|Brazil, Bahia, Salvador — Zumbi dos Palmares Monument|
Zumbi dos Palmares
“É chegada a hora de tirar nossa nação das trevas da injustica racial.”
Nasceu livre, em 1655, na Serra da Barriga, união dos Palmares, Alagoas. Neto de Aqualtune, não permitiu a submissão de seu povo ao jugo da corda portuguesa, pois queria a liberdade para todos, dentro ou fora do Quilombo. Persistiu na luta e tornou-se líder do Quilombo, sento ferido em 1694, quando a capital Palmares foi destruída. Em 20 de Novembro de 1695, . . . — Map (db m26125) HM|
|Brazil, Rio de Janeiro — João Cândido Felisberto Memorial — "O Almirante Negro"|
João Cândido Felisberto nasceu em 1880, na Vila Sâo José, Encruzilhada do Sul, Distrito de Rio Pardo, Rio Grande do Sul.
De 22 a 26 de Novembro do 1910 liderou a Revolta Dos Marinheiros contra as péssimas condiçôes de trabalho e o castigo corporal abolido pela Lei Âurea de 1888.
João Cândido demonstrou liderança e maestria irretocâveis à frente das guarniçôes e nas manobras da Baia Da Guanabara.
Desde então ficou conhecido como o ‘Almirante Negro,’ líder da . . . — Map (db m26028) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Le Legs De La Famille Côté — The Legacy of the Côté Family|
Les ancêtres de la famille Côté son arrives au Québec en 1634. En 1945, Joseph Napoléon Côté et son épouse Ida Camille Demers, accompagnés de leur fils Joseph Henri Côté et son épouse Anne-Marie Forcade s’establissent à Victoria.|
Le famille Côté conserve son patrimoine québécois de par son engagement envers la langue française et sa participation à la culture francophone de Victoria. À titre de membres actifs de la paroisse St-Jean Baptiste à Fairfield, les Côté contribuent à . . . — Map (db m49228) HM
|Ontario, Ottawa — Lotta Hitschmanova, C.C. — 1909 • 1990|
Founded USC Canada
10 June 1945
Unitarian Service Committee
Harold Pfeiffer, Sculptor — Map (db m75710) HM|
|Ontario, Ottawa — Women Are Persons! — Les Femmes Sont Des Personnes!|
|The Persons' Case of 1929 is a celebrated landmark victory in the struggle of Canadian women for equality. For years, groups had repeatedly requested that a woman be appointed to the Senate, often naming Judge Emily Murphy as their candidate. However, five successive federal governments maintained that women were ineligible to serve in the Senate on the basis that they were not "qualified persons" according to Section 24 of the British North America Act of 1867.|
In 1927, Judge Murphy . . . — Map (db m39749) HM
|Ontario (Middlesex County), London — London Women's Monument|
|The London Women's Monument was dedicated on December 6, 1994. The 5th anniversary of the Montreal Massacre. It is a place to remember and reflect on violence, particularly violence against women, and all women and men who work to end it. — Map (db m18932) HM|
|El Salvador, San Salvador — Three Decades of Alberto Masferrer University|
|[Universidad Alberto Masferrer símbol y lema: Tres decadas formando ganadores]
La junta central de directores de la Universidad Salvadoreña Alberto Masferrer USAM
En conmemoración del trigésimo aniversario de su fundación, y con la colaboración del honorable Concejo Municipal de San Salvador presidido por el Sr. Alcalde Dr. Norman Quijano, erige este monumento como testimonio permanente de gratitud y reconocimiento a uno de los mejores hijos de nuestro querido El Salvador: . . . — Map (db m71225) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria (Landkreis Schweinfurt), Gerolzhofen — The Decline of the Jewish Community of Gerolzhofen from January 30, 1933 — Niedergang der Jüdische Gemeinde Gerolzhofen ab 30. Januar 1933|
[Marker text in German:]
Urkundlich nachweisbar genehmigte im Jahr 1425 Fürstbischof Johann II v. Brunn die Ansässigmachung von Juden in Gerolzhofen. Viele jüdische Mitbürger engagierten sich im öffentlichen Leben und genossen Vertrauen und Anerkennung bei Ihren Mitbürgern. Nach ca. 500 Jahren horte die jüdische Gemeinde von Gerolzhofen auf zu existieren.
[Marker text translated into English, more or less:] The first known mention of the presence of Jews in Gerolzhofen is . . . — Map (db m58963) HM|
|Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Mansfeld-Südharz District), Lutherstadt Eisleben — Markt 54 Birthplace of Alwin Sörgel — Markt 54 Geburtshaus von Alwin Sörgel|
Spokesman for the Democrats 1848/1849 and co-founder of cooperative banking
• 26 May 1815
Alwin Sörgel was the son of merchant Ernst August Sörgel. He immigrated to Texas in 1845, but returned after two years and took over his father's business in Eisleben.
In the wake of the German Revolution in 1848/49 he was the spokesman of the Eislebener Democrats and co-founder of the Liberal People's Association. As editor of the "People's sheet for the county of Mansfeld," . . . — Map (db m70244) HM|
|Guatemala, Guatemala, Guatemala City — Assassination of Dr. Alberto Fuentes Mohr|
En este sitio fue vilmente asesinado
el 25 de enero de 1979, por
las fuerzas del oscurantismo el
Dr. ALBERTO FUENTES MOHR
figura señera en la fundación de la
Social-Democracia en Guatemala en la
defensa de la democracia y de las causas
nobles de las mayorias del pais.
Guatemala, 25 enero 2010
Partido Socialista Democratico (PSD)
Asociación Dr. Alberto Fuentes Mohr
On this site was vilely assassinated
January 25, 1979 by . . . — Map (db m77970) HM|
|Ireland, Connacht (County Galway), Kinvara — Francis A. Fahy — 1854 - 1935|
Poet, Writer, Life-Long Worker
in the Irish Cause
was born in this house Sept. 29. 1854.
“For peace of mind I'll never find
until my own I call
that little Irish cailín
in her ould plaid shawl” — Map (db m28091) HM|
|Ireland, Connacht (County Mayo), Louisburg — Famine Museum and Granuaile Centre, Louisburgh — Clew Bay Archeaological Trail site 12 — Slí Seandálaíochta Chuan Módh|
| Cluain Cearbhán - Meadow of the Buttercups
The Famine Museum in Louisburgh recounts local memories of the famine, presents coverage of the famine in the media, nationally and locally, and shows how links have been established between Louisburgh and other parts of the world, culminating in the local famine walk along Doo Lough Valley.
The Granuaile Centre recounts the life and times of the 16th century O'Malley Chief and Sea Captain, Granuail (Grace O'Malley or Gráinne . . . — Map (db m28044) HM|
|Ireland, Connacht (County Mayo), the Doo Lough Valley — 1849 Famine Walk|
| . . . — Map (db m27687) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Dublin), Dublin — Haslam Memorial Seat|
| In 1925 a finely sculptured garden seat of Kilkenny limestone was placed in the park and inscribed on the back - “Anna Marie, 1829 - 1922 and Thomas Haslam, 1825 - 1917. This seat is erected in commemoration [sic - ‘honour’] of their long years of public service, chiefly devoted to the enfranchisement of women." [From Monuments of St. Stephen's Green marker found in the park] — Map (db m22485) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Dublin), Dublin — Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa / Ó Donnabháin Rosa — (1831 - 1915)|
| Ni dhéanfaidh gáeil bhearmao orc go brách
[Gaelic transcription is best effort]
Erected in 1954. An uncut rock of Wicklow granite symbolises the patriot's unbreakable spirit. Into the rock is set a plaque bearing an impression of O'Donovan Rossa's head. — Map (db m25316) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Dublin), Dublin — Margaret Anna Cusack — 1829 - 1899|
| Margaret Anna Cusack was born on this site on May 6th 1829. At the time York Street was a centre of medicine. She was the daughter of Sara and Dr. Samuel Cusack. Her uncle was the interationally renowned surgeon James William Cusack, 3-times President of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland.
She became an Anglican Sister but in 1861 converted to Catholicism and moved to Kenmare in County Kerry. Here, under the pseudonym of the “Nun of Kenmare”, she wrote on all aspects of . . . — Map (db m22454) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Dublin), Dublin — Robert Emmet — (1778 - 1803)|
| Presented to the People
The Robert Emmet
United States of America
April 13, 1966
Francis J. Kane, Chairman
Ambassador Scott McLeod
Devlin W. Dormer, Esq.
Hon. Michael J. Kirwan, M.C.
Hon. Thomas P. O'Neill, M.C.
Hon. Daniel J. Flood, M.C.
Hon. John E. Fogarty, M.C.
N. Mike Devlin, Esq.
The statue, erected in 1968, in a small enclave on the west side of the park faces the house in which Robert Emmet was born (now . . . — Map (db m25304) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Dublin), Dublin — Theobald Wolfe Tone — (1763-98)|
| An Irish patriot convicted of treason. He died mysteriously in prison in November 1798.
The memorial consists of a ten-foot figure of Wolfe Tone backed by a wall of rough granite columns of varying width and rising to 16 feet in height.
Behind the granite columns is a group of bronze figures that symbolize the past unhappy subjugation of the Irish people. This group represents the cause for which Tone sacrificed his life. He was thirty-five years old.
The memorial was unveiled by President de Valera in 1967. — Map (db m25303) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Dublin), Dublin — Veronica Guerin — 1959 - 1996|
| Sunday Independent journalist,
was murdered on 26th June 1996.
Be Not Afraid
Greater justice was her ideal and it was her ultimate achievement
Her courage and sacrifice saved many from the scourge of drugs and other crime.
Her death has not been in vain.
Unveiled by the Taoiseach,
Mr. Bertie Ahern T.D.
27th June 2001 — Map (db m24078) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Crossakiel — Jim Connell|
| Author of “The Red Flag”
which became the anthem of the
International Labour Movement
Born Rathniska, Kilskyre 1852
Died Lewisham, London 1929
Oh, grant me an ownerless corner of earth,
Or pick me a hillock of stones,
Or gather the wind wafted leaves of the trees
To cover my socialist bones,
This monument was unveiled on 26th April, 1998 by
Peter Cassells, general secretary, ICTU, before an
international gathering from the trade unions and . . . — Map (db m27347) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Culmullen — Culmullen & 1798 — They Gave Their Lives For Their Cause|
| Erected by the People of
Culmullen and District
to the memory of the Men and Women
of Wexford and Meath
who died for their Country
and lie buried in the surrounding area
There were two periods of intense
Rising activity around Culmullen in 1798
Thursday May 24, 1798
Dunshaughlin was the rallying point for the United Irishmen of Meath, Dublin and North Kildare where a Tree of Liberty was planted. The following day, the rebels moved to one side of the Bog of Culmullen . . . — Map (db m33354) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Duleek — Duleek Courthouse — Duleek Heritage Trail|
| Duleek Courthouse was built in 1838 by John Trotter as a sessions house for the Meath Grand Jury. It was designed by Francis Johnston. The main architectural features are the Doric door-case and fanlight, a simplified eaves pediment and corner quoins. The building was used as a courthouse until 1960 when it was converted to a library and environmental offices. Its best-known magistrate was Judge Stephen Trotter who was responsible for the erection of Duleek House. — Map (db m24803) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Duleek — The Lime Tree — Duleek Heritage Trail|
| William of Orange and Mary accepted the throne of England in 1698, supplanting King James II who took refuge with his ally and sponsor Louis XIV of France. The tensions between James and William would reach their highpoint in 1690 at the battle of the Boyne in Meath, where James was defeated.
In Duleek at the time there was a very significant colony of Huguenots (French Protestants) who had fled persecution in France.
Subsequently to the Battle of the Boyne the people of Duleek planted . . . — Map (db m24802) HM|
|Ireland, Munster (County Limerick), Abbeyfeale — Reverend William Casey|
| His grateful fellow countrymen at home and beyond the seas have erected this monument to the memory of Rev. William Casey, for a quarter of a century prior to his death, the parish priest of this parish. He found his people struggling in the toils of landlordism: he left them owners of the soil and freemen. By his death, religion lost a shining light; the cause of temperance a strenuous advocate; the poor without distinction of creed, an ever helpful friend; and Ireland a devoted son. But . . . — Map (db m24739) HM|
|United Kingdom, England (Central London), London — Tower Hill Execution Site|
|To Commemorate the tragic history and in many cases the martyrdom of those who for the sake of their faith country or ideals staked their lives and lost. On this site more than 125 were put to death. The names of some of whom are recorded here.
• Simon of Sudbury, Archbishop of Canterbury 1381
• Sir Robert Hales, 1381
• Sir Simon de Burley, K.G. 1388
• Richard Fitzalan, 3rd Earl of Arundel 1397
• Rev. Richard Wyche, Vicar of Deptford 1440
• John De Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford 1462 . . . — Map (db m78678) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Battle of the Bogside — The Guide to Free Derry|
On 12 August 1969, as the Apprentice Boys Parade passed the edge of the Bogside, nationalists clashed with parade followers and police. The police and loyalists followed the nationalists back into the Bogside, where defences had been prepared. For the next three days this community held off a sustained attack from the police, who couldn’t pass the defenders on the roof of Rossville Flats. On 14 August the British army was brought in to replace the defeated and exhausted . . . — Map (db m71441) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Bernadette|
|The Artists' first coloured mural is a tribute to the women of Derry and their role in the civil rights campaign. Bernadette Devlin, Britain's youngest MP, addresses the crowd during the Battle of the Bogside: her actions resulted in a six month jail sentence for inciting and taking part in a riot. The woman to her left bangs a dustbin lid on the ground to alert neighbours to the arrival of the authorities. The triangle motif inspired by the gable end is repeated throughout the painting. . . . — Map (db m71187) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Bloody Sunday|
This mural depicts the events of 30th January 1972 when the British Army opened fire on a civil rights demonstration, killing 14 people. A local priest waves a bloodstained handkerchief at the soldiers as he leads a group of men, carry the body of the youngest victim, away from the scene of the shooting. A soldier stands on a civil rights banner: this speaks of the price that people pay for democratic freedom.
What makes our work unique is that, both as artists and as citizens, we are . . . — Map (db m71215) HM WM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Bloody Sunday — 30 January 1972|
On 30 January 1972, a massive British military operation in Derry's Bogside ended in the murder of thirteen unarmed civil rights demonstrators and the wounding of fifteen others - one of whom died later of his injuries on 16 June 1972.
The British army labelled the victims gunmen and bombers. They claimed their soldiers had met a "fusillade of fire". No soldier or vehicle was hit.
