cherokee Nation on the Hiwassee River, TN and others to Chattahoochee River, GA. . . . — Map (db m36040) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Oakville Indian Mound
Rising 27 feet high, this is the largest woodland mound in Alabama, with a base covering 1.8 acres and a flat top of over one acre. Built by prehistoric Copena Indians, the mound is 2,000 years old and constructed from earth probably carried one . . . — Map (db m84317) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Town of Oakville
Based on the large number of local mounds and artifacts, this site shows evidence of Indian occupation over 2000 years ago. According to tradition about 1780, Oakville became a Cherokee town located on Black Warriors' Path. By the early 1820's, . . . — Map (db m36036) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Town Creek — Trail of Tears
Form the late 1700's to 1807 a Cherokee Chief named Doublehead guarded this area, that was claimed by both the Cherokee and Chickasaw Nations as sacred hunting grounds against encroachment of white settlers. Chief Doublehead had the reputation of . . . — Map (db m84646) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Auburn — Auburn - Alabama
Settled by Judge J. J. Harper and others from Harris County, Georgia, in 1836. This region was opened to settlement in 1836-37 by the removal of the Creek Indians to lands west of the Mississippi River. Erected by The Alabama . . . — Map (db m39830) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Cusseta — Fort Cusseta — Chambers County
Following the signing of the Creek Treaty in 1832, the early white settlers constructed a 16 by 30 foot hand hewn log fort for protection against a possible Indian uprising from Cussetaw Indian Village on Osanippa Creek just north of here. Walls of . . . — Map (db m71643) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Loachapoka — Loachapoka Historic District
One of the larger settlements of the Upper Creeks at the time of Indian removal to the west, 1835-1837. Their last council fire was held here before their forced migration to Oklahoma. Pioneer families began pouring in after 1836. Today's cemetery . . . — Map (db m85169) HM
Alabama (Limestone County), Athens — A County Older Than the State — Limestone County
created Feb. 6, 1818 by Alabama Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by Cherokee Nation 1806 and by Chickasaw Nation in 1816. Named for creek (and its limestone bed), which runs through county. Few settlers here until Indian treaties. Athens . . . — Map (db m29109) HM
Alabama (Limestone County), Athens — Lucy's Branch/Legacy of The Little Elk Community
Lucy's Branch This site is named for Lucy Bedingfield, daughter of a slave and a Cherokee Indian. She was born 1832, and her Indian name was Finch. She married Meredith Bedingfield, a slave and had 9 children. Lucy was an astute and avid . . . — Map (db m85421) HM
Alabama (Limestone County), Athens — Round Island Baptist Church
Side A A church older than the county and state. First meeting house built in the fall of 1816, on Indian land, a few miles south of here along Round Island Creek. The first Govt. Land sales were in Feb. 1818 after treaties with the . . . — Map (db m85422) HM
Alabama (Limestone County), Elkmont — Sims Settlement
Side A (North side) In the fall of 1806 a group of settlers led by William and James Sims, traveled from east Tennessee on flatboats down the Tennessee River and up the Elk River to this area. They landed near Buck Island and spread out . . . — Map (db m85454) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Franklin — Franklin's Educational Legacy
(obverse) Franklin School, originally constructed on this lot, was in operation as early as the 1890s teaching grades 1-11. By the mid 1930s, it was downsized to grades 1-6. There were northern and southern classrooms adjoined by a common . . . — Map (db m68028) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Shorter — George Stiggins — 1788-1845
Unmarked grave in Cubahatchie Baptist Church Cemetery. Half-blooded Creek Indian, planter, soldier, Indian agent, and historian, Stiggins lived on a nearby farm fronting the Federal Road from 1831 until his death. There he wrote "A . . . — Map (db m60534) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Shorter — Shorter, Alabama — A New Town in an Older Community
Shorter was originally called Cross Keys for the birthplace in South Carolina of an early settler, J.H. Howard. It was later named Shorter for former Alabama Governor John Gill Shorter. The town embodies the memories of the proud Creek Indian . . . — Map (db m85463) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Brownsboro — Trail of Tears — Drane/Hood Overland Route
In May 1838 soldiers, under the command of U.S. Army General Winfield Scott, began rounding up Cherokee Indians in this area who had refused to move to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. About 16,000 Cherokees were placed in stockades in Tennessee and . . . — Map (db m33318) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Fisk — 2F3 — Tennessee / Alabama — Lincoln County /
