Created in 1818 by an act of
Alabama Territorial Legislature.
Autauga Indians lived on creek
from which the county takes its name.
Autaugas were members of the Alibamo tribe.
They sent many warriors to resist
Andrew Jackson's invasion in . . . — Map (db m27907) HM
This cemetery is one of the oldest cemeteries in Autauga County having been established as a burial ground by at least 1841. The land was officially set aside as a burial ground when the county seat was in this area from 1834 to 1868. The area . . . — Map (db m82561) HM
This Shell Banks Baptist Church rests near the location of the first Indian village in America visited by a white man. This was the Indian village of “Achuse” visited by Admiral Maldonado who was one of De Sotos officers. He scouted . . . — Map (db m66295) HM
In 1813, people on the United States southwestern frontier were fearful. The Redstick faction of the Creek Indian Nation opposed growing American influence in the area and had voted for war. However, Creeks living in the Tensaw . . . — Map (db m66394) HM
Modern Stockton is situated on a hill just above the original settlement, which was abandoned around 1840 because of Yellow Fever outbreaks. No verified source for the town name exists. Most likely it was . . . — Map (db m66390) HM
In 1828, Reverend John Wesley Norton left his native South Carolina with his family and a wagon train of followers, crossed into the Creek Indian Nation and just into the edge of what was then Pike County, settling near the . . . — Map (db m78123) HM
At the dawn of the recorded history of this land, the Creek Indians owned it. Before the men who built the great houses and the men who made the laws settled this area, the United States of America ceded this land to the Creek Indians for “As . . . — Map (db m89608) HM
1820-1889 seat of Blount County a county older than the State.
Named for Tennessee Governor W. G. Blount who sent Andrew Jackson to aid Alabama settlers in Creek Indian War, 1812-1814.
Indian Chief Bear Meat lived here at crossing of . . . — Map (db m28038) HM
Created Feb. 7, 1818 by Alabama Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by the Creek Indian Nation. Named for the Tennessee Governor W. G. Blount, who sent militia under Andrew Jackson to punish the Creeks for Fort Mims massacre. Jackson fought and . . . — Map (db m24353) HM
The Treaty of Fort Jackson of August 9, 1814, by Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States of America and the Chiefs, Deputies and Warriors of the Creek Nation, established a boundary line between the Mississippi . . . — Map (db m61025) HM
The Treaty of Fort Jackson of August 9, 1814, by Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States of America and the Chiefs, Deputies and Warriors of the Creek Nation, established a boundary line between the Mississippi . . . — Map (db m61026) HM
The Butler Massacre
On March 20, 1818, Capt. William Butler, Capt. James Saffold, William Gardener, Daniel Shaw and John Hinson left Fort Bibb to meet Col. Sam Dale. They were attacked near Pine Barren Creek by Savannah . . . — Map (db m83259) HM
Created in 1819 by Act of Alabama Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by the Creek Indian Nation by the Treaty of Fort Jackson, 1814.
Named for Captain William Butler, soldier of Creek Indian War, 1813-14, early settler . . . — Map (db m70755) HM
Greenville's oldest, established 1819. Captain William Butler, for whom the county was named, buried here. He was killed fighting Indians led by Savannah Jack in March, 1818. Greenville's oldest church, a community church established in 1822, . . . — Map (db m70751) HM
At this site, on Nov. 3, 1813, after the Battle of
Tallasehatchee, known then as Talluschatches,
during the Creek Indian War,
Gen. Andrew Jackson found a dead
Creek Indian woman embracing her living
infant son. Gen. Jackson, upon hearing that . . . — Map (db m36551) HM
Gen. John Coffee, commanding 900 Tennessee Volunteers, surrounded Indians nearby; killed some 200 warriors. This was first American victory. It avenged earlier massacre of 517 at Ft. Mims by Indians. — Map (db m27610) HM
The Chief Ladiga Trail was named for a Creek Indian leader who signed the Cusseta Treaty in 1832. Under the terms of that agreement, the Creeks gave up claim to their remaining lands in northeast Alabama. Because he had signed the treaty, Ladiga was . . . — Map (db m36438) HM
Life here has long centered on education beginning in 1834 when a one-acre plot of land was reserved for a schoolhouse. Through the years, various institutions of higher learning developed that culminated into present-day Jacksonville State . . . — Map (db m36429) HM
Chambers County, created December 18, 1832 from Creek Indian cession. Named for Dr. Henry C. Chambers of Madison County, member of Constitutional Convention 1819, legislature of 1820, elected U.S. Senator 1825 but died enroute to Washington.
. . . — Map (db m18162) HM
A flourishing, ancient town of the Muscogee Indians known as Ocfuskooche Tallahassee (Old Town) stood on this site. English traders from Charles Town visited it about 1685. A trail known as "Old Horse Path" led from this village to the Tallapoosa. . . . — Map (db m36315) HM
This 4000 acre complex has been recognized for its contribution to our understanding of the history of Monroe County and the State of Alabama. Originally developed as a cotton plantation during the Antebellum period, this farm has been in continuous . . . — Map (db m80345) HM
Established by Choctaw and Creek Indians about 1808 as the northern limit of boundary line between their lands. This line begins at the cut-off in South Clarke County, follows the watershed between Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers without crossing . . . — Map (db m83271) HM
Sept. 1, 1813
Creek Indian War. 1813-14
Part of War of 1812. British used Pensacola as base to arm, incite Indians against U.S..
Prophet Francis led Indians in this raid on Kimbell home. They Killed and scalped 12 of 14 (two survivors . . . — Map (db m47635) HM
Commences at the Cut-Off, or the first high ground in that vicinity, follows the watershed between the Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers, and ends at Choctaw Corner. Established in 1808 by the Creek and Choctaw Indians as the dividing line between their . . . — Map (db m47628) HM
Clay County and the
Creek Indian War of 1813-14
During the Creek Indian War of 1813-14, a subset of the War of 1812 with England, numerous figures prominent in American history marched over what would become Clay . . . — Map (db m95100) HM
Hostile Creeks attacked Andrew Jackson, withdrawing to Ft. Strother, Jan. 24, 1814. His troops broke through lines, kept on to Ft. Strother. But Creeks boasted that they defeated 'Capt. Jack', drove him to the Coosa. — Map (db m95076) HM
Side A Prehistoric man arrived in this area bout 10,000 years ago.
Later Indian cultures left many stone artifacts and pottery vessels.
In the 1780s, a French trading post and Indian village were located near the mouth of Spring Creek. . . . — Map (db m83389) HM
Oka Kapassa (Ococoposa), meaning "Cold Water", was the Chickasaw name given to Spring Creek and to a trading post established near the Tennessee River about 1780. About 1817, Michael Dickerson and others were greeted at what by . . . — Map (db m83393) HM
The area around the Big Spring was inhabited by prehistoric Native Americans as early as 10,000 years ago. The first settlement was a French trading post and Indian village about 1780 on Cold Water Creek (Spring Creek) near the . . . — Map (db m83396) HM
Tuscumbia and much of the Shoals area played an integral part in the "Trail of Tears" with the Tennessee River route and the overland routes. In 1825, the U.S. Government formally adopted a removal policy, which was carried out . . . — Map (db m83403) HM
Big Spring (average daily flow 35,000,000 gallons) provided water for town founded on its banks.