Derry Coroner Hubert O'Neill later declared the killings "sheer unadulterated murder". The hundreds of . . . — Map (db m71306) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Bloody Sunday — The Guide to Free Derry|
On 30 January 1972 the ‘elite’ British Parachute Regiment opened fire on a peaceful civil rights march along this street, killing 14 unarmed marchers and wounding 14 more. The dead and wounded were labelled gunmen and bombers by a partisan British judicial inquiry, and it was to be another 38 years before a second public inquiry forced the British government to admit what everyone else already knew, that all those killed and injured were innocent, and the shootings were “unjustified . . . — Map (db m71435) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Civil Rights|
This mural captures the mood of a typical civil rights march in the years up to 1972. Inspired by the civil disobedience campaign of Martin Luther King in the United States, young and old, Catholics and Protestants, politicians and mothers took to the streets to march for their democratic rights.
Our intention was to describe it as it was, a happy, almost festive occasion conducted by people who were content that they were standing up, at long last, against prolonged injustice. — Map (db m71434) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Death of Innocence — Annette McGavigan|
Shot dead by the British Army
6 September 1971
Here the innocence of a child's world contrasts vividly with the chaotic violence with which others have surrounded her. The mural commemorates fourteen year old Annette McGavigan who was shot by a British soldier in 1971, the 100th victim of the Troubles and one of the first children to be killed. The little coloured stones at her feet are objects that . . . — Map (db m71155) HM WM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Free Derry Corner — You Are Now Entering Free Derry — The Guide to Free Derry|
On 5 January 1969, after a night of rioting and sustained police attacks on the Bogside, the words "You Are Now Entering Free Derry" were painted on the gable wall of 33 Lecky Road. This simple graffiti became the defining symbol of the civil rights era and an internationally recognised symbol of resistance to state injustice. The wall remains today, though the rest of the street was demolished in 1975.
Binn Dhoire Saor
Ar an 5 Eanáir 1969, tar éis oíche círéibe agus ionsaithe . . . — Map (db m71204) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — H Block Hunger Strike Memorial|
IRA. Vol. Bobby Sands,
Born 9th March 1954
Died 5th May 1981
Age: 27 (66 Days).
IRA. Vol. Francis Hughes,
Born 28th Feb 1956
Died 12th May 1981
Age: 25 (59 Days)
INLA. Vol. Patsy O'Hara,
Born 11th July 1957
Died 21st May 1981
Age: 23 (61 Days)
IRA. Vol. Raymond McCreesh,
Born 25th Feb 1957
Died 21st May 1981
Age: 24 (61 Days)
IRA. Vol. Joe McDonnell,
Born 14th Step 1951
Died 8th July 1981
Age: 30 [sic - 29] (61 Days)
Let Our Revenge Be The . . . — Map (db m71219) WM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Hunger Strike|
This mural depicts one of the surviving hunger strikers as he looked after 53 days without food. He was one of seven men who went on hunger strike at the Maze prison in Belfast from 28th October, 1980 in protest against loss of their rights as political prisoners. His image was beamed around the world on television. He is joined by one of the women from Armagh jail who went on strike in sympathy. Both are wrapped in blankets marking their refusal to wear prison uniform.
Ours is a . . . — Map (db m71436) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Mc Nutt, Phelan, and Mc Shane Memorial|
In proud and loving memory of
I.N.L.A. Volunteer Colm Mc Nutt
Killed in Action 12th Decembert 1977
Comrade Patrick “Hessy” Phelan
Murdered in New York, 21st January 1996
Comrade Dermot “Tonto” Mc Shane
Murdered by British Army, 13th July 1996
“thig leo an reabhlóideach a mharú,
Ach ní thig leo an réabhlóid a mharú choiche” — Map (db m71442) WM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Motorman|
Free Derry ended at 4am on 30th July 1972 when thousands of British troops in tanks and armoured cars invaded the Bogside and Creggan 'no-go' areas. During Operation Motorman, they tore down the barricades with bulldozers. The Artists chose the image of a soldier battering down a door to express the sheer ferocity of the onslaught. With its contrasting light and shadow, the mural becomes a powerful statement against war.
Our work commemorates the real price paid by a naïve and . . . — Map (db m71284) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Seán Keenan / Ó Cianáin|
In proud and loving memory of
Seán Keenan 1914 - 1993
Volunteer. Óglaigh na h-Éireann
Derry Citizens' Defence Association
Republican Sinn Fein
Fluent Irish Speaker
and active G.A.A. Supporter
He spent 15 years interned without trial
His life-long struggle against oppression
and for the All-Ireland Republic
continues to inspire his people
His wife Nancy died 1st October 1970
Also his son Colm
Died in active service on 14th . . . — Map (db m71208) HM WM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — The Bloody Sunday Commemoration|
This mural was painted to commemorate the 25th anniversary of Bloody Sunday. A circle frames the faces of the 14 victims with the youngest in the centre. The circle is the symbol of wholeness, the goal of the healing process. Fourteen oak leaves, the symbol of the city, surround the circle. The soft red colours convey sadness rather than anger.
In the evening light with the sun shining directly on it, it can be very moving, even for us who painted it. — Map (db m71158) HM WM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — The Peace Mural|
| This mural shows a dove and an oak leaf, as symbols of hope for the city’s future. The dove is the name of St Columba, the city’s founder, who is said to have built his monastery in an oak grove. The background mosaic of the colours of the spectrum expresses what the Artists mean by peace.
The colours of the mural say that peace without freedom is no peace at all. — Map (db m71440) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — The Petrol Bomber|
For two days in August, 1969 local people resisted attempts by the Royal Ulster Constabulary to break down the barricades which they had erected to defend their community. The Battle of the Bogside ended when the British government sent in the Army. The mural depicts a young boy wearing a gas mask to protect himself from CS gas: he is holding a petrol bomb made from a milk bottle.
This was our first mural and thought to be our best. As soon as the three of us painted it we knew we had . . . — Map (db m71168) HM WM|
|Alabama (Bullock County), Midway — Old Merritt School Midway Community Center|
|Margaret Elizabeth Merritt of Midway sold two acres for $5 to the state of Alabama in 1921 as a site for an elementary school for African-American children. Built in 1922 with matching Rosenwald funds, the Midway Colored Public School featured oak and pine construction and two classrooms divided by a partition. The building is one of the few surviving of the more than 5,000 rural black schools built with contributions from the Julius Rosenwald Fund. Enlarged twice, then renovated in 1978, it is . . . — Map (db m60910) HM|
|Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — Freedom Riders|
|On May 14, 1961, a Greyhound bus left Atlanta, GA carrying among its passengers seven members of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), a.k.a. the “Freedom Riders,” on a journey to test interstate bus segregation. The bus was met by an angry mob at the bus station in Anniston, AL where tires were slashed and windows broken. Upon leaving Anniston, the bus was followed by the mob to this site where the driver stopped to change the tire. The crowd set the bus on fire and attacked . . . — Map (db m35737) HM|
|Alabama (Clarke County), Grove Hill — Colored and White Soldiers of World War I|
| This is a replica of the original tablet from the 1924 World War I monument located in front of the Clarke County Courthouse. The monument was the first memorial ever erected to honor county war dead. It cost $1,650 and was paid for with donations.
This tablet has historical significance. It is unique in that it shows racial tolerance for the time by honoring Blacks and Whites on the same stone. Tolerant though it may have been, it is a relic of a segregation era and a reminder that all . . . — Map (db m57385) HM|
|Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Campsite 1 — Selma to Montgomery Trail|
March 21, 1965 — Map (db m61846) HM|
|Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — I Had A Dream — Dr. Martin L. King Jr.|
|The demonstration that led to the most important advance in civil rights for millions of Black Americans began here March 21, 1965. It was the 50-mile march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, the State Capital.
Defying threats of death, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., led 400 Black and White Americans on the longest, largest, most dramatic march of his 13-year career.
It gave southern Blacks the right as citizens to cast a ballot and help determine and help operate the government under . . . — Map (db m73865) HM|
|Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — In Honor of James Joseph Reeb — 1927-1965 — “This Good Man”|
|Rev. James J. Reeb, an Army Veteran and Unitarian minister from Casper, Wyoming, was working in Boston when Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. appealed for clergymen of all faiths to come to Selma to protest the violence that occurred at the Edmund Pettus Bridge on March 7, 1965, “Bloody Sunday.” Reeb responded by flying south for the protest march in Selma on March 9. A few hours after the march, Reeb and two fellow ministers were attacked while walking along Washington Street near the . . . — Map (db m37683) HM|
|Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — St. Paul’s Episcopal Church Est. 1838|
| Side A The original church, built one block south of the present site, was consecrated in 1843 by Bishop Leonidas Polk. In 1861, the second Bishop of Alabama, the Rt. Rev. Richard H. Wilmer, was elected there. During the Battle of Selma, St. Paul’s rector, the Rev. James Ticknor, was wounded and the senior warden, Robert Philpot, was killed. Union troops under Gen. James H. Wilson burned the original church April 2, 1865.
The cornerstone for the present building was laid in 1871. . . . — Map (db m37691) HM|
|Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — The Selma Movement — (The Beginning) / (The Prize)|
The major civil rights protest, which focused national attention on the issue of racial discrimination in voting & led to the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, was centered in Selma.
In January of 1963 local citizens organized a voter registration class & by February others were in Selma to assist with registration. Local law officials & blacks seeking to register to vote soon clashed & this received widespread news coverage.
Dr. Martin . . . — Map (db m37662) HM|
|Alabama (Henry County), Abbeville — Rosa Parks Lived Here|
| Front Civil rights pioneer Rosa McCauley Parks was born on February 4, 1913 in Tuskegee, Alabama. Shortly after her birth her parents James and Leona McCauley, moved here to a 260 acre farm owned by her grandparents, Anderson and Louisa McCauley. Her father, a builder, designed and constructed the Henry County Training School for black students in 1914. After a few years in Henry County, Rosa and her mother moved to Pine Level, Alabama, to live with her maternal grandparents, while her . . . — Map (db m60681) HM|
|Alabama (Jackson County), Paint Rock — The History of Paint Rock, Alabama / Paint Rock Arrests in 1931 Began 'Scottsboro Boys' Cases|
The History of Paint Rock, Alabama
Originally Camden circa 1830, the post office was renamed Redman in 1846 and became Paint Rock on May 17, 1860. After the Memphis and Charleston Railroad Co. built a depot and water tower in 1856, the village thrived as a farm to market center. Four battles were waged nearby during the Civil War and Union troops guarded the railroad.
Early industries included a mill to grind corn and wheat, a pencil mill, and two mills made . . . — Map (db m69756) HM|
|Alabama (Jackson County), Scottsboro — Jackson County Courthouse And The Scottsboro Boys|
Constructed in 1911-1912 and designed by architect Richard H. Hunt, the Jackson County Courthouse is a Neo-Classical, brick building situated on a town square in Scottsboro, the county seat of Jackson County. The front, two-story portico is supported by four stone columns of the Doric order. A cupola on the top contains a Seth Thomas clock.
This courthouse was the site of the first of the Scottsboro Boys trials. Two white women accused nine black teenagers of rape on . . . — Map (db m22264) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — "Peace Be Still" — Mark 4:39|
|On Palm Sunday, 1963 Rev. N. H. Smith, Rev. John T. Porter and Rev. A. D. King led a sympathy march from St. Paul United Methodist Church down 6th Avenue North in support of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth and Rev. Ralph Abernathy who were in jail. 2,000 marchers assembled behind Smith, Porter and King like a "storm cloud". The march climaxed at Kelly Ingram Park where the marchers were met by billy clubs and police dogs. In the heat of the event these three ministers . . . — Map (db m73023) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 1963 Church Bombing Victims|
|This cemetery is the final resting place of three of the four young girls killed in the September 15, 1963 church bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church. Addie Mae Collins, Cynthia Wesley and Carol Robertson are buried here. The fourth victim, Denise McNair, is buried elsewhere.
The tragic loss of these lives led to the end of the era of massive resistance to social change in Birmingham and the release of the city from the fear which long paralyzed progress in human relations. — Map (db m61197) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 4th Avenue District|
|The Fourth Avenue "Strip" thrived during a time when downtown privileges for blacks were limited. Although blacks could shop at some white-owned stores, they did not share the same privileges and services as white customers, so they created tailor shops, department stores, cafeterias, billiard parlors, fruit stands, shoe shine shops, laundry service, jewelry and record shops, and taxicab stands. These businesses were distinctively geared toward and managed by blacks. When darkness fell, the . . . — Map (db m26985) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Arthur D. Shores — "Dean of Black Lawyers in The State of Alabama."|
|During the first 30 years of his 54-year-old practice, Attorney Shores practiced all over the State of Alabama - from the Tennessee line to the Gulf of Mexico at Mobile Bay, and from the Mississippi borders to the Georgia limits. During the period roughly between 1940 and 1950 he was the only lone voice in the wilderness defending the civil rights of black people. Mr. Shores practiced civil rights law all over the state of Alabama during an era in which his life was in constant jeopardy. He . . . — Map (db m26720) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Civil Rights Freedom Riders — May 14, 1961|
|On Mother's Day, May 14, 1961, a group of black and white CORE youth on a "Freedom Ride" from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans arrived by bus at the Birmingham Greyhound terminal. They were riding through the deep south to test a court case, "Boynton vs. Virginia", declaring segregation in bus terminals unconstitutional. Here they were met and attacked by a mob of Klansmen. The riders were severely assaulted while the police watched, yet the youth stood their grounds. — Map (db m26698) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Don't Tread on Me|
| 1963 A female protestor remained defiant as police drag her away from a demonstration in Birmingham's nearby retail district. Activists in Birmingham--led for seven years by Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth before the 1963 Birmingham Campaign--put their lives on the line to rebel against the City's unjust and unconstitutional segregation laws. One such law, City Code Section 369, said, ?It shall be unlawful to conduct a restaurant in the city at which White and Colored people are served in the same . . . — Map (db m73035) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Don't Tread on Me|
|Leaders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) learned they could apply economic pressure to White businesses with more effective results than moral persuasion alone. Therefore, the central strategy of the Birmingham Campaign targeted the City's retail base. "Project C" (the "C" stood for "confrontation") started with sit-ins at Birmingham lunch counters and continued with marches, pickets and boycotts of Birmingham retail stores. Movement leaders used these non-violent direct . . . — Map (db m73037) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.|
| Born Jan. 15, 1929 Assassinated Apr. 4. 1968 "...yes, if you want to say that I was a drum major, say that I was a drum major for justice; say that I was a drum major for peace..." His dream liberated Birmingham from itself and began a new day of love, mutual respect and cooperation. This statue of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. erected by citizens of Birmingham as an indication of their esteem for him and in appreciation of his sacrificial service to mankind. Unveiled: Jan. 20, 1986 . . . — Map (db m73007) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.|
|Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth invited Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. to Birmingham in 1962. Shuttlesworth saw potential in the young minister, and their combined efforts were instrumental in Birmingham's desegregation. The campaign catapulted King into the spotlight as the foremost leader in America's Civil Rights Movement. — Map (db m73031) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dr. Ruth J. Jackson — 1898 - 1982|
Dr. Ruth J. Jackson
This woman of strength and vision graduated from the Poro School of Cosmetology, the first black registered school in the State of Alabama. At the vanguard of the Civil Rights Movement, she was unwavering in her devotion to the Birmingham Community. She inspired both children and adults to complete their education. Members of the Southern Beauty Congress and the Alabama Association of Modern Beauticians, Organizations to which she rendered . . . — Map (db m27090) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — East Birmingham|
Founded in 1886 on 600 acres of land, East Birmingham was the agricultural area consisting primarily of dairy farms extending to the present Birmingham airport. The East Birmingham Land Company that developed the area was formed by local industrialist who proposed sites for manufacturing plants, employee housing , and a streetcar line linking them to Birmingham. East Birmingham was annexed to the city in 1910.
