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Native Americans Markers
3728 markers matched your search criteria. The first 250 markers are listed. Next 3478
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — Coast Salish Totem Poles
Eagle with Salmon, Orca, Bear with Salmon This Totem Pole, carve in Contemporary Coast Salish style by master carver Doug LaFortune of the Tsawout First Nation, was dedicated on September 9th, 2004 in celebration of the 100th anniversary of The Butchart Gardens. ———————— Raven, Beaver with Grouse, Otter with pups & clam, Frog This Totem Pole, carved in Classic Coast Salish style by master carver Charles Elliott of the Tsartlip . . . — Map (db m74456) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Hosaqami
a replica of the original pole carved in 1960 by Chief Mungo Martin Carved by Chief Tony Hunt and Raised on 8 September 2012 in the presence of The Honourable Steven L. Point, OBC Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia in honour of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II’s Diamond Jubilee and dedicated to all Aboriginal Veterans This pole was made possible thanks to the generosity of the Government House Foundation and in cooperation with the Esquimalt and Songhees First . . . — Map (db m75002) HM WM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Beacon Hill
Death, life and happiness are in the story of Beacon Hill. On these headlands, where an ancient race once buried their dead, early settlers erected beacons to guide mariners past dangerous Brotchie Ledge. Here, too, ever since Victoria was founded in 1843, people have gathered to enjoy sports and a vista of timeless appeal. — Map (db m49255) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — British Columbia Indians World Wars Memorial
This tablet in memory of the British Columbia Indians who gave their lives in the World Wars 1914 • 1918 - 1939 • 1945 — Map (db m74139) WM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Figures and Medallions of the Library Wing of Parliament Building
[Medallions, top row] Milton – Sophocles – Shakespeare – Socrates – Dante – Homer [Statues, anti-clockwise from the top left] Colonel R.C. Moody 1813-1887 Commander of Royal Engineers in 1858, erected New Westminster as capital of B.C., planned the Cariboo Road. David Thompson 1770 – 1857 Greatest of fur trade explorers. In 1812 traversed Kootenay area, descended the Columbia from source to mouth. Sir Anthony Musgrave 1828 – . . . — Map (db m49045) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Finlayson Point
Named after Roderick Finlayson Chief – Factor Hudson’s Bay Company at Victoria 1844 – 1872. Before the arrival of white men this was the sit of an ancient fortified Indian Village. A battery of two 64 pound wrought iron rifled guns stood here 1878 – 1892 for protection against and expected Russian invasion. — Map (db m49244) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Knowledge Totem
Carved by Master Carver Cicero August and his sons Darrell and Doug August for the Cowichan Tribes, on the occasion of the closing of the XIV Commonwealth Games in Auckland, New Zealand and the beginning of Victoria’s role as host of the XV Commonwealth Games, August 18-24, 1994 in Victoria, British Columbia. The loon, fisherman, bone game player and frog represent lessons of the past and hope for the future. Erected February 2, 1990 — Map (db m49043) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Kwakiutl Bear Pole
Project of Native Indians' Participation Centennial Sub-Committee to commemorate the Union in 1866 of the colonies on Vancouver Island and the mainland as British Columbia Kwakiutl Bear Pole carved by Mr. Henry Hunt of Kwawkewlth Indian Band at Victoria, B.C. Log donated by MacMillan, Bloedel and Powell River, Limited. — Map (db m74399) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Sahsima
Sahsima, meaning "harpoon", was the original name identified by Songhees elder James Fraser for the point where the Chinese Cemetery is located. Hayls the Transformer, with spirit companions Raven and Mink, came by in his canoe, frightening away the seal the harpooner had been stalking. The harpooner rebuked them. Hayls turned him to stone as he stood there poised to throw the harpoon, saying, "You'll be boss for seals...from Sooke to Namaimo." Artwork by Charles Elliott, Temoseng BC 150 Years, 2008 — Map (db m75313) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — 5 — Signs of LekwungenWe Are Still Here — Beside the "Lookout" on Beacon Hill - míqən
There are messages in the landscape here, surviving traditional place names, and the soil itself preserves ancient stories waiting to be told. This is the land of the Lekwungen People, known today as the Esquimalt and Songhees Nations. As you travel through the city, you will find seven carvings that mark places of cultural significance. To seek out these markers is to learn about the land, its original culture, and the spirit of its people. The hill here is called MEE-qan which . . . — Map (db m74378) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Spewhung
Turkey Head was known by the indigenous people as Spewhung. A large shell-midden along this shoreline indicates that this was an ancient village site to which first peoples brought many fish, bird, mammal and plant resources. Food was gathered from Chatham and Discovery Islands (Stsnaang and Tlchess) in the distance and from Jimmy Chicken-Mary Tod Island (Kohweechella island, "where there are many fish"), nearer shore. Artwork by Charles Elliott, Temoseng BC 150 Years, 2008 — Map (db m75329) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Tlikwaynung
This small islet and the adjacent shore were once an indigenous encampment connected with the village at McNeill Bay, Chikawich, to the west. The people living here ate over 20 species of fish and 15 species of birds, as well as deer, sea mammals, raccoon and marten. Across the water lies Trial Island, Tlikwaynung, a place where there were lots of seals. Artwork by Charles Elliott, Temoseng BC 150 Years — Map (db m75340) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — World’s Tallest Totem PoleThe Legend of the Totem
127 Feet, 7 Inches Carved by Mungo Martin • David Martin • Henry Hunt Dedicated July 2, 1956 Percy B. Scurrah, Mayor of Victoria Hon. Ray Williston, Minister of Education Stuart Keate, Sponsor Raised by public subscription through the Victoria Daily Times

The Legend of the Totem “Memento of the Nation’s infancy, symbol of a proud race. Monument to rare native art. Proof of a united community interest and the purest form of Canadiana.” (Victoria Daily Times) . . . — Map (db m49250) HM

British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), Fort St. James — Fort St. James
English: Simon Fraser and John Stuart established Fort St. James among the Carrier Indians in 1806. Originally a North West Company post, it passed to the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1821. From the beginning an important centre of trade and cooperation with the Indians, it became, under the Hudson’s Bay Company, the chief trading post in north-central British Columbia and the administrative centre of the large and prosperous district of New Caledonia. Throughout its history Fort St. . . . — Map (db m42736) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), North Vancouver — St. Paul's ChurchL'église Saint-Paul
{In English:} The oldest surviving mission church in the Vancouver area has long been a focal point of the Mission Reserve. Chief Snat, a renowned Squamish leader, assisted by the Oblate missionaries, was largely responsible for building the first church here in 1868 and for securing this land as a reserve in the following year. In 1884 the early chapel was replaced by the present structure and in 1910 corner towers and transepts were added. The church is named in tribute to Bishop Paul . . . — Map (db m32481) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Surrey — Historic Port ElginTransportation & Communication — Part of Surrey’s Built Heritage
River Routes Located near the intersection of the King George VI Highway and the Nicomekl River, the Port Elgin area has been a crossroads for various forms of traffic for thousands of years. For centuries prior to the arrival of the first European settlers, Natives regularly canoed up the Nicomekl River and down the Salmon River as they made their way to the salmon-fishing platforms in the Frasier Canyon. The Hudson’s Bay Company’s chief trader James McMillan and his party of men . . . — Map (db m63715) HM
British Columbia (Kitimat-Stikine Regional District), Moricetown — Moricetown Canyon
This site, once the largest village of the Bulkley Valley Indians, later was named after the pioneer missionary, Father Morice. Salmon, staple food of the Indian, concentrated in the canyon and were caught with basketry traps, dip-nets, and harpoons. Indians still catch salmon with long gaff nooks and smoke them at this historic native fishery. — Map (db m9072) HM
British Columbia (Skeena-Queen Charlotte Regional District), Tyee — “K-Shian” – The Skeena
The Skeena, “river of mists,” makes a major cleft through the Coast Mountains. To Coastal Tsimshian Indians and Interior tribes it was vital to trade and travel. In later years, Port Essington, near the river’s mouth, became the main port of this swift, treacherous waterway – a route serving pioneers from the 1860s to 1914 when the railway was built. — Map (db m9074) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Andrews — Wartime legaciesL’heritage de la guerre
English on left St. Andrews’ citizens step up In 1812, St. Andrews was a young town, founded not long before by Loyalists from New England fleeing the American Revolution. A modest fortification - Fort Tipperary - had been built in 1808 above the town. Citizens were concerned that the fort did not provide enough protection for the harbour and river from privateering raids. The town quickly built three batteries, which military engineers believed ineffective - and indeed possibly . . . — Map (db m77362) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Passamaquoddy Tribe / La Tribu Passamaquoddy
Passamaquoddy Bay takes its name from the Native American Passamaquoddy Tribe. The word means People of the Pollock-Spearing Place. The Passamaquoddy have a rich heritage, once occupying much of what is now eastern Maine and western New Brunswick. They lived inland, seasonally, where during the colder months they subsisted mainly by hunting and fishing. During the warmer months, they moved to the shore (where there were cooler temperatures and fewer biting flies) to harvest abundant . . . — Map (db m63617) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Pierre Maillard
This plaque is dedicated to the memory of Pierre Maillard who served as missionary to the Micmac Indians in this country for over thirty years, who succeeded in reconciling the Micmac to British rule, who celebrated the first mass and opened the first Catholic Church in Halifax in 1759, who died on the twelfth day of August, 1762, and lies buried near this place. In memory of the Reverend John Enslow Burns Map (db m77723) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Silent Messengers of the ArcticInuksuk created by Kananginak Pootoogook, 1997
For generations, the Inuit have been creating impressive stone markers on the Arctic landscape. Inuksuk means "acting in the capacity of a human." They serve many functions, including guiding travellers, warning of danger, assisting hunters and marking places of reverence. — Map (db m39750) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Boblo Island
Boblo Island For many centuries the island you see in front of you was used for hunting and fishing by First Nations people. Called Île aux Bois Blancs by the French, Boblo Island's key location made it a site for blockhouses during the War of 1812 and the Upper Canada Rebellion. In 1837 a lighthouse was erected on the southern end; about sixty years later the island became the site of a popular amusement park that lasted for nearly a century. The Detroit . . . — Map (db m71185) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Indian Council House
Indian Council House Two hundred years ago a small building stood about 100 metres north of here, close to the water's edge. This was where meetings took place between the representatives of the British government and those of the First Nations. These meetings were a crucial factor in creating an alliance between the two groups during the War of 1812. No images survive of this important structure, except a small rectangle on this map. In this 20th-century . . . — Map (db m71170) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Simon Girty U.E.1741 - 1818
Girty's life crossed cultural boundaries between native and white societies on the frontier of American settlement. In 1756 his family was captured by a French-led native war party in Pennsylvania. Simon was adopted by the Seneca, then repatriated in 1764. An interpreter at Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh), he became an intermediary with native nations. In 1778, dismayed over rebel policy on the natives, Girty fled to Detroit. During the Revolutionary War and subsequent conflicts in the Ohio Valley, he . . . — Map (db m34688) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The "Tecumseh Stone"
Tradition has it that the Indian leader Tecumseh stood upon this stone to deliver a final address to the British at Amherstburg after the Battle of Lake Erie. Donated in 1939, it originally stood near the corner of Dalhousie and Gore Streets. In his speech Tecumseh asserted, in part: Father, listen...You always told us to remain here and take care of our lands. It made our hearts glad to hear that was your wish; our great father the king is the head, you represent him. You always told . . . — Map (db m34412) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The Great Sauk Trail
Part of an ancient network of Indian paths, the Great Sauk Trail, as it came to be known, extended from Rock Island in present-day Illinois to the Detroit River. It played a significant role in the communications between the native peoples in the upper Mississippi Valley and the British in this region, particularly during the period of Anglo-American rivalry following the American Revolution. For four decades pro-British tribes such as the Sauk and the Fox made annual pilgrimages along the . . . — Map (db m36976) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The WyandotLes Hurons de Detroit
This area was once the home of the Wyandot, remnants of the Huron, Neutrals, and Petuns who were dispersed by the Iroquois in the 1640's. Some eventually reunited and settled along the Detroit River, where they became known as the Hurons of Detroit, or Wyandot. After the fall of New France, the Wyandot became supporters of the British during the American Revolution although many remained neutral in the War of 1812. In the 1840's a number of the Wyandot were moved to a reserve in Kansas while others stayed to help develop this region. — Map (db m37340) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — 1748
The original cross Was erected in 1748 By the Jesuit Missionaries — • — Was re-enacted at the Old Boys re union Aug., 1909 Re-enacted and this permanent cross erected by the Border Cities Old Boys in Aug., 1922 — Map (db m37519) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — Jesuit Mission to the Hurons
In 1728 a mission to the Huron Indians was established near Fort Pontchartrain (Detroit) by Father Armand de la Richardie, S.J. The mission was moved to Bois Blane Island and the adjacent mainland in 1742. In 1747 it was destroyed by disaffected Hurons and a party of Iroquois, and the next year re-established in this vicinity. The Huron Mission became the Parish of Assumption in 1767 and was entrusted with the spiritual care of the French settlers on this side of the river as well as the . . . — Map (db m37386) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — Montreal Point in 1782The Huron First Nation's gift to the Roman Catholic Church
In the year 1782 the Huron First Nation gave Montreal Point to the Diocese. The Jesuit Fathers constructed the Assumption Parish in 1787, the first Roman Catholic Parish west of Montreal, Quebec. Today the park, named Assumption, is owned and managed by the City of Windsor for its citizens. The City has some 8 kilometers, (5 miles), of riverfront parks for your enjoyment. The Department of Parks and Recreation invites you to explore the city's network of riverfront and neighborhood parks. — Map (db m37389) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Capture of Detroit