Tennessee. Lincoln County. Established 1809; named in honor of MAJOR GEN. BENJAMIN LINCOLN of the Revolutionary Army. After service at Saratoga, he was put in Chief Command in the Southern Colonies. Later, he was Secretary of War under the . . . — Map (db m30570) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Andrew Jackson
On this spot, camped his army, October 11, 1813, after marching from Fayetteville, Tenn.,~"32 miles without halting,"~ enroute to the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. — Map (db m30382) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Buffalo Soldiers — Huntsville, AL
(south side) After the Civil War, the future of African-Americans in the United States Army was in doubt. In July 1866, Congress passed legislation establishing two cavalry and four infantry regiments to be made up of African-American . . . — Map (db m75092) HM WM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Madison County
Made a county in 1808 by order of Governor of Mississippi Territory. Area ceded 1805, 1806 by Cherokees, Chickasaws. This was the first land in Alabama ceded by these great civilized tribes. — Map (db m27848) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Madison — Trail of Tears — Drane Overland Route
Early in the 1800's gold was found from Virginia to Alabama including a rich belt on Cherokee Indian land in what is now Dahlonega, GA. causing a huge influx of miners and a land grab by new settlers. Pressure and greed from politicians led to . . . — Map (db m85838) HM
Alabama (Marengo County), Demopolis — White Bluff
Composed of limestone or “Selma chalk” which abounds in fossils. Called “Ecor Blanc” by eighteenth-century French explorers and cartographers. Named “Chickasaw Gallery” because early Indian inhabitants . . . — Map (db m38001) HM
Alabama (Marion County), Hamilton — Hamilton, Alabama
Side 1 Hamilton was established on November 17, 1882 and was named in honor of Capt. Albert James Hamilton. Hamilton was first known as "Toll Gate," named for a toll gate on the Jackson Military Road. The original county seat of Marion . . . — Map (db m96479) HM
Alabama (Marshall County), Arab — Bear Meat Cabin Road
Starting as an ancient Indian trail, the north–south road through Arab in 1816 was known as Bear Meat Cabin Road. By 1818, it had become an important Federal trade route through the Alabama Territory known as the St. Stephens – . . . — Map (db m40134) HM
Alabama (Marshall County), Guntersville — History of Guntersville
(Side A) This area's proximity to the Tennessee River and Indian trails made it a crossroads for early habitation, settlement, and trade. Archaeological studies reveal it was first inhabited about 12,000 years ago by Paleo-Indians. They . . . — Map (db m33305) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mobile — John Forbes & Co.
Here stood in Spanish times, the great Indian trading house of John Forbes & Co. — Map (db m86435) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mt. Vernon — Mt. Vernon Arsenal and Barracks/Searcy Hospital
(obverse) Mt. Vernon Arsenal and Barracks Established 1828 by Congress to store arms and munitions for U. S. Army. Original structures completed 1830's. Arsenal appropriated by Confederacy 1861; equipment moved to Selma . . . — Map (db m70593) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mt. Vernon — Mt. Vernon Federal Highway
In 1811, the Mount Vernon Cantonment, located on a hill about three miles west of the Mobile River, was laid out by Col. Thomas H. Cushing. The cantonment was on the site of a spring called Mount Vernon Springs. In 1814, the garrison at Mt. Vernon . . . — Map (db m85911) HM
Alabama (Monroe County), Burnt Corn — Old Federal Road — Burnt Corn
Burnt Corn, Monroe County's earliest settlement, became the crossroads of the Great Pensacola Trading Path and The Federal Road. Settler Jim Cornells returned from Pensacola in 1813, finding his home destroyed and his wife kidnapped by a Creek . . . — Map (db m47687) HM
Alabama (Monroe County), Perdue Hill — Fort Claiborne — Creek Indian War 1813-1814
Built by Gen. Ferdinand L. Claiborne as a base for his invasion of the Alabama country with U.S. Regulars, Lower Tombigbee Militia, and friendly Choctaws. Claiborne’s campaign culminated in the American victory over the Creeks at the Holy Ground. — Map (db m47641) HM
Alabama (Monroe County), Perdue Hill — Piache
Piache, an Indian town visited by DeSoto in 1540 was near here. DeLuna made a settlement here, Nanipacna in 1560. Fort Claiborne was erected on the south bluff, in 1813. LaFayette was entertained here, 1825. . . . — Map (db m47639) HM
Alabama (Monroe County), Uriah — Creek Indian Removal