Michael Dickson of Tennessee was first settler (about 1817). Town laid out in 1819 and incorporated as Ococoposo (Cold Water, 1820).
Name changed to . . . — Map (db m83453) HM
Near Bermuda was the home of Jeremiah Austill, who won fame in the canoe fight on the Alabama River during the Creek Indian War. His first wife, Sarah, died of injuries from falling off a fence during an Indian raid. — Map (db m81280) HM
Evergreen, the county seat of Conecuh County, is located in the central part of the county on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad. Founded in 1819 by James Cosey, George Andrews and the Clough Brothers, Evergreen was originally . . . — Map (db m81287) HM
Midway was one of the first settlements established in Conecuh County along the Post Road which later became the Old Federal Road. Long serving as a hub for Indian trails branching out to the north, northeast and northwest, the Midway town site once . . . — Map (db m81277) HM
Daleville, originally called Dale, was the county seat of Dale County from 1831-1841. William Harper was probate judge of Dale County, which was originally included in present-day Coffee County until 1841, present-day Geneva County until 1868, and . . . — Map (db m41145) HM
Site of Alabama's first permanent capital 1820-26. County seat Dallas County, 1820-66. Prison for Union soldiers during the War Between the States 1863-65. Indians were the first inhabitants over 4000 years ago. Their large fortified village could . . . — Map (db m75779) HM
Under the provisions of the Cherokee Removal Act of 1830, a log stockade was built, “Two hundred yards Northeast of Big Spring.” The spring supplied abundant water for the Cherokees, the soldiers and livestock. Fort Payne was used as . . . — Map (db m36743) HM
The fort, consisting of a log house and large stockade, was built in 1838 by order of General Winfield Scott, commander of military forces responsible for the removal of Cherokee Indians.
Soldiers occupying the fort were commanded by Captain . . . — Map (db m28030) HM
Born in Tennessee, Sequoyah moved to Wills Town (DeKalb County, Alabama) area of the Cherokee Nation in 1818.
Here, in 1821, he invented an 86 symbol alphabet providing the Cherokees with the only written Indian language in the United States. . . . — Map (db m28033) HM
The mission was established in 1823 by the American Board of Missions to further education and Christianity among the Cherokee Indians. Mission operated until the Indian removal in 1838.
Grave site of Reverend Ard Hoyt, first superintendent, . . . — Map (db m28035) HM
Clear, bubbling springs have enticed people to this vicinity for thousands of years. Native American hunting paths led to them and after the defeat of the Creek Indians by the United States in 1813, old trails became the Jackson and . . . — Map (db m71177) HM
On this bend of the Tallapoosa River, stretching out before you, lay one of the ancient towns of the Muscogee Creek People, called Tukabatchee. Tukabatchee is one of the original four mother towns of the . . . — Map (db m92945) HM
The land area which now comprises the City of Wetumpka was inhabited by various Indian cultures prior to the inward migration of the white man at the turn of the 19th century. The largest Indian village near here was located on . . . — Map (db m67936) HM
Fort Crawford was established in 1816 by elements of the 7th U.S. Infantry under orders from Major General Andrew Jackson. Purpose was to monitor Spanish activities in West Florida and curtail hostile Creek Indian activities.
Named after . . . — Map (db m84373) HM
For thousands of years, two important Indian trade routes ran across what was to become Etowah County. The “High Town Path” ran from Charlestown, S.C. west to the Mississippi River, near Memphis, TN. The “Creek Path” begins . . . — Map (db m39226) HM
White settlers in the hills of Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina pushed the Cherokee Indian tribes into North Alabama. The Cherokee in turn encroached upon Creek Territory. There were sporadic battles between the . . . — Map (db m83738) HM
The surrounding area and this well was part of Turkeys Town, once a capital of the proud Cherokee Nation. Chief Turkey was the principal chief during the late 1700s.
On October 25, 1864, the Turkey Town Valley Expedition of the XV Corps Union . . . — Map (db m83740) HM
In 1838, Greene County citizens voted to change the town seat from Erie to Eutaw. The City of Eutaw, Alabama was incorporated as a town by an act of the State Legislature on January 2, 1841. Greene County had been named for General Nathaniel Greene. . . . — Map (db m83752) HM
Site of a prehistoric Native American political and ceremonial center from about A. D. 1100-1500 that, at its height in the 13th century, was Americas largest community north of Mexico. Between 1,000 and 3,000 people lived in this town fortified by . . . — Map (db m30700) HM
The Treaty of Fort Jackson on August 9, 1814 by Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States of America and the Chiefs, Deputies and Warriors of the Creek Indian Nation, established a boundary line between the . . . — Map (db m71836) HM
The Treaty of Fort Jackson on August 9, 1814 by Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States of America and the Chiefs, Deputies and Warriors of the Creek Indian Nation, established a boundary line between the . . . — Map (db m71838) HM
Site of the 1831 Irwin homeplace where over 50,000 acres of land was owned by Major General William Irwin (1794-1850). He was an Indian fighter, farmer, politician, statesman and considered one of the nations richest and most influential men. A . . . — Map (db m71824) HM
The frontier village of Franklin was established here by Colonel Robert Irwin in 1814 on the site of the Indian town of Cheeska Talofa. It was the first colonial village in east Alabama. Fort Gaines, Georgia, was constructed in 1816 to protect the . . . — Map (db m71844) HM
Located near this marker is the Poplar Head Spring which served as a meeting place for Indian traders prior to the arrival of the white and black settlers. The Alibamu Indians of the Chattahoochee River basin met the Creeks of the Choctawahatchee . . . — Map (db m41141) HM
In May 1838 soldiers, under the command of U.S. Army General Winfield Scott, began rounding up Cherokee Indians in this area who had refused to move to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. About 16,000 Cherokees were placed in stockades in . . . — Map (db m18047) HM
Side A One of the Five Lower Towns established by the Chickamauga Cherokees in 1782 under the leadership of Dragging Canoe. Territorial Governor William Blount reported to the Secretary of War in 1792 that: “Crow Town lies on the north . . . — Map (db m28473) HM
Red Mountain, where you are standing, and Jones Valley, which stretches before you, were sites of human activity long before Birmingham's founding in 1871.