Confident of victory, General Hull had invaded Canada in July 1812, but failed to take advantage of his early success and the demoralization of the defenders. Fear of the Indians then rallying to the British cause and an inability to maintain supply lines dictated Hull's withdrawal to Detroit. In a daring move on 16 August General Brock embarked his troops at McKee's Point, crossed the river and forced the surrender of the Americans. This important victory raised the spirits of the Canadians . . . — Map (db m34321) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Siege of Detroit 1763
Shortly after the founding of Detroit in 1970 a village of Ottawa Indians was established on the south shore of the river in this vicinity and its inhabitants lived on friendly terms with the French garrison and settlers. However after the British took control of Detroit and other western posts in 1760, relations with the Indians deteriorated. In 1763 the great Ottawa chief, Pontiac, raised a strong confederacy of Indian tribes and attacked several British posts. Detroit was besieged from May . . . — Map (db m36944) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Chatham — British Army River Crossing to Dolsen's LandingFriday, October 1, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Upon sighting American war ships at the mouth of the Thames River on October 1, 1813, the British Army boarded scows and bateaux near this site. One by one, the boats and their cargo were pulled across the river to their next encampment site at Dolsen's Landing, a small but important commercial site in Dover Township established by Matthew and Hannah Dolsen. The settlement consisted of the Dolsen's log home, a store, a blacksmith shop, a distillery, and other outbuildings. Dolsen's Landing had . . . — Map (db m71311) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Chatham — British Encampment: Forks of the ThamesSunday, October 3, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
While British Army was encamped at Dolsen's, Procter travelled to Fairfield to investigate the site as a defensive position. At Tecumseh's urging, and learning that the Americans were closing rapidly, Colonel Warburton, Procter's second-in-command, ordered the army to break camp and move up-river. The British departure from Dolsen's caused a rift among the warriors because many of them wanted to engage the Americans at Dolsen's despite Tecumseh's desire to fight at the Forks. By militia officer . . . — Map (db m71360) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Chatham — First Nations Encampment: Thomas McCrae FarmFriday, October 1, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Thomas McCrae was an early settler, innkeeper, and political figure in Raleigh Township along the Thames River. He served as a captain and company commander in the Kent Militia and was present at the capture of Fort Detroit. Family tradition relates that McCrae used the prize money he received from the capture of the fort to complete his Georgian brick home in 1813. On October 1, with the British now encamped across the river and to the east at Dolsen's Landing, the First Nations . . . — Map (db m71308) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Chatham — Skirmish at the ForksMonday, October 4, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
On October 2, 1813, Tecumseh moved his warriors up-river to the Forks where he had been led to believe that fortifications would be prepared for a full-scale confrontation with harrison's army. When Tecumseh arrived, he was enraged to find no fortifications and only three or four dismounted cannon and a log cabin containing small arms. Despite his dismay, Tecumseh convinced his warriors to stage a rearguard action at the Forks on October 4 to slow the American advance. That morning, the . . . — Map (db m71335) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Chatham — Skirmish at the ForksMonday, October 4, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Robert McAfee, a member of Colonel Johnson's Kentucky Mounted Regiment, described the skirmish in his journal. He wrote: Oct 4: …a woman … informed us that about six miles above the River forked, that there was a large bridge across the mouth of the Right hand fork and a mill and a bridge about about about a mile and a half up the fork where the Indians were encamped [sic] and she expected that they would make a stand and fight … about twelve o'clock the firing commenced on our left and . . . — Map (db m71378) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Chatham — Tecumseh
On this site, Tecumseh, a Shawnee Chief, who was an ally of the British during the War of 1812, fought against American forces on October 4, 1813. Tecumseh was born in 1768 and became an important organizer of native resistance to the spread of white settlement in North America. The day after the fighting here, he was killed in the Battle of the Thames near Moraviantown. Tecumseh Park was named to commemorate his strong will and determination. — Map (db m71322) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Assault on Backmetack MarshTuesday, October 5, 1813, 4:00 p.m. — Tecumseh Parkway
As Lieutenant Colonel James Johnson's horsemen were charging the British front line, his brother, Colonel Richard Johnson led an attack against the First Nations warriors in Backmetack Marsh. The mounted infantry charged the Native left flank led by 20 riders, called "The Forlorn Hope," who were intended to draw the warriors' fire and empty their guns. Tecumseh's allies fired a devastating volley at close range that cut down 15 of the riders. The casualties included Colonel Johnson who was . . . — Map (db m72397) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Fairfield — Tecumseh Parkway
The Moravians or "Bohemian Brethren" were a protestant sect that originated in the 1400s in Moravia and Bohemia, the present day Czech Republic. They faced persecution in their homeland and in 1722 many moved to Saxony (now part of Germany) where they were given security and land on the estate of Nikolaus Ludwig Von Zinzendorf. There they built a community called Hernhut and subsequently sent missionaries to North America where they established settlements in Pennsylvania (Bethlehem and . . . — Map (db m72448) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the ThamesTuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Makataimeshekiakiak, Black Hawk, 1767-1838: A Sauk war leader and experienced warrior, Blackhawk was a veteran of the Battles of Fort Meigs and Fort Stephenson. Although he left the war for a period of time, he rejoined the British, and scholars feel that he was probably at the Battle of the Thames. Following the war, Black Hawk continued to oppose American encroachment on native lands that culminated in "The Black Hawk War" in 1832. Naiwash: Ottawa chief Naw Kaw: Winnebago chief. . . . — Map (db m71418) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the ThamesTuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Shabbona 1775-1859: A Potawatomi chief, grand nephew of Pontiac, and veteran of Tippecanoe, Shabbona was an accomplished warrior and strong supporter of Tecumseh. He persuaded many natives to join the confederacy. Sou-veh-hoo-wah, Split Log, 1765-1825: Huron chief and veteran of the River Raisin and Fort Meigs, Split Log helped defeat Brigadier General McArthur's American force at the Grand River in October 1814. Tecumseh 1768-1813: Leader of the First Nations confederacy. . . . — Map (db m71419) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the ThamesTuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Isaac Shelby 1750-1826: Shelby was the 1st and 5th governor of Kentucky and a veteran of the American Revolution. As governor and at 63years of age, Shelby personally led the Kentucky Militia at the Battle of the Thames. Tarhe 1742-1816: A Wyandot chief and loyal American, he marched with his warriors throughout General Harrison's campaign in Canada and fought at the Battle of the Thames despite being 72 years old. William Whitley 1749-1813: Veteran of the Indian Wars, militia leader, . . . — Map (db m72388) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Prelude to BattleTuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
By the early morning of October 5, 1813, the American Army had forded the Thames River and was advancing quickly. The British rearguard was able to destroy Cornwall's mill, west of Sherman's farm (present-day Thamesville, Ontario) but not the mill dam over which the road ran, which aided the American pursuit. In Procter's absence, Colonel Warburton decided to move the British troops as far as Fairfield. At 1:00 p.m., however, Procter, who had met them en route, ordered battle lines to be . . . — Map (db m71413) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Tecumseh1768-1813
Born in a Shawnee village in what is now Ohio, Tecumseh became in the 1770s co-leader with his brother, the Prophet, of a movement to restore and preserve traditional Indian values. He believed a union of all the western tribes to drive back white settlement to be the one hope for Indian survival and spread this idea the length of the frontier. Seeing the Americans as the immediate threat, he allied himself with the British in 1812, assisted in the capture of Detroit and was killed near here at . . . — Map (db m71410) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — The Bugles SoundTuesday, October 5, 1813, 4:00 p.m. — Tecumseh Parkway
Many of the men of the 41st Regiment had been stationed in Canada for 13 years. By October 5, 1813, they had not been paid for 6 to 9 months; they lacked tents and blankets; their uniforms were in rags; they were plagued by a variety of diseases; and they had not had proper food for days. British Ensign James Cochran observed, "The attack was silently awaited, each determined to do his duty, but few with any doubt as to the result." The British, numbering about 450, faced 3000 American . . . — Map (db m72393) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — The Burning of Fairfield — Tecumseh Parkway
Robert McAfee, a soldier in Colonel Johnson's Mounted Regiment, kept a journal of his experiences, and wrote on October 7, 1813: Spent the day in collecting in plunder ... Colonel Owings Regiment of Regulars came up and took charge of the plunder and the whole army marched off and we sett [sic] fire to the town, putting the first torch to the Moravian Church and consumed the whole to ashes and we continued our march down the river to the large plantation where the bake ovens were and . . . — Map (db m72414) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — The Death of TecumsehTuesday, October 5, 1813, Approximately 4:20 p.m. — Tecumseh Parkway
At some point during the attack on Backmetack Marsh, Tecumseh was fatally shot. As word spread of their leader's death, one American account tells of the warriors giving, "the loudest yells I ever heard from human beings and that ended the fight." Who killed Tecumseh is a matter of debate. Many accounts claim that the badly-wounded Colonel Richard Johnson shot Tecumseh just before he lost consciousness although, until much later in his political career, Johnson only claimed to have shot an . . . — Map (db m72405) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Chippawa — Battle of Chippawa
[Text on the West Side]: Battle of Chippawa 5 July 1814 In memory of all those who fought on this ground, many of whom are buried nearby, and to commemorate the peace that has prevailed between Canada and the United States since that time. This monument was erected and dedicated by The Niagara Parks Commission. October 2001. Brian E. Merrett, Chairman The Niagara Parks Commission [Text on the South Side]: . . . — Map (db m49393) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Chippawa — Chippawa Battlefield Panel 1Background to a Battle
On these fields and the surrounding woods 4,000 American, British, Canadian and Native forces fought the first major battle of the Niagara campaign of 1814. When the last shots died away on Samuel Street's farm, more than 800 lay dead and wounded. Since 18 June 1812, when the United States declared war on Great Britain, a small force of British Regulars, Canadian Militia and Native Warriors had turned back seven American invasions of Canada. On 3 July 1814, Major General Jacob Brown, . . . — Map (db m49398) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Chippawa — Chippawa Battlefield Panel 2Opening Strikes — July 5, 1814 3:00 p.m.
At dawn 5 July 1814, parties of Canadian-Militia and British allied Native Warriors scouted the American camp. They began sniping from the bushes on the north side of Street's Creek and this continued throughout the morning. Around noon, General Brown ordered General Porter to take some of his men and end this harassing fire. At about 2pm, Porter led his New York and Pennsylvania Militia and allied Warriors into the woods to the west, crossed the creek and drove the scouting parties . . . — Map (db m49399) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Chippawa — Chippawa Battlefield Panel 5Final Stages — July 5, 1814 5:30 p.m.
As the battle raged, more American artillery deployed to the middle of the plain between the 11th U.S. and the lone 25th U.S. company, less than 100 meters (109 yards) from the British line. General Brown then led Ripley's brigade across Street's Creek to the west in an effort to envelop the entire British Force. However, the creek was chest deep, the undergrowth thick and Ripley's men never did join the fight on the plain. Meanwhile, with point blank canister raking his line, the enemy's . . . — Map (db m49403) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara Falls — Indian Ossuary
200 yards north west of the highest point was situated the largest Indian Ossuary yet discovered in the Province. First discovered in 1828. Bones and sand removed in 1908. — Map (db m75853) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Butler's Rangers
In 1777 John Butler of New York raised a force of Rangers who, with their Iroquois allies, raided the frontiers of New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey throughout the American Revolutionary War. From their base at Fort Niagara they successfully maintained British military power on the frontiers and seriously threatened rebel food supplies. When Fort Niagara became overcrowded in the autumn of 1778, Butler built near here a group of barracks to house his Rangers and their families. Disbanded in . . . — Map (db m75857) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Niagara Land Purchases
To obtain land on which to settle Loyalists and dispossessed members of the Six Nations of the Iroquois, Guy Johnson in May 1781 and John Butler in May 1784 negotiated treaties with representatives of the Mississauga and Chippewa of this region. The Crown thereby acquired title to a tract of land 6.4 km wide along the west bank of the Niagara River between Lakes Erie and Ontario. These two cessions were later confirmed by a third treaty negotiated by John Graves Simcoe, Lieutenant-Governor of . . . — Map (db m75863) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Queenston — 2. The Treacherous River CliffThe Battle of Queenston Heights Walking Tour — Stop 2 of the 5-stop walking tour
"An unguarded trail up this steep cliff was the only route which the Americans had to the heights of Queenston. The trail was to your right but does not exist any longer. Trapped on the river shore by unrelenting gunfire, the Americans contemplated a desperate action: the ascent of this cliff. The British, positioned on a ledge between here and the Village of Queenston did not detect the movement and the attackers took the Heights by surprise. However, later in the battle this cliff became a . . . — Map (db m55030) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Queenston — 5. The Decisive BattleThe Battle of Queenston Heights Walking Tour — Stop 5 of the 5-stop walking tour
On the plateau before you, the British and Americans met for battle. The British formed a line to your right, the Americans to your left. General Sheaffe formed a British counter-offensive force of nine hundred men in a line shoulder to shoulder. The Americans were slightly greater in number but had not been reinforced with troops or arms since the arrival of the Indians. They had to meet the British with their backs to the river precipice. The British combined force advanced with fixed . . . — Map (db m55028) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Queenston — Indians at Queenston HeightsOctober 13, 1812
Warriors of the Six Nations of Iroquois (Mohawks, Oniedas Onondagos, Cayugas, Senecas, Tuscaroras), mainly from the Grand River, fought as allies of the British in this historic battle with the Americans. Speaking distinctive dialects and with different religious beliefs, these Indians were drawn together for the battle by John Norton, a resourceful and courageous commander. Norton, a man of Cherokee and Scottish ancestry, was a Mohawk (Teyoninhokarawen) by adoption. With John Brant . . . — Map (db m49168) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Queenston — The Battle of Queenston HeightsThe Battle of Queenston Heights Walking Tour