Little River was the home of Creek Chief William Weatherford, also known as War Chief Red Eagle. This was the area of much discussion and debate, bringing the Creeks into the War of 1812 and the Creek Civil War of 1813-1814. These events weighed . . . — Map (db m86271) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Site of Indian Town Tawasa — 1540-1814
This stone marks the site of the Indian town Tawasa Visited by De Soto September 5-13-1540 Also by Bienville 1715 — Map (db m72176) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama River: The Grand Avenue
Twelve miles above Montgomery the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers unite to form the Alabama which meanders over four hundred miles on its way to Mobile Bay. This river has played major role in region's history, being a thoroughfare for Native Americans, . . . — Map (db m26591) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Augusta and the Old Augusta Cemetery — Circa 1819
Augusta, home of Old Augusta Cemetery, was built on the site of a former Indian village, “Sawanogi,” on high ground close to the Tallapoosa River. In 1824 a disastrous flood swept over the plateau, invading shops and residences. A year . . . — Map (db m68260) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Encanchata
Here at the Indian village of Encanchata, future site of Montgomery, Col. John Tate, last British agent to the Muscogee Nation, recruited and drilled Creek warriors in 1780 to relieve Tories in Augusta, Ga. being besieged by American patriots. — Map (db m71373) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Struggle For Colonial Empire
Here on May 24, 1703, Alabama Indians ambushed the first French explorers from Mobile, killing three and wounding two critically. The Indians were armed and were used as pawns by British agents from Carolina in the European struggle for dominion . . . — Map (db m67999) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Pintlala — The Federal Road / Manac's Tavern
Side 1 The Federal Road The 1803 Louisiana Purchase acquired 828,000 sq. mi. for the U.S., doubling its size. The Federal Road was built to provide a shorter route from Washington to New Orleans and the new territory. The Treaty . . . — Map (db m71535) HM
Alabama (Morgan County), Decatur — A County Older Than The State, Morgan County
Alabama Territorial Legislature created this county in 1818 from lands ceded by Cherokee Indians in 1816. County first named Cotaco, for large creek in county. Named Morgan County in 1821 for Maj. Gen. Daniel Morgan, Revolutionary hero, winner over . . . — Map (db m27759) HM
Alabama (Pike County), Troy — The Great Pensacola Trading Path
In the early 1800s, south Alabama was still inhabited by many groups of Native Americans: Creek, Chickasaw, and Choctaw among others. They traveled, hunted, traded, and made war on the many ancient trails here. European settlers improved these roads . . . — Map (db m95359) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Asbury School and Mission — 1 Mile North of Ft. Mitchell
In September 1821 Rev. William Capers was sent to Fort Mitchell, by the South Carolina Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, to negotiate with the chiefs of the Creek Indian Nations for a mission which would teach their children reading, . . . — Map (db m26121) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Fort Mitchell — <----- 5 miles -----
Built during Creek War 1813 by Georgia Militia on main Indian trade route to Tombigbee River. U.S. Troops stationed here until 1837. 1836 Lower Creeks corralled here for forced removal to the West. — Map (db m26069) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Fort Mitchell Military Cemetery
This military graveyard was established soon after Fort Mitchell was built by General John Floyd of the Georgia Militia. Located just south of the stockade, the cemetery was used between 1813 and 1840 during the fort's occupation by Georgia and . . . — Map (db m26122) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Indian Ball Ground
The most popular game among the Indians of this region was "stick ball." This field has been constructed so that the game may be enjoyed again in the Chattahoochee Valley where it was played for hundreds of years. Sometimes known as "little brother . . . — Map (db m26020) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — J.W. and Ethel I. Woodruff Foundation Interpretive Trail
Native plants played a significant role in the daily life of the Creek Indian civilization that inhabited the Chattahoochee Valley until relocation to Oklahoma in the 19th century. During the Woodland Period, the local inhabitants were skilled . . . — Map (db m48166) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — John Crowell
Marker Front: Near here is the site where John Crowell lived, died, and is interred. Colonel Crowell was born in Halifax County, North Carolina, on September 18, 1780; moved to Alabama in 1815, having been appointed as Agent of the United . . . — Map (db m26116) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — The Creek Trail of Tears