Native American presence
Recorded history and archaeological evidence indicate the . . . — Map (db m83805) HM
The Creek Indian Cession of 1814 opened this section of Alabama to settlement. At the time of statehood in 1819 many pioneer families had located here in what later became known as Jones Valley. By 1820 the area was called Ruhama Valley as a result . . . — Map (db m26680) HM
Center Star was spelled Centre Star into the 1900s. The name evolved from the US Postal Service, which served remote areas by "star routes." The Post Office here, which existed from 1850 to 1914 (except between 1902 and 1913), . . . — Map (db m82398) HM
Construction of this road, as ordered by General Andrew Jackson, began in May 1817 by troops of the U.S. Army for national defense purposes. Beginning near Nashville, Tennessee and continuing to Madison, Louisiana, it shortened the distance from . . . — Map (db m80321) HM
About 1800 Doublehead located his village at this site, where his brother-in-law Tahlonteeskee had previously lived. Doublehead's log house was built along the same style of those of the white settlers. Chief Doublehead had previously led raids . . . — Map (db m83942) HM
This is the highest domiciliary mound in the Tennessee Valley. It was probably built between 100 B.C. and 400 A.D. by a prehistoric people of the ancient Woodland Culture. Such mounds served as bases for ceremonial temples or chief's houses. This . . . — Map (db m28457) HM
Side A This area near the mouth of Cypress Creek was inhabited by Archaic People as early as 8,000 B.C. Their main food consisted of freshwater mollusks from the river.
(These mussels were the origin of the name "Muscle Shoals.")
The . . . — Map (db m84044) HM
The settlement of what is now eastern Lauderdale County (known as "Over Elk)" by non-Native Americans commenced by 1807.
Federal land sales were held in Huntsville during the spring of 1818.
Although much of the land was described . . . — Map (db m84296) HM
Thousands of Cherokee Indians passed through Waterloo in the 1830s when they were forced by the U.S. government to move West on the "Trail of Tears". Most came by boat from Tuscumbia and camped here to await transfer to larger steamboats. During the . . . — Map (db m84301) HM
Created by Territorial Legislature
in 1818 from lands ceded by
Cherokee and Chickasaw Indians
Named for U.S, Navy hero of War of 1812
Capt. James Lawrence
Fatally wounded, his famous command was
"Don't Give Up The Ship"
County . . . — Map (db m69672) HM
This area was the home to Indians, settlers, people of mixed ancestry and their descendants. Local bluff shelters contain evidence of occupation from Paleo Indian (10,000 BC) through the Mississippian Period (1540 AD). Chief Tuscaloosa (Black . . . — Map (db m84313) HM
The Oakville Indian Mounds Museum is based on a seven sided Cherokee council house. This type of council house was used during the cooler months and an open sided rectangular pavilion during warmer weather. The descriptions used for the museum's . . . — Map (db m84314) HM
In the early 1800's Cherokees of this area were under the leadership of Doublehead and Tahlonteskee. After Doublehead's assassination in 1807, Tahlonteskee notified President Jefferson that he and his people were ready to move west. In 1808 . . . — Map (db m36030) HM
Copena Indians built this mound with baskets of dirt some 2000 years ago. The Copena name was derived from their use of copper and galena (lead ore) found in their burials along with gorgets and celts. The mounds were a burial site with the dead . . . — Map (db m84315) HM
Black Warriors' Path played a critical role as a route for Creek Removal. On December 19, 1835, some 511 Creek emigrants passed along the path through present ~ day Oakville Indian Mounds Park. In September 1836, a group of Creeks left Tallassee in . . . — Map (db m36027) HM
Doublehead, (c1744-1807), aka Dsugweladegi or Chuqualatague, was the son of Great Eagle (Willenawah) and grandson of Moytoy. Among his siblings were Pumpkin Boy, Old Tassel and the unnamed grandmother of Sequoyah. After his sister's son John Watts . . . — Map (db m84316) HM
Five Historic Indian tribes lived in this area. By 1701, The Yuchi were living at the shoals on the Tennessee River. In early 1700s the Yuchi left, some moving to the Cherokee Nation on the Hiwassee River, TN and others to Chattahoochee River, GA. . . . — Map (db m36040) HM
Rising 27 feet high, this is the largest woodland mound in Alabama, with a base covering 1.8 acres and a flat top of over one acre. Built by prehistoric Copena Indians, the mound is 2,000 years old and constructed from earth probably carried one . . . — Map (db m84317) HM
Based on the large number of local mounds and artifacts, this site shows evidence of Indian occupation over 2000 years ago. According to tradition about 1780, Oakville became a Cherokee town located on Black Warriors' Path. By the early 1820's, . . . — Map (db m36036) HM
Form the late 1700's to 1807 a Cherokee Chief named Doublehead guarded this area, that was claimed by both the Cherokee and Chickasaw Nations as sacred hunting grounds against encroachment of white settlers.
Chief Doublehead had the reputation of . . . — Map (db m84646) HM
Settled by Judge J. J. Harper and others from Harris County, Georgia, in 1836.
This region was opened to settlement
in 1836-37 by the removal of the
Creek Indians to lands west
of the Mississippi River.
The Alabama . . . — Map (db m39830) HM
Following the signing of the Creek Treaty in 1832, the early white settlers constructed a 16 by 30 foot hand hewn log fort for protection against a possible Indian uprising from Cussetaw Indian Village on Osanippa Creek just north of here. Walls of . . . — Map (db m71643) HM
One of the larger settlements of the Upper Creeks at the time of Indian removal to the west, 1835-1837. Their last council fire was held here before their forced migration to Oklahoma. Pioneer families began pouring in after 1836. Today's cemetery . . . — Map (db m85169) HM
created Feb. 6, 1818 by Alabama Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by Cherokee Nation 1806 and by Chickasaw Nation in 1816. Named for creek (and its limestone bed), which runs through county.
Few settlers here until Indian treaties.
Athens . . . — Map (db m29109) HM
Lucy's Branch This site is named for Lucy Bedingfield, daughter of a slave and a Cherokee Indian. She was born 1832, and her Indian name was Finch. She married Meredith Bedingfield, a slave and had 9 children. Lucy was an astute and avid . . . — Map (db m85421) HM
A church older than the county and state. First meeting house built in the fall of 1816, on Indian land, a few miles south of here along Round Island Creek. The first Govt. Land sales were in Feb. 1818 after treaties with the . . . — Map (db m85422) HM
Side A (North side) In the fall of 1806 a group of settlers led by William and James Sims, traveled from east Tennessee on flatboats down the Tennessee River and up the Elk River to this area. They landed near Buck Island and spread out . . . — Map (db m85454) HM
Franklin School, originally constructed on this lot, was in operation as early as the 1890s teaching grades 1-11. By the mid 1930s, it was downsized to grades 1-6. There were northern and southern classrooms adjoined by a common . . . — Map (db m68028) HM
Unmarked grave in Cubahatchie Baptist Church Cemetery. Half-blooded Creek Indian, planter, soldier, Indian agent,
and historian, Stiggins lived on a nearby farm fronting the Federal Road from 1831 until his death. There he wrote "A . . . — Map (db m60534) HM
Shorter was originally called Cross Keys for the birthplace in South Carolina of an early settler, J.H. Howard. It was later named Shorter for former Alabama Governor John Gill Shorter. The town embodies the memories of the proud Creek Indian . . . — Map (db m85463) HM
In May 1838 soldiers, under the command of U.S. Army General Winfield Scott, began rounding up Cherokee Indians in this area who had refused to move to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. About 16,000 Cherokees were placed in stockades in Tennessee and . . . — Map (db m33318) HM
Tennessee. Lincoln County. Established 1809; named in honor of MAJOR GEN. BENJAMIN LINCOLN of the Revolutionary Army. After service at Saratoga, he was put in Chief Command in the Southern Colonies. Later, he was Secretary of War under the . . . — Map (db m30570) HM
After the Civil War, the future of African-Americans in the United States Army was in doubt. In July 1866, Congress passed legislation establishing two cavalry and four infantry regiments to be made up of African-American . . . — Map (db m75092) HM WM
Made a county in 1808 by order of Governor of Mississippi Territory.