The Battle of Queenston Heights The village below you and the heights on which you are standing were the stage for the famous Battle of Queenston Heights. It took place during the Anglo-American conflict 1812-1815 known as the War of 1812. During the early morning hours of October 13, 1812 an American invasion force camped at Lewiston crossed the Niagara river and gained control of the heights of Queenston. After many hours of fierce combat, they were crushed by a combined . . . — Map (db m51682) HM
Quebec (de Roussillon MRC), La Prairie — Second Battle of La Prairie
French text on marker appears above English text below On August 11th, 1691, a few hours after the attack on Fort La Prairie, Major Peter Schuyler and his Indians suffered a severe defeat at the hands of the French and their indian allies, under the command of Captain De Valrennes. The French lost the following officers: Lieutenants Le Varlet, Le Ber, Duchesne, Denys De La Bruère and Depeiras. Ce site est le don de David Daigneault (translation: This land was donated by David . . . — Map (db m75315) HM WM
Quebec (Le Plateau-Mont-Royal Borough), Montréal — Hochelaga
Près d’ici état le site de la ville fortifiée ďHochelaga visitée par Jacques Cartier en 1535, abandonnée avant 1600 elle renfermait cinquante grandes maisons logeant chacune plusieurs familles vivant de la culture du sol et de la pêche. Near here was the site of the fortified town of Hochelaga visited by Jacques Cartier, in 1535, abandoned before 1600. It contained fifty large houses, each lodging several families who subsisted by cultivation and fishing. — Map (db m72726) HM
Yukon Territory, Carcross — Carcross during World War IIAlaska-Canada Highway, 50 Years: 1942-1992
During World War II, Carcross played an important role in Alaska Highway construction. The connection here between the White Pass rail and water transportation systems gave the U.S. Army access to the Yukon’s interior. By early 1942, Carcross residents were well aware of the war. Many young men had joined the armed forces, and their families anxiously followed the news from Europe. That spring, however, the war moved much closer to home when 1200 Black troops of the 93rd Engineers stepped . . . — Map (db m68899) HM
Yukon Territory, Haines Junction — The Tatshenshini RiverLa rivière Tatshenshini
{English} The Tatshenshini River, known as Shawshe Chu in the Southern Tutchone language, begins in northwestern British Columbia and flows nearly 200 kilometers through the traditional territory of the Champagne and Aishihik First Nations into the Gulf of Alaska. The Tatshenshini is a traditional travel route with great cultural and spiritual significance to Southern Tetchome and Tlingit First Nations. Flowing down rugged canyons carved through coastal mountains, post glacier-filled valleys, . . . — Map (db m49612) HM
Alabama (Autauga County), Prattville — A County Older Than the State, Autauga County
Created in 1818 by an act of Alabama Territorial Legislature. Autauga Indians lived on creek from which the county takes its name. Autaugas were members of the Alibamo tribe. They sent many warriors to resist Andrew Jackson's invasion in Creek War. County was part of the territory ceded by the Creeks in Treaty of Ft. Jackson, 1814. Prattville county seat since 1868. Earlier: Jackson's Mill, Washington, Kingston. — Map (db m27907) HM
Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — Indian Village Achuse
This Shell Banks Baptist Church rests near the location of the first Indian village in America visited by a white man. This was the Indian village of “Achuse” visited by Admiral Maldonado who was one of De Soto’s officers. He scouted the Florida and Alabama coast from Tampa Bay and entered the port of “Achuse” before De Soto started from Tampa Bay on the longest, strangest, boldest adventure in the history of the world. This was in 1539, 81 years before the Pilgrims . . . — Map (db m66295) HM
Alabama (Baldwin County), Stockton — Fort Mims And The Creek Indian War, 1813-14
Front: In 1813, people on the United State’s southwestern frontier were fearful. The Redstick faction of the Creek Indian Nation opposed growing American influence in the area and had voted for war. However, Creeks living in the Tensaw area had intermarried with the European and American settlers and were close allies. Early in the summer, local American militia and allied Creeks attacked a group of Redsticks at Burt Corn Creek. Tensions grew and many families along the Tensaw, . . . — Map (db m66394) HM
Alabama (Baldwin County), Stockton — Historic Stockton / Old Schoolyard Park
Front: Historic Stockton Modern Stockton is situated on a hill just above the original settlement, which was abandoned around 1840 because of Yellow Fever outbreaks. No verified source for the town name exists. Most likely it was named by the local postmaster. The Indian mounds located near Stockton are witnesses of a prehistoric Indian population in the area. In the latter 1700s, Stockton was the most populous settlement in this area, excepting Mobile. Some records indicate the . . . — Map (db m66390) HM
Alabama (Barbour County), Batesville — Providence Methodist Church & Schoolhouse
Side 1 In 1828, Reverend John Wesley Norton left his native South Carolina with his family and a wagon train of followers, crossed into the Creek Indian Nation and just into the edge of what was then Pike County, settling near the present town of Clayton, Alabama. He was then in the bounds of, or in proximity to, the Chattahoochee Circuit of the Methodist Episcopal Church and was quite an acquisition to the young and struggling circuit in that newly settled section on the borders . . . — Map (db m78123) HM
Alabama (Blount County), Blountsville — Blountsville
1820-1889 seat of Blount County a county older than the State. Named for Tennessee Governor W. G. Blount who sent Andrew Jackson to aid Alabama settlers in Creek Indian War, 1812-1814. Indian Chief Bear Meat lived here at crossing of old Indian trading paths. 1816 - Tennesseans began trading post here and called village Bear Meat Cabin. 1820 - named changed to Blountsville and made county seat. 1889 - County seat moved to Oneonta. — Map (db m28038) HM
Alabama (Blount County), Oneonta — Blount CountyA County Older Than the State
Created Feb. 7, 1818 by Alabama Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by the Creek Indian Nation. Named for the Tennessee Governor W. G. Blount, who sent militia under Andrew Jackson to punish the Creeks for Fort Mims massacre. Jackson fought and won the Creek War. Creek gave up half of their lands in Treaty of Ft. Jackson, 1814. Some of Jackson's men were first settlers of Blount. County seat moved here in 1889. — Map (db m24353) HM
Alabama (Bullock County), Union Springs — Indian Treaty Boundary Line
The Treaty of Fort Jackson of August 9, 1814, by Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States of America and the Chiefs, Deputies and Warriors of the Creek Nation, established a boundary line between the Mississippi Territory and the Creek Nation. The line began at a point ten miles from the mouth of the Ofucshee Creek directly to the mouth of the Summochico Creek on the Chatahouchie River. The Creek Treaty of Washington, signed on March 24, 1832, ceded the . . . — Map (db m61025) HM
Alabama (Bullock County), Union Springs — Indian Treaty Boundary Line
The Treaty of Fort Jackson of August 9, 1814, by Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States of America and the Chiefs, Deputies and Warriors of the Creek Nation, established a boundary line between the Mississippi Territory and the Creek Nation. The line began at a point ten miles from the mouth of the Ofucshee Creek directly to the mouth of the Summochico Creek on the Chatahouchie River. The Creek Treaty of Washington, signed on March 24, 1832, ceded the . . . — Map (db m61026) HM
Alabama (Butler County), Forest Home — The Butler Massacre / Fort Bibb
(obverse) The Butler Massacre On March 20, 1818, Capt. William Butler, Capt. James Saffold, William Gardener, Daniel Shaw and John Hinson left Fort Bibb to meet Col. Sam Dale. They were attacked near Pine Barren Creek by Savannah Jack and his warriors. Gardener and Shaw were shot dead; Butler and Hinson wounded. Saffold and Hinson escaped on horseback to Fort Bibb, but Capt. Butler, thrown from his horse and left on foot, was killed by the Indians. Butler County was named in . . . — Map (db m68165) HM
Alabama (Butler County), Greenville — Butler CountyA County Older Than The State
Side 1 Created in 1819 by Act of Alabama Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by the Creek Indian Nation by the Treaty of Fort Jackson, 1814. Named for Captain William Butler, soldier of Creek Indian War, 1813-14, early settler killed in Creek Uprising, 1818. Early settlers from Georgia and South Carolina came by Federal Road built by U.S. Army. County seat first at Fort Dale in 1819, here at Greenville since 1821. Side 2 Flow of settlers was . . . — Map (db m70755) HM
Alabama (Butler County), Greenville — Pioneer Cemetery
Greenville's oldest, established 1819. Captain William Butler, for whom the county was named, buried here. He was killed fighting Indians led by Savannah Jack in March, 1818. Greenville's oldest church, a community church established in 1822, formerly stood near eastern boundary. — Map (db m70751) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Alexandria — Lincoyerand The Battle of Tallasehatchee
At this site, on Nov. 3, 1813, after the Battle of Tallasehatchee, known then as Talluschatches, during the Creek Indian War, Gen. Andrew Jackson found a dead Creek Indian woman embracing her living infant son. Gen. Jackson, upon hearing that the other Creek Indian women were planning to kill the infant, as was their custom when all relations were dead, became himself the protector and guardian of the child. Because of his compassion, Gen. Jackson took the infant to Fort . . . — Map (db m36551) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Alexandria — TallasseehatcheeCreek Indian War 1813-14 — Nov. 3, 1813
Gen. John Coffee, commanding 900 Tennessee Volunteers, surrounded Indians nearby; killed some 200 warriors. This was first American victory. It avenged earlier massacre of 517 at Ft. Mims by Indians. — Map (db m27610) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Jacksonville — Chief Ladiga Trail - Jacksonville
The Chief Ladiga Trail was named for a Creek Indian leader who signed the Cusseta Treaty in 1832. Under the terms of that agreement, the Creeks gave up claim to their remaining lands in northeast Alabama. Because he had signed the treaty, Ladiga was allowed to select some land in Benton County for his wife and himself. A year after the treaty, he sold part of his holdings for $2,000 to a group of speculators headed by Charles White Peters. That land later became Jacksonville. After selling the . . . — Map (db m36438) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Jacksonville — Jacksonville, Alabama“Gem of the Hills”
Life here has long centered on education beginning in 1834 when a one-acre plot of land was reserved for a schoolhouse. Through the years, various institutions of higher learning developed that culminated into present-day Jacksonville State University. Land that was to become Jacksonville was purchased from Creek Indian Chief Ladiga in 1833. Originally called Drayton, its name was changed to Jacksonville in 1836. Jacksonville experienced a rich heritage as the county seat of Calhoun County. Its . . . — Map (db m36429) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Jacksonville — Site of Indian Trading Post
This is the place where one of the original Creek Indian Trading Posts stood in 1830. Ladiga was Chief of the tribe. — Map (db m36483) HM
Alabama (Chambers County), LaFayette — Chambers County
Chambers County, created December 18, 1832 from Creek Indian cession. Named for Dr. Henry C. Chambers of Madison County, member of Constitutional Convention 1819, legislature of 1820, elected U.S. Senator 1825 but died enroute to Washington. County government organized 1833 by Judge James Thompson of Jefferson County. First officers were: Nathaniel Greer, Sheriff; William House, Clk. Cir. Ct.; Joseph J. Williams, Clk. Co. Ct.; Booker Lawson, John Wood, William Fannin, John A. Hurst, . . . — Map (db m18162) HM
Alabama (Chambers County), Lafayette — Muscogee Indians
Called Creeks Indian villages nearby were affiliated with either Upper or Lower Confederacies of the Creek Nation. In colonial times Spain, France and England contended for this section. Indian title ceded in 1832. — Map (db m71639) HM
Alabama (Chambers County), Lanett — 141-10 — Ocfuskooche Tallauhassee
A flourishing, ancient town of the Muscogee Indians known as Ocfuskooche Tallahassee (Old Town) stood on this site. English traders from Charles Town visited it about 1685. A trail known as "Old Horse Path" led from this village to the Tallapoosa. Ocfuskooche is known to have existed through Colonial and Revolutionary times but, soon after 1790, the town was abandoned and its inhabitants moved westward to settle on the Tallapoosa River. The westward surge of settlers and bitter frontier fighting forced the move. — Map (db m36315) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Thomasville — Choctaw Corner
Established by Choctaw and Creek Indians about 1808 as the northern limit of boundary line between their lands. This line begins at the cut-off in South Clark County, follows the watershed between Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers without crossing water. The disputed territory boundary was settled by two ball games, one between the warriors and one between the squaws of each tribe. The Choctaws won both games clearing forever their title to the lands. Actual site of corner is 1.7 miles North, N.E.. — Map (db m38586) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Whatley — Kimbell - James Massacre←½ mile—
Sept. 1, 1813 Creek Indian War. 1813-14 Part of War of 1812. British used Pensacola as base to arm, incite Indians against U.S.. Prophet Francis led Indians in this raid on Kimbell home. They Killed and scalped 12 of 14 (two survivors left for dead); pillaged house, Killed livestock. — Map (db m47635) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Whatley — Old Indian Trail
Here passed the Old Indian Trail used as a dividing line between the Choctaw and Creek Tribes. General Andrew Jackson and his troops rested here for the night in 1813. — Map (db m47633) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Whatley — Old Line Road
Commences at the Cut-Off, or the first high ground in that vicinity, follows the watershed between the Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers, and ends at Choctaw Corner. Established in 1808 by the Creek and Choctaw Indians as the dividing line between their lands. — Map (db m47628) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Cherokee — Bear Creek Mound
The village site was occupied as early as 8000 B.C. by hunters who stayed only long enough to prepare their kill. From the time of Christ to 1000 A.D., migratory people of this area practiced limited agriculture. The nearby fields and streams offered an abundance of nuts, fruits, game and fish. These people shaped this mound and built a crude temple on its summit to house their sacred images. — Map (db m36061) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Sheffield — History of Sheffield
Side A Prehistoric man arrived in this area bout 10,000 years ago. Later Indian cultures left many stone artifacts and pottery vessels. In the 1780s, a French trading post and Indian village were located near the mouth of Spring Creek. The town of York Bluff was laid out in 1820 and Andrew Jackson brought land for a plantation. A few houses and store were built but that "town" dwindled away. In 1832, the first railroad in the state terminated at Tuscumbia Landing near Spring Creek. . . . — Map (db m35624) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Tuscumbia — American Indian History
Side 1 Oka Kapassa (Ococoposa), meaning "Cold Water", was the Chickasaw name given to Spring Creek and to a trading post established near the Tennessee River about 1780. About 1817, Michael Dickerson and others were greeted at what by then was called Big Spring by Chief Tuscumbia, a Chickasaw rainmaker. The settlers named the new town in his honor in 1822. Colbert County, formed in 1867 from the Northern half of Franklin County, was named for Chickasaw Chieftains George Colbert, . . . — Map (db m28585) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Tuscumbia — History of Tuscumbia, Alabama