Approximately one mile due east of this marker, back down the Old Federal Road, called by frontiersmen and Indians the Three Notched Trail or the Three Chopped Way, stood Fort Mitchell, an early 19th century American fort that in 1836 was one of the . . . — Map (db m26100) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Hatchechubbee — Uchee / Good Hope Baptist Church, Uchee
(obverse) Uchee One of the oldest white settlements in the Chattahoochee Valley before and after the removal of the Indians; land deeds between whites date back to 1832, the year of Russell County's founding. The name of the town . . . — Map (db m69422) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Phenix City — Ancient Fisheries
To the native people of the Chattahoochee River Valley, the Creek or Muskogulgi Indians, the shoals of the river were a source of recreation and food. In the spring, the women and children of Coweta Town came here to fish, using dip nets, spears, . . . — Map (db m69045) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Phenix City — Coweta Town — (KVWETV)
Coweta Town, located east of this marker on the banks of the Chattahoochee River, is sometimes called New or Upper Coweta to distinguish it from its predecessor, Coweta Tallahassee, down river. Among other well-known Creeks, Coweta was the . . . — Map (db m69068) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Phenix City — Six Indians Hanged
In November 1836, six Creek and Yuchi Indians were hanged near this spot for their role in a last desperate uprising against the frontier whites of Georgia and Alabama. Following decades of provocation from whites anxious to gain control of their . . . — Map (db m69065) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Phenix City — The Tie-Snake
The Creek Indians believed this section of the river was inhabited by a giant Tie-Snake, a mythical monster that snared the unwary and dragged them down into the watery underworld. The Tie-Snake was but one of many strange creatures and natural . . . — Map (db m69067) HM
Alabama (Saint Clair County), Ashville — A County Older Than The State, St. Clair County — Created in 1818 in first session of Alabama Territorial Legislature
from lands ceded by Creek Indian Nation in Treaty of Ft. Jackson, 1814. Named for Gen. Arthur St. Clair, hero of Revolution, governor of Northwest Territory. First settlers from Tennessee, Georgia - veterans of Creek Indian War, 1813-14. . . . — Map (db m28143) HM
Alabama (Saint Clair County), Ohatchee — Fort Strother
Creek Indian War Headquarters of Gen. Andrew Jackson 1813 - 1814 Erected By St. Clair County — Map (db m28144) HM
Alabama (Shelby County), Chelsea — City Of Chelsea — Incorporated March 1, 1996 — Mayor S. Earl Niven
Side A Creek Indians once owned and hunted the land where the City of Chelsea now stands. In 1813, Andrew Jackson and his army won millions of acres of Creek land from the Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, including the area where . . . — Map (db m38488) HM
Alabama (Sumter County), Gainesville — Town of Gainesville
The Town of Gainesville, a designated Tree City USA, was founded in 1832. The land on which the town is located was originally owned by John Coleman, husband to a Choctaw Indian of the area. He sold the land to Colonel Moses Lewis, who had the . . . — Map (db m69709) HM
Alabama (Sumter County), Livingston — Livingston, Alabama / Livingston's Bored Well
Side 1 Livingston, Alabama Prior to the signing of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek on September 27, 1830, this site belonged to the Choctaw Nation. Early settlers to the area came from the Carolinas, Georgia, Tennessee, and . . . — Map (db m92665) HM
Alabama (Sumter County), Livingston — Sumter County
1736:   First settlement by French at Ft. Tombecbee. 1830:   U.S. got Choctaw Indian lands by Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. 1832:   County created by Act of State Legislature -- named for Gen. Thomas Sumter, "The Gamecock," South . . . — Map (db m92663) HM
Alabama (Talladega County), Childersburg — Coosa
Important Indian town for over 250 years and capital of Coosa province. Visited by DeSoto in 1540, and later by Spanish, French, British colonial explorers and traders. Early writers tell of abundant food crops, wild and cultivated, . . . — Map (db m57994) HM
Alabama (Talladega County), Childersburg — De Soto's Visit
. . . — Map (db m44230) HM
Alabama (Talladega County), Childersburg — DeSoto Caverns
Named for the famous Spanish explorer who traveled through this area in 1540. Over its rich history it offered shelter for native Indians for centuries (a 2,000-year-old Woodland Period burial was excavated by archeologists in the mid-1960s), . . . — Map (db m45034) HM
Alabama (Talladega County), Childersburg — History Of Childersburg