In the decades after 1886, Industrial enterprises and . . . — Map (db m26633) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Emory Overton Jackson — 1908 - 1975|
Emory Overton Jackson was born on September 8, 1908 in Buena Vista, Georgia to Will Burt and Lovie Jones Jackson. E. O. Jackson and his seven siblings were raised in the middle-class Birmingham enclave of Enon Ridge, located on the west side of town near Birmingham-Southern College. He attended Industrial High School, which was later named A. H. Parker High. In 1928 he enrolled in Atlanta’s Morehouse College, where he served as President of the student government and editor of the . . . — Map (db m64736) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Foot Soldier Tribute — Ronald S. McDowell, Artist I.B.J.C.|
|This sculpture is dedicated to the Foot Soldiers of the Birmingham Civil Rights Movement.
With gallantry, courage and great bravery they faced the violence of attack dogs, high powered water hoses, and bombings. They were the fodder in the advance against injustice. Warriors of a Just Cause: They represent humanity unshaken in their firm belief in their nation’s commitment to liberty and justice for all.
We salute these men and women who were the Soldiers of this Great Cause.
. . . — Map (db m27394) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Fourth Avenue Historic District.|
Prior to 1900 a "black business district" did not exist in Birmingham. In a pattern characteristic of Southern cities found during Reconstruction, black businesses developed alongside those of whites in many sections of the downtown area.
After the turn of the century, Jim Crow laws authorizing the distinct separation of "the races" and subsequent restrictions placed on black firms forced the growing black business community into an area along Third, Fourth, and Fifth . . . — Map (db m26702) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Ground Zero|
|You are standing at Ground Zero of the 1963 civil rights struggle in Birmingham. When African-American leaders and citizens resolved to fight the oppression of a strictly segregated society, they were met with vitriol and violence despite their own determinedly peaceful approach. — Map (db m73015) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Jim Crow on the Books|
|The first march to City Hall was organized in 1955 by Rev. Fred L. Shuttlesworth when he petitioned the city to hire Negro policemen. By 1963, thousands of Blacks marched on City Hall to protest Jim Crow laws that were a constant reminder of Blacks' second-class status in America. Such laws robbed them of fair voting, and public facility rights. Separate water fountains, restrooms, schools, public transportation and other facilities were marked with "Whites Only" and "Colored" or "Negroes" . . . — Map (db m73036) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Kneeling Ministers|
|Responsible for much planning and leadership, the clergy played a central role in the Birmingham Campaign--like the famous Palm Sunday incident in 1963 (see nearby plaque). Local clergy like Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth worked with out-of-town ministers, Martin Luther King, Jr., and even a group of rabbis from New York, who likened segregation to the Holocaust. — Map (db m73080) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Non-Violent Foot Soldiers|
|The central principle of the American Civil Rights Movement was non-violence, based on the strategies of Mahatma Gandhi, who led India's independence struggle against the British Empire. Being non-violent did not mean being passive. Using "direct action," protesters aggressively disobeyed unfair segregation laws. This put them on a collision course with the White establishment that refused to change. Protesters were trained to resist, yet not fight violence with violence. They believed that . . . — Map (db m73029) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Non-Violent Foot Soldiers|
|Those who participated in the marches and other demonstrations in the Birmingham Campaign agreed to a pledge of nonviolence. A few of the "Ten Commandments" of the pledge were: "Mediate daily on the teaching and life of Jesus. Remember always that the nonviolent movement in Birmingham seeks justice and reconciliation - not victory. Refrain from the violence of the fist, tongue and heart." After protesters knelt to pray in the streets, they were arrested. Here they quietly line-up to get into . . . — Map (db m73033) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Police Presence|
| May 1963 Helmeted police stand ready in Kelly Ingram Park outside the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, one of many strategic hubs from which "Project C" organizers launched marches. Police try to keep marchers away from City Hall, usually stopping them at 17th Street. White police often considered this street to be the great dividing line between them and Black protesters advancing to government sites downtown. — Map (db m73032) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Reflecting Pool|
|Throughout May 1963, the pressure continued to build. The downtown business district was closed, a prominent black-owned motel was bombed, and 3,000 federal troops were dispatched to restore order before Birmingham was officially desegregated. This placid fountain mirrors the peace that the brave "Freedom Fighters" helped forge. — Map (db m73021) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth|
|No one did more to bring about positive change in Birmingham than the Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth. In his struggle for equal rights, he survived a series of assaults, including the bombing of his home and a brutal armed beating by the Ku Klux Klan. In spite of it all, he was instrumental in victory after victory for civil rights in Birmingham and America. — Map (db m73025) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Rev. Fred Shuttleworth Bethel Baptist Church|
|Rev. Fred Shuttleworth's tenure as pastor of Bethel Baptist Church (1953-1961) was marked by demonstrations, bombings and passionate sermons critical of segregation laws. His activism earned him a house bombing, frequent beatings, arrests, and threats to his family. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. called Shuttleworth “one of the nation's most courageous freedom fighters.”Shuttleworth organized lunch counter sit-ins and encouraged Blacks to apply for civil service jobs. The church was . . . — Map (db m50398) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Sixteenth Street Baptist Church — Has Been Designated a National Historic Landmark.|
|This property possesses National Significance in commemorating the history of the United States. In 1963 it was the staging ground for the Birmingham Campaign Civil Rights Youth Marches and the place where a bomb killed four young girls, "Martyred Heroines of a Holy Crusade for Freedom and Human Dignity." — Map (db m63733) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Children's Crusade|
|On May 2, 1963, more than 1,000 students skipped school and marched on downtown, gathering at the 16th Street Baptist Church. Bull Connor responded by jailing more than 600 children that day. So the next day, another 1,000 students filled the park in which you stand now. With his cells full and his back against the wall, Connor responded savagely. — Map (db m73017) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Foot Soldiers|
|When notoriously racist police commissioner Eugene "Bull" Connor sicced dogs on the "Foot Soldiers" of the movement, civil rights leaders hoped it would shine a national spotlight on their plight, but the country at large remained woefully ignorant. However, Southern Christian Leadership Conference leaders had an ace up their sleeves... — Map (db m73398) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Water Cannons|
|Bull Connor ordered the fearless "Child Crusaders" to be blasted with high-pressure fire hoses, and he once again loosed the dogs on the young demonstrators. When the media finally exposed the nation to the cruel scene, President John F. Kennedy attempted to intervene, but a defiant Connor continued to brutalize and imprison indiscriminately. — Map (db m73019) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Zion Memorial Gardens|
|Mt. Zion Baptist Church began burying here in the mid-1800s. On June 2, 1970, New Grace Hill Cemetery, Inc., a subsidiary of the Booker T. Washington Insurance Company in Birmingham, purchased this cemetery and officially named it Zion Memorial Gardens. Dr. A. G. Gaston (1892-1996) organized the Booker T. Washington Burial Society in 1923, responding to the lack of burial insurance available to African Americans. Gaston believed, “a proper funeral is of immense importance….it’s the very . . . — Map (db m35602) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Charles Lee Moore — City of Florence Walk of Honor|
Recipient of 1989 of the first Kodak Award for Photojournalism, Charles Moore chronicled such major events as the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960's South, political violence in Haiti, and the air war in Vietnam. — Map (db m56376) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Henry S. "Hank" Klibanoff — City of Florence Walk of Honor|
A keen observer and researcher of the Civil Rights Movement in the South, Hank Klibanoff won the Pulitzer Prize in 2007 for The Race Beat: The Press, the Civil Rights Struggle, and the Awakening of a Nation. — Map (db m38643) HM|
|Alabama (Lawrence County), Moulton — Judge Thomas M. Peters|
|A scientist of national fame, Peters (1810-1888) lived for many years in Moulton with his wife Naomi (Leetch), a relative of President James K. Polk, who possibly visited here. A man of many talents, Peters was a noted linguist, early civil rights and women's suffrage activist, and lawyer. At various times, he was a newspaper publisher, educator, state representative and senator, Alabama Supreme Court Chief Justice, Alabama Constitutional Convention delegate, and a pro-Union Republican leader. . . . — Map (db m69670) HM|
|Alabama (Lowndes County), Lowndesboro — Campsite 3 — Selma to Montgomery Trail|
|Robert Gardner Farm
March 23, 1965 — Map (db m61847) HM|
|Alabama (Lowndes County), Lowndesboro — Elmore Bolling — May 10, 1908 - December 4, 1947|
|Lowndesboro, AL—Enraged whites, jealous over the business success of a Negro were believed to the lynchers of Elmore Bolling. Bolling, 39, was found riddled with shot gun and pistol shots 150 yards from his general merchandise store. It is believed that more than one person figured in the murder but Producers Commission Company Union Stock white employee, resident of Braggs is the only person held. He was released on $2500 bond. Bolling's small trucking business frequently hauled . . . — Map (db m70940) HM|
|Alabama (Lowndes County), Lowndesboro — Viola Liuzzo|
|In memory of our sister Viola Liuzzo who gave her life in the struggle for the right to vote... March 25, 1965 Presented by SCLC/WOMEN Evelyn Lowery National Convener - 1991 - The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Joseph Lowery, President — Map (db m70938) HM|
|Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — Campsite 2 — Selma to Montgomery Trail|
|Rosie Steele Farm
March 22, 1965 — Map (db m70954) HM|
|Alabama (Macon County), Shorter — Shorter, Alabama — A New Town in an Older Community|
Shorter was originally called Cross Keys for the birthplace in South Carolina of an early settler, J.H. Howard. It was later named Shorter for former Alabama Governor John Gill Shorter. The town embodies the memories of the proud Creek Indian Nation, the Old South, and the Civil Right Movement. It was originally a part of Creek Indian Territory and now a part of Macon County, which was created in 1832. Shorter is home to several state historical sites and boasts one of the longest stretches . . . — Map (db m77639) HM|
|Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — Butler Chapel AME Zion Church|
|Before the mid-1960s, Tuskegee’s black population faced many challenges when attempting to register to vote. Furthermore, the State of Alabama redrew the town’s political boundaries in an effort to prevent registered blacks from voting in local elections. In response to this discrimination, several thousand people gathered at Butler Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church on June 25, 1957 for the first meeting of the Tuskegee Civic Association’s “Crusade for Citizenship.” . . . — Map (db m69048) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Rev. Dr. Joseph E. Lowery Boyhood Home Site — (Dean of Civil Rights Movement)|
| Side A
Dr. Joseph Echols Lowery was born in Huntsville on Oct 6, 1921, to Dora and Leroy Lowery. He grew up in Lakeside (Methodist) church. He began his education in Huntsville, spent his middle school years in Chicago, and returned to complete high school. He attended Alabama A&M University. Knoxville College, Payne College and Theological Seminary. He served as pastor of United Methodist churches in Mobile, Birmingham and Atlanta for 45 years, retiring from the pulpit in 1997. He . . . — Map (db m27901) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Mathews — The Jonesville Community — (Honoring Mr. Prince Albert Jones Sr.)|
The Jonesville Community on Old Pike Road in Mathews, named for wealthy landowner George Mathews from Olgethorp County Ga.
was designated by the Montgomery County Commission on October
16th, 2007 to honor the life and legacy of Prince Albert Jones Sr.
(April 25, 1916 - January 13, 2008) and his family to the community.
Jones was born and reared in the area and devoted much of his
nearly 92 years of life to helping others in Mathews and the
surrounding communities of . . . — Map (db m68716) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama's First Capitals / The Alabama State Capitol|
|Alabama's First Capitals
On March 3, 1817, Congress designated the town of St. Stephens on the Tombigbee River north of Mobile as capital of the newly formed Alabama Territory. There in 1818, the territorial legislature named Huntsville as the temporary seat of government and Cahawba (near present-day Selma) as the first permanent capitol. The constitutional convention and legislature met in Huntsville and on December 14, 1819, Alabama was admitted into the Union. Meanwhile a suitable . . . — Map (db m36642) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Aurelia Eliscera Shines Browder — Civil Rights Pioneer|
Aurelia Eliscera Shines Browder was born January 29, 1919, in Montgomery, Alabama. She graduated with honors in 1956 from Alabama State Teachers College (now Alabama State University).
In April 1955, Browder's refusal to give up her seat on a Montgomery bus to a white passenger led to her arrest. During the Montgomery Bus Boycott, which began in December 1955, she was a volunteer driver for those who declined to ride the buses. On February 1, 1956, serving as lead . . . — Map (db m71349) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Bernard Whitehurst and the Whitehurst Case / Montgomery: Learning From the Past|
Bernard Whitehurst and the Whitehurst Case
On December 2, 1975, Bernard Whitehurst was shot to death by a police officer in Montgomery, Alabama. He died behind a house on Holcombe Street, running from police officers who mistakenly believed he was the suspect in a robbery of a neighborhood grocery store.