The area around the Big Spring was inhabited by prehistoric Native Americans as early as 10,000 years ago. The first settlement was a French trading post and Indian village about 1780 on Cold Water Creek (Spring Creek) near the river. The first permanent white settlers were Michael Dickson and family, who arrived by keel boat about 1817, followed shortly by four brothers-in-law, Isaiah McDill, James McMann, Hugh Finley and David Matthews. Jackson's Military Road was constructed through . . . — Map (db m35414) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Tuscumbia — Sacred TearsBy Branko Medenica — September 19, 2003
Panel 1 Tuscumbia and much of the Shoals area played an integral part in the "Trail of Tears" with the Tennessee River route and the overland routes. In 1825, the U.S. Government formally adopted a removal policy, which was carried out extensively in the 1830's by Presidents Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren. The result was particularly overwhelming for the Indians of the southeast, primarily the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole. While some resisted removal by . . . — Map (db m29285) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Tuscumbia — Tuscumbia Big Spring
Tuscumbia Big Spring Big Spring (average daily flow 35,000,000 gallons) provided water for town founded on its banks. Michael Dickson of Tennessee was first settler (about 1817). Town laid out in 1819 and incorporated as Ococoposo (Cold Water, 1820). Name changed to Tuscumbia (1822) for a Chickasaw Indian. Confederate and Union soldiers camped here intermittently during wartime. (1861~1865). Site of Tennessee Valley Fair in the 1800's, later Colbert County Fair until 1930's. Spring park . . . — Map (db m28581) HM
Alabama (Dale County), Daleville — Daleville, Alabama
Daleville, originally called Dale, was the county seat of Dale County from 1831-1841. William Harper was probate judge of Dale County, which was originally included in present-day Coffee County until 1841, present-day Geneva County until 1868, and part of Houston County until 1903. Dale County was named for General Sam Dale, foremost pioneer guide scout, messenger, and leader of settlers through the Creek and Choctaw nations of the Southeast and Gulf Coast. Noted for being cautious and cool in . . . — Map (db m41145) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Beloit — Cahawba
Site of Alabama's first permanent capital 1820-26. County seat Dallas County, 1820-66. Prison for Union soldiers during the War Between the States 1863-65. Indians were the first inhabitants over 4000 years ago. Their large fortified village could have been visited by DeSoto in 1540. Located 5½ miles south on the Alabama and Cahaba Rivers. — Map (db m75779) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Ecor Bienville1702-1743 — The first recorded name of Selma
This tablet commemorates the engagement between Jean Baptiste Le Moyne Sieur de Bienville, Governor of the Province, and The Alibamo Indians. In 1714 Bienville made a friendly visit to this section. — Map (db m37658) HM
Alabama (DeKalb County), Fort Payne — Cherokee Indian Removal
Under the provisions of the Cherokee Removal Act of 1830, a log stockade was built, “Two hundred yards Northeast of Big Spring.” The spring supplied abundant water for the Cherokees, the soldiers and livestock. Fort Payne was used as both an interment camp and a removal fort. It was built by Capt. James H. Rogers on a site chosen by Capt. John G. Payne. Rogers and 22 soldiers began construction of the fort on April 13, 1838 and remained until the departure of the last group of . . . — Map (db m36743) HM
Alabama (DeKalb County), Fort Payne — Fort Payne’s Fort
The fort, consisting of a log house and large stockade, was built in 1838 by order of General Winfield Scott, commander of military forces responsible for the removal of Cherokee Indians. Soldiers occupying the fort were commanded by Captain John C. Payne, for whom the fort was named. Indians in the DeKalb County area who refused to move westward voluntarily were gathered and held in the stockade pending their forceful removal to the Indian territory. Chimney still standing on . . . — Map (db m28030) HM
Alabama (DeKalb County), Fort Payne — Sequoyah(1760-1843)
Born in Tennessee, Sequoyah moved to Wills Town (DeKalb County, Alabama) area of the Cherokee Nation in 1818. Here, in 1821, he invented an 86 symbol alphabet providing the Cherokees with the only written Indian language in the United States. (Sequoyah, Maker Cherokee Alphabet) — Map (db m28033) HM
Alabama (DeKalb County), Fort Payne — Site of the Willstown Mission1823-1839
Also resting place of Supt Ard Hoyt 1770-1828 Missionary to the Cherokee Indians Here and at Brainerd 1818-1828 — Map (db m36965) HM
Alabama (DeKalb County), Fort Payne — Wills Town Mission
The mission was established in 1823 by the American Board of Missions to further education and Christianity among the Cherokee Indians. Mission operated until the Indian removal in 1838. Grave site of Reverend Ard Hoyt, first superintendent, marks the location of the mission near the corner of 38th Street and Godfrey Avenue. — Map (db m28035) HM
Alabama (DeKalb County), Valley Head — Site of Cherokee Council Tree
Here stood The giant Black Spanish Oak Under which Traditionally Sequoyah Taught his newly invented Alphabet Tree felled by a storm 1934 — Map (db m28036) HM
Alabama (Elmore County), Millbrook — Robinson Springs Neighborhood
Side 1: Clear, bubbling springs have enticed people to this vicinity for thousands of years. Native American hunting paths led to them and after the defeat of the Creek Indians by the United States in 1813, old trails became the Jackson and Federal roads over which settlers from Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia flooded into these lands in 1818. They were lured by the fertile soil and ideal climate for growing cotton. The free and enslaved worked together to establish this community. . . . — Map (db m71177) HM
Alabama (Elmore County), Wetumpka — Here Stood Fort Toulouse
Here stood Fort Toulouse A defense against the Indians Built by Bienville 1714 The Alabama Society of Colonial Dames preserves the memory of faithful service 1912 — Map (db m69567) HM
Alabama (Elmore County), Wetumpka — Wetumpka Historical Marker
(obverse) The land area which now comprises the City of Wetumpka was inhabited by various Indian cultures prior to the inward migration of the white man at the turn of the 19th century. The largest Indian village near here was located on the east bank of the Coosa River one mile south of this point. This village was known as “Oche-au-po-fau” (Hickory Ground) and was composed mainly of Muscogees. After the 1814 surrender of the Creek Confederacy at Fort Toulouse, there came . . . — Map (db m67936) HM
Alabama (Etowah County), Attalla — “The Junction”Attalla
For thousands of years, two important Indian trade routes ran across what was to become Etowah County. The “High Town Path” ran from Charlestown, S.C. west to the Mississippi River, near Memphis, TN. The “Creek Path” begins at Pensacola, Fl. and runs northwest into the Ohio Country. Two miles west of this spot, on Big Wills Creek, the two routes formed a “Junction,” and became a combined path across Racoon (Sand) Mountain, where it again divided. By . . . — Map (db m39226) HM
Alabama (Etowah County), Gadsden — The Legend Of Noccalula
White settlers in the hills of Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina pushed the Cherokee Indian tribes into North Alabama. The Cherokee in turn encroached upon Creek Territory. There were sporadic battles between the tribes. Black Creek Falls had long been a trading station and ceremonial ground. Legend is that Noccalula, a beautiful daughter of a Cherokee Chief, had been promised by her father to a Creek sub-chief as an exchange for peace between the Nations. . . . — Map (db m37459) HM
Alabama (Etowah County), Gadsden — Turkey Town MonumentChief Turkey-Turkey Town Valley Expedition-May We Never Forget
The surrounding area and this well was part of Turkey’s Town, once a capitol of the proud Cherokee Nation. Chief Turkey was the principal chief during the late 1700’s. On October 25, 1864, the Turkey Town Valley Expedition of the XV Corps Union Army led by Major General Peter J. Osterhaus was stopped by the Confederate Calvary led by Joseph Wheeler at this site. Total casualties: US 287 CS 92. May we never forget the men and women of Turkey Town Valley who labored and fought to . . . — Map (db m26837) HM
Alabama (Greene County), Eutaw — Welcome to Eutaw, Alabama: The Gateway To The Black BeltCounty Seat of Greene County
In 1838, Greene County citizens voted to change the town seat from Erie to Eutaw. The City of Eutaw, Alabama was incorporated as a town by and act of the State Legislature on January 2, 1841. Greene County had been named for General Nathaniel Green. The name, Eutaw, was chosen to commemorate the Battle of Eutaw Springs fought in South Carolina in 1781, the battle in which General Greene defeated the British. Since the county had been named for him, the people chose to name the town after his . . . — Map (db m37967) HM
Alabama (Hale County), Moundville — Moundville
Site of a prehistoric Native American political and ceremonial center from about A. D. 1100-1500 that, at its height in the 13th century, was America’s largest community north of Mexico. Between 1,000 and 3,000 people lived in this town fortified by a one-mile long wooden wall studded with guard towers. Moundville served as the capital of a powerful chiefdom of about 10,000 people living in smaller villages over a 60-mile stretch of the Black Warrior River Valley from present day Tuscaloosa to . . . — Map (db m30700) HM
Alabama (Henry County), Screamer — Indian Treaty Boundary Line
The Treaty of Fort Jackson on August 9, 1814 by Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States of America and the Chiefs, Deputies and Warriors of the Creek Indian Nation, established a boundary line between the Mississippi Territory and the Creek Nation. The line ran across present-day Henry County from the mouth of Hardridge Creek to south of Chester Chapel Church. The Creek Treaty of 1832 ceded this reservation line allowing Henry County's northeast boundary to . . . — Map (db m71836) HM
Alabama (Henry County), Screamer — Indian Treaty Boundary Line
The Treaty of Fort Jackson on August 9, 1814 by Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States of America and the Chiefs, Deputies and Warriors of the Creek Indian Nation, established a boundary line between the Mississippi Territory and the Creek Nation. The line ran across present-day Henry County from the mouth of Hardridge Creek to south of Chester Chapel Church. The Creek Treaty of 1832 ceded this reservation line allowing Henry County's northeast boundary to . . . — Map (db m71838) HM
Alabama (Henry County), Shorterville — "Irwin Empire"
Site of the 1831 Irwin homeplace where over 50,000 acres of land was owned by Major General William Irwin (1794-1850). He was an Indian fighter, farmer, politician, statesman and considered one of the nation’s richest and most influential men. A portion of his land was awarded for services rendered during the Indian wars. Irwinton (Eufaula) was his namesake. He was a major force in the disposition of the last Indian lands. He drowned in the Chattahoochee River and was buried near his homesite. — Map (db m71824) HM
Alabama (Henry County), Shorterville — Franklin - First Beachhead into East Alabama
The frontier village of Franklin was established here by Colonel Robert Irwin in 1814 on the site of the Indian town of Cheeska Talofa. It was the first colonial village in east Alabama. Fort Gaines, Georgia, was constructed in 1816 to protect the early settlers in this former Creek Indian Nation, West. Twenty-one blocks were laid off for this promising river port of Abbeville. This prospective early city never recovered from the destructive flood of 1888. — Map (db m71844) HM
Alabama (Houston County), Dothan — Poplar Head Spring
Located near this marker is the Poplar Head Spring which served as a meeting place for Indian traders prior to the arrival of the white and black settlers. The Alibamu Indians of the Chattahoochee River basin met the Creeks of the Choctawahatchee River basin at the springs frequently to trade. The first whites and blacks arrived in the early 1830’s. Of these the lumber and turpentine operators came first. They were followed by William Cawthon, a cattle king from Georgia. By 1858, the community . . . — Map (db m41141) HM
Alabama (Jackson County), Rocky Springs — Trail of Tears
In May 1838 soldiers, under the command of U.S. Army General Winfield Scott, began rounding up Cherokee Indians in this area who had refused to move to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. About 16,000 Cherokees were placed in stockades in Tennessee and Alabama until their removal. Roughly 3,000 were sent by boat down the Tennessee River and the rest were marched overland in the fall and winter of 1838-1839. This forced-removal under harsh conditions resulted in the deaths of about 4,000 . . . — Map (db m18047) HM
Alabama (Jackson County), Stevenson — Crow Town
Side A One of the Five Lower Towns established by the Chickamauga Cherokees in 1782 under the leadership of Dragging Canoe. Territorial Governor William Blount reported to the Secretary of War in 1792 that: “Crow Town lies on the north side of the Tennessee (River), half a mile from the river, up Crow Creek, 30 miles below the Suck. (It) is the lowest town in the Cherokee Nation and contained 30 huts in 1790. The Creeks and Northward tribes cross (the river) here.” All of . . . — Map (db m28473) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Before Birmingham: Jones Valley
Red Mountain, where you are standing, and Jones Valley, which stretches before you, were sites of human activity long before Birmingham's founding in 1871. Native American presence Recorded history and archaeological evidence indicate the presence of Native American people in Jones Valley stretching back 12,000 years. • From 1500 to 1800 members of Alabama's Creek Nation fished and hunted in the area. • The Creeks, or Muscogee, are believed by many to descend from the . . . — Map (db m69017) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — East Lake Community
The Creek Indian Cession of 1814 opened this section of Alabama to settlement. At the time of statehood in 1819 many pioneer families had located here in what later became known as Jones Valley. By 1820 the area was called Ruhama Valley as a result of the religious fervor of Hosea Holcomb who preached mercy or "Ruhamah." As early as 1839 a post office named Rockville was established for the local community. Major growth came in 1886 as a result of the promotion of the East Lake Land . . . — Map (db m26680) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Andrew Jackson's Military Road-1817-
Construction of this road, as ordered by General Andrew Jackson, began in May 1817 by troops of the U.S. Army for national defense purposes. Beginning near Nashville, Tennessee and continuing to Madison, Louisiana, it shortened the distance from Nashville to New Orleans by 200 miles. This road followed early Native American trails that were uses by Jackson's Army during the War of 1812. The military road served as a major transportation route for early settlers of North Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and the Old Southwest Territory. — Map (db m28563) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Cherokee Chief Doublehead's village around 1800
About 1800 Doublehead located his village at this site, where his brother-in-law Tahonteeskee had previously lived. Doublehead's log house was built along the same style of those of the white settlers. Chief Doublehead had previously led raids against Tennessee settlers from Moneetown, located southwest of here. In 1806 a reserve was set aside for Doublehead between Elk River and Cypress Creek. He leased large tracts of land to white settlers who were later evicted by the U.S. Army. His own . . . — Map (db m28958) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Prehistoric Mound(Probably Built Between 100 B.C and 400 A.D.)
This is the highest domiciliary mound in the Tennessee Valley. It was probably built between 100 B.C. and 400 A.D. by a prehistoric people of the ancient Woodland Culture. Such mounds served as bases for ceremonial temples or chief's houses. This mound, originally encircled by an earthen wall, contains no burials. It is 43 feet in height. Its base measurements are 310 feet by 230 feet. Its flat top measures 145 feet by 90 feet. Evidence indicates that nearby there were two smaller mounds, villages and cultivated fields. — Map (db m28457) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Prehistoric Native Americans / Historic Native Americans(Circa 8,000 B.C. ~1500 A.D.) / (Circa 1550 A.D.~ 1816 A.D.)