Area ceded 1805, 1806 by Cherokees, Chickasaws.
This was the first land in Alabama ceded by these great civilized tribes. — Map (db m27848) HM
Early in the 1800's gold was found from Virginia to Alabama including a rich belt on Cherokee Indian land in what is now Dahlonega, GA.
causing a huge influx of miners and a land grab by new settlers.
Pressure and greed from politicians led to . . . — Map (db m85838) HM
Composed of limestone or “Selma
chalk” which abounds in fossils.
Called “Ecor Blanc” by
eighteenth-century French explorers
Named “Chickasaw Gallery” because
early Indian inhabitants . . . — Map (db m38001) HM
Starting as an ancient Indian trail, the north–south road through Arab in 1816 was known as Bear Meat Cabin Road. By 1818, it had become an important Federal trade route through the Alabama Territory known as the St. Stephens – . . . — Map (db m40134) HM
(Side A) This area's proximity to the Tennessee River and Indian trails made it a crossroads for early habitation, settlement, and trade. Archaeological studies reveal it was first inhabited about 12,000 years ago by Paleo-Indians. They . . . — Map (db m33305) HM
Mt. Vernon Arsenal and Barracks
Established 1828 by Congress to store arms and munitions for U. S. Army. Original structures completed 1830's.
Arsenal appropriated by Confederacy 1861; equipment moved to Selma . . . — Map (db m70593) HM
In 1811, the Mount Vernon Cantonment, located on a hill about three miles west of the Mobile River, was laid out by Col. Thomas H. Cushing. The cantonment was on the site of a spring called Mount Vernon Springs. In 1814, the garrison at Mt. Vernon . . . — Map (db m85911) HM
Burnt Corn, Monroe County's earliest settlement, became the crossroads of the Great Pensacola Trading Path and The Federal Road. Settler Jim Cornells returned from Pensacola in 1813, finding his home destroyed and his wife kidnapped by a Creek . . . — Map (db m47687) HM
Built by Gen. Ferdinand L. Claiborne as a base for his invasion of the Alabama country with U.S. Regulars, Lower Tombigbee Militia, and friendly Choctaws. Claibornes campaign culminated in the American victory over the Creeks at the Holy Ground. — Map (db m47641) HM
Piache, an Indian town visited by DeSoto in 1540 was near here.
DeLuna made a settlement here, Nanipacna in 1560.
Fort Claiborne was erected on the south bluff, in 1813.
LaFayette was entertained here, 1825.
. . . — Map (db m47639) HM
Little River was the home of Creek Chief William Weatherford, also known as War Chief Red Eagle. This was the area of much discussion and debate, bringing the Creeks into the War of 1812 and the Creek Civil War of 1813-1814. These events weighed . . . — Map (db m86271) HM
Twelve miles above Montgomery the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers unite to form the Alabama which meanders over four hundred miles on its way to Mobile Bay. This river has played major role in region's history, being a thoroughfare for Native Americans, . . . — Map (db m26591) HM
Augusta, home of Old Augusta Cemetery, was built on the site of a former Indian village, “Sawanogi,” on high ground close to the Tallapoosa River. In 1824 a disastrous flood swept over the plateau, invading shops and residences. A year . . . — Map (db m68260) HM
Here at the Indian village of Encanchata, future site of Montgomery, Col. John Tate, last British agent to the Muscogee Nation, recruited and drilled Creek warriors in 1780 to relieve Tories in Augusta, Ga. being besieged by American patriots. — Map (db m71373) HM
Here on May 24, 1703, Alabama Indians ambushed the first French explorers from Mobile, killing three and wounding two critically. The Indians were armed and were used as pawns by British agents from Carolina in the European struggle for dominion . . . — Map (db m67999) HM
The Federal Road
The 1803 Louisiana Purchase acquired 828,000 sq. mi. for the U.S., doubling its size. The Federal Road was built to provide a shorter route from Washington to New Orleans and the new territory. The Treaty . . . — Map (db m71535) HM
Alabama Territorial Legislature created this county in 1818 from lands ceded by Cherokee Indians in 1816. County first named Cotaco, for large creek in county. Named Morgan County in 1821 for Maj. Gen. Daniel Morgan, Revolutionary hero, winner over . . . — Map (db m27759) HM
In the early 1800s, south Alabama was still inhabited by many groups of Native Americans: Creek, Chickasaw, and Choctaw among others. They traveled, hunted, traded, and made war on the many ancient trails here. European settlers improved these roads . . . — Map (db m95359) HM
In September 1821 Rev. William Capers was sent to Fort Mitchell, by the South Carolina Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, to negotiate with the chiefs of the Creek Indian Nations for a mission which would teach their children reading, . . . — Map (db m26121) HM
Built during Creek War 1813 by Georgia Militia on main Indian trade route to Tombigbee River.
U.S. Troops stationed here until 1837. 1836 Lower Creeks corralled here for forced removal to the West. — Map (db m26069) HM
This military graveyard was established soon after Fort Mitchell was built by General John Floyd of the Georgia Militia. Located just south of the stockade, the cemetery was used between 1813 and 1840 during the fort's occupation by Georgia and . . . — Map (db m26122) HM
The most popular game among the Indians of this region was "stick ball." This field has been constructed so that the game may be enjoyed again in the Chattahoochee Valley where it was played for hundreds of years. Sometimes known as "little brother . . . — Map (db m26020) HM
Native plants played a significant role in the daily life of the Creek Indian civilization that inhabited the Chattahoochee Valley until relocation to Oklahoma in the 19th century. During the Woodland Period, the local inhabitants were skilled . . . — Map (db m48166) HM
Near here is the site where John Crowell lived, died, and is interred. Colonel Crowell was born in Halifax County, North Carolina, on September 18, 1780; moved to Alabama in 1815, having been appointed as Agent of the United . . . — Map (db m26116) HM
Approximately one mile due east of this marker, back down the Old Federal Road, called by frontiersmen and Indians the Three Notched Trail or the Three Chopped Way, stood Fort Mitchell, an early 19th century American fort that in 1836 was one of the . . . — Map (db m26100) HM
One of the oldest white settlements in the Chattahoochee Valley before and after the removal of the Indians; land deeds between whites date back to 1832, the year of Russell County's founding. The name of the town . . . — Map (db m69422) HM
To the native people of the Chattahoochee River Valley, the Creek or Muskogulgi Indians, the shoals of the river were a source of recreation and food. In the spring, the women and children of Coweta Town came here to fish, using dip nets, spears, . . . — Map (db m69045) HM
Coweta Town, located east of this marker on the banks of the Chattahoochee River, is sometimes called New or Upper Coweta to distinguish it from its predecessor, Coweta Tallahassee, down river. Among other well-known Creeks, Coweta was the . . . — Map (db m69068) HM
In November 1836, six Creek and Yuchi Indians were hanged near this spot for their role in a last desperate uprising against the frontier whites of Georgia and Alabama. Following decades of provocation from whites anxious to gain control of their . . . — Map (db m69065) HM
The Creek Indians believed this section of the river was inhabited by a giant Tie-Snake, a mythical monster that snared the unwary and dragged them down into the watery underworld. The Tie-Snake was but one of many strange creatures and natural . . . — Map (db m69067) HM
from lands ceded by Creek Indian Nation in Treaty of Ft. Jackson, 1814.
