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“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
 
 

Civil Rights Historical Markers

960 markers matched your search criteria. The first 250 markers are listed. Next 710
Brazil, Bahia, Salvador — Zumbi dos Palmares Monument
Panel 1: Zumbi dos Palmares “É chegada a hora de tirar nossa nação das trevas da injustica racial.” Nasceu livre, em 1655, na Serra da Barriga, união dos Palmares, Alagoas. Neto de Aqualtune, não permitiu a . . . — Map (db m26125) HM
Brazil, Rio de Janeiro — João Cândido Felisberto Memorial"O Almirante Negro"
[Panel 1] João Cândido Felisberto nasceu em 1880, na Vila Sâo José, Encruzilhada do Sul, Distrito de Rio Pardo, Rio Grande do Sul. De 22 a 26 de Novembro do 1910 liderou a Revolta Dos Marinheiros contra as péssimas condiçôes de . . . — Map (db m26028) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Le Legs De La Famille CôtéThe Legacy of the Côté Family
[French] Les ancêtres de la famille Côté son arrives au Québec en 1634. En 1945, Joseph Napoléon Côté et son épouse Ida Camille Demers, accompagnés de leur fils Joseph Henri Côté et son épouse Anne-Marie Forcade s’establissent à Victoria.

Le . . . — Map (db m49228) HM

Ontario, Ottawa — Lotta Hitschmanova, C.C.1909 • 1990
Founded USC Canada 10 June 1945 Unitarian Service Committee of Canada Harold Pfeiffer, Sculptor — Map (db m75710) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Women Are Persons!Les Femmes Sont Des Personnes!
The Persons' Case of 1929 is a celebrated landmark victory in the struggle of Canadian women for equality. For years, groups had repeatedly requested that a woman be appointed to the Senate, often naming Judge Emily Murphy as their candidate. . . . — Map (db m39749) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — London Women's Monument
The London Women's Monument was dedicated on December 6, 1994. The 5th anniversary of the Montreal Massacre. It is a place to remember and reflect on violence, particularly violence against women, and all women and men who work to end it. — Map (db m18932) HM
El Salvador, San Salvador — In Memory of the Murdered Jesuit PriestsIn memoriam a los padres jesuitas asesinados
“Dichosos los que procuran la paz, pues Dios los llamara hijos suyos.” San Mateo 5:9 In Memoriam El Debate Nacional por la Paz ofrece esta placa en memoria de los padres jesuitas. Ignacio Ellacuria, Segundo Montes, Ignacio Martin . . . — Map (db m82231) HM
El Salvador, San Salvador — Three Decades of Alberto Masferrer University
Universidad Alberto Masferrer símbol y lema: Tres decadas formando ganadores La junta central de directores de la Universidad Salvadoreña Alberto Masferrer USAM En conmemoración del trigésimo aniversario de su fundación, y con la . . . — Map (db m71225) HM
Germany, Bavaria (Landkreis Schweinfurt), Gerolzhofen — The Decline of the Jewish Community of Gerolzhofen from January 30, 1933Niedergang der Jüdische Gemeinde Gerolzhofen ab 30. Januar 1933
[Marker text in German:] Urkundlich nachweisbar genehmigte im Jahr 1425 Fürstbischof Johann II v. Brunn die Ansässigmachung von Juden in Gerolzhofen. Viele jüdische Mitbürger engagierten sich im öffentlichen Leben und genossen Vertrauen . . . — Map (db m58963) HM
Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Mansfeld-Südharz District), Lutherstadt Eisleben — Markt 54 Birthplace of Alwin SörgelMarkt 54 Geburtshaus von Alwin Sörgel
Spokesman for the Democrats 1848/1849 and co-founder of cooperative banking • 26 May 1815 Alwin Sörgel was the son of merchant Ernst August Sörgel. He immigrated to Texas in 1845, but returned after two years and took over his father's . . . — Map (db m70244) HM
Guatemala, Guatemala, Guatemala City — Assassination of Dr. Alberto Fuentes Mohr
En este sitio fue vilmente asesinado el 25 de enero de 1979, por las fuerzas del oscurantismo el Dr. ALBERTO FUENTES MOHR figura señera en la fundación de la Social-Democracia en Guatemala en la defensa de la democracia y de las . . . — Map (db m77970) HM
Guatemala, Guatemala, Guatemala City — Assassination of Myrna Mack
En este lugar, el 11 de septiembre de 1990 fue asesinada la antropologa Myrna Mack Su familia, colegas y amigos rendimos homenaje a su memoria. Ella dio su vida para que otros tengan vida. (Juan 10:10) Guatemala, Septiembre 11, 1991 English . . . — Map (db m91768) HM
Guatemala, Sacatepéquez, Antigua Guatemala — Friar Augusto Ramírez Monasterio
Fray Augusto Ramirez Monasterio, OFM. En el XV aniversario de su martirio 1983 - 1998 A su memoria “No hay amor mas grande que este: dar la vida por su amigos” (Jn. 15, 13) Por su amor a la iglesia, A los jóvenes, a los . . . — Map (db m88712) HM
Guatemala, Sacatepéquez, Antigua Guatemala — Friar Bartolomé de las Casas