Side A This area near the mouth of Cypress Creek was inhabited by Archaic People as early as 8,000 B.C. Their main food consisted of freshwater mollusks from the river. (These mussels were the origin of the name "Muscle Shoals.") The Woodland and Copena Cultures, associated with the nearby large Florence Mound, arrived around 2,000 B.C. and remained almost 3,000 years. About 800 A.D. the Mississippian Civilization established villages here and on adjoining islands. Many of the . . . — Map (db m28454) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Rogersville — Heritage Park
Side A The settlement of what is now eastern Lauderdale County (known as "Over Elk)" by non-Native Americans commenced by 1807. Federal land sales were held in Huntsville during the spring of 1818. Although much of the land was described as a "howling wilderness," there was a rush to buy. Records of these sales show purchasers were Samuel Burney, Andrew Rodgers, Archibald Fuqua and dozens more. Andrew Rodgers bought 79 acres in what became the downtown business district and as a . . . — Map (db m32473) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Waterloo — Trail of Tears
Thousands of Cherokee Indians passed through Waterloo in the 1830s when they were forced by the U.S. government to move West on the "Trail of Tears". Most came by boat from Tuscumbia and camped here to await transfer to larger steamboats. During the encampment several births, deaths, and escapes occurred. One party of 1,070 Cherokees traveled overland from Ross Landing in Tennessee due to low water in the upper river. Following the general route of U.S. Hwy. 72 to Florence, they arrived here . . . — Map (db m29277) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Moulton — A County Older Than The StateLawrence County
Created by Territorial Legislature in 1818 from lands ceded by Cherokee and Chickasaw Indians Named for U.S, Navy hero of War of 1812 Capt. James Lawrence Fatally wounded, his famous command was "Don't Give Up The Ship" County seat since 1820 has been at Mouton which was named for hero of Creek Indian War. 1813-14. — Map (db m69672) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Moulton — Warrior Mountain
This area was the home to Indians, settlers, people of mixed ancestry and their descendants. Local bluff shelters contain evidence of occupation from Paleo Indian (10,000 BC) through the Mississippian Period (1540 AD). Chief Tuscaloosa (Black Warrior), mentioned by Desoto (1540), was a noted Creek Indian leader. A 1733 map identified the southern drainage from these mountains as the Tuscaloosa River. The first known written occurrence of "Warrior Mountains" was made by rifle maker John Bull . . . — Map (db m37445) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Cherokee Council House Museum
The Oakville Indians Mounds Museum is based on a seven sided Cherokee council house. This type of council house was used during the cooler months and an open sided rectangular pavilion during warmer weather. The descriptions used for the museum's construction came from Lt. Henry Timberlake, who visited the Cherokee capitol at Chota in 1761 and William Bartram who visited Cowe in 1765. Timberlake's description " The townhouse, in which are transacted all public business and diversions, is raised . . . — Map (db m36033) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Cherokee Indian Removal
In the early 1800's Cherokees of this area were under the leadership of Doublehead and Tahlonteskee. After Doublehead's assassination in 1807, Tahlonteskee notified President Jefferson that he and his people were ready to move west. In 1808 Tahlonteskee and 1,130 followers moved to present day Dardanelle, Arkansas. That band became known as Cherokees West and later the Old Settlers. The Blue-Water Town Creek Village was the final Alabama home of both Cherokee leaders, Doublehead is supposedly . . . — Map (db m36030) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Copena Burial Mound
Copena Indians built this mound with baskets of dirt some 2000 years ago. The Copena name was derived from their use of copper and galena (lead ore) found in their burials along with gorgets and celts. The mounds were a burial site with the dead encased in a plaster of clay covered with layers of soil. The many burial mounds within a few miles are evidence of an extensive cultural center. The perennial springs and fertile lands encircled by West Flint Creek contributed to a large population. . . . — Map (db m36039) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Creek Indian Removal
Black Warriors' Path played a critical role as a route for Creek Removal. On December 19, 1835, some 511 Creek emigrants passed along the path through present ~ day Oakville Indian Mounds Park. In September 1836, a group of Creeks left Tallassee in a wagon train of 45 wagons, 500 ponies, and 2,000 indians. This contingent followed along Black Warriors' Path and passed through the present ~ day Oakville Indian Mounds park on September 23, 1836. It's ironic that the route used by General John . . . — Map (db m36027) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Doublehead
Doublehead, (c1744-1807) aka Dsugweladegi or Chuqualatague, was the son of Great Eagle (Willenawah) and grandson of Moytoy. Among his siblings were Pumpkin Boy, Old Tassel and the unnamed grandmother of Sequoyah. After his sister's son John Watts Jr. was elected chief over him. Doublehead moved into Lawrence County and became a powerful Cherokee leader. While living at Browns Ferry from c1790~c1802, the head of the Elk River Shoals, Doublehead terrorized settlers on the Appalachian frontier . . . — Map (db m36037) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Historic Indians
Five Historic Indian tribes lived in this area. By 1701, The Yuchi were living at the shoals on the Tennessee River. In early 1700s the Yuchi left, some moving to the Cherokee Nation on the Hiwassee River, TN and others to Chattahoochee River, GA. After a dispute with the Cherokee, some Yuchi moved south to the AL - GA border. Although some Creeks lived in the area by the late 1700s, their lands lay south of the Tennessee Divide. The treaty of Fort Jackson took Creek lands in southern Lawrence . . . — Map (db m36040) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Oakville Indian Mound
Rising 27 feet high, this is the largest woodland mound in Alabama, with a base covering 1.8 acres and a flat of over one acre. Built by prehistoric Copena Indians, the mound is 2,000 years old and constructed from earth probably carried one basket at a time from the Oakville pond area, 300 yards to the east. The Copena, named for their use of copper and galena, were prolific mound builders, as shown by the remains of over 20 mounds in the surrounding area. They were primarily farmers and . . . — Map (db m36031) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Town of Oakville
Based on the large number of local mounds and artifacts, this site shows evidence of Indian occupation over 2000 years ago. According to tradition about 1780, Oakville became a Cherokee town located on Black Warriors' Path. By the early 1820's, Celtic people of Scots~Irish ancestry had moved here in large numbers often intermarrying with the local Indians. Prominent names of this era included Irwin, Hodges, McNutt, McWhorter and McDaniel. Wiley Galloway was a teacher of the first known school . . . — Map (db m36036) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Town Creek — Trail of Tears
Form the late 1700's to 1807 a Cherokee Chief named Doublehead guarded this area, that was claimed by both the Cherokee and Chickasaw Nations as sacred hunting grounds against encroachment of white settlers. Chief Doublehead had the reputation of eating flesh from his victims and was a fierce warrior. Greed for land by the states and encroachment of the early European settlers led to distention between the Native Americans and U.S. Government. This led to President Andrew Jackson's the Indian . . . — Map (db m29264) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Auburn — Auburn - Alabama
Settled by Judge J. J. Harper and others from Harris County, Georgia, in 1836. This region was opened to settlement in 1836-37 by the removal of the Creek Indians to lands west of the Mississippi River. Erected by The Alabama Officers Club Daughters of the American Revolution March 14, 1934 — Map (db m39830) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Cusseta — Fort CussetaChambers County
Following the signing of the Creek Treaty in 1832, the early white settlers constructed a 16 by 30 foot hand hewn log fort for protection against a possible Indian uprising from Cussetaw Indian Village on Osanippa Creek just north of here. Walls of the fort were 4 and 6 feet high, with portholes at height of 4 feet, still visible after 140 years. Last known fort of its kind in Southeast. — Map (db m71643) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Loachapoka — Loachapoka Historic District
One of the larger settlements of the upper creeks at the time of indian removal to the west, 1835-1837. Their last council fire was held here before their forced migration to Oklahoma. Pioneer families began pouring in after 1836. Today's cemetery was known as pine level; the first Baptist Church was located there. A half mile south was Ball's Fork Trade Center and Stage Coach Junction Loachapoka can be interpreted as "land where turtles live" or "turtle killing place." — Map (db m31357) HM
Alabama (Limestone County), Athens — A County Older Than the StateLimestone County
created Feb. 6, 1818 by Alabama Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by Cherokee Nation 1806 and by Chickasaw Nation in 1816. Named for creek (and its limestone bed), which runs through county. Few settlers here until Indian treaties. Athens became county seat in 1818. Limestone was the first Alabama county to be occupied by Federal troops during the Civil War. — Map (db m29109) HM
Alabama (Limestone County), Athens — Lucy's Branch/Legacy of The Little Elk Community
Lucy's Branch This site is named for Lucy Bedingfield, daughter of a slave and a Cherokee Indian. She was born 1832, and her Indian name was Finch. She married Meredith Bedingfield, a slave and had 9 children. Lucy was an astute and avid storyteller. She purchased 170 acres in June 1888, for $600, recorded by U.S. Paten #43463. One of the last known Indian Chiefs in the area formerly occupied this land. Lucy mortgaged the farm several times by making her mark. She used "Gold Coins of the . . . — Map (db m32776) HM
Alabama (Limestone County), Elkmont — Sims Settlement
Side A (North side) In the fall of 1806 a group of settlers led by William and James Sims, traveled from east Tennessee on flatboats down the Tennessee River and up the Elk River to this area. They landed near Buck Island and spread out into the surrounding countryside, seeking homesites in what they thought was "government" land that would soon be for sale to settlers. The area they settled, covering several square miles, from Elk River to New Garden became known as "Sims Settlement." . . . — Map (db m64252) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Franklin — Franklin's Educational Legacy
(obverse) Franklin School, originally constructed on this lot, was in operation as early as the 1890s teaching grades 1-11. By the mid 1930s, it was downsized to grades 1-6. There were northern and southern classrooms adjoined by a common auditorium. The school's original water source was a spring near the building, later a dug well in the front yard with a hand pump provided water. Heat was provided by a wood-burning pot belly stove. Each student brought a stick of wood every morning . . . — Map (db m68028) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Shorter — George Stiggins1788-1845
Unmarked grave in Cubahatchie Baptist Church Cemetery. Half-blooded Creek Indian, planter, soldier, Indian agent, and historian, Stiggins lived on a nearby farm fronting the Federal Road from 1831 until his death. There he wrote "A Historical Narrative of the Genealogy, Traditions, and Downfall of the Ispocoga or Creek Indian Tribe of Indians" from his firsthand knowledge of the Creeks, their leaders, and the Creek War of 1813-14. His sister, Mary, was married to William Weatherford (Red Eagle). — Map (db m60534) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Shorter — Shorter, AlabamaA New Town in an Older Community
Shorter was originally called Cross Keys for the birthplace in South Carolina of an early settler, J.H. Howard. It was later named Shorter for former Alabama Governor John Gill Shorter. The town embodies the memories of the proud Creek Indian Nation, the Old South, and the Civil Right Movement. It was originally a part of Creek Indian Territory and now a part of Macon County, which was created in 1832. Shorter is home to several state historical sites and boasts one of the longest stretches . . . — Map (db m77639) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Brownsboro — Trail of TearsDrane/Hood Overland Route
In May 1838 soldiers, under the command of U.S. Army General Winfield Scott, began rounding up Cherokee Indians in this area who had refused to move to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. About 16,000 Cherokees were placed in stockades in Tennessee and Alabama until their removal. Roughly 3,000 were sent by boat down the Tennessee River and the rest were marched overland in the fall and winter of 1838-1839. This forced-removal under harsh conditions resulted in the deaths of about 4,000 Cherokees. . . . — Map (db m33318) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Fisk — 2F3 — Tennessee / AlabamaLincoln County
(Tennessee) Established 1809; named in honor of MAJOR GEN. BENJAMIN LINCOLN of the Revolutionary Army. After service at Saratoga, he was put in Chief Command in the Southern Colonies. Later, he was Secretary of War under the Confederation, 1781-83. (Alabama) Derived from Creek Indian phrase meaning "Here We Rest." In the early 1700s, several Spanish expeditions visited the state. In 1702 the French founded Mobile and settled near Tallapoosa. Alabama became a territory in 1817, a state in . . . — Map (db m30570) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Andrew Jackson
On this spot, camped his army, October 11, 1813, after marching from Fayetteville, Tenn.,~"32 miles without halting,"~ enroute to the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. — Map (db m30382) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Buffalo SoldiersHuntsville, AL
(south side) After the Civil War, the future of African-Americans in the United States Army was in doubt. In July 1866, Congress passed legislation establishing two cavalry and four infantry regiments to be made up of African-American soldiers. The mounted regiments (9th and 10th Cavalries) conducted campaigns against Native-American tribes on the Western Frontier, where they were nicknamed “Buffalo Soldiers” by Native-Americans. Their service also included subduing Mexican . . . — Map (db m75092) HM WM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Madison County
Made a county in 1808 by order of Governor of Mississippi Territory. Area ceded 1805, 1806 by Cherokees, Chickasaws. This was the first land in Alabama ceded by these great civilized tribes. — Map (db m27848) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Madison — Trail of TearsDrane Overland Route
Early in the 1800's gold was found from Virginia to Alabama including a rich belt on Cherokee Indian land in what is now Dahlonega, GA. causing a huge influx of miners and a land grab by new settlers. Pressure and greed from politicians led to the removal of Indians from their homeland by force, fraudulent treaties, and settler hostilities. The U.S. Government sanctioned forced removal by passing the Indian Removal Act of 1830 affecting Cherokee from AL, GA, FL, MS, TN and the Carolina's. . . . — Map (db m28784) HM
Alabama (Marengo County), Demopolis — White Bluff
Composed of limestone or “Selma chalk” which abounds in fossils. Called “Ecor Blanc” by eighteenth-century French explorers and cartographers. Named “Chickasaw Gallery” because early Indian inhabitants harassed boats from here. Landing site of Bonapartist exiles who established the “Vine and Olive Colony” in 1817. — Map (db m38001) HM
Alabama (Marshall County), Arab — Bear Meat Cabin Road