Named for Gen. Arthur St. Clair, hero of Revolution, governor of Northwest Territory.
First settlers from Tennessee, Georgia - veterans of Creek Indian War, 1813-14. . . . — Map (db m28143) HM
Creek Indians once owned and hunted the land where the City of Chelsea now stands. In 1813, Andrew Jackson and his army won millions of acres of Creek land from the Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, including the area where . . . — Map (db m38488) HM
The Town of Gainesville, a designated Tree City USA, was founded in 1832. The land on which the town is located was originally owned by John Coleman, husband to a Choctaw Indian of the area. He sold the land to Colonel Moses Lewis, who had the . . . — Map (db m69709) HM
Prior to the signing of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek on September 27, 1830, this site belonged to the Choctaw Nation. Early settlers to the area came from the Carolinas, Georgia, Tennessee, and . . . — Map (db m92665) HM
1736: First settlement by French at Ft. Tombecbee.
1830: U.S. got Choctaw Indian lands by Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek.
1832: County created by Act of State Legislature -- named for Gen. Thomas Sumter, "The Gamecock," South . . . — Map (db m92663) HM
Important Indian town for over 250 years and capital of Coosa province.
Visited by DeSoto in 1540, and later by Spanish, French, British colonial explorers and traders. Early writers tell of abundant food crops, wild and cultivated, . . . — Map (db m57994) HM
Named for the famous Spanish explorer who traveled through this area in 1540. Over its rich history it offered shelter for native Indians for centuries (a 2,000-year-old Woodland Period burial was excavated by archeologists in the mid-1960s), . . . — Map (db m45034) HM
Childersburg traces its heritage to the Coosa Indian village located in the area. DeSoto, accompanied by 600 men, began his march across North America in June 1539. Traveling from Tampa Bay, Florida, northward through what became the Southeastern . . . — Map (db m45137) HM
Settled in 1748 by Shawnee
Indians from Ohio.
They joined Creek Confederacy,
fought against U.S. in War of 1812,
were moved west in 1836.
Settled before 1836 by men
who had fought in this area
under Andrew Jackson.
Indian name: . . . — Map (db m40595) HM
Here Andrew Jackson led Tennessee Volunteers and friendly Indians to victory over hostile “Red Sticks.”
This action rescued friendly Creeks besieged in Fort Leslie.
Creek Indian War 1813 - 1814. — Map (db m28205) HM
Indian farmer - merchant chose to resist whites' advance on Indians' lands. In Creek War he led Creeks at Battle of Horseshoe Bend. His warriors were beaten by Jackson's superior force but Menawa escaped. — Map (db m66680) HM
Following the Creek Cession in 1832, settlers, mostly from Georgia and the Carolinas, occupied this section of the Creek Nation. Among the first settlers was James Young who purchased land a half-mile west near a trading post called Georgia Store. . . . — Map (db m28658) HM
This tablet is placed by
in commemoration of the
one hundredth anniversary
Battle Of Horseshoe Bend,
fought within its limits
on March 27, 1814.
There the Creek Indians, led by
Menawa and other chiefs, . . . — Map (db m28751) HM
Any officer or soldiers who flies before the enemy-shall suffer death.
With these harsh words, Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson marched his soldiers 52 miles from the Coosa River to Horseshoe Bend and a bloody contest with the Red Sticks. His . . . — Map (db m46674) HM
Having maintained for a few minutes a very obstinate contest, muzzle to muzzle, through the port-holes, in which many of the enemy's balls were welded to the bayonets of our musquets, our troops succeeded in gaining possession of the opposite . . . — Map (db m46676) HM
...[The Creek] had erected a breast-work, of greatest compactness and strength-from five to eight feet high, and prepared with double rows of port-holes very artfully arranged...an army could not approach it without being exposed to a double and . . . — Map (db m46677) HM
I ordered [Lt. Jesse] Bean to take possession of the Island below, with forty men, to prevent the enemy's taking refuge there...as many of the enemy did attempt their escape...but not one were landed-they were sunk by [Lt.] Beans command ere . . . — Map (db m46389) HM
Here at 10:30 on the morning of March 27, 1814, General Jackson quickly emplaced his single battery, one 3-pounder and one 6-pounder. He immediately opened a lively but ineffective fire on the center of the sturdy log barricade. After his Indian . . . — Map (db m51671) HM
In memory of the
Soldiers and Indian allies
who died in combat with the
Upper Creek Indians during the
Horseshoe Bend Campaign in
the Creek War of 1813-1814
In memory of the
Upper Creek Warriors
who died in combat with
United . . . — Map (db m64594) WM
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park
The park offers activities designed to commemorate the events that occurred here on March 27, 1814. The Battle of Horseshoe Bend ended the Creek Indian War and added nearly 23 million acres of land to the . . . — Map (db m46232) HM
[The] high ground which extended about mid-way from the breastwork to the river was in some manner open, but the declivity and flat which surrounded it was filled with fallen timber, the growth of which was very heavy, and had been so arrayed . . . — Map (db m47498) HM
By dark, more than 800 Red Stick warriors were dead and at least 350 women and children were prisoners. Jackson's army suffered 154 men wounded and 49 killed. The Battle of Horseshoe Bend effectively ended the Creek Indian War. Five months later, . . . — Map (db m51665) HM
In this meadow 350 women and children, sheltered in the village of Tohopeka, listened to the sounds of battle drifting back from the barricade 1,000 yards away. Alarmed, they watched as enemy Cherokee and Lower Creek warriors crossed the river, . . . — Map (db m47469) HM
I never had such emotions as while the long roll was beating...It was not fear, it was not anxiety or concern of the fate of those who were so soon to fall but it was a kind of enthusiasm that thrilled through every nerve and animated me with . . . — Map (db m46675) HM
On the morning of the battle, Maj. Gen. Andrew Jacksons Indian allies surrounded the lower portion of Horseshoe Bend.
The Cherokee were positioned across the river from where you stand; the Lower Creek were farther upriver to your left.