Fray Bartolome de las Casas Primer Vicario del convento de Santo Domingo de esta Metropoli y segundo Obispo de Chiapas_Ynsigne Varon, Primer escritor de la Antigua Ciudad de Guatemala Protector de los Yndios_ Escribió: . . . — Map (db m91694) HM
Ireland, Connacht (County Galway), Kinvara — Francis A. Fahy1854 - 1935
Poet, Writer, Life-Long Worker in the Irish Cause was born in this house Sept. 29. 1854. ——•—— “For peace of mind I'll never find until my own I call that little Irish cailín in her ould plaid . . . — Map (db m28091) HM
Ireland, Connacht (County Mayo), Louisburg — Famine Museum and Granuaile Centre, LouisburghClew Bay Archeaological Trail site 12Slí Seandálaíochta Chuan Módh
Cluain Cearbhán - Meadow of the Buttercups The Famine Museum in Louisburgh recounts local memories of the famine, presents coverage of the famine in the media, nationally and locally, and shows how links have been established . . . — Map (db m28044) HM
Ireland, Connacht (County Mayo), the Doo Lough Valley — 1849 Famine Walk
To commemorate the Hungry Poor who walked here in 1849 and walk the Third World today Freedom for South Africa 1994. “How can men feel themselves honoured by the humiliation of their fellow beings.” Mahatma Gandhi in . . . — Map (db m27687) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Dublin), Dublin — Haslam Memorial Seat
In 1925 a finely sculptured garden seat of Kilkenny limestone was placed in the park and inscribed on the back - “Anna Marie, 1829 - 1922 and Thomas Haslam, 1825 - 1917. This seat is erected in commemoration [sic - ‘honour’] of their long . . . — Map (db m22485) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Dublin), Dublin — Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa / Ó Donnabháin Rosa(1831 - 1915)
Ni dhéanfaidh gáeil bhearmao orc go brách [Gaelic transcription is best effort] ——— Erected in 1954. An uncut rock of Wicklow granite symbolises the patriot's unbreakable spirit. Into the rock is set a plaque bearing an . . . — Map (db m25316) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Dublin), Dublin — Margaret Anna Cusack1829 - 1899
Margaret Anna Cusack was born on this site on May 6th 1829. At the time York Street was a centre of medicine. She was the daughter of Sara and Dr. Samuel Cusack. Her uncle was the interationally renowned surgeon James William Cusack, 3-times . . . — Map (db m22454) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Dublin), Dublin — Robert Emmet(1778 - 1803)
Presented to the People of Ireland by The Robert Emmet Statue Committee of the United States of America April 13, 1966 Francis J. Kane, Chairman Ambassador Scott McLeod Devlin W. Dormer, Esq. Hon. Michael J. Kirwan, M.C. . . . — Map (db m25304) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Dublin), Dublin — Theobald Wolfe Tone(1763-98)
An Irish patriot convicted of treason. He died mysteriously in prison in November 1798. The memorial consists of a ten-foot figure of Wolfe Tone backed by a wall of rough granite columns of varying width and rising to 16 feet in height. . . . — Map (db m25303) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Dublin), Dublin — Veronica Guerin1959 - 1996
Sunday Independent journalist, was murdered on 26th June 1996. Be Not Afraid Greater justice was her ideal and it was her ultimate achievement Her courage and sacrifice saved many from the scourge of drugs and other crime. Her . . . — Map (db m24078) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Crossakiel — Jim Connell
Author of “The Red Flag” which became the anthem of the International Labour Movement Born Rathniska, Kilskyre 1852 Died Lewisham, London 1929 Oh, grant me an ownerless corner of earth, Or pick me a hillock of stones, . . . — Map (db m27347) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Culmullen — Culmullen & 1798They Gave Their Lives For Their Cause
Erected by the People of Culmullen and District to the memory of the Men and Women of Wexford and Meath who died for their Country and lie buried in the surrounding area There were two periods of intense Rising activity around . . . — Map (db m33354) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Duleek — Duleek CourthouseDuleek Heritage Trail
Duleek Courthouse was built in 1838 by John Trotter as a sessions house for the Meath Grand Jury. It was designed by Francis Johnston. The main architectural features are the Doric door-case and fanlight, a simplified eaves pediment and corner . . . — Map (db m24803) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Duleek — The Lime TreeDuleek Heritage Trail
William of Orange and Mary accepted the throne of England in 1698, supplanting King James II who took refuge with his ally and sponsor Louis XIV of France. The tensions between James and William would reach their highpoint in 1690 at the battle of . . . — Map (db m24802) HM