Childersburg traces its heritage to the Coosa Indian village located in the area. DeSoto, accompanied by 600 men, began his march across North America in June 1539. Traveling from Tampa Bay, Florida, northward through what became the Southeastern . . . — Map (db m45137) HM
Alabama (Talladega County), Sylacauga — Sylacauga
Settled in 1748 by Shawnee Indians from Ohio. They joined Creek Confederacy, fought against U.S. in War of 1812, were moved west in 1836. Settled before 1836 by men who had fought in this area under Andrew Jackson. Indian name: . . . — Map (db m40595) HM
Alabama (Talladega County), Talladega — Battle Of Talladega — Nov. 9, 1813
Here Andrew Jackson led Tennessee Volunteers and friendly Indians to victory over hostile “Red Sticks.” This action rescued friendly Creeks besieged in Fort Leslie. Creek Indian War 1813 - 1814. — Map (db m28205) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Alexander City — Menawa, War Chief — about 1766 - 1837
Indian farmer - merchant chose to resist whites' advance on Indians' lands. In Creek War he led Creeks at Battle of Horseshoe Bend. His warriors were beaten by Jackson's superior force but Menawa escaped. — Map (db m66680) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Alexander City — Youngsville
Following the Creek Cession in 1832, settlers, mostly from Georgia and the Carolinas, occupied this section of the Creek Nation. Among the first settlers was James Young who purchased land a half-mile west near a trading post called Georgia Store. . . . — Map (db m28658) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Dadeville — Battle Of Horseshoe Bend — One hundredth anniversary — 1814 - 1914
This tablet is placed by Tallapoosa County in commemoration of the one hundredth anniversary of the Battle Of Horseshoe Bend, fought within its limits on March 27, 1814. There the Creek Indians, led by Menawa and other chiefs, . . . — Map (db m28751) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — A Bloody Contest — Horseshoe Bend National Military Park
Any officer or soldiers who flies before the enemy-shall suffer death. With these harsh words, Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson marched his soldiers 52 miles from the Coosa River to Horseshoe Bend and a bloody contest with the Red Sticks. His . . . — Map (db m46674) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Charge! — Horseshoe Bend National Military Park
Having maintained for a few minutes a very obstinate contest, muzzle to muzzle, through the port-holes, in which many of the enemy's balls were welded to the bayonets of our musquets, our troops succeeded in gaining possession of the opposite . . . — Map (db m46676) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Designed for Defense — Horseshoe Bend National Military Park
...[The Creek] had erected a breast-work, of greatest compactness and strength-from five to eight feet high, and prepared with double rows of port-holes very artfully arranged...an army could not approach it without being exposed to a double and . . . — Map (db m46677) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Futile Escape — Horseshoe Bend National Military Park
I ordered [Lt. Jesse] Bean to take possession of the Island below, with forty men, to prevent the enemy's taking refuge there...as many of the enemy did attempt their escape...but not one were landed-they were sunk by [Lt.] Beans command ere . . . — Map (db m46389) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Gun Hill
Here at 10:30 on the morning of March 27, 1814, General Jackson quickly emplaced his single battery, one 3-pounder and one 6-pounder. He immediately opened a lively but ineffective fire on the center of the sturdy log barricade. After his Indian . . . — Map (db m51671) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Horseshoe Bend Battleground Monument
Here on the Horseshoe Battleground General Andrew Jackson and his brave men broke the power of the Creek Indians under Chief Menawa March 29, 1814 — Map (db m51673) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Horseshoe Bend Campaign Combatants
In memory of the Soldiers and Indian allies who died in combat with the Upper Creek Indians during the Horseshoe Bend Campaign in the Creek War of 1813-1814 In memory of the Upper Creek Warriors who died in combat with United . . . — Map (db m64594) WM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Horseshoe Bend National Military Park — Who Were the Creek?
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park The park offers activities designed to commemorate the events that occurred here on March 27, 1814. The Battle of Horseshoe Bend ended the Creek Indian War and added nearly 23 million acres of land to the . . . — Map (db m46232) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Tecumseh and the Prophets
In 1811 Tecumseh, a Shawnee Indian tapped the growing resentment within the Creek Nation.