. . . — Map (db m47446) HM
Built in 1735 by British from Carolina in futile attempt to gain trade of the Creek Indians from the French, located at Fort Toulouse, 40 mi. S. Okfuskee was the largest town in Creek Confederacy. — Map (db m22232) HM
This stone placed at the
Great Council Tree
marks the site of
Capital of the Upper Creek Indian Nation. Here were born Efau Haujo, Great Medal Chief, and Opothleyaholo,
Creek leaders. Big Warrior . . . — Map (db m67863) HM
The Trail of Tears led thousands of Creek Indians through Tuscaloosa, capital of Alabama in 1836. Chief Eufaula addressed the legislature with these words:
"I come here, brothers, to see the great house of Alabama and the men who make laws and . . . — Map (db m28995) HM
During his term our state moved from frontier to urbanity. The University of Alabama was officially opened. Construction was begun on our first canals and railroads, supplementing existing steamboats and unpaved roads. The Choctaws exchanged their . . . — Map (db m29023) HM
He extended state laws into Indian lands and actively encouraged illegal white settlement there. A treaty with the Creek Indians in 1832 forced them to leave the state and resulted in nine new counties in east Alabama. Their "Trail of Tears" took . . . — Map (db m29028) HM
He initiated construction of the Capitol, the University of Alabama, and the State Bank. The legislature passed laws, known as slave codes, to severely restrict the rights of slaves, while citizens began to press for the removal of Alabama's . . . — Map (db m29020) HM
Plied for thousands of years by Indians, then by early explorers and American settlers, this river extends 169 miles from the Sipsey and Mulberry Forks near Birmingham to its confluence with the Tombigbee at Demopolis. It drains 6228 square miles of . . . — Map (db m28901) HM
Joseph Morgan Wilcox was born on March 15, 1790 in Killingsworth, Middlesex County, Connecticut. He was the son of Revolutionary War officer, Joseph Wilcox and Phoebe Morgan. On June 15, 1808, Cadet Wilcox entered the U.S. Military Academy where he . . . — Map (db m68159) HM
Athabascans were highly nomadic, traveling in small groups to fish, hunt, and trap.
Athabascan territory, the largest area of all the Alaska Native peoples, was home to 11 different linguistic groups who lived along five major riverways: the . . . — Map (db m72795) HM
“Our people had log houses without nails and we all lived the same. We lived subsistence way of life, and love it that way. We have our fish houses, drying racks and all that.”
Alberta Stephan, Eklutna. . . . — Map (db m72796) HM
Athabascans were masters at designing a variety of shelters--simple and functional--that kept them both warm and mobile as they set out to hunt and trade.
Emergency shelters were constructed in minutes.
A wandering hunter could pile up . . . — Map (db m72792) HM
Raven is the Creator in many Alaska Native and American Indian legends. Elements from my different legends are incorporated into this sculpture including "Raven Stealing the Stars, Sun, and Moon." The human figures in the claws symbolize icons used . . . — Map (db m72793) HM
For generations the Inuit people of Northern Canada, Greenland, and Alaska have constructed these rock monuments for hunting and navigational purposes. Our inuksuk is a giant version based on similar monuments found throughout the Arctic. . . . — Map (db m69768) HM
High above river valleys, at overlooks like this, Denalis first human visitors watch for mammoth, giant bison, and caribou. Ridge tops made the best game launching platforms; herds tend to follow sheltered stream corridors.
Hunters had to be . . . — Map (db m69724) HM
Monument against east wall of house off Whittier Way:
This memorial is dedicated to all
Alaska Native Veterans,
Southeast who served in the
United States Armed Forces. Let us not dwell on their passing
but remember their . . . — Map (db m69127) WM
Fifty years after Patsy Ann met her last ship, admirers led by June Dawson organized the Friends of Patsy Ann. The group raised funds and commissioned a statue so Patsy Ann could once again greet visitors on the dock.
Sculpted by Ann Burke . . . — Map (db m69663) HM
Totem poles are carved to honor deceased ancestors, record history, social events, and oral tradition. They were never worshipped as religious objects.
This totem, carved by Israel Shotridge and raised in 1989, is a replica of the Chief . . . — Map (db m79703) HM
Totem poles are carved to honor deceased ancestors record history, social events, and oral tradition. They were never worshipped as religious objects.
This totem is the second replication of the Chief Kyan Totem Pole. The original pole was . . . — Map (db m70746) HM
Sharing Food, Sharing Life – Then and Now
Ukpiaġvik, which means the place where we hunt snowy owls, was one of several ancient villages in the Barrow area. Our ancestors settled here primarily to hunt the great bowhead whales. . . . — Map (db m49595) HM
Skagway was originally spelled S-K-A-G-U-A, a Tlingit Indian word for “windy place.” The first people in the area were Tlingits from the Chilkoot and Chilkat villages in the Haines-Klukwan area. From a fish camp in nearby Dyea, they used . . . — Map (db m69128) HM
In November of 1776 a party of Spanish explorers and Indian guides passed through this area on their way to the Zuni Mission in what is now New Mexico. Franciscan Fathers, Francisco Atanasio Dominquez and Silvestre Velez De Escalante, had embarked . . . — Map (db m36577) HM
About the Navajo Code Talkers
During World War II the Japanese possessed the ability to break almost any American military code. Over 400 Navajos, with 29 being the original Navajo Code Talkers, stepped forward and developed the most . . . — Map (db m51537) HM
In Remembrance of Our Warriors
Who Made the Ultimate Sacrifice and/or
Missing in Action,
They will never be forgotten
and to us they will always be young in our thoughts.