Starting as an ancient Indian trail, the north–south road through Arab in 1816 was known as Bear Meat Cabin Road. By 1818, it had become an important Federal trade route through the Alabama Territory known as the St. Stephens – Huntsville Road. Designated as a post road in 1822, it became the main mail route between New Orleans and Cincinnati over which Alabama’s first stage line traveled. Philip Clack received a State charter to operate the section through Arab as Clack’s Turnpike. . . . — Map (db m40134) HM
Alabama (Marshall County), Guntersville — History of Guntersville
(Side A) This area's proximity to the Tennessee River and Indian trails made it a crossroads for early habitation, settlement, and trade. Archaeological studies reveal it was first inhabited about 12,000 years ago by Paleo-Indians. They were followed by various tribes of Native Americans. The Cherokees arrived in the late 1700s and called the area Kusa-Nunnahi, meaning Creek Path. In 1785, John Gunter became the first white man to settle here. He married the daughter of the local . . . — Map (db m33305) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mt. Vernon — Mount Vernon Arsenal and Barracks/Searcy Hospital
(obverse) Mount Vernon Arsenal and Barracks Established 1828 by Congress to store arms and munitions for U. S. Army. Original structures completed 1830's. Arsenal appropriated by Confederacy 1861; equipment moved to Selma facilities. After Civil War used as U. S. Army barracks; from 1887-1894 served as holding ground for Apache Indian prisoners. Deeded to State of Alabama 1895. Josiah Gorgas, later Chief of Ordnance of Confederacy, stationed here 1850's; Dr. Walter . . . — Map (db m70593) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mt. Vernon — Mt. Vernon Federal Highway
In 1811, the Mount Vernon Cantonment, located on a hill about three miles west of the Mobile River, was laid out by Col. Thomas H. Cushing. The cantonment was on the site of a spring called Mount Vernon Springs. In 1814, the garrison at Mt. Vernon was visited by Andrew Jackson. Construction of the Old Federal Road from Milledgeville, Georgia to Fort Stoddert, Alabama began in 1818. 1828 president Andrew Jackson authorized for Mt. Vernon to become a military arsenal. By 1830 the construction of . . . — Map (db m70591) HM
Alabama (Monroe County), Burnt Corn — Old Federal RoadBurnt Corn
Burnt Corn, Monroe County's earliest settlement, became the crossroads of the Great Pensacola Trading Path and The Federal Road. Settler Jim Cornells returned from Pensacola in 1813, finding his home destroyed and his wife kidnapped by a Creek Indian war party. As the Creeks returned from procuring arms in Pensacola, Cornells and volunteers ambushed the Indians. Thus began the Creek Indian War of 1813-1814. — Map (db m47687) HM
Alabama (Monroe County), Perdue Hill — Fort ClaiborneCreek Indian War 1813-1814
Built by Gen. Ferdinand L. Claiborne as a base for his invasion of the Alabama country with U.S. Regulars, Lower Tombigbee Militia, and friendly Choctaws. Claiborne’s campaign culminated in the American victory over the Creeks at the Holy Ground. — Map (db m47641) HM
Alabama (Monroe County), Perdue Hill — Piache
Piache, an Indian town visited by DeSoto in 1540 was near here. DeLuna made a settlement here, Nanipacna in 1560. Fort Claiborne was erected on the south bluff, in 1813. LaFayette was entertained here, 1825. Erected by the Alabama Society of Colonial Dames. March 1939 — Map (db m47639) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell AFB — Site of Indian Town Tawasa1540-1814
This stone marks the site of the Indian town Tawasa Visited by De Soto September 5-13-1540 Also by Bienville 1715 — Map (db m72176) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama River: The Grand Avenue
Twelve miles above Montgomery the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers unite to form the Alabama which meanders over four hundred miles on its way to Mobile Bay. This river has played major role in region's history, being a thoroughfare for Native Americans, European explorers, and Americans who settled along its fertile shores and used it as a means of getting cotton to Mobile and world markets. Ferries served the population until the building of Tyler Goodwyn and Reese's Ferry bridges in the first . . . — Map (db m26591) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Augusta and the Old Augusta CemeteryCirca 1819
Augusta, home of Old Augusta Cemetery, was built on the site of a former Indian village, “Sawanogi,” on high ground close to the Tallapoosa River. In 1824 a disastrous flood swept over the plateau, invading shops and residences. A year later a deadly form of malarial fever took half the population to their graves, killing the town as well. The cemetery, burial place for the Ross, Charles, and Taylor families, continued to be used until the early 20th century. The iron fence . . . — Map (db m68260) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Encanchata
Here at the Indian village of Encanchata, future site of Montgomery, Col. John Tate, last British agent to the Muscogee Nation, recruited and drilled Creek warriors in 1780 to relieve Tories in Augusta, Ga. being besieged by American patriots. — Map (db m71373) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Struggle For Colonial Empire
Here on May 24, 1703, Alabama Indians ambushed the first French explorers from Mobile, killing three and wounding two critically. The Indians were armed and were used as pawns by British agents from Carolina in the European struggle for dominion over North America. — Map (db m67999) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Pintlala — The Federal Road / Manac's Tavern
Side 1 The Federal Road The 1803 Louisiana Purchase acquired 828,000 sq. mi. for the U.S., doubling its size. The Federal Road was built to provide a shorter route from Washington to New Orleans and the new territory. The Treaty of 1805 with the Creeks authorized traversing their lands. Entering Alabama at Ft. Mitchell near Columbus, GA, it came through Mt. Meigs, to Pintlala, Ft. Deposit, Burnt Corn, Ft. Stoddert, then Mobile. The 1814 Treaty of Ft. Jackson made much fertile . . . — Map (db m71535) HM
Alabama (Morgan County), Decatur — A County Older Than The State, Morgan County
Alabama Territorial Legislature created this county in 1818 from lands ceded by Cherokee Indians in 1816. County first named Cotaco, for large creek in county. Named Morgan County in 1821 for Maj. Gen. Daniel Morgan, Revolutionary hero, winner over British at Battle of Cowpens. County was often invaded by both armies in War between the States. Until 1891 county seat at Somerville. Then county seat moved to Decatur. Named for Stephen Decatur, naval hero against Tripoli pirates and in War of 1812. — Map (db m27759) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Asbury School and Mission1 Mile North of Fort Mitchell
In September 1821 Rev. William Capers was sent to Fort Mitchell, by the South Carolina Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, to negotiate with the chiefs of the Creek Indian Nations for a mission which would teach their children reading, writing and other white-man skills. In 1822 Asbury Manual Labor School was established with Rev. Isaac Smith, Superintendent; 33 resident students; 3 teachers; houses; school; and farm. The school closed in 1830 following the removal to the West of a . . . — Map (db m26121) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Fort Mitchell<----- 5 miles -----
Built during Creek War 1813 by Georgia Militia on main Indian trade route to Tombigbee River. U.S. Troops stationed here until 1837. 1836 Lower Creeks corralled here for forced removal to the West. — Map (db m26069) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Fort Mitchell Military Cemetery
This military graveyard was established soon after Fort Mitchell was built by General John Floyd of the Georgia Militia. Located just south of the stockade, the cemetery was used between 1813 and 1840 during the fort's occupation by Georgia and United States soldiers. The first burial was that of John Ward, an interpreter on the staff of General Floyd. Ward died of pneumonia in November 1813. A line of approximately 25 soldiers' graves is located adjacent to the site of the fort's dispensary. A . . . — Map (db m26122) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Indian Ball Ground
The most popular game among the Indians of this region was "stick ball." This field has been constructed so that the game may be enjoyed again in the Chattahoochee Valley where it was played for hundreds of years. Sometimes known as "little brother to war," the game was played with an intensity second only to war. Hand crafted sticks with small loops on the end were used to catch and throw a small deer skin ball often filled with squirrel fur to make it "lively." One of the last games played . . . — Map (db m26020) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — J.W. and Ethel I Woodruff Foundation Interpretive Trail
Native plants played a significant role in the daily life of the Creek Indian civilization that inhabited the Chattahoochee Valley until relocation to Oklahoma in the 19th century. During the Woodland Period, the local inhabitants were skilled hunters and gatherers of native plants, nuts, and fruits. During the Mississippian Period (A.D. 700-1000) the Indian culture matured in its corn based agricultural practices and became less dependent upon readily available native trees and shrubs for . . . — Map (db m48166) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — John Crowell
Marker Front: Near here is the site where John Crowell lived, died, and is interred. Colonel Crowell was born in Halifax County, North Carolina, on September 18, 1780; moved to Alabama in 1815, having been appointed as Agent of the United States to the Muscogee Indians. In 1817, he was elected as Alabama's first and only Territorial Delegate to the 15th Congress, where he served from January 29, 1818, until March 3, 1819. Upon Alabama's admission as a State, he was elected its first . . . — Map (db m26116) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — The Creek Trail of Tears
Approximately one mile due east of this marker, back down the Old Federal Road, called by frontiersmen and Indians the Three Notched Trail or the Three Chopped Way, stood Fort Mitchell, an early 19th century American fort that in 1836 was one of the principal gathering places for the forced removal of the Creek Indians from their homes on the Chattahoochee River to the West. Weakened by starvation, defrauded of their lands and swindled out of most of their possessions, thousands of Creeks, . . . — Map (db m26100) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Hatchechubbee — Uchee / Good Hope Baptist Church, Uchee
(obverse) Uchee One of the oldest white settlements in the Chattahoochee Valley before and after the removal of the Indians; land deeds between whites date back to 1832, the year of Russell County's founding. The name of the town comes from the Indian name of a creek which originates nearby. In its early years it was a cultural, political and religious center. Three academies were established in the area: Good Hope, Spring Grove and Andrew’s Chapel. Russell County’s first . . . — Map (db m69422) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Phenix City — Ancient Fisheries
To the native people of the Chattahoochee River Valley, the Creek or Muskogulgi Indians, the shoals of the river were a source of recreation and food. In the spring, the women and children of Coweta Town came here to fish, using dip nets, spears, bows and arrows and cleverly designed fish traps to harvest shad, bass, catfish and sunfish. Creek boys lassoed the tails of huge sturgeon and wrestled them ashore. Natives from Cusseta Town had a fishery on the Georgia side of the river opposite this . . . — Map (db m69045) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Phenix City — Coweta Town(KVWETV)
Coweta Town, located east of this marker on the banks of the Chattahoochee River, is sometimes called New or Upper Coweta to distinguish it from its predecessor, Coweta Tallahassee, down river. Among other well-known Creeks, Coweta was the birthplace of William McIntosh, the controversial half-blood who was executed by his own people for having signed the fraudulent 1825 Treaty of Indian Springs. Mary Musgrove, who was such a help to James Edward Oglethorpe and the Savannah colony in Georgia, . . . — Map (db m69068) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Phenix City — Six Indians Hanged
In November 1836, six Creek and Yuchi Indians were hanged near this spot for their role in a last desperate uprising against the frontier whites of Georgia and Alabama. Following decades of provocation from whites anxious to gain control of their lands, a small band of Indians attacked and burned the little hamlet of Roanoke in Stewart County, Georgia, killing many of its inhabitants. They also killed several whites in a raid on a stagecoach a few miles south of here, near the bridge over Yuchi Creek. Eyewitnesses said the Indians died bravely. — Map (db m69065) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Phenix City — The Tie-Snake
The Creek Indians believed this section of the river was inhabited by a giant Tie-Snake, a mythical monster that snared the unwary and dragged them down into the watery underworld. The Tie-Snake was but one of many strange creatures and natural forces featured in the myths and folk tales of the native people of this region. Among these were the Winds, the Thunder Helper, the Orphan, the Trickster Rabbit, and the Tarbaby. LaGrange lawyer W.O. Tuggle recorded many of these tales in the late . . . — Map (db m69067) HM
Alabama (Saint Clair County), Ashville — A County Older Than The State, St. Clair CountyCreated in 1818 in first session of Alabama Territorial Legislature
from lands ceded by Creek Indian Nation in Treaty of Ft. Jackson, 1814. Named for Gen. Arthur St. Clair, hero of Revolution, governor of Northwest Territory. First settlers from Tennessee, Georgia - veterans of Creek Indian War, 1813-14. County seat since 1822 here at Ashville, named for John Ash, prominent settler. Growing population south of Backbone Mt. led to Pell City branch county seat, 1902. — Map (db m28143) HM
Alabama (Saint Clair County), Ohatchee — Fort Strother
Creek Indian War Headquarters of Gen. Andrew Jackson 1813 - 1814 Erected By St. Clair County — Map (db m28144) HM
Alabama (Shelby County), Chelsea — City Of ChelseaIncorporated March 1, 1996 — Mayor S. Earl Niven
Side A Creek Indians once owned and hunted the land where the City of Chelsea now stands. In 1813, Andrew Jackson and his army won millions of acres of Creek land from the Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, including the area where Chelsea is located. Soon afterward, white settlers began flocking into the area, and by the mid-1800s, several pioneer homesteads were located among the hill and hollows. When the railroad came through in 1908, people began moving closer to the . . . — Map (db m38488) HM
Alabama (Sumter County), Gainesville — Town of Gainesville
The Town of Gainesville, a designated Tree City USA, was founded in 1832. The land on which the town is located was originally owned by John Coleman, husband to a Choctaw Indian of the area. He sold the land to Colonel Moses Lewis, who had the town divided into lots. The town was named for Colonel George Strother Gaines, who was an American agent to the Choctaw Indians and helped negotiate the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. Gainesville grew very rapidly and by 1840 had become the third . . . — Map (db m69709) HM
Alabama (Talladega County), Childersburg — Coosa
Important Indian town for over 250 years and capital of Coosa province. Visited by DeSoto in 1540, and later by Spanish, French, British colonial explorers and traders. Early writers tell of abundant food crops, wild and cultivated, supporting a large population. — Map (db m57994) HM
Alabama (Talladega County), Childersburg — De Soto's Visit
Two miles north of this spot was the Indian town Cosa visited by De Soto July 16, 1540 This stone erected by the National Society of Colonial Dames of America in Alabama 1936 — Map (db m44230) HM
Alabama (Talladega County), Childersburg — DeSoto Caverns
Named for the famous Spanish explore who traveled through this area in 1540. Over its rich history it offered shelter for native Indians for centuries (a 2,000-year-old Woodland Period burial was excavated by archeologists in the mid-1960s), became the first officially recorded cave in the U.S. (1796), and served as a Confederate gunpowder mining site during the Civil War. One of the largest show caves in the southeastern U.S., the main room of the caverns stands 12-stories high and is as . . . — Map (db m45034) HM