Treaties with the whites had always seemed to work against them. The U.S. Government had adopted a persistent policy to change Creek government and . . . — Map (db m95260) WM

Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — The High Ground — Horseshoe Bend National Military Park
[The] high ground which extended about mid-way from the breastwork to the river was in some manner open, but the declivity and flat which surrounded it was filled with fallen timber, the growth of which was very heavy, and had been so arrayed . . . — Map (db m47498) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — They Fought to the Last — Horseshoe Bend National Military Park
By dark, more than 800 Red Stick warriors were dead and at least 350 women and children were prisoners. Jackson's army suffered 154 men wounded and 49 killed. The Battle of Horseshoe Bend effectively ended the Creek Indian War. Five months later, . . . — Map (db m51665) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Tohopeka in Flames — Horseshoe Bend National Military Park
In this meadow 350 women and children, sheltered in the village of Tohopeka, listened to the sounds of battle drifting back from the barricade 1,000 yards away. Alarmed, they watched as enemy Cherokee and Lower Creek warriors crossed the river, . . . — Map (db m47469) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — While the Long Roll Was Beating — Horseshoe Bend National Military Park
I never had such emotions as while the long roll was beating...It was not fear, it was not anxiety or concern of the fate of those who were so soon to fall but it was a kind of enthusiasm that thrilled through every nerve and animated me with . . . — Map (db m46675) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — With Deer Tails in Their Hair — Horseshoe Bend National Military Park
On the morning of the battle, Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson’s Indian allies surrounded the lower portion of Horseshoe Bend. The Cherokee were positioned across the river from where you stand; the Lower Creek were farther upriver to your left. . . . — Map (db m47446) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Jacksons Gap — Fort Okfuskee — ←— 6 mi. west —«
Built in 1735 by British from Carolina in futile attempt to gain trade of the Creek Indians from the French, located at Fort Toulouse, 40 mi. S. Okfuskee was the largest town in Creek Confederacy. — Map (db m22232) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Tallassee — Tukabahchi — 1686-1836
This stone placed at the Great Council Tree marks the site of Tukabahchi 1686-1836 Capital of the Upper Creek Indian Nation. Here were born Efau Haujo, Great Medal Chief, and Opothleyaholo, Creek leaders. Big Warrior . . . — Map (db m67863) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — “The Indian Fires Are Going Out”
The Trail of Tears led thousands of Creek Indians through Tuscaloosa, capital of Alabama in 1836. Chief Eufaula addressed the legislature with these words: "I come here, brothers, to see the great house of Alabama and the men who make laws and . . . — Map (db m28995) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Gabriel Moore — Governor 1829 - 1831
During his term our state moved from frontier to urbanity. The University of Alabama was officially opened. Construction was begun on our first canals and railroads, supplementing existing steamboats and unpaved roads. The Choctaws exchanged their . . . — Map (db m29023) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — John Gayle — Governor 1831 - 1835
He extended state laws into Indian lands and actively encouraged illegal white settlement there. A treaty with the Creek Indians in 1832 forced them to leave the state and resulted in nine new counties in east Alabama. Their "Trail of Tears" took . . . — Map (db m29028) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — John Murphy — Governor 1825 - 1829
He initiated construction of the Capitol, the University of Alabama, and the State Bank. The legislature passed laws, known as slave codes, to severely restrict the rights of slaves, while citizens began to press for the removal of Alabama's . . . — Map (db m29020) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — The Black Warrior River
Plied for thousands of years by Indians, then by early explorers and American settlers, this river extends 169 miles from the Sipsey and Mulberry Forks near Birmingham to its confluence with the Tombigbee at Demopolis. It drains 6228 square miles of . . . — Map (db m28901) HM
Alabama (Wilcox County), Camden — Lieutenant Joseph Morgan Wilcox
Joseph Morgan Wilcox was born on March 15, 1790 in Killingsworth, Middlesex County, Connecticut. He was the son of Revolutionary War officer, Joseph Wilcox and Phoebe Morgan. On June 15, 1808, Cadet Wilcox entered the U.S. Military Academy where he . . . — Map (db m68159) HM
Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Ancient Traditions of the Athabascan People
Athabascans were highly nomadic, traveling in small groups to fish, hunt, and trap. Athabascan territory, the largest area of all the Alaska Native peoples, was home to 11 different linguistic groups who lived along five major riverways: the . . . — Map (db m72795) HM
Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Athabascan Family Lodges and Cabins
“Our people had log houses without nails and we all lived the same. We lived subsistence way of life, and love it that way. We have our fish houses, drying racks and all that.” Alberta Stephan, Eklutna. . . . — Map (db m72796) HM
Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Mobile Architecture
Athabascans were masters at designing a variety of shelters--simple and functional--that kept them both warm and mobile as they set out to hunt and trade. Emergency shelters were constructed in minutes. A wandering hunter could pile up . . . — Map (db m72792) HM
Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Raven the Creator — Created by John Hoover in 1998
Raven is the Creator in many Alaska Native and American Indian legends. Elements from my different legends are incorporated into this sculpture including "Raven Stealing the Stars, Sun, and Moon." The human figures in the claws symbolize icons used . . . — Map (db m72793) HM
Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — What is this “Rock Man”?