The facts were slow to emerge in this shooting of a black man by a white police officer. But investigations urged by the Whitehurst family, the city’s daily . . . — Map (db m69366) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Beulah Baptist Church — Organized 1880|
|Beulah Baptist Church was organized in the home of Monday and Dora Duvall, on the corner of Hull and Winnie Streets. Rev. William (Billy) Jenkins served as the pastor when the first church building was erected on Norton Street. Beulah served as the first classroom for the Alabama Colored People's University, which later became State Normal College, then Alabama State University. During the Church's centennial celebration, the University's president, Dr. Levi Watkins, who was a member of Beulah, . . . — Map (db m71377) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — City of St. Jude/The Selma to Montgomery March|
City of St. Jude
Founded by Father Harold Purcell in the 1930s, the City of St. Jude included church, school, medical facilities, social center and rectory. Its mission was to provide spiritual, educational, social and health services for Montgomery's black citizens. Distinguished for its Romanesque architecture and landscaping, site was designed by architects William Calham and Joseph Maschi. Leading the way in nondiscriminatory health care, the institution helped . . . — Map (db m71091) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Civil Rights Freedom Riders — May 20, 1961|
|On May 20, 1961, a group of black and white SNCC members led by John Lewis left Birmingham for Montgomery on a Greyhound bus. They were determined to continue the "Freedom Ride" from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans that had met with violence in Birmingham. Their purpose was to test a court case, "Boynton vs. Virginia," declaring segregation in bus terminals unconstitutional. Upon arriving in Montgomery, their police escort disappeared, and an angry mob of over 200 Klan supporters attacked and . . . — Map (db m71256) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Cleveland Court Apartments|
|On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks left work and boarded a downtown bus. Her destination was home, Cleveland Court Apartment No. 634. She didn't make it home that day as she was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white man. This single act of defiance, violating the segregation laws of that time, led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott and launched Rosa Parks into the national spotlight. She later became a distinct symbol as the "Mother of the Civil Rights Movement."
The apartment . . . — Map (db m71385) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Day Street Baptist Church|
|Organized from Bethel Baptist Church, congregation founded 1882 with Rev. George Casby as first minister. Originally met in frame building; fund-raising began for this edifice in 1906. Designed by Wallace Rayfield, Tuskegee Institute architect and faculty member, building completed ca. 1910. A graduate of Pratt School of Architecture, Rayfield established the first black architectural firm in Birmingham and won national recognition. Day Street's community activities included the organization of . . . — Map (db m71081) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church — Organized 1877|
|The second black Baptist Church in Montgomery. First pastor was Rev. C. O. Boothe. Present structure built 1885. Designed by Pelham J. Anderson; built by William Watkins, a member of the congregation.
Many prominent black citizens of Montgomery have been members, Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. served as pastor (1954-1960). Montgomery bus boycott organized here December 2, 1955. — Map (db m25128) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Elijah Cook / City of Montgomery v. Rosa Parks|
Born a slave in Wetumpka in 1833, Elijah Cook became a leader in Montgomery’s African American community. Credited with helping to establish the city’s first school for blacks in the basement of the Old Ship AME Zion Church in 1865, he also selected the site for Swayne College (later Booker T. Washington School) that opened in 1868. In 1887, he assisted in posting the $10,000 surety bond to relocate the Lincoln School of Marion (later Alabama State University) to . . . — Map (db m69222) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — First Baptist Church (Brick-A-Day Church)|
|Organized in 1866, this pioneering congregation grew out of First Baptist Church, now on Perry Street, where early parishioners had worshipped as slaves. The first building, facing Columbus Street, was erected in 1867. Nathan Ashby served as first pastor (1866-70) to over 700 members and as first president of the Colored Baptist Convention of Alabama, now known as the Alabama Baptist State Convention, which was organized here in 1868. The Baptist Foreign Mission Convention, later part of the . . . — Map (db m36499) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Fred David Gray — Civil Rights Attorney and Legislator / Advocate for Victims and History|
| Side 1
Born in 1930 in Montgomery, Gray was among the foremost civil rights attorneys of the 20th century. Forced by segregation to leave Alabama to attend law school, he vowed to return and "destroy everything segregated I could find." Over a six-decade career, his cases desegregated transportation, education. housing, law enforcement, public accommodations, and government. In the U.S. Supreme Court, Browder v. Gayle won the Montgomery Bus Boycott and Gomillion v. . . . — Map (db m80842) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Georgia Gilmore — February 5, 1920 - March 3, 1990|
|Georgia Gilmore, cited as a “solid energetic boycott participant and supporter.” Lived in this house during the days of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Once arrested on a bus, Gilmore was ardent in her efforts to raise funds for the Movement and organized “Club From Nowhere” whose members baked pies and cakes for sale to both black and white customers. Opening her home to all, she tirelessly cooked meals for participants including Dr. Martin Luther King and Dr. Ralph . . . — Map (db m28197) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Harris House|
| Front Between May 20-24, 1961 Dr. Harris opened this home to a group of 33 students from Nashville, Tennessee, who were challenging interstate bus segregation. Known as the Freedom Riders, the group was attacked at the historic Montgomery Greyhound Bus Station upon arrival and harassed by rioters. In the days following attack, martial law was declared and Harris' home served as a haven for the Freedom Riders. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.,Dr. Ralph D. Abernathy, James Farmer, John Lewis, . . . — Map (db m28134) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Holt Street Baptist Church|
|Congregation founded by former members of Bethel Baptist Church in 1909. Under leadership of Rev. I.S. Fountain, group met for four years in Labor's Hall, corner of Cobb and Mobile Streets, before purchasing this site and constructing church in 1913. Congregation added wing 1946, and in 1953 demolished old structure and built present sanctuary. On evening of December 5, 1955, the first day of Bus Boycott, some 5,000 people gathered here. Dr. Martin Luther King, newly elected leader of . . . — Map (db m71086) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Home of Ralph David Abernathy — (March 11, 1926-April 30, 1990)|
|This was the home of Dr. Ralph David Abernathy, a central leader of the historic events of the Civil Rights Movement.
Dr. Abernathy graduated from Alabama State University in 1950 and from Atlanta University in 1951. He and his family lived here while he was pastor of the First Baptist Church located on Ripley Street in Montgomery, Alabama.
In 1955, Abernathy along with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., helped lead the successful boycott of Montgomery’s segregated bus system. In 1957, . . . — Map (db m71232) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Johnnie R. and Arlam Carr, Sr. Home|
|This home was originally owned in 1901 by Emily V. Semple. It changed hands several times until purchased by Flora K. Daniels and Arlam and Johnnie R. Carr, Sr. The Carrs moved into this residence in 1943. They resided here during the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott. Johnnie Carr was an active member of the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) under the leadership of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., at that time. In 1964, Johnnie and Arlam Carr, Sr. became the lead plaintiffs on behalf of their . . . — Map (db m71265) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Juliette Hampton Morgan / Montgomery City-County Public Library|
| (side 1)
Juliette Hampton Morgan
Juliette Hampton Morgan was a white Montgomery, Alabama librarian whose privileged upbringing seemed unlikely to produce the determined civil rights activist that she became. Her letters to the Montgomery Advertiser supporting the 1956 Bus Boycott, integration of the University of Alabama, and national compliance with public school integration drew fire from traditionalists who demanded her resignation. People boycotted the Carnegie . . . — Map (db m71258) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Lilly Baptist Church — "The Lilly" — 820 Hill Street|
|Lilly Baptist Church, established November, 1900 as a missionary church of Bethel Missionary Baptist. Originally located on St. Clair Street in a small frame building. Moved May 27, 1973, into new 1500-seat sanctuary at present location. Education Complex added April, 1985.
Known as "The Lilly," church was active in Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-56). Noted for its music, the church has seven choirs which recorded albums in 1974 and 1984. 500 members of congregation participated in nationally . . . — Map (db m71088) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Minister's Home / Dr. Martin Luther King — Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church|
| Side A House built circa 1912. It has been the home of the ministers of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church since 1919. Its most famous occupant, Dr. Martin Luther King , lived here from Sept. 1954-Feb. 1960. During this time he lead the Bus Boycott launching an outstanding career as a world leader for civil rights and humanitarian causes. When a bomb damaged the house on January 31, 1956, Dr. King returned from a Boycott meeting and calmed an angry crowd from the porch, averting possible . . . — Map (db m61095) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Montgomery's Panel Project|
| Montgomery's Cotton Slide
The history of Montgomery Panel Project is place on top of the remains of Montgomery's Cotton Slide. The Cotton Slide was used to transport heavy cotton bales from the streets above to the waiting steamboats below.
Before the arrival of the first Europeans, Montgomery was inhabited by Native Americans known as the Alibamu Creeks. They lived in small towns and villages throughout the River Region, and relied on the river for their . . . — Map (db m78145) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Mount Zion African Methodist Episcopal AME Zion Church|
Located at the heart of Montgomery's historic African-American neighborhoods. Mount Zion A.M.E. Zion Church was constructed in 1899 and heavily remodeled in 1921. It served as a significant Center for religious, political, and social life for blacks in Montgomery throughout most of the twentieth-century.
The seeds of protest were growing in Montgomery long before the arrest of Rosa Parks on December 1, 1955, and the bus boycott. Rev. Solomon Seay, pastor of Mt. Zion from . . . — Map (db m43619) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Louise McCauley Parks / The Bus Stop|
| Side A A Lady of Courage Born in Tuskegee, AL on February 4, 1913, to James McCauley, a carpenter, and Leona Edwards, a teacher. Moved with mother and brother to Pine Level, AL after parents' separation. Enrolled in Mrs. White's School for Girls at age 11 and received her high school diploma from Alabama State Teachers College Laboratory High School. Married Montgomery barber Raymond Parks in 1932; both became active in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored . . . — Map (db m36503) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Parks Branch Library / Bertha Pleasant Williams|
| Side 1
Rosa Parks Branch Library
Second public library for blacks in City of Montgomery, this building opened in 1960 as Montgomery Branch Library on Cleveland Avenue. Designed by architect James Miller Davis, it served the black population at a time the main facility on High Street prohibited their patronage. Planned to contain 15,000 volumes, this structure has meeting rooms and areas for adults, teen-agers and children. Judge Frank Johnson ordered desegregation of . . . — Map (db m71388) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Parks Montgomery Bus Boycott / Hank Williams Alabama Troubadour|
| Side A
At the bus stop on this site on December 1, 1955, Mrs. Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to boarding whites. This brought about her arrest, conviction, and fine. The Boycott began December 5, the day of Parks’ trial, as a protest by African - Americans for unequal treatment they received on the bus line. Refusing to ride the buses, they maintained the Boycott until the U. S. Supreme Court ordered integration of public transportation one year later. Dr. Martin Luther . . . — Map (db m28176) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Selma-to-Montgomery March|
| Side A The Selma-to-Montgomery March ended here on March 25, 1965, when 25,000 civil rights marchers arrived at the Alabama State Capitol to demand the right to vote for African Americans. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and other civil rights leaders addressed the marchers and the nation, culminating a series of demonstrations that began in Selma on March 7 - "Bloody Sunday" - when some 600 peaceful protesters were savagely beaten by lawmen as they tried to cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge. . . . — Map (db m62747) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The E. L. Posey Parking Lot|
|This site, known as “Posey’s Parking Lot,” served the black community as one of two major transportation centers during the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Mrs. Rosa Parks’s December 1, 1955 arrest following her refusal to surrender her seat at the order of the white bus driver sparked protests against segregation on the Montgomery City Bus Lines. After city authorities outlawed the use of black taxis as an alternative form of transportation for boycotters, the parking lot, operated by . . . — Map (db m71261) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Hon. Rufus A. Lewis — 1906 - 1999|
|Lewis began an earnest voting rights drive in the early 1940s. Credited with registering 4 generations of Montgomery voters. He established Citizenship School that tutored prospective black voters to fill out the literacy text. A barrier before the passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act. Lewis opened, in 1952 the "Citizens' Club,” a night club for African Americans who were registered voters and who helped others to become voters. Lewis was a graduate of Fisk University and served as . . . — Map (db m28286) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Jackson-Community House/The Montgomery City Federation of Women’s Clubs|
The Jackson-Community House
In 1853, Jefferson Franklin Jackson, a native Alabamian and U.S. Attorney for the Alabama Middle District, built this two-story clapboard home originally with a dogtrot pattern. A Whig Party member, by 1862, Jackson was a wealthy land and slave owner who lived here with his wife and four children. By 1900, Jackson’s descendants had added a rear wing to the house and enclosed the back porch.
In 1943, the Montgomery City Federation of . . . — Map (db m71236) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Selma to Montgomery Voting Rights March — Led by Martin Luther King, Jr.|
Ended at the foot of the Capitol steps
on March 25, 1965
Here Dr. King addressed 25,000 people
"I believe this march will go down
as one of the greatest struggles
for freedom and dignity
in the nation's history."
Martin Luther King, Jr. — Map (db m80847) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church|
Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church was organized in 1918 at this location by ministers of what later became the American Lutheran Church under whose auspices the congregation organized a day school
on the property across the street. That school served the children in the area and was an integral part of the church's ministry. In 1959 the congregation became part of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod. In 2003 Trinity merged with Grace Lutheran Church to become United Evangelical Lutheran . . . — Map (db m43622) HM|
|Alabama (Perry County), Marion — Muckle's Ridge|
The site that became Marion was settled by Michael McElroy, traditionally known by his alias, Michael Muckle, around 1817. McElroy sold his property, which had become known as Muckle’s Ridge, to Anderson West in 1818. West and his wife moved into McElroy’s cabin, located near where the old jail is today, and cleared off a cornfield, upon which the courthouse now sits. The Alabama legislature formed Perry County in 1819, and the first county seat was at Perry Ridge, near the . . . — Map (db m70089) HM|
|Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Malone Hood Plaza|
|The Autherine Lucy Clock Tower is dedicated to the sacrifice and commitment of a courageous individual who took a stand for change at a crucial time in the history of The University of Alabama. The open arches, which mirror the architecture of Forster Auditorium, illustrate the opportunities that are available to individuals who have the courage and persistence to walk through the door.
The Malone-Hood Plaza is dedicated to the courage and values of those who bore the burden of the . . . — Map (db m37918) HM|
|Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Site Of The Stand In The Schoolhouse Door / Foster Auditorium, 1939|
|Foster Auditorium is the site of the June 11, 1963, “stand in the schoolhouse door” by Governor George C. Wallace in defiance of a court order requiring The University of Alabama to admit African-American students Vivian Malone and James Hood. President John F. Kennedy placed the Alabama National Guard under federal control to enforce the court order as Wallace refused to obey. Wallace then stepped aside and the students registered for class. That night, President Kennedy went on . . . — Map (db m37917) HM|
|Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — University of Alabama’s Slavery Apology|
|Buried near this plaque are Jack Rudolph and William “Boysey” Brown, two slaves owned by University of Alabama faculty, and William J. Crawford, a University student who died in 1844.
Rudolph was born in Africa about 1791 and died May 5, 1846, from “Bilious Pneumonia.” Brown was born April 10, 1838, and died November 22, 1844, from “Whooping Cough.”
Jack Rudolph and Boysey Brown were among the slaves owned by the University of Alabama and by . . . — Map (db m40389) HM|
|Alabama (Winston County), Haleyville — The Honorable Frank Minis Johnson, Jr.|
Born in Winston County, Alabama in 1918, Frank M. Johnson, Jr. transcended the prejudices of his time and made his mark as one of the great jurists in American history.