Alabama (Talladega County), Childersburg — History Of Childersburg
Childersburg traces its heritage to the Coosa Indian village located in the area. DeSoto, accompanied by 600 men, began his march across North America in June 1539. Traveling from Tampa Bay, Florida, northward through what became the Southeastern United States, DeSoto's expedition began searching for riches. Upon entering the area that would become Alabama, DeSoto and his men marched southward along the Tennessee River to Tali. From Tali, they marched to the banks of the Coosa River. In the . . . — Map (db m45137) HM
Alabama (Talladega County), Sylacauga — Sylacauga
Settled in 1748 by Shawnee Indians from Ohio. They joined Creek Confederacy, fought against U.S. in War of 1812, were moved west in 1836. Settled before 1836 by men who had fought in this area under Andrew Jackson. Indian name: Syllacogga or Chalakagay. — Map (db m40595) HM
Alabama (Talladega County), Talladega — Battle Of TalladegaNov. 9, 1813
Here Andrew Jackson led Tennessee Volunteers and friendly Indians to victory over hostile “Red Sticks.” This action rescued friendly Creeks besieged in Fort Leslie. Creek Indian War 1813 - 1814. — Map (db m28205) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Alexander City — Menawa, War ChiefAbout 1766 - 1837
Indian farmer - merchant chose to resist whites' advance on Indians' lands. In Creek War he led Creeks at Battle of Horseshoe Bend. His warriors were beaten by Jackson's superior force but Menawa escaped. — Map (db m66680) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Alexander City — Youngsville
Following the Creek Cession in 1832, settlers, mostly from Georgia and the Carolinas, occupied this section of the Creek Nation. Among the first settlers was James Young who purchased land a half-mile west near a trading post called Georgia Store. Community life can be dated from 1837 when Griffin Young opened a post office in his store and eight men and women, “The Baptist brethren settlers of Youngsville” organized Fellowship Primitive Baptist Church. The store and the church . . . — Map (db m28658) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Dadeville — Battle Of Horseshoe BendOne hundredth anniversary — 1814 - 1914
This tablet is placed by Tallapoosa County in commemoration of the one hundredth anniversary of the Battle Of Horseshoe Bend, fought within its limits on March 27, 1814. There the Creek Indians, led by Menawa and other chiefs, were defeated by the American and allied indian forces under Gen. Andrew Jackson. This battle broke the power of the fierce Muscogee, brought peace to the Southern frontier, and made possible the speedy opening up of a large part of the State of . . . — Map (db m28751) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — A Bloody ContestHorseshoe Bend National Military Park
Any officer or soldiers who flies before the enemy-shall suffer death. With these harsh words, Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson marched his soldiers 52 miles from the Coosa River to Horseshoe Bend and a bloody contest with the Red Sticks. His battle map shows how he positioned his troops early that Sunday morning, March 27, 1814. In the field before you-in 1814 a forest of pine, oak, and hickory-Jackson's troops prepared for battle. A half mile ahead stood a log barricade, with the . . . — Map (db m46674) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Charge!Horseshoe Bend National Military Park
Having maintained for a few minutes a very obstinate contest, muzzle to muzzle, through the port-holes, in which many of the enemy's balls were welded to the bayonets of our musquets, our troops succeeded in gaining possession of the opposite side of the works. The event could no longer be doubtful... Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson, Tennessee Militia After a two-hour cannon bombardment of the Red Sticks' barricade, Maj. Gen. Jackson discovered that some of the Gen. Coffee's Creek and . . . — Map (db m46676) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Designed for DefenseHorseshoe Bend National Military Park
...[The Creek] had erected a breast-work, of greatest compactness and strength-from five to eight feet high, and prepared with double rows of port-holes very artfully arranged...an army could not approach it without being exposed to a double and cross fire from the enemy who lay in perfect security behind it. Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson, Tennessee Militia The Red Sticks-a militant branch of Creek society-built the 400-yard-long barricade (breast-work) of dirt and pine logs. . . . — Map (db m46677) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Futile EscapeHorseshoe Bend National Military Park
I ordered [Lt. Jesse] Bean to take possession of the Island below, with forty men, to prevent the enemy's taking refuge there...as many of the enemy did attempt their escape...but not one were landed-they were sunk by [Lt.] Beans command ere they reached the bank. Gen. John Coffee, Tennessee Militia Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson sent Gen. John Coffee and 1,300 men to surround Horseshoe Bend here on the banks of the Tallapoosa River. Jackson hoped Coffee's 700 Tennessee mounted . . . — Map (db m46389) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Gun Hill
Here at 10:30 on the morning of March 27, 1814, general Jackson quickly emplaced his single battery, one 3-pounder and one 6-pounder. He immediately opened a lively but ineffective fire on the center of the sturdy log barricade. After his Indian allies entered the peninsula stronghold form the rear, he ordered a frontal assault on the stubborn wall. — Map (db m51671) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Horseshoe Bend Battleground Monument
Here on the Horseshoe Battleground General Andrew Jackson and his brave men broke the power of the Creek Indians under Chief Menawa March 29, 1814 — Map (db m51673) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Horseshoe Bend National Military ParkWho Were the Creek?
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park The park offers activities designed to commemorate the events that occurred here on March 27, 1814. The Battle of Horseshoe Bend ended the Creek Indian War and added nearly 23 million acres of land to the United States. For Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson the victory led to national fame and a successful bid for the Presidency of the United States. Stop at the visitor center for information on daily activities, special events, hiking, fishing, and . . . — Map (db m46232) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — The High GroundHorseshoe Bend National Military Park
[The] high ground which extended about mid-way from the breastwork to the river was in some manner open, but the declivity and flat which surrounded it was filled with fallen timber, the growth of which was very heavy, and had been so arrayed that every tree afforded them... a communication or cover to the next, and so on to the river bank... Col. Gideon Morgan, Cherokee Regiment Throughout the afternoon of Mach 27th this area was the scene of brutal and deadly close combat. The . . . — Map (db m47498) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — They Fought to the LastHorseshoe Bend National Military Park
By dark, more than 800 Red Stick warriors were dead and at least 350 women and children were prisoners. Jackson's army suffered 154 men wounded and 49 killed. The Battle of Horseshoe Bend effectively ended the Creek Indian War. Five months later, with the Treaty of Fort Jackson, the Creeks ceded to the United States nearly 23 million acres of land in what is now Alabama and Georgia. No other evening will come, bringing to [my] eyes the rays of the setting sun upon the home [I have] left . . . — Map (db m51665) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Tohopeka in FlamesHorseshoe Bend National Military Park
In this meadow 350 women and children, sheltered in the village of Tohopeka, listened to the sounds of battle drifting back from the barricade 1,000 yards away. Alarmed, they watched as enemy Cherokee and Lower Creek warriors crossed the river, cutting off all hope for escape. In minutes Tohopeka, their only refuge, was in flames. The village under attack, may have included as many as 300 log huts, which resembled simple log cabins. Tohopeka meant fort or fence in the Muskogee (Creek) . . . — Map (db m47469) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — While the Long Roll Was BeatingHorseshoe Bend National Military Park
I never had such emotions as while the long roll was beating...It was not fear, it was not anxiety or concern of the fate of those who were so soon to fall but it was a kind of enthusiasm that thrilled through every nerve and animate me with the belief that the day was ours without adverting to what it must cost us... Maj. John Reid, Tennessee Militia While General Coffee's men took position across the Tallapoosa River. Major General Jackson stationed his remaining soldiers here, . . . — Map (db m46675) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — With Deer Tails in Their HairHorseshoe Bend National Military Park
On the morning of the battle, Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson’s Indian allies surrounded the lower portion of Horseshoe Bend. The Cherokee were positioned across the river from where you stand; the Lower Creek were farther upriver to your left. Hearing distant cannon fire, Cherokee and Lower Creek warriors swam across the river, stole Red Stick canoes from this bank, and took them back to the other side. Hundreds of Indians---adorned with deer tails---then canoed across, a few at a time, to . . . — Map (db m47446) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Horseshoe Bend National Military Park — Horseshoe Bend Campaign Combatants
In memory of the Soldiers and Indian allies who died in combat with the Upper Creek Indians during the Horseshoe Bend Campaign in the Creek War of 1813-1814 In memory of the Upper Creek Warriors who died in combat with United States forces during the Battle of Horseshoe Bend March 27, 1814 — Map (db m64594) WM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Jacksons Gap — Fort Okfuskee←— 6 mi. west —«
Built in 1735 by British from Carolina in futile attempt to gain trade of the Creek Indians from the French, located at Fort Toulouse, 40 miles south. Okfuskee was the largest town in Creek Confederacy. — Map (db m22232) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Tallassee — Tukabahchi1686-1836
This stone placed at the Great Council Tree marks the site of Tukabahchi 1686-1836 Capital of the Upper Creek Indian Nation. Here were born Efau Haujo, Great Medal Chief, and Opothleyaholo, Creek leaders. Big Warrior resided nearby. Here came Tecumseh in 1911 to arouse the natives against the white settlers and was successfully opposed by Col. Benjamin Hawkins, principal agent for Indian Affairs south of the Ohio river. Here in 1823 Lee Compere established a Baptist mission school. — Map (db m67863) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — “The Indian Fires Are Going Out”
The Trail of Tears led thousands of Creek Indians through Tuscaloosa, capital of Alabama in 1836. Chief Eufaula addressed the legislature with these words: "I come here, brothers, to see the great house of Alabama and the men who make laws and say farewell in brotherly kindness before I go to the far west, where my people are now going. In time gone by I have thought that the white men wanted to bring burden and ache of heart among my people in driving them from their homes and yoking them . . . — Map (db m28995) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Gabriel MooreGovernor 1829 - 1831
During his term our state moved from frontier to urbanity. The University of Alabama was officially opened. Construction was begun on our first canals and railroads, supplementing existing steamboats and unpaved roads. The Choctaws exchanged their territory in West Alabama for lands west of the Mississippi. — Map (db m29023) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — John GayleGovernor 1831 - 1835
He extended state laws into Indian lands and actively encouraged illegal white settlement there. A treaty with the Creek Indians in 1832 forced them to leave the state and resulted in nine new counties in east Alabama. Their "Trail of Tears" took the Indians through Tuscaloosa. — Map (db m29028) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — John MurphyGovernor 1825 - 1829
He initiated construction of the Capitol, the University of Alabama, and the State Bank. The legislature passed laws, known as slave codes, to severely restrict the rights of slaves, while citizens began to press for the removal of Alabama's remaining Indians. — Map (db m29020) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — The Black Warrior River
Plied for thousands of years by Indians, then by early explorers and American settlers, this river extends 169 miles from the Sipsey and Mulberry Forks near Birmingham to its confluence with the Tombigbee at Demopolis. It drains 6228 square miles of one of the world's most ancient watersheds and has 130 species of fish and many rare plants and animals. Part of a navigable waterway system, this point is 339 river miles above Mobile. About 5 billion gallons of water flow past here each day. In . . . — Map (db m28901) HM
Alabama (Wilcox County), Camden — Lieutenant Joseph Morgan Wilcox
Joseph Morgan Wilcox was born on March 15, 1790 in Killingsworth, Middlesex County, Connecticut. He was the son of Revolutionary War officer, Joseph Wilcox and Phoebe Morgan. On June 15, 1808, Cadet Wilcox entered the U.S. Military Academy where he graduated and was promoted to 1st Lieutenant in the 3rd Infantry. Lt. Wilcox fought against the Creeks in the War of 1812. On January 15, 1814, Wilcox engaged in a heroic fight with a Creek war party and was tomahawked and scalped on the banks of the . . . — Map (db m68159) HM
Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Ancient Traditions of the Athabascan People
Athabascans were highly nomadic, traveling in small groups to fish, hunt, and trap. Athabascan territory, the largest area of all the Alaska Native peoples, was home to 11 different linguistic groups who lived along five major riverways: the Yukon, the Tanana, the Susitna, the Kuskokwim and the Copper River drainages. Small groups of 20 to 40 people traveled through their vast territory, connected by numerous rivers and other waterways. From winter villages to summer fish camp, they . . . — Map (db m72795) HM
Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Athabascan Family Lodges and Cabins
“Our people had log houses without nails and we all lived the same. We lived subsistence way of life, and love it that way. We have our fish houses, drying racks and all that.” Alberta Stephan, Eklutna. Athabascan pole and log dwellings were similar to historic log cabins that they later adopted. In colder areas, lodges were sunk two to five feet into the ground. On the milder shores of Cook Inlet, Athabascans built log houses above ground. They slept in . . . — Map (db m72796) HM
Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Mobile Architecture
Athabascans were masters at designing a variety of shelters--simple and functional--that kept them both warm and mobile as they set out to hunt and trade. Emergency shelters were constructed in minutes. A wandering hunter could pile up brush to crawl under at night, dig a hole in as snow bank and ice over the interior with the heat of an oil lamp, or construct a conical tent by bending over and lashing together several alders, covering them with bark or caribou skin. Dirt and moss . . . — Map (db m72792) HM
Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Raven the CreatorCreated by John Hoover in 1998
Raven is the Creator in many Alaska Native and American Indian legends. Elements from my different legends are incorporated into this sculpture including "Raven Stealing the Stars, Sun, and Moon." The human figures in the claws symbolize icons used by the Russian Orthodox faith and the face in the belly of the Raven is symbolic of Mother Earth. The face on the back of Raven's head is representative of many transformations Raven could perform. — Map (db m72793) HM
Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — What is this “Rock Man”?