Nelson Lewis Walter Nelson Willie A. Notah Edie . . . — Map (db m27911) HM
Four miles southeast at
Apache peace treaty with Cochise
was ratified in 1872
Near Dragoon Springs on October 12, 1872, General O.O. Howard and Cochise, Chief of the Chiricahua Apache Indians, ratified a peace treaty . . . — Map (db m27877) HM
[Side 1: In English :]
September 4-8, 1986, Arizonans marked the return of the Chiricahua Ex-Prisoners of War and their descendants in ceremonies that completed a spiritual circle. We remembered and reflected on the clash between . . . — Map (db m42513) HM
A Regional Legacy
Cochise. Geronimo. Though their reputations were fierce, the Chiricahua Apaches didn't stop explorers, prospectors, settlers, and merchants from Westward immigration. To establish a lifeline between the East and California, . . . — Map (db m37761) HM
The Bascom Affair
On February 4, 1861, 2nd Lt. George Bascom, and his detachment of 54 men encamped two hundred yards east of here. Bascoms mission was to find Cochise, recover a kidnapped boy and return livestock assumed taken by the . . . — Map (db m42008) HM
This valley owes its name to the two springs located one mile north of this monument. From 400 A.D. to 1450 A.D. Indigenous Indians farmed the region. Their bedrock mortar pits remain on the nearby hill. Later Chiricahua Apaches, Spaniards, . . . — Map (db m37768) HM
The San Antonio and San Diego Mail Line began service across Arizona to the Pacific coast in July, 1857. Its route included a stop here near the Dragoon spring. The San Antonio Line was commonly known as the "Jackass Mail" because mules were used . . . — Map (db m76940) HM
"Near here Geronimo, last Apache Chieftain and Nachite with their followers surrendered on Sept. 6th 1886 to General Nelson A. Miles. U. S. Army. Lieutenant Chas. B. Gatewood with Kieta and Martine Apache scouts, risked their lives to enter the camp . . . — Map (db m28355) HM
Between 1100 and 1200, more people lived in this area than ever before, or since. Located along routes linking large populations to the northeast and south, villages here were well situated for trade. As people, goods, and ideas . . . — Map (db m60079) HM
Box Canyon and Lomaki ruins are a short 15-minute walk from here, along the edges of ancient earthcracks. The 1/4-mile trail will take you back in time over 800 years to the remnants of this once-thriving community. You will see the few native . . . — Map (db m60114) HM
You are entering the “Citadel,” a ruin from the late 1100s. Research has not been completed so it is important that we leave things as they are. Will there be extra storage spaces found, possible evidence for the . . . — Map (db m60089) HM
Eight hundred years ago, a savannah-like grassland covered much of this high desert with abundant grasses. The residents would have collected and burned much of the nearby fuel, necessitating long walks to adjacent areas to gather wood. Sparse . . . — Map (db m60105) HM
The Box Canyon ruins are typical of many pueblos found in this region. Early inhabitants constructed walls of nearby sandstone and limestone, and used local soils to cement the stones together. The flat roofs were built of timbers laid side-by-side, . . . — Map (db m60094) HM
An open area in the pueblo near the rim of the earthcrack is known as the plaza. In pueblos, the plaza was the center for many daily activities including grinding corn, making pottery, working obsidian into arrowheads, processing other . . . — Map (db m60110) HM
Volcanic activity to the south produced giant fissures or earthcracks throughout the Wupatki area in the Kaibab Limestone. This formation covers most of the western half of Wupatki National Monument. The Sinagua and Anasazi Indians who inhabited . . . — Map (db m60098) HM
The distant San Francisco Peaks would have looked much like they do today. To the east, however, Sunset Crater Volcano would still have been belching black smoke and cinders when the Sinagua and Anasazi lived here. The thick layer of cinders over . . . — Map (db m60107) HM
It was a remarkable achievement, to use primitive mortar and local stones to build the walls above you straight up from the edge of the top of the rock. “The Citadel” is the modern name given to this ruin because . . . — Map (db m60087) HM
The original thirty-two Code Talkers were organized to develop codes based on their native language which were used extensively during World War II. These and many other Native Americans served bravely throughout the Pacific and other combat zones. . . . — Map (db m33344) HM
Wukoki, a modern Hopi word for “Big House” was once home for two or three prehistoric Indian families. The inhabitants are believed to have been of the Kayenta Anasazi culture, judging from the types of artifacts found during excavation . . . — Map (db m60078) HM
Each year thousands of hikers enter Grand Canyon on the Bright Angel Trail. They follow a tradition - and a trail route - established by prehistoric people. For centuries humans have used this route for two key reasons: water and access. Water . . . — Map (db m39563) HM
Named for Don Pedro de Tovar, the first European to visit the Hopi Indian villages in 1540, the hotel was constructed by Hopi Indian craftsmen at a cost of $250,000 employing logs shipped by train from Oregon and native Kaibab Limestone. The El . . . — Map (db m39477) HM
Hopi House opened on January 1, 1905, the first Grand Canyon work of architect Mary Colter. To complement El Tovar, their new hotel, the Fred Harvey Company commissioned Colter to design a building to display and sell Indian arts and crafts. Colter . . . — Map (db m39478) HM
Designed as living quarters for Hopi artisans and as a place to sell Hopi crafts and souvenirs, this building represents the efforts of the Fred Harvey Company to revive Southwest Indian arts and crafts. Designed by Mary Jane Colter, the building . . . — Map (db m39509) HM
Cohonina and ancestral Pueblo (Kayenta Anasazi) people lived in this area in prehistoric time. The ancestral Puebloans built Tusayan about AD 1185. A visit to the museum and a short walk through the remains of the village will furnish a glimpse of . . . — Map (db m39631) HM
Allow about 30 minutes to tour Tusayan Ruin. The 0.1 mile loop trail through the main ruin is paved and wheelchair-accessible; the side loop to a prehistoric farming site is not. Signs along the way explain the site's features. An interpretive . . . — Map (db m39633) HM
They dominate the horizon, rising 12,633 feet (3851 m) to Arizona's highest point. Visible for miles from all directions, they stand guard over a land which has long sustained people in spirit and natural resources. All of the region's Native . . . — Map (db m41664) HM
Buried under Sunset Crater's lava and cinders are perhaps dozens of pithouses. Those excavated revealed few artifacts; even building timbers had been removed. This suggests people had ample warning of the impending eruption.
The changed . . . — Map (db m41693) HM
Erupting less than 1,000 years ago, Sunset Crater is the youngest in an impressive field of volcanoes all around you. The 1,000-foot-high (305m) cinder cone we see today formed when basalt magma rose directly to the surface through a primary vent. . . . — Map (db m41665) HM
As a living ancestral homeland to the Hopi, Zuni, Yavapai, Havasupai, Navajo, Western Apache, and Southern Paiute, Sunset Crater is remembered, revered, and cared for.
People return often, bringing prayers and engaging in timeless traditions. . . . — Map (db m41678) HM
Near here in 1879
Mormon Colonists Built
Arizona's First Woolen Mill
Hoping to utilize Hopi and Navajo wool and labor, the Mormons intended to build a new industry to supply the early settlers. The 192-spindle mill operated only a . . . — Map (db m94884) HM
This was a community of relatives and neighbors. Its members worked together to haul water, hunt animals, and gather plants. They likely assisted each other with large fields on the rims. They shared walls and resources, joy and sorrow, success . . . — Map (db m61366) HM
The Island Trail, visible below you, follows the sharp meander of Walnut Creek. Many cliff dwelling rooms, unique in this area, were built throughout the canyon at the level of this trail. On both rims are numerous pithouses and pueblos.
On . . . — Map (db m61304) HM
Puebloan traditions reach far back in time and are the basis for the social organization portrayed here. What responsibilities might you have had in this community, given your age and gender?
[Photo captions read]
Hopi men plant and tend . . . — Map (db m61350) HM
Perhaps people living here 800 years ago called this place Wupatupqa ("long canyon"), as it is known to some of their descendants, the Hopi. It was no doubt known as a place of abundance, given its wealth of plant and animal life and the . . . — Map (db m61305) HM
When a volcanic eruption occurred near what is now Flagstaff, Arizona, people lost homes and lands they had cultivated for at least 400 years. A major life events for locals, the eruption was also visible to large population centers across the . . . — Map (db m61325) HM
Overhanging ledges protected rooms from snow and rain, and shaded them during summer months. Thick walls of stone and mud insulated them from harsh winds and retained essential heat in winter.