He married his Winston County sweetheart, Ruth Jenkins, in 1938. During World War II, he served in the infantry under General Patton. Twice wounded, he returned to Alabama in 1946 to practice law. In 1955, President Eisenhower appointed him federal district judge for the Middle District of Alabama, and, in 1979, . . . — Map (db m80559) HM|
|Arizona (Maricopa County), Phoenix — Eastlake Park|
Eastlake Park has served the inhabitants of Phoenix since the late 1880's. Originally known as Patton's Park, it was developed by the Phoenix Railway Company to serve as a recreational area for patrons of the city's trolley system. The park eventually became a place where people of color could meet to relax and celebrate special events without violating separatist laws which existed in the nation and state during the first half of the 20th century.
Eastlake Park's history is one . . . — Map (db m55058) HM|
|Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — The Right to Vote|
| The State of Arkansas is Dissolved
In 1867, the state of Arkansas ceased to exist. It was dissolved, as were all states still in rebellion when the Confederate government surrendered in 1865. Readmission to the Union required that the states meet two conditions set by the U.S. Congress.|
Congress demanded that the former state write new constitutions that included universal manhood suffrage, ensuring that former slaves had the right to vote. They were also required to ratify the . . . — Map (db m51927) HM
|California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Frances Albrier — (1898-1987) — Champion of Equal Rights and Social Justice|
|It was just automatic for me to stand up and tell a person, “You’re wrong. You’re mistreating me. You’re discriminatory. Why don’t you give me a chance?”
Great generosity coupled with anger at injustice guided the life of Frances Albrier. In 1920 she moved from Alabama to Berkeley. She had left the highly segregated South with a college education, but still faced discrimination in housing and jobs. She worked as a maid and union organizer on the Pullman trains, married and . . . — Map (db m54814) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Oakland — 1946 General Strike|
|Site of the 1946 General
Strike when Woman
Retail Clerks fought
For the Right to
Organize a Union — Map (db m72701) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Oakland — The Black Panther's First Office|
|On January 2, 1967
Black Panther Party
0pened the Party’s
at this location — Map (db m72382) HM|
|California (Kern County), Delano — The Forty Acres|
|Has been designated a
National Historic Landmark.
This property possesses national significance
in commemorating the history of the
United States of America.
Forty Acres embodies and conveys multiple layers of national significance associated with César Chávez. The Farm Worker Movement that thrived under his leadership, and a wider range of civil rights and social reform movements that helped define Twentieth Century American history. — Map (db m54836) HM|
|California (Los Angeles County), San Fernando — César Chávez Memorial — March 31, 1927 - April 23, 1993|
| Panel 1:
“Show me the suffering of the most miserable
So I will know my people’s plight.”
“Free me to pray for others
For you are present in every person.”
“Help me take responsibility for my own life
So that I can be free at last.”
“Grant me courage to serve others
For in service there is true life.”
“Give me honesty and patience
So that I can work with other workers.”
“Bring forth . . . — Map (db m79107) HM|
|California (San Diego County), San Diego — Father Antonio Ubach — Last of the Padres — 1835 – 1907|
|Antonio Dominic Ubach, passionate advocate for California Native Americans, and defender of Indian rights, ran St. Anthony’s Indian School on this site from 1856 to 1891. Father Ubach, created programs to help hundreds of Indian children adapt to an American society. He lobbied government to protect the Indians and their lands and was appointed by President Ulysses S. Grant to lead official missions of State. Father Ubach was immortalized in Helen Hunt Jackson’s 1884 novel Ramona as the . . . — Map (db m11647) HM|
|California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Dr. Sun Yat Sen — 1866 - 1925|
|Founder of the Kuo Min Tang, Champion for Democracy, Father of the Chinese Republic and first President. Lover of mankind. Proponent of friendship and peace among the nations based on equality, justice and goodwill. — Map (db m69511) HM|
|California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Frances E. Willard|
|Inspired by San Francisco in 1883
Became the first world organizer of women.
Standing here in 1883 she said "We are one world of tempted humanity" — Map (db m18462) HM|
|California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Harvey Milk — May 22, 1930 - November 27, 1978|
|Harvey Milk Plaza is named in honor of San Francisco Supervisor Harvey Milk, California’s first elected official to be openly gay.
In 1975, Harvey Milk opened Castro Camera at 575 Castro Street and moved into the apartment upstairs. Harvey’s store soon became a center for politcal meetings and voter registration drives. Through his involvement in neighborhood issues, he soon became known as “The Mayor of Castro Street”.
As the influx of gay men and lesbians revitalized the . . . — Map (db m21067) HM|
|California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Harvey Milk — May 22, 1930 - November 27, 1978|
|Harvey Milk made history as the first openly-gay elected official in California, and one of the first in the nation, when he won election to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors in November 1977. His camera store and campaign headquarters at 575 Castro Street and his apartment upstairs were centers of community activism for a wide range of human rights, environmental, labor and neighborhood issues. Harvey Milk's hard work and accomplishments on behalf of all San Franciscans earned him . . . — Map (db m64066) HM|
|California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Leonard Matlovich — A Gay Vietnam Veteran|
In memory of
who lived in this building for several years.
His epitaph reads:
A Gay Vietnam Veteran
When I was in the military they gave me a medal for killing two men and a discharge for loving one.
Never Again Never Forget
6 July 1943 22 June 1988
In 1975, Tech. Sgt. Leonard Matlovich, winner of the Purple Heart and Bronze Star made the military's ban on gays in the military a national issue when he appeared on the cover of . . . — Map (db m64100) HM|
|California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — The Rainbow Flag|
|On November 8, 1997, this Rainbow Flag was installed to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the election of Harvey Milk to the Board of Supervisors of voters of District 5. This victory by an openly gay man was a watershed for the Queer rights movement. Since then, open lesbians and gay men have been elected to many levels of government in the United States. After Milk's election on November 8, 1977, the following members of San Francisco's Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Community have . . . — Map (db m21083) HM|
|California (San Luis Obispo County), Atascadero — Your American Heritage Monument|
|The purpose of this monument is to forever stand as a tribute to our nation's Founding Fathers who created the two most important documents that laid the foundation of our country: the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. This monument also honors our nation's veterans, who from the time of George Washington, when that first Minuteman fired "The Shot Heard 'Round the World" (which echo still rings of freedom), have forged the fiber that has been woven into the fabric of our . . . — Map (db m67581) HM|
|Colorado (Prowers County), Granada — Amache - Granada Relocation Center|
Marker No. 1:
During the first months of World II, the United States Government ordered over 110,000 men, women, and children of Japanese descent to leave their homes, and incarcerated them in remote, military-style camps. The government order came in response to a rising tide of racial prejudice against Japanese Americans and growing national security fears, which prevailed over the protection of individual civil liberties. Yet two-thirds of these individuals were . . . — Map (db m62111) HM|
|Colorado (Summit County), Breckenridge — Barney L. Ford — 1822 - 1902|
|In memory of an escaped slave who became a prominent entrepreneur and black Civil rights pioneer in Colorado. In 1880, Ford opened Ford's Restaurant and Chop House in Breckenridge. — Map (db m57958) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Claymont — NC-99 — Old Claymont High School|
|Constructed 1924-25. Also known as the Green Street School. Prominent in United States history as the first public high school in the 17 segregated states to be legally integrated.
In January 1951, eight black students applied for admission. Due to the “separate but equal” education system in place at that time, the Claymont Board of Education was unable to permit their entry. In July 1951, noted civil rights attorney Louis L. Redding of Wilmington filed a civil action suit . . . — Map (db m14705) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Elsmere — NC-199 — The "Annie Oakleys": First Female Prison Guards in the United States|
|Completed in 1901, the New Castle County Workhouse at Greenbank was named the first penal institution in the United States to employ armed female guards. Nicknamed "Annie Oakleys" for their excellent shooting ability with the machine guns and rifles they carried, the women were first introduced to the Workhouse in 1943 as a solution to the loss of many male guards due to the war effort. the original group of four guards was expanded to eleven after the experiment was deemed a success. They were . . . — Map (db m74277) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Newark — Iron Hill School #112C — Preserving History: The African-American Community of Iron Hill|
|The Iron Hill Museum is dedicated to the study of human and natural history of the Iron Hill Area. The Museum is currently engaged in a project to restore the Iron Hill School #112C and document the experiences of African-American students who attended the school between 1923 and 1965.
In order to achieve this, the Museum has embarked on an oral history project to formally interview and record the memories of former students who are now between the ages of 40 and 80. Oral historian Roberta . . . — Map (db m10053) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-138 — Brown v. Board of Education|
|Delaware remained a racially segregated society until the mid-twentieth century. Though the segregation of public schools was supported by the “separate but equal” doctrine that had been upheld by the nation’s highest court, the facilities and services provided students were hardly equal. Seeking to address this situation, citizens in the communities of Claymont and Hockessin solicited the counsel of Louis L. Redding, the state’s first African-American attorney. In 1951, with the . . . — Map (db m3124) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-149 — Knotty Pine Restaurant|
|In 1875 the Delaware General Assembly enacted legislation requiring the racial segregation of public places such as train stations, hotels, and restaurants. For most of the next century this practice was strictly enforced. Established at this location in 1959, the Knotty Pine Restaurant was a refuge for African Americans in a city where access to public facilities was still limited. Noted for its “down home cooking” and friendly atmosphere, the Knotty Pine was popular with residents . . . — Map (db m10920) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Belford V. Lawson and Marjorie M. Lawson Residence — 8 Logan Circle, NW — African American Heritage Trail, Washington D. C.|
|Belford V. Lawson (1909–1985) and Marjorie M. Lawson (1912–2002) were prominent attorneys. Mr. Lawson helped win landmark civil rights cases before the U.S. Supreme Court, including New Negro Alliance v. Sanitary Grocery (1938) and Henderson v. Southern Railway Company (1950). Mrs. Lawson advised John F. Kennedy's 1960 presidential campaign, and he appointed her to the D.C. Juvenile Court bench. President Lyndon Johnson chose her for the U.S. delegation to the United . . . — Map (db m79362) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Tree|
|"The ultimate measure of a man is not
where he stands in moments of comfort
and convenience, but where he stands
at times of challenge..."
Martin Luther King, Jr.
This tree named in honor of Dr. King,
January 14, 1983
John R. Block
Secretary of Agriculture — Map (db m70616) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — From June to December, 1917 — The Occoquan Steps|
|From June to December 1917 members of the National Woman's Party were imprisoned for picketing the White House to publicize the struggle to win the vote for Women. Those incarcerated in the District of Columbia's workhouse in Occoquan, Virginia suffered horrible conditions and mistreatment, including being given rancid, insect-laden food; to protest some went on hunger strikes and were brutally force-fed. The 72 year campaign for women's suffrage ended in 1920 with the ratification of the . . . — Map (db m71336) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Mansions, Parks, and People — Cultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail - 16|
|On your right is Josephine Butler Parks Center, home of Washington Parks & People, a network of groups devoted to DC and its parks. The network's 1927 mansion, which once housed the Hungarian delegation, was part of an embassy row envisioned by Mary Foote Henderson for this area. Henderson built a "castle" across 16th street for her family, and commissioned important architects to create an enclave worthy of important residents. Meridian Hill Park was also a result of her influence.
In the . . . — Map (db m63849) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Pitts Motor Hotel — Cultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail 14|
|The Pitts Motor Hotel, formerly located at 1451 Belmont Street, lingers in memory for two reasons. In the 1960s it was a gathering place of Civil Rights movement leaders. Later it became a "welfare hotel."
In March 1968 the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., reserved 30 rooms at the Pitts Hotel to house leaders of the Poor Peoples' Campaign he planned to lead in May. He chose the facility because it was both comfortable and black owned.
Despite Dr. King's 1968 assassination, the . . . — Map (db m63706) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 11 — Striving for Equality — A Fitting Tribute — Logan Circle Heritage Trail|
|This building was the headquarters of the National Council of Negro Women from 1943 to 1966. Political activist and educator Mary McLeod Bethune (1875-1955) founded NCNW in 1935 in her nearby apartment. She moved the organization here eight years later. The building, a National Historic Site, now houses a museum and archive of African American women's history. During the tenure of Dorothy Height, the Council's fourth president (1957-1998), NCNW moved to Pennsylvania Avenue, NW. . . . — Map (db m80352) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — The Fedora|
|In 1920, Washington D. C. was home to the largest African American Community in the country. Numerous venues in the U street area showcased prominent musicians and politicians of the day. On this site stood the Pitts Motel and its Red Carpet Lounge. "The Pitts" was a favorite of many greats of the era, including Duke Ellington and Ella Fitzgerald, and hosted speakers such as Martin Luther King Jr. Now stands the Fedora so named for Mrs. Fedora Day Purcell, Grandmother of the last owner of the Pitts. — Map (db m63678) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Adams-Morgan — 5 of 18 — Ambassadors of Faith — Roads to Diversity — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail|
Three dramatic religious structures dominate this corner. They are among some 40 religious institutions lining 16th Street between the White House and the Maryland state line.
Many serve as unofficial “embassies” representing the interests of their faiths before the U.S. Government. The neo-Baroque National Baptist Church, to your right, is a memorial to Roger Williams, founder of Rhode Island and champion of religious liberty. Its congregation has long worked for social . . . — Map (db m17076) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — Campbell African Methodist Episcopal Church — 2562 Martin Luther King, Jr. Avenue, SE — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC|
| Campbell AME, established in 1867 as Mount Zion AME, was an outgrowth of its overcrowded parent church, Allen Chapel AME, founded in 1850. When it moved to a location near the present one in 1890, Mount Zion was renamed for AME Bishop Jabez B. Campbell. Frederick Douglass attended Campbell’s dedication ceremonies and occasionally spoke at the church.
In 1950, under the leadership of Rev. Samuel Everette Guiles, the church organized the Campbell Civic Club, and began hosting NAACP strategy . . . — Map (db m33749) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — The Growlery|
|Here stood Frederick Douglass’ rustic retreat from domestic society, where he could think, read and write undisturbed. Evoking the image of a lion’s lair, he called his hideaway the Growlery. It was simply furnished with a lounge, a high desk and a stool. The present building is a reconstruction. — Map (db m5362) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Freedmen’s Memorial Monument to Abraham Lincoln — or Freedom’s Memorial|
|In grateful memory of Abraham Lincoln. This monument was erected by the Western Sanitary Commission of Saint Louis, Mo., with funds contributed solely by emancipated Citizens of the United States declared free by his Proclamation, January 1st A.D. 1863. The first contribution of five dollars was made by Charlotte Scott, a freed woman of Virginia, being her first earnings in freedom and consecrated by her suggestion and request, on the day she heard of President Lincoln’s death, to build a . . . — Map (db m41617) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Japanese American Memorial to Patriotism During World War II|
|[Panel 1 of the historical narrative at memorial entrance]:
On February 19, 1942, 73 days after the United States entered World War II, President Franklin Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 which resulted in the removal of 120,000 Japanese American men, women, and children from their homes in the western states and Hawaii.