Ireland, Munster (County Limerick), Abbeyfeale — Reverend William Casey
His grateful fellow countrymen at home and beyond the seas have erected this monument to the memory of Rev. William Casey, for a quarter of a century prior to his death, the parish priest of this parish. He found his people struggling in the . . . — Map (db m24739) HM
Mexico, Distrito Federal, Ciudad de Mexico — Death of Benito Juárez
Aqui estuvo la habitacion donde murio la noche del 18 de Julio de 1872 el Lic. D. Benito Juarez Presidente Constitucional de Mexico y Benemerito de las Americas English translation: Here was the room were on the night of July 18, 1872 . . . — Map (db m90476) HM
Mexico, Distrito Federal, Ciudad de Mexico — Ponciano Arriaga
Constituyente Nacio en San Luis Potosi en el año de 1811 Defensor entusiasta del Liberalismo a su empeño se debe la Constitucion de 1857 Fallecio en Mexico en el año de 1865 English translation: Ponciano Arriaga Member of the . . . — Map (db m91594) HM
Mexico, Distrito Federal, Ciudad de Mexico — Tlatelolco Massacre of October 2, 1968Masacre de Tlatelolco del 2 de octubre, 1968
1968-1993 …Adelante!! A los compañeros caídos el 2 de octubre de 1968 en esta plaza Cuitlahuac Gallegos Bañuelos, 19 años. Ana María Maximiana Mendoza, 19 años. Gilberto Reynoso Ortíz, 21 años. Antonio Solorzano Gaona, 47 años. Agustina . . . — Map (db m91671) HM
Nicaragua, Managua — Dr. Pedro Joaquin Chamorro Cardenal
En conmemoracion al martir de las libertades publicas, el Dr. Pedro Joaquin Chamorro Cardenal detenido y torturado en las instalaciones de la Loma de Tiscapa en varias ocasiones y asesinado el 10 de enero de 1978. Managua, 25 de abril de 1996. . . . — Map (db m93564) HM
United Kingdom, England (Central London), London — Tower Hill Execution Site
To Commemorate the tragic history and in many cases the martyrdom of those who for the sake of their faith country or ideals staked their lives and lost. On this site more than 125 were put to death. The names of some of whom are recorded here. . . . — Map (db m78678) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Battle of the BogsideThe Guide to Free Derry
[Side A] On 12 August 1969, as the Apprentice Boys Parade passed the edge of the Bogside, nationalists clashed with parade followers and police. The police and loyalists followed the nationalists back into the Bogside, where defences had . . . — Map (db m71441) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Bernadette
The Artists' first coloured mural is a tribute to the women of Derry and their role in the civil rights campaign. Bernadette Devlin, Britain's youngest MP, addresses the crowd during the Battle of the Bogside: her actions resulted in a six month . . . — Map (db m71187) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Bloody Sunday
This mural depicts the events of 30th January 1972 when the British Army opened fire on a civil rights demonstration, killing 14 people. A local priest waves a bloodstained handkerchief at the soldiers as he leads a group of men, carry the body . . . — Map (db m71215) HM WM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Bloody Sunday30 January 1972
On 30 January 1972, a massive British military operation in Derry's Bogside ended in the murder of thirteen unarmed civil rights demonstrators and the wounding of fifteen others - one of whom died later of his injuries on 16 June 1972. The . . . — Map (db m71306) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Bloody SundayThe Guide to Free Derry
On 30 January 1972 the ‘elite’ British Parachute Regiment opened fire on a peaceful civil rights march along this street, killing 14 unarmed marchers and wounding 14 more. The dead and wounded were labelled gunmen and bombers by a partisan . . . — Map (db m71435) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Civil Rights
This mural captures the mood of a typical civil rights march in the years up to 1972. Inspired by the civil disobedience campaign of Martin Luther King in the United States, young and old, Catholics and Protestants, politicians and mothers took . . . — Map (db m71434) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Death of InnocenceAnnette McGavigan
Annette McGavigan Aged 14 Shot dead by the British Army 6 September 1971 ——————— Here the innocence of a child's world contrasts vividly with the chaotic violence with which others have . . . — Map (db m71155) HM WM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Free Derry CornerYou Are Now Entering Free Derry — The Guide to Free Derry
On 5 January 1969, after a night of rioting and sustained police attacks on the Bogside, the words "You Are Now Entering Free Derry" were painted on the gable wall of 33 Lecky Road. This simple graffiti became the defining symbol of the civil . . . — Map (db m71204) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — H Block Hunger Strike Memorial