For generations the Inuit people of Northern Canada, Greenland, and Alaska have constructed these rock monuments for hunting and navigational purposes. Our inuksuk is a giant version based on similar monuments found throughout the Arctic. . . . — Map (db m69768) HM
Alaska (Denali Borough), Denali National Park — Ice Age Hunters — The Deadliest Predators
High above river valleys, at overlooks like this, Denali’s first human visitors watch for mammoth, giant bison, and caribou. Ridge tops made the best game launching platforms; herds tend to follow sheltered stream corridors. Hunters had to be . . . — Map (db m69724) HM
Alaska (Juneau Borough), Juneau — Alaska Native Veterans Memorial
Monument against east wall of house off Whittier Way: This memorial is dedicated to all Alaska Native Veterans, Southeast who served in the United States Armed Forces. Let us not dwell on their passing but remember their . . . — Map (db m69127) WM
Alaska (Juneau Borough), Juneau — Patsy Ann: her statue
Fifty years after Patsy Ann met her last ship, admirers led by June Dawson organized the Friends of Patsy Ann. The group raised funds and commissioned a statue so Patsy Ann could once again greet visitors on the dock. Sculpted by Ann Burke . . . — Map (db m69663) HM
Alaska (Ketchikan Gateway Borough), Ketchikan — Chief Johnson Totem Pole
Totem poles are carved to honor deceased ancestors, record history, social events, and oral tradition. They were never worshipped as religious objects. This totem, carved by Israel Shotridge and raised in 1989, is a replica of the Chief . . . — Map (db m79703) HM
Alaska (Ketchikan Gateway Borough), Ketchikan — Chief Kyan Totem Pole
Totem poles are carved to honor deceased ancestors record history, social events, and oral tradition. They were never worshipped as religious objects. This totem is the second replication of the Chief Kyan Totem Pole. The original pole was . . . — Map (db m70746) HM
Alaska (North Slope Borough), Barrow — Paġlagivisi! — Welcome to the Ancient Village of Ukpiaġvik — “The Place Where We Hunt Snowy Owls”
Sharing Food, Sharing Life – Then and Now Ukpiaġvik, which means ‘the place where we hunt snowy owls,’ was one of several ancient villages in the Barrow area. Our ancestors settled here primarily to hunt the great bowhead whales. . . . — Map (db m49595) HM
Alaska (Skagway Borough), Skagway — Skagway Centennial Statue — 1897
Skagway was originally spelled S-K-A-G-U-A, a Tlingit Indian word for “windy place.” The first people in the area were Tlingits from the Chilkoot and Chilkat villages in the Haines-Klukwan area. From a fish camp in nearby Dyea, they used . . . — Map (db m69128) HM
Arizona (Apache County), Lupton — One Days Ride to Zuni
In November of 1776 a party of Spanish explorers and Indian guides passed through this area on their way to the Zuni Mission in what is now New Mexico. Franciscan Fathers, Francisco Atanasio Dominquez and Silvestre Velez De Escalante, had embarked . . . — Map (db m36577) HM
Arizona (Apache County), Window Rock — About the Navajo Code Talkers
About the Navajo Code Talkers During World War II the Japanese possessed the ability to break almost any American military code. Over 400 Navajos, with 29 being the original Navajo Code Talkers, stepped forward and developed the most . . . — Map (db m51537) HM
Arizona (Apache County), Window Rock — In Remembrance of Our Warriors / Navajo Warrior Memorial
In Remembrance of Our Warriors Who Made the Ultimate Sacrifice and/or Missing in Action, They will never be forgotten and to us they will always be young in our thoughts. Nelson Lewis • Walter Nelson • Willie A. Notah • Edie . . . — Map (db m27911) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Benson — Council Rocks
Four miles southeast at Council Rocks Apache peace treaty with Cochise was ratified in 1872 Near Dragoon Springs on October 12, 1872, General O.O. Howard and Cochise, Chief of the Chiricahua Apache Indians, ratified a peace treaty . . . — Map (db m27877) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Bowie — Centennial of Chiricahua Apache/U.S. Cessation of Hostilities 1886
[Side 1: In English :] September 4-8, 1986, Arizonans marked the return of the Chiricahua Ex-Prisoners of War and their descendants in ceremonies that completed a spiritual circle. We remembered and reflected on the clash between . . . — Map (db m42513) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Bowie — Fort Bowie — National Historic Site
A Regional Legacy Cochise. Geronimo. Though their reputations were fierce, the Chiricahua Apaches didn't stop explorers, prospectors, settlers, and merchants from Westward immigration. To establish a lifeline between the East and California, . . . — Map (db m37761) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Bowie — The Bascom Affair / Bascom-Cochise Meeting Site