Allowed only what they could carry, families were forced to abandon homes, friends, farms and businesses to live in ten remote relocation centers guarded by . . . — Map (db m40541) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Mary McLeod Bethune|
|1875–1955 Let her works praise her. I leave you love. • I leave you hope. • I leave you the challenge of developing confidence in one another. • I leave you a thirst for education. • I leave you a respect for the use of power. • I leave you faith. • I leave you racial dignity. • I leave you also a desire to live harmoniously with your fellow man. • I leave you finally a responsibility to our young people. —Mary McLeod Bethune. — Map (db m5505) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Colonial Village — Frank D. Reeves — 7760 16th Street, NW — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC|
|Frank D. Reeves (1916–1973), a lawyer and civil
rights activist, was part of the team that shaped the
1954 Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court
case outlawing school segregation. He advised
Senator John F. Kennedy on minority affairs during
the 1960 presidential campaign, then joined the
Howard University School of Law faculty. At the same time Reeves served as legal counsel to the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and helped negotiate the 1963 March on Washington . . . — Map (db m24679) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — 9 of 19 — Justice vs. Injustice — Cultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail|
These elegant 13th Street Houses were constructed when racial separation was legal and widely accepted. In 1910 the deeds for many houses across 13th Street had covenants banning “any negro or colored persons.” Those on this side generally did not have the covenants.
By the 1930s, 13th Street divided black from white. Then, in 1941, African American educator Mary Hundley and her husband Frederick bought 2530 13th Street, on the white side, despite its restrictive covenant. . . . — Map (db m23603) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — 10 of 19 — On the Heights — Cultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail|
In the days of legally segregated public education (1862-1954), this school building was Central High, the gem of the School Board’s white division. But by 1949, it had few students, as the post-World War II suburban housing boom had drawn whites away. Consequently, African American families outnumbered whites around Central.
Nearby “Colored” high schools - especially Cardozo at Ninth Street and Rhode Island Avenue - struggled with overcrowded, outdated facilities. When . . . — Map (db m23608) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — 17 of 19 — Social Justice — Cultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail|
| Straight ahead is All Souls Church, Unitarian, long known for its social activism, starting with abolitionism in the 1820s and ranging through nuclear disarmament and interracial cooperation. During the segregation era, All Souls was one of the few places in DC open to integrated meetings. During the 1980s and '90s it (and other neighborhood churches) even hosted concerts by DC's influential punk bands Bad Brains, Fugazi, Minor Threat, and others.
In the 1960s, the church launched the . . . — Map (db m24152) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — 16 — Cesar Chavez — 1927 - 1993|
|Led by his desire to secure a better quality of life for migrant farm workers, Cesar Chavez helped found the United Farm Workers of America, the first effective farm workers' union in the United States. Under his leadership of nonviolent protest, the UFW was able to secure improved wages and benefits, more humane living and working conditions, and better job security for some of the poorest workers in America. Through his life of service, Chavez provided inspiration to countless others. . . . — Map (db m15471) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Freedman’s Savings And Trust|
|On this site stood the principal office of the Freedman’s Savings and Trust Company founded on March 3, 1865 to receive deposits from former slaves. Frederick Douglass served as its last president. The bank was closed on June 29, 1874. The building was sold in 1882, and razed a few years later. — Map (db m32482) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — W.7 — Freedom Plaza — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
|“I have a dream.” Martin Luther King, Jr. August 1963
The block-long plaza at 13th and Pennsylvania Avenue just ahead to your left honors civil rights leader Martin Luther King with the name Freedom Plaza. King completed his historic “I Have a Dream” speech in the Willard Hotel adjacent to the plaza, before delivering it to a crowd of 200,000 at the Lincoln Memorial.
Freedom Plaza also recalls Washington’s . . . — Map (db m28528) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Metropolitan AME Church — 1518 M Street, NW — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC|
|This church started on Capitol Hill in 1821 as Israel Bethel, was founded by African Americans denouncing White racism at Ebenezer Methodist Episcopal Church. Later, Pastor Henry McNeal Turner helped persuade President Lincoln to accept Black soldiers into the Union Army during the Civil War. In 1870 Israel Bethel merged with Union Bethel to become Metropolitan African Methodist Episcopal Church, the “National Cathedral of African Methodism.” This building, designed by architect . . . — Map (db m30056) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — .4 — The Roots of Freedom and Equality — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
| “It is known to you that events have transpired within the last few days, deeply affecting the peace and character of our community.”
With these words, city officials tried to calm the angry mobs gathering on this corner in April 1848. The crowds blamed the National Era, an abolitionist newspaper located near this sign, for the attempted escape of 77 African American slaves on the ship Pearl. They threatened to destroy the Era’s printing press. The . . . — Map (db m25271) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — The United States Court of Claims|
|The United States Court of Claims held its first meeting in "Willard's Hotel" on this site on May 11, 1855. The court was established to allow citizens to sue the U.S. Government. In 1861, President Lincoln wrote of the court:
"It is as much the duty of the government to render prompt justice against itself, in favor of citizens, as it is to administer the same between private individuals."
This memorial is placed here on behalf of the United
States Court of Federal Claims . . . — Map (db m6587) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — W.6 — Willard Inter-Continental Hotel — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
|"This hotel, in fact, may be much more justly called the center of Washington and the Union than either the Capitol, the White House or the State Department. . ." Nathaniel Hawthorne, Civil War reporter for the Atlantic Monthly At 6:30 a.m. in late February 1861, President-elect Abraham Lincoln and his security team headed by Alan Pinkerton slipped into what was then called Willard's Hotel, an earlier version of the hotel now at this site. Assassination threats dictated this quiet . . . — Map (db m10905) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Foggy Bottom — Ingrid Bergman — Lisner Auditorium — The George Washington University|
| Lisner Auditorium was built in 1946, boasting the biggest stage south of New York City. On its opening night, October 29, 1946, the famed 29 year-old actress Ingrid Bergman was starring in Joan of Lorraine. When Ms. Bergman found out that African-Americans could not attend the performance due to the city's Jim Crow laws, she made her displeasure at segregation known to all who would listen. Unable to void her contract, she performed the play but inspired protests and picket lines . . . — Map (db m71605) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Foggy Bottom — St. Mary’s Episcopal Church — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC — 728 23rd Street, NW|
| [Panel 1]:
St. Mary’s was the first Episcopal church in Washington where African Americans could worship free of discrimination. It was established in 1867 by 28 men and women, many of them formerly enslaved. Two White congregations, St. John’s Church and Church of the Epiphany, worked with founders to establish St. Mary’s. Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton donated the chapel from a decommissioned Civil War hospital, and another benefactor donated this lot. The present (1887) . . . — Map (db m46905) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Judiciary Square — DC Recorder of Deeds Building/WPA Era Murals — 515 D Street, NW — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC|
| DC’s Art Deco/Art Moderne Recorder of Deeds Building (1941) houses city land records. Many notable African Americans have served as recorders of deeds since President Garfield appointed Frederick Douglass to the post in 1881. These include Branche K. Bruce, the first African American to serve a full term in the U.S. Senate. Artwork inside includes portraits of recorders of deeds. Selma Burke’s bronze relief of Franklin D. Roosevelt, a statue of a young Abraham Lincoln, and seven murals . . . — Map (db m29657) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Mount Vernon Square/Shaw — 1 of 17 — Words and Deeds — Midcity at the Crossroads — Shaw Heritage Trail|
| Wealthy industrialist Andrew Carnegie donated funds to build the Beaux Arts-style building you see across the street to your left, the city’s first public library. The Central Library opened in 1903 with 12,412 books by its predecessor, the private Washington City Free Library.
The public library welcomed all races at a time when the city was generally segregated. It occupied an unofficial border between businesses that primarily served Whites to the south, and those that largely catered . . . — Map (db m21801) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), National Mall — Carousel on the Mall, Washington, D.C.|
| On August 28, 1963, Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, not far from here. On that same day, this carousel was part of a small but significant victory for Civil Rights about 40 miles away, as segregation ended at Baltimore’s Gwynn Oak Amusement Park after nearly a decade of protests there. The first African American child to go on a ride at Gwynn Oak that day was 11-month-old Sharon Langley. With her father . . . — Map (db m68236) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Near Northeast — 7 — Provisions for the City — Hub, Home, Heart — Greater H Street NE Heritage Trail|
|This high ground near the B&O Railroad tracks has been Union Terminal Market since 1931. That year Center Market on Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, came down to make way for the National Archives. Vendors seeking new locations clustered here. Before the market arrived, this land was part of the Brentwood estate, and then the World War I-era Camp Meigs, an army training post. In the 1920s the Hechinger lumber yard replaced the camp. With the railroad so convenient, traveling circuses occasionally set . . . — Map (db m71684) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Near Northeast — 16 — The Fires of 1968 — Hub, Home, Heart — Greater H Street NE Heritage Trail|
|On Friday, April 5, 1968 the 600 block of H Street went up in flames. The Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., had been assassinated a day earlier, and grief-stricken, angry men and women had taken to the streets across the city. Some took part in looting and burning. Helen Wooden Wood remembered watching from her home on Linden Place as flames spread. "It was horrible. You could feel the heat and couldn't open the windows for the smoke." According to a fireman, the alley behind Morton's . . . — Map (db m71692) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Near Northeast — 6 — The Iceman's Arena — Hub, Home, Heart — Greater H Street NE Heritage Trail|
|Uline Arena was built in 1941 by ice maker Mike Uline to present ice skating, hocky, basketball, and tennis. The Dutch immigrant, originally named Migiel Uihlein, had made a fortune patenting ice production equipment and selling ice from his plant next door. For years Washingtonians rode the streetcar here for sports, worship services, concerts, and cook-offs. Judge Kaye K. Christian recalled that during the 1950s and '60s her mother Alice Stewart Christian won the Afro-American . . . — Map (db m71683) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Northwest — Bethune Museum-Archives|
|Mary McLeod Bethume "Council House" National Historic Site Designated October 15, 1982 by Act of Congress Born on July 10, 1875, in Mayesville, South Carolina, Mary McLeod Bethune was the daughter of sharecroppers. After attending Scotia Seminary in North Carolina she founded Daytona School for Negro Girls which became Bethune-Cookman College. A leader in the black women's club movement, Mrs. Bethune became advisor to Presidents Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, and Franklin Roosevelt. During . . . — Map (db m17502) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Northwest — Constitution Hall|
|has been designated a
This site possesses national significance
In commemorating the history of the
United States of America
National Park Service
United States Department of the Interior — Map (db m50841) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Northwest — Howard University — Sixth Street and Howard Place, NW — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC|
|Howard University, one of the oldest Black colleges in the United States, was established by Congress in 1866 to educate formerly enslaved individuals. Its name honors Freedman's Bureau Commissioner General Oliver Otis Howard, a member of the white First Congregational Society of Washington, D.C., which originally conceived of the school as a theological seminary to train black ministers. Mordecai Wyatt Johnson, who became president in 1926, shaped Howard into a modern institution. The . . . — Map (db m66401) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Northwest — Mahatma Gandhi Memorial|
| [Inscription on base of statue - West Side:]
“My Life Is My Message”
Gandhi led India to freedom from British rule in 1947. He is hailed as the father of the nation. Crusader for human rights and liberty, thinker, writer, reformer, apostle of truth and non-violence (ahimsa), Gandhi succeeded in uniting millions of people of all faiths across India in a mass movement of civil disobedience. On . . . — Map (db m39923) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Northwest — Nelson Mandela — Freedom Fighter, Political Prisoner, Statesman|
|Panel 1: A Tribute to Nelson Mandela
This tribute to Nelson Mandela was unveiled on 21 September 2013 by the Hon. Maite Nkoana-Mashabane, Minister of International Relations and Cooperation of the Republic of South Africa, and H.E. Ebrahim Rasool, Ambassador of the Republic of South Africa to the United States Government, the Mandela Family, the African National Congress, the Congressional Black Caucus and the Free South Africa Movement.
A Tribute to the . . . — Map (db m77575) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Penn Quarter — National Council of Negro Women — 633 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW. — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC|
|The National Council of Negro Women was founded in 1935 by Mary McLeod Bethune (1875-1955) to "harness the power and extend the leadership of African American women." Early on, the Council campaigned to outlaw the discriminatory poll tax, develop a public health program, adopt anti-lynching legislation, and end discrimination in the U.S. Armed Forces, defense industries and government housing. The Council's 1995 move to this grand, former hotel building made it the only African American . . . — Map (db m30059) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Shaw — 6 of 14 — A Home Away From Home — City Within a City — Greater U Street Heritage Trail|
| The Thurgood Marshall Center for Service and Heritage occupies the historic Italian Renaissance-style building of the 12th Street YMCA, known after 1972 as the Anthony Bowen YMCA.
The 12th Street YMCA was the first African American YMCA in the nation, formed in 1853 by Anthony Bowen, a former slave who became a civic leader in the nation’s capital and a member of the city’s Common Council. This YMCA met in various places for decades until it raised $100,000 to build this structure between . . . — Map (db m40767) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Shaw — 12 of 17 — Reaching for Equality — Midcity at the Crossroads — Shaw Heritage Trail|
| For much of the 1900s, inexpensive entertainments lined much of Seventh and Ninth Streets, from D to U Streets. Vaudeville houses, pool halls, record shops and taverns made for a busy night life. And everyone went to the movies. Two small theaters once operated on this block, the Alamo at 1203 and the Mid City (1223). Seventh Street also boasted the Happyland (1220), Gem (1131), and Broadway (1515), with the Raphael nearby at 1401 Ninth.
Until 1953, Washington’s movie houses were . . . — Map (db m27733) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Shaw — 5 — Spiritual Life — Midcity at the Crossroads — Shaw Heritage Trail|
| Washington’s first black Muslim temple opened in 1940 when the Nation of Islam established Temple No. 4 at 1525-1527 Ninth Street. The Nation of Islam’s second national leader, Elijah Muhammad (1897-1975), presided over the event. Founded in Chicago in 1931 by Wallace Fard, the Nation of Islam stands for discipline, racial pride, and respect for women, Allah and the Qu’ran, justice, pacifism, and the separation of African Americans from White society.
In 1960 the temple, renamed Masjid . . . — Map (db m28606) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Shaw — 10 of 14 — Strong Families and Eminent Citizens — City Within a City — Greater U Street Heritage Trail|
| The fine rowhouses in this part of the Shaw neighborhood, such as those on this street, were once home to many of the community’s old families and most distinguished citizens.