IRA. Vol. Bobby Sands, Born 9th March 1954 Died 5th May 1981 Age: 27 (66 Days). IRA. Vol. Francis Hughes, Born 28th Feb 1956 Died 12th May 1981 Age: 25 (59 Days) INLA. Vol. Patsy O'Hara, Born 11th July 1957 Died 21st May . . . — Map (db m71219) WM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Hunger Strike
This mural depicts one of the surviving hunger strikers as he looked after 53 days without food. He was one of seven men who went on hunger strike at the Maze prison in Belfast from 28th October, 1980 in protest against loss of their rights as . . . — Map (db m71436) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Mc Nutt, Phelan, and Mc Shane Memorial
In proud and loving memory of I.N.L.A. Volunteer Colm Mc Nutt Killed in Action 12th Decembert 1977 Comrade Patrick “Hessy” Phelan Murdered in New York, 21st January 1996 Comrade Dermot “Tonto” Mc Shane . . . — Map (db m71442) WM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Motorman
Free Derry ended at 4am on 30th July 1972 when thousands of British troops in tanks and armoured cars invaded the Bogside and Creggan 'no-go' areas. During Operation Motorman, they tore down the barricades with bulldozers. The Artists chose the . . . — Map (db m71284) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Seán Keenan / Ó Cianáin
In proud and loving memory of Seán Keenan 1914 - 1993 Volunteer. Óglaigh na h-Éireann Chairperson. Derry Citizens' Defence Association Honorary Vice-President, Republican Sinn Fein Fluent Irish Speaker and active G.A.A. Supporter . . . — Map (db m71208) HM WM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — The Bloody Sunday Commemoration
This mural was painted to commemorate the 25th anniversary of Bloody Sunday. A circle frames the faces of the 14 victims with the youngest in the centre. The circle is the symbol of wholeness, the goal of the healing process. Fourteen oak . . . — Map (db m71158) HM WM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — The Peace Mural
This mural shows a dove and an oak leaf, as symbols of hope for the city’s future. The dove is the name of St Columba, the city’s founder, who is said to have built his monastery in an oak grove. The background mosaic of the colours of the . . . — Map (db m71440) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — The Petrol Bomber
For two days in August, 1969 local people resisted attempts by the Royal Ulster Constabulary to break down the barricades which they had erected to defend their community. The Battle of the Bogside ended when the British government sent in the . . . — Map (db m71168) HM WM
Alabama (Bullock County), Midway — Old Merritt School Midway Community Center
Margaret Elizabeth Merritt of Midway sold two acres for $5 to the state of Alabama in 1921 as a site for an elementary school for African-American children. Built in 1922 with matching Rosenwald funds, the Midway Colored Public School featured oak . . . — Map (db m60910) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — Freedom Riders
On May 14, 1961, a Greyhound bus left Atlanta, GA carrying among its passengers seven members of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), a.k.a. the “Freedom Riders,” on a journey to test interstate bus segregation. The bus was met by an . . . — Map (db m35737) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Grove Hill — Colored and White Soldiers of World War I
This is a replica of the original tablet from the 1924 World War I monument located in front of the Clarke County Courthouse. The monument was the first memorial ever erected to honor county war dead. It cost $1,650 and was paid for with . . . — Map (db m57385) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — 'Bloody Sunday' Attack at Edmund Pettus Bridge / U.S. Congress Approves Voting Rights Act of 1965
Side 1 'Bloody Sunday' Attack at Edmund Pettus Bridge A voting registration campaign in 1965 turned tragic Feb. 17 when an Alabama state trooper fatally shot Jimmie Lee Jackson in Marion. It prompted a protest march from . . . — Map (db m81944) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Campsite 1Selma to Montgomery Trail
Hall Farm March 21, 1965 — Map (db m61846) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Edmund Pettus BridgeNational Historic Landmark
Edmund Pettus Bridge has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses national significance for its association with "Bloody Sunday," a seminal event in the Civil Rights Movement. Here, on March 7, 1965, . . . — Map (db m82037) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — I Had A DreamDr. Martin L. King Jr.