For generations the Inuit people of Northern Canada, Greenland, and Alaska have constructed these rock monuments for hunting and navigational purposes. Our inuksuk is a giant version based on similar monuments found throughout the Arctic. Inuksuk or Inunnguaq? An “inuksuk” is usually constructed from un-worked rocks and used for marking a location or communicating directions. Some inuksuk have been built to resemble people and are given the name inunnguaq. Most of . . . — Map (db m69768) HM
Alaska (Denali Borough), Denali National Park — Ice Age HuntersThe Deadliest Predators
High above river valleys, at overlooks like this, Denali’s first human visitors watch for mammoth, giant bison, and caribou. Ridge tops made the best game launching platforms; herds tend to follow sheltered stream corridors. Hunters had to be expert, deadly; the climate was too harsh for year-round edible plants. Caribou fur made the warmest clothing. Its microscopically hollow hairs are a natural insulator. While they waited the hunters made knives and repaired and sharpened . . . — Map (db m69724) HM
Alaska (Juneau Borough), Juneau — Alaska Native Veterans Memorial
Monument against east wall of house off Whittier Way: This memorial is dedicated to all Alaska Native Veterans, Southeast who served in the United States Armed Forces. Let us not dwell on their passing but remember their shining Spirits that will live on forever. World War I, World War II, Korea Vietnam, Gulf War era, Panama, Granada, Bosnia, and Afghanistan We honor all Veterans who served their country US Army, US Marine Corps, US Navy, US Air Force, US . . . — Map (db m69127) WM
Alaska (Juneau Borough), Juneau — Patsy Ann: her statue
Fifty years after Patsy Ann met her last ship, admirers led by June Dawson organized the Friends of Patsy Ann. The group raised funds and commissioned a statue so Patsy Ann could once again greet visitors on the dock. Sculpted by Ann Burke Harris of Albuquerque, New Mexico, the statue was cast at the Shidoni Foundry in New Mexico. Bits of their own hair and pets’ fur were sent from all over the globe by those who fondly remembered Patsy Ann. Those tokens were pressed into the wax before . . . — Map (db m69663) HM
Alaska (Ketchikan Gateway Borough), Ketchikan — Chief Kyan Totem Pole
Totem poles are carved to honor deceased ancestors record history, social events, and oral tradition. They were never worshipped as religious objects. This totem is the second replication of the Chief Kyan Totem Pole. The original pole was carved in Ketchikan in the early part of the century and stood n Barney Way until the late 1920’s, when it was moved to the Pioneer Hall. In 1964, the aged pole was removed and replicated for the first time. This second replication was commissioned by the . . . — Map (db m70746) HM
Alaska (North Slope Borough), Barrow — Paġlagivisi!Welcome to the Ancient Village of Ukpiaġvik — “The Place Where We Hunt Snowy Owls”
Sharing Food, Sharing Life – Then and Now Ukpiaġvik, which means ‘the place where we hunt snowy owls,’ was one of several ancient villages in the Barrow area. Our ancestors settled here primarily to hunt the great bowhead whales. But their diet – just like ours today – was supplemented by the harvest of Nature’s other gifts, including the highly valued snowy owl. Even with the conveniences of the 21st century, it is the gathering and sharing our Native foods that . . . — Map (db m49595) HM
Alaska (Skagway Borough), Skagway — Skagway Centennial Statue1897
Skagway was originally spelled S-K-A-G-U-A, a Tlingit Indian word for “windy place.” The first people in the area were Tlingits from the Chilkoot and Chilkat villages in the Haines-Klukwan area. From a fish camp in nearby Dyea, they used the Chilloot Trail for trading with the First Nations people of the Yukon Territory. The windy Skagway valley was favored for hunting mountain goats and bear, but no one settled here until 1887. That June, Skookum Jim, a Tlingit from the . . . — Map (db m69128) HM
Arizona (Apache County), Lupton — One Days Ride to Zuni
In November of 1776 a party of Spanish explorers and Indian guides passed through this area on their way to the Zuni Mission in what is now New Mexico. Franciscan Fathers, Francisco Atanasio Dominquez and Silvestre Velez De Escalante, had embarked from Santa Fe with hopes of discovering an overland route to the presidio at Monterey. However, cold weather and rugged terrain forced them to turn south and return to Santa Fe. While they never succeeded in finding a shorter route to California, the . . . — Map (db m36577) HM
Arizona (Apache County), Window Rock — About the Navajo Code Talkers
About the Navajo Code Talkers During World War II the Japanese possessed the ability to break almost any American military code. Over 400 Navajos, with 29 being the original Navajo Code Talkers, stepped forward and developed the most significant and successful military code of the time using their native language. So successful was this innovative code that military commanders credited it with saving the lives of countless American soldiers and with the successful engagements of the U.S. . . . — Map (db m51537) HM
Arizona (Apache County), Window Rock — In Remembrance of Our Warriors / Navajo Warrior Memorial
In Remembrance of Our Warriors Who Made the Ultimate Sacrifice and/or Missing in Action, They will never be forgotten and to us they will always be young in our thoughts. Nelson Lewis • Walter Nelson • Willie A. Notah • Edie Charlie Begaye • Lee D. Tsosie • John C. Nelson • Calvin D. Largo • Bobby J. Martinez • Wilson Begaye Kee • Edmund Smith • Hosteen Plum* • Leonard Tellowhair • Lee Duane Todacheene • Norman Graham • Ralford J. Jackson • Paul Kinlacheeny • Raymond ***lie • . . . — Map (db m27911) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Benson — Council Rocks
Four miles southeast at Council Rocks Apache peace treaty with Cochise was ratified in 1872 Near Dragoon Springs on October 12, 1872, General O.O. Howard and Cochise, Chief of the Chiricahua Apache Indians, ratified a peace treaty ending years of warfare between that tribe and the white settlers. Cochise's stronghold was hidden deep in the Dragoon Mountains beyond. — Map (db m27877) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Bowie — Centennial of Chiricahua Apache/U.S. Cessation of Hostilities 1886
[Side 1: In English :] September 4-8, 1986, Arizonans marked the return of the Chiricahua Ex-Prisoners of War and their descendants in ceremonies that completed a spiritual circle. We remembered and reflected on the clash between National Expansion and the Chiricahua's determination to resist and remain free on their land, and on how so few could have so great and lasting impact on so many. Together we struggled with notions of equality and cultural differences and achieved a . . . — Map (db m42513) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Bowie — Fort BowieNational Historic Site
A Regional Legacy Cochise. Geronimo. Though their reputations were fierce, the Chiricahua Apaches didn't stop explorers, prospectors, settlers, and merchants from Westward immigration. To establish a lifeline between the East and California, the Butterfield Overland Trail was built in 1858, directly through the heart of Apache Pass. But as the Apaches' land and lifestyle became threatened, they retaliated with attacks on traveling parties and raids on settlements. The Bascom Affair, a . . . — Map (db m37761) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Bowie — The Bascom Affair / Bascom-Cochise Meeting Site
The Bascom Affair On February 4, 1861, 2nd Lt. George Bascom, and his detachment of 54 men encamped two hundred yards east of here. Bascom’s mission was to find Cochise, recover a kidnapped boy and return livestock assumed taken by the Chiricahua Apaches. During the meeting with Cochise and members of his band, Bascom ordered Cochise held hostage until the boy and his livestock were returned. Knowing neither he, nor his people had committed the acts, the Apache chief was insulted . . . — Map (db m42008) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Cochise — Sulphur Springs
This valley owes its name to the two springs located one mile north of this monument. From 400 A.D. to 1450 A.D. Indigenous Indians farmed the region. Their bedrock mortar pits remain on the nearby hill. Later Chiricahua Apaches, Spaniards, Mexicans, Anglo-American immigrants and U.S. soldiers used the Springs as a camping ground. Between 1857 and 1878 several stage lines, including the Butterfield Overland Stage Company, operated a relay station here. In 1872, with Tom Jeffords as agent, the . . . — Map (db m37768) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Dragoon — Dragoon Springs Stage StopLand of Legends — Coronado National Forest
Coronado National Forest Land of Legends The Dragon Springs Stage Stop The San Antonio and San Diego Mail Line began service across Arizona to the Pacific coast in July, 1857. Its route included a stop here near the Dragoon spring. The San Antonio Line was commonly known as the "Jackass Mail" because mules were used to pull the coaches, and passengers were packed on mule-back across the Colorado Desert. The Overland Mail Bill was passed by Congress in 1857 to begin twice weekly mail . . . — Map (db m76940) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Elfrida — Chief Cochise
Greatest of Apache Warriors Died June 8, 1874 In this his favorite stronghold Interred secretly by his followers The exact place of burial was known to only One white man – his blood brother Thomas J. Jeffords — Map (db m37766) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), San Simon — Geronimo Surrender Monument
"Near here Geronimo, last Apache Chieftain and Nachite with their followers surrendered on Sept. 6th 1886 to General Nelson A. Miles. U. S. Army. Lieutenant Chas. B. Gatewood with Kieta and Martine Apache scouts, risked their lives to enter the camp of the hostiles to present terms of surrender offered to them by General Miles. After two days Gatewood received the consent of Geronimo and Nachite to surrender. The surrender of Geronimo in Skeleton Canyon, on that historic day, forever . . . — Map (db m28355) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — Apache Scout Memorial
Eyes of the Army Presented by the Huachuca Museum Society 1995 Sculpted by Dan Bates — Map (db m28231) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Gathering Place
]Panel 1:] Between 1100 and 1200, more people lived in this area than ever before, or since. Located along routes linking large populations to the northeast and south, villages here were well situated for trade. As people, goods, and ideas converged on the area, a complex society of several thousand evolved. This particular village became the heart of a thriving community and was a landmark, a gathering place, and a ceremonial center. It is remarkable that this land, so dry and . . . — Map (db m60079) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Legacy of the Past
Box Canyon and Lomaki ruins are a short 15-minute walk from here, along the edges of ancient earthcracks. The 1/4-mile trail will take you back in time over 800 years to the remnants of this once-thriving community. You will see the few native plants that grow in this high-desert environment; how the eruptions of Sunset Crater Volcano affected the ancient inhabitants; and the plaza where daily activities such as cooking and grinding corn took place. The whole picture of this prehistoric . . . — Map (db m60114) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Village/Abandonment
A Village You are entering the “Citadel,” a ruin from the late 1100s. Research has not been completed so it is important that we leave things as they are. Will there be extra storage spaces found, possible evidence for the defense theory? We do know this is one of the larger pueblos in Wupatki National Monument and could have been the home for many families. You are welcome to speculate about what will be found here, as we do. Abandonment What happened? Exact . . . — Map (db m60089) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Ancient Landscapes
Eight hundred years ago, a savannah-like grassland covered much of this high desert with abundant grasses. The residents would have collected and burned much of the nearby fuel, necessitating long walks to adjacent areas to gather wood. Sparse annual rainfall forced the inhabitants to catch and save as much water as they could, or walk miles to other sources. Since the use of the area by modern ranchers, the land has undergone other dramatic changes. Cattle grazing stripped much of the . . . — Map (db m60105) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Box Canyon Ruins
The Box Canyon ruins are typical of many pueblos found in this region. Early inhabitants constructed walls of nearby sandstone and limestone, and used local soils to cement the stones together. The flat roofs were built of timbers laid side-by-side, covered with smaller branches and finally plastered over with mud. Smoke was vented from the rooms through a square hole in the ceiling, which frequently served as the only access to the room. Doorways were small and windows almost . . . — Map (db m60094) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Daily Life
Plaza An open area in the pueblo near the rim of the earthcrack is known as the plaza. In pueblos, the plaza was the center for many daily activities including grinding corn, making pottery, working obsidian into arrowheads, processing other plants for food, and cooking. It would have also been used for meetings, conducting trade, and as a controlled play area for children. During the warmer months, the plaza received extensive use from dawn until after dusk; rooms inside the pueblo were . . . — Map (db m60110) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Dry Land Farming
Volcanic activity to the south produced giant fissures or earth cracks throughout the Wupatki area in the Kaibab Limestone. This formation covers most of the western half of Wupatki National Monument. The Sinagua and Anasazi Indians who inhabited these ancient pueblos probably found the earthcracks to be the most productive farming sites. There is no evidence of streams close by which could be used for water. All of the farming was dependent on the rainfall. Corn, squash and other crops . . . — Map (db m60098) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Sunset Crater Volcano
The distant San Francisco Peaks would have looked much like they do today. To the east, however, Sunset Crater Volcano would still have been belching black smoke and cinders when the Sinagua and Anaszi lived here. The thick layer of cinders over the sandy soil helped hold moisture, which was beneficial to the growing of crops. Eventually, even Sunset Crater Volcano grew quiet, and the winds blew the cinders away and dried out the soil. Why the Lomaki residents departed is not . . . — Map (db m60107) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — The Citadel / Natural Features
The Citadel It was a remarkable achievement, to use primitive mortar and local stones to build the walls above you straight up from the edge of the top of the rock. “The Citadel” is the modern name given to this ruin because of its location, but archeologists wonder why the Anasazi often built in high, hard-to-get-at places. Some theories say it was defensive. Others say it was to avoid building on croplands, or for sun and breeze. Or was it more simple? Today we often . . . — Map (db m60087) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — The Navajo Code Talkers
The original thirty-two Code Talkers were organized to develop codes based on their native language which were used extensively during World War II. These and many other Native Americans served bravely throughout the Pacific and other combat zones. Charlie Y. Begay • Roy Begay • Samuel Begay • John Benally • Willsie Bitsie • Cosey S. Brown • John Brown • John Chee • Benjamin Cleveland • Eugene Crawford • David Curley • Lowell Damon • George Dennison • James Dixon • Carl N. Gorman • Ross . . . — Map (db m33344) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Wukoki
Wukoki, a modern Hopi word for “Big House” was once home for two or three prehistoric Indian families. The inhabitants are believed to have been of the Kayenta Anasazi culture, judging from the types of artifacts found during excavation and stabilization. This site, occupied from approximately 1120-1210 A.D. afforded its occupants a commanding view of the surrounding terrain. The unusual three-story height, combined with its position atop this Moenkopi Sandstone outcrop, lends . . . — Map (db m60078) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Bright Angel Trail
Each year thousands of hikers enter Grand Canyon on the Bright Angel Trail. They follow a tradition - and a trail route - established by prehistoric people. For centuries humans have used this route for two key reasons: water and access. Water emerges from springs at Indian Garden, and erosion along the Bright Angel Fault creats a break in the cliffs, providing access to the springs. When prospectors arrived here in the late 1800s, Havasupai Indians were using the route. Prospectors . . . — Map (db m39563) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — El Tovar HotelBegun 1903, Completed 1905
Named for Don Pedro de Tovar, the first European to visit the Hopi Indian villages in 1540, the hotel was constructed by Hopi Indian craftsmen at a cost of $250,000 employing logs shipped by train from Oregon and native Kaibab Limestone. The El Tovar Hotel has been host to thousands of visitors since its dedication in 1905 and is operated by the National Parks Division of Fred Harvey, Inc. The El Tovar Hotel has been listed in the Historical Registry of the United States since September 6, 1974. — Map (db m39477) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Hopi HouseMary Elizabeth Jane Colter
Hopi House opened on January 1, 1905, the first Grand Canyon work of architect Mary Colter. To complement El Tovar, their new hotel, the Fred Harvey Company commissioned Colter to design a building to display and sell Indian arts and crafts. Colter designed Hopi House to resemble a true Indian dwelling, modeling it after structures in the Hopi village of Old Oraibi. When it opened, Hopi House contained sales areas and a museum. Upper floors housed Hopi families who worked here. Visitors . . . — Map (db m39478) HM
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