Charles Hamilton Houston, a national leader in civil rights, was born one block south of here in the 1400 block of Swann Street. A prominent African American lawyer and Howard University professor, he worked with his most famous student, the future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall, to develop the arguments that . . . — Map (db m41927) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Shaw — Washington Afro-American Newspaper Office Building — 1800 11th Street, NW — African American Heritage Trail. Washington, DC|
|The independent weekly Afro-American, one of the most enduring Black newspapers in the country was founded in Baltimore in 1892 by John H. Murphy, Sr. The Washington Afro-American began publication in 1932, and operated from this building from 1937 until the late 1970s. Howard University architect Albert Cassell designed the conversion of this formerly residential building into offices.
Under the motto “A Champion of Civic Welfare and the Square Deal,” the . . . — Map (db m55538) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Southeast — Whitney M. Young, Jr. Memorial Bridge|
|Named in honor of
Whitney Moore Young, Jr.
Humanitarian-scholar and venerable leader of the National Urban League whose work produced landmark changes in civil rights laws and notable progress towards social and economic justice in America. — Map (db m15606) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — Lincoln Memorial|
| [Dedication by Royal Cortissoz, above the statue by sculptor Daniel Chester French:]
"In this temple as in the hearts of the people for whom he saved the Union the memory of Abraham Lincoln is enshrined forever."
[Inscription on deck above the grand staircase:]
"I Have A Dream"
Martin Luther King, Jr.
The March on Washington
for Jobs and Freedom
August 28, 1963
[Panel on terrace below the grand staircase:]
The Federal Union of the . . . — Map (db m28607) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), The Tidal Basin — Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial — National Mall and Memorial Parks, Washington, D.C.|
| “With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith, we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free on day.” – Martin Luther King, Jr., "I Have a Dream,” August 28, 1963. . . . — Map (db m46398) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), The Tidal Basin — The Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial|
|At this site will be erected the Martin Luther King, Jr .Memorial. The memorial will embody the man, the movement and the message. It will honor this 20th century visionary who brought about change through the principles of nonviolence and equally for all. It will be a memorial symbolizing promise and hope for a brighter future for humanity.
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity Inc is the sponsor of this memorial. Dedicated by Adrian L. Wallace, President, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity Inc.; John H. . . . — Map (db m208) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Union Station — 2 — Gateway to The Nation's Capital — Hub, Home, Heart — Greater H Street NE Heritage Trail|
|With its view of the Capitol and Senate office buildings, and with the Library of Congress and the Supreme Court just a short stroll away, Union Station truly is the gateway to the heart of the nation's government. The station is also where official Washington mixes with the local city. Before air travel became common in the 1950s, Union Station attracted enormous crowds to salute arriving presidents, watch protesters, or shriek at the Beatles disembarking for their first live American concert. . . . — Map (db m71679) HM|
|Florida (Bay County), Panama City — F-479 — The Gideon Versus Wainwright Case|
|This is the site of the landmark Gideon case, after which the Public Defender system was established in Florida and throughout the nation. In 1961, Clarence Earl Gideon (1910-1972) stood trial in this courthouse for the felony of burglary. Lacking funds to hire a lawyer, Gideon requested that a lawyer be appointed to represent him at trial. Gideon’s request was denied, because at that time, a person accused of a non-capital felony did not have a constitutional right to a free lawyer. Gideon . . . — Map (db m42115) HM|
|Florida (Broward County), Fort Lauderdale — F-716 — Fort Lauderdale Beaches Wade-Ins|
|On July 4, 1961, local NAACP president Eula Johnson and black physician Dr. Von D. Mizell began a series of nationally publicized "wade-ins" of Fort Lauderdale beaches. Johnson, Mizell, a third black adult, and four black college students participated in the first "wade-in." As many as 200 African-American residents took part in subsequent "wade-ins" during July and August 1961. The demonstrations were prompted by Broward County's failure to build a road to provide access to "Colored Beach," . . . — Map (db m48852) HM|
|Florida (Duval County), Jacksonville — F-463 — 1960 Civil Rights Demonstration|
|On Saturday, August 27,1960, 40 Youth Council demonstrators from the Jacksonville Branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) advised by local civil rights leader Rutledge H. Pearson (1929-1967), sat in at the W.T. Grant Department Store, then located at the corner of West Adams and North Main Streets, and at Woolworth's Five and Ten Cent Store on Hogan Street across from Hemming Park. Seeking access to the whites-only lunch counters, the youths were met by . . . — Map (db m58011) HM|
|Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — José Martí|
( Spanish )
Desde esta escalinata
En el Año 1893
Apóstol de la Libertad
Con elocuentes palabras
pidió a los tabaqueros
Cubanos emigrados que le
ayudasen a conquistar la
independencia de su país,
aportando hombres, armas
Muchos obreros cambiaron
la chaveta por el machete
y otros donaron centenares
de miles de pesos para
salvar de la opresión
a un pueblo y crear
la República de Cuba
[English Translation) . . . — Map (db m14431) HM|
|Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — St. Benedict the Moor School|
|Located on this site was the former St. Benedict the Moor School, a Catholic school for black children that was one of the most important buildings associated with black history in Tampa. The property was purchased for $600 on March 15, 1900. The school, a two-story brick building, was completed several years after the acquisition of the property. It housed four classrooms and an auditorium that also served as a chapel. St. Benedict was built under the vision of Bishop Augustin Verot, who in . . . — Map (db m37794) HM|
|Florida (Indian River County), Fellsmere — F-519 — Birthplace for Equal Suffrage for Women in Florida|
|“ The population of Fellsmere is of a high type of intelligence, with lofty ideals and wise execution. Progressive in all things, perhaps no better indication of the fact may be given than the unanimous vote of the town granting unrestricted suffrage to women.” Fellsmere Tribune, March 8, 1916.
At a February 1915 meeting at the Dixie Theater, Fellsmere citizens accepted the articles of incorporation unanimously. The charter included a unique proposal that women be . . . — Map (db m14303) HM|
|Florida (Indian River County), Fellsmere — Fellsmere|
|Fellsmere is a dramatic account of floods, land "booms" and land "busts". Named for E. Nelson Fell, Fellsmere was first incorporated in 1911, as part of St. Lucie County. The Fellsmere Farms Land Development Company promoted the area's rich soils and natural resources. By 1915, Fellsmere had a railroad, an electric company, two hotels and women could vote...a first in Florida. Overwhelmed by torrential rains and the Great Depression, Fellsmere struggled until the sugar cane fields brought . . . — Map (db m14304) HM|
|Florida (Jefferson County), Monticello — F-681 — Howard Academy Elementary and Junior High School (Later Howard Academy High School) Second Street|
|This historic marker recognizes Howard Academy Elementary/Junior High School, which eventually became Howard Academy High School. In 1957, the first phase of Howard Academy Elementary and Junior High School was constructed on Second Street. The school operated as an elementary and junior high school until 1959-60, when the facility was expanded to accommodate Black students in Grades 1-12. The establishment of this school resulted in the closure of many of the two-and three-room schools in . . . — Map (db m67639) HM|
|Florida (Leon County), Tallahassee — F-614 — Wilhelmina Jakes And Carrie Patterson: Initiators of The Tallahassee Bus Boycott|
|On May 26, 1956, two Florida A&M University (FAMU) students, Wilhelmina Jakes and Carrie Patterson boarded a crowded Tallahassee city bus and sat in the only seats available, in the front next to a white female passenger. The bus driver ordered them to the back of the bus, but they refused. Outraged, the driver pulled the bus over and called the police. The two students were arrested and charged with “placing themselves in a position to incite a riot.” The next night a cross was . . . — Map (db m79553) HM|
|Florida (Levy County), Rosewood — F-497 — Rosewood, Florida|
|Racial violence erupted in the small and quiet Rosewood community January 1-7, 1923. Rosewood, a predominantly colored community, was home to the Bradley, Carrier, Carter, Goins, and Hall families, among others. Residents supported a school taught by Mahulda “Gussie” Brown Carrier, three churches, and a Masonic lodge. Many of them owned their homes, some were business owners, and others worked in nearby Sumner and at the Cummer Lumber Mill. This quiet life came to an end on January . . . — Map (db m17707) HM|
|Florida (Miami-Dade County), Coral Gables — F-409 — Women Take Action in Coral Gables — The Roxcy O'Neal Bolton House 1965-1988|
|Built in 1933, this Mediterranean Revival house is a contributing structure in the Coral Gables Plantation Historic District, one of the earliest developments in the city planned by George Merrick. Throughout the late 1960s and the 1970s, this house became a meeting place for those who campaigned for equal rights for women. Resident and pioneer feminist Roxcy O’Neal Bolton opened her home as headquarters to organize numerous rallies and marches and founded the Miami Dade Chapter of the National . . . — Map (db m73632) HM|
|Florida (Miami-Dade County), Key Biscayne — Escaping to Freedom in the Bahamas|
|In the early 1820's, enslaved Africans, runaways, and "Black Seminoles" seeking freedom from slave catchers and plantation masters, secretly worked their way down to CAPE FLORIDA. They met with bold captains of sloops from the British Bahamas who offered transportation across the Gulf Stream. In 1821 as reported by eyewitnesses, some 300 freedom seekers bartered for passage aboard 27 sloops, or chose to sail Indian dugout canoes 107 nautical miles to secluded Andros Asland. The construction of . . . — Map (db m79723) HM|
|Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — F-573 — Virginia Key Beach Park|
|Virginia Key Beach Park is an environmental and historic landmark located on a barrier island. Its earliest recorded history is of an 1838 skirmish during the Second Seminole War in which three Seminoles were killed on this site. From the early 1900s onward, during the era of segregation, this location became a popular unofficial colored recreation area, popularly known as "Bears Cut." In 1945, following a bold protest led by Attorney Lawson E. Thomas and others to demand an officially . . . — Map (db m79381) HM|
|Florida (Monroe County), Key West — F-546 — The Little White House|
|Built in 1890 as quarters for Navy officers, the Little White House later was used by American Presidents William Howard Taft, Harry S. Truman, Dwight Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton. Truman used the facility as a vacation home and functioning White House between 1946 and 1952. National legislation was drafted and official government business was conducted daily from the site. Perhaps the most important of these actions occurred on December 5, 1951, when Truman . . . — Map (db m32655) HM|
|Florida (Orange County), Orlando — F-475 — Carver Court Public Housing Complex|
|Built in 1945 for $468,700, Carver Court was a public housing development set up by the Orlando Housing Authority in an effort to stimulate the economy, resolve growing slum and housing problems, and meet local demands associated with the massive defense buildup that had occurred during World War II. The development consisted of 16 one-story buildings and 12 two-story buildings. Carver Court was a prime example of a planned residential community, reflecting important urban planning and housing . . . — Map (db m72387) HM|
|Florida (Orange County), Orlando — F-475 — Carver Court Public Housing Complex|
|Built in 1945 for $468,700, Carver Court was a public housing development set up by the Orlando Housing Authority in an effort to stimulate the economy, resolve growing slum and housing problems, and meet local demands associated with the massive defense buildup that had occurred during World War II. The development consisted of 16 one-story buildings and 12 two-story buildings. Carver Court was a prime example of a planned residential community, reflecting important urban planning and housing . . . — Map (db m72407) HM|
|Florida (Putnam County), Crescent City — F-564 — Asa Philip Randolph|
|Civic Rights Activist, Trade Union Leader, Crusader for Justice. 1889–1979.
“Salvation for a race, nation or class must come from within. Freedom is never granted; it is won. Justice is never given; it is exacted.”
Asa Philip Randolph was born in Crescent City, Florida on April 15, 1889 to Rev. James Williams and Elizabeth Robinson Randolph. His father was a minister at this church where Randolph attended as a youth. In 1925 he became the founder and president of the . . . — Map (db m5514) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 10 Hildreth Drive — ACCORD Freedom Trail|
|Fullerwood School was built in 1927 and is the only example in St. Augustine of the work of noted architect A. Ten Eyck Brown (1878-1940), famed for his courthouses, banks, and city halls in New Orleans, Miami and Atlanta. His name is on the cornerstone of the building.
Although there had been racially integrated schools in St. Augustine in colonial times, when the public school system was established here after the Civil War it was done on a segregated basis, with separate schools for . . . — Map (db m40725) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 102 M.L. King Avenue — ACCORD Freedom Trail|
|This area in the heart of Lincolnville was associated with black education for nearly a century. This lot was the site of the Presbyterian Parochial and Industrial School, headed by Rev. James H. Cooper. It was demolished in 1940 and the grounds became part of Excelsior School.
Across the street there were two school buildings dating back to the Flagler Era of the late 1800s, before the existing Excelsior School was built in 1925. It was the first public high school serving black students . . . — Map (db m40701) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 1074 W King Street — Freedom Trail|
|This was the home of Mrs. Georgie Mae Reed (1926-1995), who took part in one of the most famous events in the civil rights movement that changed America and inspired the world.
On March 31, 1964, Mrs. Reed was one of five St. Augustine women who accompanied Mrs. Mary Peabody, the 72 year old mother of the governor of Massachusetts, to the Ponce de Leon Motor Lodge on U.S. 1 North. The group sat down in the restaurant there and asked to be served. They were arrested instead.
That event . . . — Map (db m65420) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 111 Lincoln Street — ACCORD Freedom Trail|
|Constructed before 1885, this is one of the oldest surviving buildings in Lincolnville, an historic neighborhood founded by freed slaves after the Civil War.
It was home to two generations of the Moran family. Horace Moran was the chef at the Monson Hotel on the bayfront for half a century, and in the 1920s he was president of the company that put out The Home Circle Weekly, one of the pioneer black publications in St. Augustine.
Moran was active in St. Mary’s Baptist Church, . . . — Map (db m21194) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 112 M.L. King Avenue|
|This house was built between 1904 and 1910 on what was then called Central Avenue. The name was changed in 1986. There are many streets in America named to honor Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., but this one is special because he actually walked on it in the course of changing history.
In 1964 this was the home of Robert Victor Bell, who worked for the Post Office, and his wife Willie Mae Bell. The family was active in the civil rights movement, and their daughter, Veronica, was one of the . . . — Map (db m17915) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 120 DeHaven Street|
|This house was built in the 1920s and purchased a decade later by Jutson Ayers, who worked as an alligator wrestler for a quarter of a century at the St. Augustine Alligator Farm before his death in 1958. His widow, Mrs. Rena Ayers, gave important support to the civil rights movement of the 1960s by providing lodging for out-of-towners who came here to support the movement.