The demonstration that led to the most important advance in civil rights for millions of Black Americans began here March 21, 1965. It was the 50-mile march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, the State Capital. Defying threats of death, Dr. . . . — Map (db m83578) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — In Honor of James Joseph Reeb1927-1965 — “This Good Man”
Rev. James J. Reeb, an Army Veteran and Unitarian minister from Casper, Wyoming, was working in Boston when Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. appealed for clergymen of all faiths to come to Selma to protest the violence that occurred at the Edmund Pettus . . . — Map (db m37683) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — R.B. Hudson High SchoolDallas County
This school was the city of Selma's first public high school for African-Americans. Completed in 1949, the school was named in honor of Richard Byron Hudson, a black educator who had served for 41 years as principal of Clark Elementary School, . . . — Map (db m82741) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — St. Paul’s Episcopal Church Est. 1838
Side A The original church, built one block south of the present site, was consecrated in 1843 by Bishop Leonidas Polk. In 1861, the second Bishop of Alabama, the Rt. Rev. Richard H. Wilmer, was elected there. During the Battle of Selma, St. . . . — Map (db m37691) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Tabernacle Baptist ChurchDallas County
Side 1 In January 1885, Dr. Edward M. Brawley, President, Alabama Baptist Normal and Theological School (now Selma University) formed Tabernacle Baptist Church to be an integral part of the students' Christian formation and education. . . . — Map (db m82034) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Tabernacle Baptist ChurchDallas County
Side 1 Tabernacle Baptist Church was founded in 1885, and in March of that year, the congregation purchased this site. Built in 1922 under the leadership of Dr. David Vivian Jemison, the current church features bricks from the original . . . — Map (db m83677) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — The Selma Movement(The Beginning) / (The Prize)
[Side A:] (The Beginning) The major civil rights protest, which focused national attention on the issue of racial discrimination in voting & led to the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, was centered in Selma. In January . . . — Map (db m37662) HM
Alabama (Henry County), Abbeville — Rosa Parks Lived Here
Front Civil rights pioneer Rosa McCauley Parks was born on February 4, 1913 in Tuskegee, Alabama. Shortly after her birth her parents James and Leona McCauley, moved here to a 260 acre farm owned by her grandparents, Anderson and Louisa . . . — Map (db m83758) HM
Alabama (Jackson County), Paint Rock — The History of Paint Rock, Alabama / Paint Rock Arrests in 1931 Began 'Scottsboro Boys' Cases
(side 1) The History of Paint Rock, Alabama Originally Camden circa 1830, the post office was renamed Redman in 1846 and became Paint Rock on May 17, 1860. After the Memphis and Charleston Railroad Co. built a depot and water . . . — Map (db m69756) HM
Alabama (Jackson County), Scottsboro — Jackson County Courthouse And The Scottsboro Boys
Marker front: Constructed in 1911-1912 and designed by architect Richard H. Hunt, the Jackson County Courthouse is a Neo-Classical, brick building situated on a town square in Scottsboro, the county seat of Jackson County. The front, . . . — Map (db m22264) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — "Peace Be Still"Mark 4:39
On Palm Sunday, 1963 Rev. N. H. Smith, Rev. John T. Porter and Rev. A. D. King led a sympathy march from St. Paul United Methodist Church down 6th Avenue North in support of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth and Rev. Ralph . . . — Map (db m73023) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 1963 Church Bombing Victims
This cemetery is the final resting place of three of the four young girls killed in the September 15, 1963 church bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church. Addie Mae Collins, Cynthia Wesley and Carol Robertson are buried here. The fourth victim, . . . — Map (db m61197) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 4th Avenue District
The Fourth Avenue "Strip" thrived during a time when downtown privileges for blacks were limited. Although blacks could shop at some white-owned stores, they did not share the same privileges and services as white customers, so they created tailor . . . — Map (db m26985) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Arthur D. Shores"Dean of Black Lawyers in The State of Alabama."