Small doors were covered with animal skins, mats, . . . — Map (db m61365) HM
As recently as the mid-1200s, families lived, worked, and played in Walnut Canyon. Tending crops on the rim, traveling to gather food, and collecting water from the canyon bottom were part of a daily routine.
It may be difficult to imagine . . . — Map (db m61302) HM
Despite all it had to offer, in time Walnut Canyon became a difficult place for farmers to live. Drier, colder conditions meant crop failures. More people and diminished resources meant nutritional stress, disease, and conflict.
However, . . . — Map (db m61370) HM
Limestone forms the massive overhang above you and the ledge you are standing on. In between, softer layers of silty limestone have retreated, eroded away. All of the cliff dwelling rooms in Walnut Canyon — more than 300 — were built . . . — Map (db m61342) HM
Walnut Canyon was once filled with the sounds of a busy community as families hunted, planted, and harvested with the seasons. Children were born, grew up, and raised children of their own. They were neither the first nor the last to use and . . . — Map (db m61328) HM
Time has worn away details that once made these rooms complete. Still, bits of evidence tell us people devised ways to make their homes comfortable, durable, and suitable for changing circumstances.
Rooms were added as families grew or . . . — Map (db m61341) HM
Most rooms in this community did not house people. Archeologists think many rooms, like the one to your left, were used to store tools, food, and water. Residents could have stored a 100-day water supply without much difficulty, given large . . . — Map (db m61347) HM
With its steep and sheer walls, Walnut Canyon provided homebuilding advantages along with controlled access. Living here, people were situated to monitor their world. This was not uncommon; most villages of the time had some form of passive . . . — Map (db m61326) HM
For each room tucked into this rock alcove, nature provided the back wall, floor, and leak-proof ceiling; no excavation was needed. Builders simply laid up unshaped blocks of limestone for side walls, enclosed the front, and opened their doorway . . . — Map (db m61340) HM
During the spring thaw, snowmelt rumbled through the narrow passage below you. Water flowed again during the summer monsoon. Shaded pools held precious water after the flow ebbed. Walnut Creek was the lifeblood of the community.
Still, people . . . — Map (db m61356) HM
"It is very dusty work to dig for relics....We dug for an hour or more, and found...cornstalks, corncobs in abundance, beans, gourds, nuts, reeds, arrows, bowstrings,...coarse cloth, a child's sandal, a measuring stick with notches at regular . . . — Map (db m61368) HM
This area seems quiet and lonely today - but not 800 years ago. This valley was used for farming and hunting by the people living in Citadel, Nalakihu, and other nearby pueblos, all inhabited at about the same time. (You can see the ruins of at . . . — Map (db m41716) HM
Nalakihu - A modern Hopi name, "House Outside the Village"
Farmers lived here about 800 years ago. (Roof beams gave tree ring dates in the late 1100s.) The way the walls join show this small pueblo was not built all at once, but was added onto. . . . — Map (db m41713) HM
Ballcourts were common in southern Arizona from A.D. 750 to 1200, but relatively rare here in the northern part of the state. This suggests that the people of Wupatki intermingled with their southern Arizona neighbors - the Hohokam - who may have . . . — Map (db m41696) HM
This blowhole - a crevice in the earth's crust that appears to breathe - is one of several found in the Wupatki area. It connects to an underground passage - size, depth, and complexity unknown - called an earthcrack. Earthcracks resulted from . . . — Map (db m41701) HM
Farming then did not mean vast fields like we use today. Anasazi and Sinagua people modified these small terraces to grow hand-tended corn, cotton, beans, and squash. We know the climate was about what it is now, very dry for farming. The terraces . . . — Map (db m41715) HM
Shoofly Village Ruin is the remains of a large masonry and Jacal prehistoric community. It contains 80+ rooms and covers 4 acres. Between A.D. 1000 and 1200 as many as 250 people may once have lived inside its walls. The people made their living by . . . — Map (db m67415) HM
Named for the rebellious medicine man who led the Chiricahua Apaches on their last raids, to surrender, and then into exile in Florida and Oklahoma. Their descendants lived in Eastern Arizona again. This was also the site of original Camp Thomas, . . . — Map (db m28050) HM
This area served as a resting place for Apache war parties during the raids of the 1880's. Near here Felix B. Knox, a cattleman and gambler, stayed behind to face Indians while his wife, children, and hired man escaped in a buckboard. Out of respect . . . — Map (db m36371) HM
We honor our ancestors who died violent deaths at the hands of their captors and at this concentration camp. We greet the spirits of our ancestors and embrace their strength and above all else, their will to survive this holocaust: the Hualapai . . . — Map (db m36012) HM
[ The single 30 foot concrete pillar of the monument symbolizes "unity of spirit". The hexagonal base represents a Japanese stone lantern. The 12 small pillars situated around the monument make it a working sundial. Mounted on the 30 foot pillar . . . — Map (db m32258) HM
Alchesay led his people in war and peace
Alchesay Canyon, to your right, was named for a great leader. Chief Alchesay, born around 1853, was a leader among the White Mountain Apache. Other Apaches looked up to him not only because he . . . — Map (db m34073) HM
Greatest of the educated Apaches, this Mohave-Apache Indian was taken captive at the age of six by Pima Indians. He was sold to a white man who educated him as a physician. Dr. Montezuma had a splendid practice in Chicago and became a champion of . . . — Map (db m27680) HM
Approximately 300 B.C. Prehistoric Indians entered the Salt River Valley. They developed an extensive canal system and raised corn, beans, squash, agave and cotton.
Over 500 miles of Hohokam canal have been recorded in the Salt River Valley. . . . — Map (db m49877) HM
Father Albert was a young missionary and teacher to the Mescalero Apaches in New Mexico and other tribes in Arizona.
Father Braun was an Army chaplain in World War I and World War II receiving the Purple Heart and two Silver Stars for his heroic . . . — Map (db m26830) HM
Killed in Action
Lee Rainbow * Wallace Antone
Charles Laws Isaac Jese Oliver Sneed
Wm. T. Moore
Roy Left Hand . . . — Map (db m27252) HM
"Were it not for the Navajos, the Marines would never have taken Iwo Jima" Major Howard Connor, USMC 5th Marine Division
In recognition of the Navajo Code Talkers who
distinguished themselves in developing a Navajo . . . — Map (db m26823) HM
This tribute represents the spirit of the Navajo Code Talkers, a group of more than 400 U.S. Marines who bravely served their country during World War II.
Their mission: to utilize the Navajo language in the creation of an unbreakable secret . . . — Map (db m50932) HM
This fountain and building erected 1922
Charles H. Burke
Commissioner of Indian
"The Indian will become an asset or a liability as we cultivate or fail to cultivate his body, mind and soul with a view . . . — Map (db m62608) HM
Western anchor of a military road across Northern Arizona. Near here in 1858 Beale's camel expedition was ferried across the Colorado River on the steamer General Jessup. The fort was abandoned at the start of the Civil War. Was activated again in . . . — Map (db m32207) HM
4511 markers matched your search criteria. The first 250 markers were listed. Next 4261