In March 2005, when she was 100 years old, Mrs. Ayers had a visit from one of those she had hosted 41 years before. . . . — Map (db m17914) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 156 M.L. King Avenue|
|The house at 156 Central Avenue was built in the 1950's for Mrs. Janie Price, a nurse at Flagler Hospital. She had taken her nurse's training at Grady Hospital in Atlanta in the 1940s and while there had attended dances with students from Morehouse College--one of them a teenager named Martin Luther King, Jr.
When Dr. King came to St. Augustine during the campaign that led to the passage of the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964, this was one of the houses where he stayed. Mrs. Price . . . — Map (db m7627) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 160 M.L. King Avenue — ACCORD Freedom Trail|
|The southern half of Lincolnville was, in colonial times, a plantation called "Buena Esperanza" (Spanish for "Good Hope"). During the Flagler Era of the 1880s, it was bought by Standard Oil millionaire William Warden and developed as a residential subdivision. One of Warden's investments was the local gas and electric company, whose manager lived in this elegant Victorian house, which originally bore the address of 160 Central Avenue.
In 1954, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled in the famous . . . — Map (db m40699) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 177 Twine Street — Freedom Trail|
|The event that brought the civil rights movement in St. Augustine to international attention was the arrest of Mary Parkman Peabody (1891-1981), the 72-year old mother of the Governor of Massachusetts, for trying to be served in a racially integrated group at the Ponce de Leon Motor Lodge on March 31, 1964. The socially prominent Mrs. Peabody, whose husband was an Episcopal bishop, and who was related to Eleanor Roosevelt, stayed here at 177 Twine Street when she was not in the St. Johns County . . . — Map (db m7610) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 222 Riberia Street — ACCORD Freedom Trail|
|Bethel Baptist Church was founded in 1939 by Rev. William Banks, the former pastor of St. Mary's Missionary Baptist Church on Washington Street, and other members from that congregation. Land was acquired on Riberia Street, and the church building constructed in 1943. From its earlier years, the picturesque church, with its distinctive coquina shell-dash stucco finish, has attracted the attention of artists. It became famous around the country through its appearance in many paintings.
In . . . — Map (db m21207) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 262 West King Street — ACCORD Freedom Trail|
|Leo C. Chase, Sr., who had previously managed the Huff Funeral Home in Lincolnville, opened one of the oldest businesses in St. Augustine, this funeral home in 1955. His son, Arnett Chase, took over after his father's death in 1977. Another son, Leo C. Chase, Jr., was the first St. Augustinian killed in the Vietnam War, and a nearby park was named in his honor in 1965.
During the 1960s, this was a place of sanctuary for civil rights activists who were subjected to harassment in St. . . . — Map (db m40723) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 31 King Street|
|The Ponce de Leon Shopping Center opened in 1955 as the first downtown shopping center in St. Augustine. It was designated by Morris Lapidus (1902-2001), Florida's most famous mid-twentieth century architect, and is the only example of his work in the Ancient City. It was anchored by a Woolworth's store on the west side (the door handles still say Woolworth's). On February 1, 1960, black college students in Greensboro, N.C. began a sit-in at their Woolworth's lunch counter to protest racial . . . — Map (db m7696) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 56 Park Place — ACCORD Freedom Trail|
|This house, overlooking Maria Sanchez Lake, was built in the 1950's for a distinguished family of educators. James G. Reddick was a longtime principal of Excelsior School and his wife Maude was the supervisor of black schools in St. Augustine in the age of segregation.
Professor Reddick also edited the first black newspaper, The St. Augustine Post in the 1930's. In March 1964 four prominent women from Boston (three of them wives of Episcopal Bishops) came to St. Augustine to give their . . . — Map (db m21187) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 57 Chapin Street|
|57 Chapin Street was once the home of Willie Galimore (1935-1964), the most famous athlete to come from St. Augustine. A three-time Pittsburgh Courier All-American football player at Florida A & M University under the legendary coach Jake Gaither, Galimore is now a member of the College Hall of Fame. He played professionally for the Chicago Bears under coach George Halas from 1957 until his tragic death in an auto accident in 1964. He was nicknamed "Galloping Gal" and renowned for his speed. . . . — Map (db m7732) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 570 Christopher Street — ACCORD Freedom Trail|
|This was the home of Rev. Roscoe Halyard and his wife Flora, both active participants in the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Rev. Halyard, who was associated with Zion Baptist Church and worked as a carpenter, made trips to both Tallahassee and Washington to talk with government officials about the racial situation in St. Augustine.
He was one of the group that convinced the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to come to St. Augustine in the Spring of 1964, and made the . . . — Map (db m21208) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 64 Washington Street — ACCORD Freedom Trail|
|64 Washington Street was the Florida State Headquarters of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) during and after the civil rights demonstrations of 1964. SCLC was founded in 1957 by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. after the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955-56. The first executive director of SCLC was a former St. Augustinian, Dr. John Tilley (1898-1971). He had lived here while serving as president of Florida Normal (later Florida Memorial) College in the 1940s. In charge of . . . — Map (db m7607) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 650 Julia Street — ACCORD Freedom Trail|
|This house was built in 2008 by Habitat for Humanity for one of the Ancient City's civil rights heroes, Audrey Nell Edwards. Along with JoeAnn Anderson Ulmer, Samuel White, and Willie Carl Singleton, she was one of the "St. Augustine Four." As young teenagers, they were arrested for seeking service at the segregated lunch counter of the local Woolworth store on July 18, 1963, and spent the next six months in jail and reform school when they refused to sign a statement for the County Judge that . . . — Map (db m40724) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 21 — 76 Washington Street — ACCORD Freedom Trail|
|The St. Augustine office of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was located in this building from the 1970's until the early 1990's. The organization's roots in the Ancient City began much earlier. William English Walling (1877-1936), one of the organizers and the first chairman of the NAACP, was a frequent guest at the nearby Alcazar Hotel--now St. Augustine City Hall. A local NAACP Chapter was first organized here in 1915.
Notable NAACP member, James . . . — Map (db m21181) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 79 Bridge Street|
|The Rudcarlie Building at 79 Bridge Street was built in the 1950's by Dr. Rudolph N. Gordon (1901-1959) and named for the members of his family. Rudolph, Carlotta, and Rosalie. It was the first medical/dental office constructed in St. Augustine without racially segregated waiting rooms.
After Dr. Gordon's death, the office was rented to Dr. Robert B. Hayling, a dentist who became a prominent leader of the civil rights movement in St. Augustine. Many of the planning sessions for the . . . — Map (db m7640) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 8 Dr. R.B. Hayling Place — Freedom Trail|
|The house at 8 Scott Street was built in the 1950s as part of Rollins Subdivision, a new residential area where many prominent black St. Augustinians made their homes. In the early 1960s it was the residence of Dr. Robert B. Hayling and family. A dentist and Air Force veteran from Tallahassee, Dr. Hayling became the leader of the civil rights movement in St. Augustine. This house became a target for racist attacks. In one of them, the family dog was killed and Mrs. Hayling narrowly escaped . . . — Map (db m7628) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 81 Bridge Street — ACCORD Freedom Trail|
|This Victorian house in the historic Lincolnville neighborhood (founded by freed slaves after the Civil War) became a civil rights landmark in 1964. It was a gathering place for people in the movement, where they could meet, rest, seek solace, and get something to eat, courtesy of Mrs. Cora Tyson. By day, she was the cafeteria manager at Webster Elementary School, but she did extra work during her off-hours to support the campaign against racial discrimination.
Those who enjoyed her . . . — Map (db m40729) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 84 Bridge Street — ACCORD Freedom Trail|
|Trinity United Methodist Church is the oldest congregation in historic Lincolnville and one of the oldest Protestant congregations in Florida. Its origins date to the early American period, in the 1820s, when a Methodist missionary came to St. Augustine and baptized both blacks and whites.
Two earlier church buildings, on Charlotte Street and on St. George Street, housed integrated groups until the Civil War, when the whites withdrew and the congregation became all black. In 1905 the . . . — Map (db m21206) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 84 St. Benedict Street — ACCORD Freedom Trail|
|The narrow streets and small building lots of this area mark it as the earliest part of Lincolnville, founded by freed slaves after the Civil War and now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. An earlier house that stood on this site was the home of William VanDyke, a pioneer black elected official of St. Augustine in the 1870s.
The current building was constructed between 1910 and 1917 to serve as a parsonage for the adjacent St. Paul A.M.E. Church. It is similar in age, . . . — Map (db m21192) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 94 South Street — ACCORD Freedom Trail|
|This has been the home to the Whites, one of the outstanding families active in the 1963-1964 civil rights movement in St. Augustine. Parents James (a decorated Buffalo Soldier from World War II) and Hattie Lee White both took part in demonstrations and went to jail for freedom in those times. Their son Samuel was one of the "St. Augustine Four"--teenagers who spent six months in jail and reform school after a July 1963 sit-in at the Woolworth's lunch counter downtown. Mrs. White wrote to NAACP . . . — Map (db m40700) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 96 Evergreen Avenue|
|Zion Baptist Church, with its distinctive double towers, was built in 1921 to house a congregation originally organized in 1886. It is the last house of worship passed by many funerals on their way to several nearby cemeteries, including the one from which the street takes its name: Evergreen.
It was one of the churches where civil rights rallies were held in the 1960's when St. Augustine was the site of a major campaign led by Dr. Martin Luther King and Dr. Robert B. Hayling that . . . — Map (db m7803) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — 97 M.L. King Avenue|
|97 Martin Luther King Avenue was built in the 1920s by Frederick E. Martin, a prominent Lincolnville businessman whose name is set in the tile inside the front door. It was a popular confectionery and sundries store under many owners, drawing some of its customers from three neighboring schools: Excelsior, St. Benedict, and the Presbyterian Parochial and Industrial School.
The back section of the building, along Dehaven Street, was added in the mid 1920s. It served first as a pool room, . . . — Map (db m7727) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — Chain Gangs — The Convict Lease System|
Following the Civil War and the reconstruction period the state of Florida found itself in debt. As a way to offset some of the state’s expenditures, newly elected governor George Drew put into practice the convict leasing system in 1877. Prisoners were leased out to individuals and large companies to do various jobs from building railroads to working in turpentine camps. The person leasing the prisoner would pay the state a fee of $26 per prisoner per year. They were also obligated to . . . — Map (db m79584) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — Elk's Rest — 100 Washington Street — Lincolnville|
|Fountain of Youth Lodge No. 649, Benevolent Protective Order of Elks of the World and Pride of Fountain of Youth Temple No. 413. Completed in November 1958.
This lodge, called Elks Rest, was at the early center of political and civil life of lincolnville, providing housing for political rallies and cultural events.
During the 1960s, it served as daytime strategy, training and operations center of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and canteen and nutrition . . . — Map (db m77259) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — First Baptist Church of St. Augustine — 89 St. Francis Street — "Lincolnville"|
|Established in 1872 through the efforts of Mrs. Hannah Jordan, a devoutly Christian sojourner who, like its first pastor, Rev. Father C. Felder, believed in leading by the example of hard work. The church has flourished at this location—since 1884. After the fire of 1915, this building was erected.
During the era of the 1960s and The Civil Rights Movement, the congregation and its pastor, Reverend J.H. McKissick, gave support which allowed mass meetings to be held, engaged the . . . — Map (db m77291) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — Florida Memorial University|
| Founded 1879—Live Oak, Florida
St. Augustine, Florida—1918-1968
Miami Gardens, Florida—1968-Present
Students of Florida Normal and Industrial Memorial College, in the early 1960s (soon to be Florida Memorial College—year 1963), provided the initial and necessary spark to the local civil rights bonfire in pursuit of human equality. Through their determined will to make the difference in the movement, en masse, and uniquely . . . — Map (db m67672) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — Former St. Johns County Jail — ACCORD Freedom Trail|
|This building, designed by architect F. A. Hollingsworth, opened in 1953 as the St. Johns County Jail, replacing an earlier jail building on San Marco Avenue that subsequently became a tourist attraction. A decade later, this building played a prominent role in the civil rights movement, when hundreds of demonstrators were incarcerated here in 1963 and 1964. At one point, the president of the United States was told that if he wanted to keep an eye on the leaders of the civil rights movement, he . . . — Map (db m40728) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — Freedom Trail - 113 DeHaven Street|
|This was the home of Oscar Turner (1898-1987) and his wife Mabel (1903-1978). Their daughter, Mattie, married educator and coach A. Malcolm Jones, the principal of Richard J. Murray High School, for whom the recreational field at the nearby Willie Galimore Community Center is named.
A native of South Carolina, Mr. Turner came to St. Augustine in the 1920s and worked for 40 years for the Florida East Coast Railway. The family lived for many years on Gault Street in North City, near the . . . — Map (db m40698) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — Freedom Trail - 5480 Atlantic View|
|This beach cottage attracted international attention in 1964, and a photograph taken here of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. pointing to a bullet hole in the window has become one of the iconic images of the civil rights movement. It was the winter home of Dr. Cyril M. Canright (1894-1965) and his wife Winifred (1898-1995), who taught as missionaries in China in the 1920s and 1930s and later made their home in New Jersey. They were supporters of the civil rights movement. They made their beach . . . — Map (db m40697) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — Gault Street|
|Gault Street was one of the historically black residential streets in North City. Many residents worked at the Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind, the Fountain of Youth, laundries and ice plants that were once located in the area.
Three Victorian houses on the west side of the street were built in the 1880's. Most of the houses on the east side of the street were built in the 1920's by Henry Proctor, descendant of one of the famous free black families of colonial Florida whose story . . . — Map (db m7580) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — Reverend Goldie M. Eubanks — (Anointed Leader) — 172 Palmo Street, Lincolnville|
|Home of Rev. Goldie M. Eubanks, Senior, his wife Hattie and nine children. Humbled by Family and Fatherhood, Leadership and Christian Fellowship, and driven by a cry from within his inner soul to make this world a better place, this self-styled minister and Christian Evangelist was a Vice President of the NAACP and SCLC leader with the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960’s. This home was often the target of night riders and opponents of civil rights.
Northward along Palmo Street were homes . . . — Map (db m7080) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — S.D.W. Smith, Ancient City, Mt. Horeb #20 — 545 King Street "New Augustine"|
|This Masonic Lodge, built in 1947 with George Morgan as Worshipful Master, was originally organized in 1925 and represents a merger (in 1984) of Prince Hall Lodges—S.D.W. Smith No. 481, Ancient City No. 26, and Mt. Horeb No. 20. This facility is the lodge-home of Electa Chapter No.4, Order of Eastern Star—organized in 1939 with Ethel L. Jenkins as Worthy Matron.
In keeping with supporting the needs of this community, these fraternal organizations shared space in the 1960s with . . . — Map (db m76918) HM|