The Bascom Affair On February 4, 1861, 2nd Lt. George Bascom, and his detachment of 54 men encamped two hundred yards east of here. Bascom’s mission was to find Cochise, recover a kidnapped boy and return livestock assumed taken by the . . . — Map (db m42008) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Cochise — Sulphur Springs
This valley owes its name to the two springs located one mile north of this monument. From 400 A.D. to 1450 A.D. Indigenous Indians farmed the region. Their bedrock mortar pits remain on the nearby hill. Later Chiricahua Apaches, Spaniards, . . . — Map (db m37768) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Dragoon — Dragoon Springs Stage Stop — Land of Legends — Coronado National Forest
The San Antonio and San Diego Mail Line began service across Arizona to the Pacific coast in July, 1857. Its route included a stop here near the Dragoon spring. The San Antonio Line was commonly known as the "Jackass Mail" because mules were used . . . — Map (db m76940) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Elfrida — Chief Cochise
. . . — Map (db m37766) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), San Simon — Geronimo Surrender Monument
"Near here Geronimo, last Apache Chieftain, and Nachite with their followers surrendered on Sept. 6th 1886 to General Nelson A. Miles. U. S. Army. Lieutenant Chas. B. Gatewood with Kieta and Martine Apache scouts, risked their lives to enter the . . . — Map (db m28355) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — Apache Scout Memorial
Eyes of the Army Presented by the Huachuca Museum Society 1995 Sculpted by Dan Bates — Map (db m28231) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Gathering Place
]Panel 1:] Between 1100 and 1200, more people lived in this area than ever before, or since. Located along routes linking large populations to the northeast and south, villages here were well situated for trade. As people, goods, and ideas . . . — Map (db m60079) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Legacy of the Past
Box Canyon and Lomaki ruins are a short 15-minute walk from here, along the edges of ancient earthcracks. The 1/4-mile trail will take you back in time over 800 years to the remnants of this once-thriving community. You will see the few native . . . — Map (db m60114) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Village/Abandonment
A Village You are entering the “Citadel,” a ruin from the late 1100s. Research has not been completed so it is important that we leave things as they are. Will there be extra storage spaces found, possible evidence for the . . . — Map (db m60089) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Ancient Landscapes
Eight hundred years ago, a savannah-like grassland covered much of this high desert with abundant grasses. The residents would have collected and burned much of the nearby fuel, necessitating long walks to adjacent areas to gather wood. Sparse . . . — Map (db m60105) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Box Canyon Ruins
The Box Canyon ruins are typical of many pueblos found in this region. Early inhabitants constructed walls of nearby sandstone and limestone, and used local soils to cement the stones together. The flat roofs were built of timbers laid side-by-side, . . . — Map (db m60094) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Daily Life
Plaza An open area in the pueblo near the rim of the earthcrack is known as the plaza. In pueblos, the plaza was the center for many daily activities including grinding corn, making pottery, working obsidian into arrowheads, processing other . . . — Map (db m60110) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Dry Land Farming
Volcanic activity to the south produced giant fissures or earthcracks throughout the Wupatki area in the Kaibab Limestone. This formation covers most of the western half of Wupatki National Monument. The Sinagua and Anasazi Indians who inhabited . . . — Map (db m60098) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Sunset Crater Volcano
The distant San Francisco Peaks would have looked much like they do today. To the east, however, Sunset Crater Volcano would still have been belching black smoke and cinders when the Sinagua and Anasazi lived here. The thick layer of cinders over . . . — Map (db m60107) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — The Citadel / Natural Features
The Citadel It was a remarkable achievement, to use primitive mortar and local stones to build the walls above you straight up from the edge of the top of the rock. “The Citadel” is the modern name given to this ruin because . . . — Map (db m60087) HM

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