During the first 30 years of his 54-year-old practice, Attorney Shores practiced all over the State of Alabama - from the Tennessee line to the Gulf of Mexico at Mobile Bay, and from the Mississippi borders to the Georgia limits. During the period . . . — Map (db m26720) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Civil Rights Freedom RidersMay 14, 1961
On Mother's Day, May 14, 1961, a group of black and white CORE youth on a "Freedom Ride" from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans arrived by bus at the Birmingham Greyhound terminal. They were riding through the deep south to test a court case, "Boynton . . . — Map (db m83809) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Don't Tread on Me
Leaders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) learned they could apply economic pressure to White businesses with more effective results than moral persuasion alone. Therefore, the central strategy of the Birmingham Campaign . . . — Map (db m73037) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Don't Tread on Me
1963 A female protestor remains defiant as police drag her away from a demonstration in Birmingham's nearby retail district. Activists in Birmingham--led for seven years by Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth before the 1963 Birmingham Campaign--put their . . . — Map (db m83814) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Born Jan. 15, 1929 Assassinated Apr. 4. 1968 "...yes, if you want to say that I was a drum major, say that I was a drum major for justice; say that I was a drum major for peace..." His dream liberated Birmingham from itself and began a . . . — Map (db m73007) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth invited Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. to Birmingham in 1962. Shuttlesworth saw potential in the young minister, and their combined efforts were instrumental in Birmingham's desegregation. The campaign catapulted King into the . . . — Map (db m73031) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dr. Ruth J. Jackson1898 - 1982
Dedicated to Dr. Ruth J. Jackson 1898-1982 This woman of strength and vision graduated from the Poro School of Cosmetology, the first black registered school in the State of Alabama. At the vanguard of the Civil Rights Movement, she was . . . — Map (db m27090) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — East Birmingham
Marker Front: Founded in 1886 on 600 acres of land, East Birmingham was the agricultural area consisting primarily of dairy farms extending to the present Birmingham airport. The East Birmingham Land Company that developed the area was . . . — Map (db m83827) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Emory Overton Jackson1908 - 1975
Emory Overton Jackson was born on September 8, 1908 in Buena Vista, Georgia to Will Burt and Lovie Jones Jackson. E. O. Jackson and his seven siblings were raised in the middle-class Birmingham enclave of Enon Ridge, located on the west side of . . . — Map (db m64736) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Foot Soldier TributeRonald S. McDowell, Artist I.B.J.C.
This sculpture is dedicated to the Foot Soldiers of the Birmingham Civil Rights Movement. With gallantry, courage and great bravery they faced the violence of attack dogs, high powered water hoses, and bombings. They were the fodder in the . . . — Map (db m27394) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Fourth Avenue Historic District.
Marker front: Prior to 1900 a "black business district" did not exist in Birmingham. In a pattern characteristic of Southern cities found during Reconstruction, black businesses developed alongside those of whites in many sections of the . . . — Map (db m83830) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Ground Zero
You are standing at Ground Zero of the 1963 civil rights struggle in Birmingham. When African-American leaders and citizens resolved to fight the oppression of a strictly segregated society, they were met with vitriol and violence despite their own . . . — Map (db m73015) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Jim Crow on the Books
The first march to City Hall was organized in 1955 by Rev. Fred L. Shuttlesworth when he petitioned the city to hire Negro policemen. By 1963, thousands of Blacks marched on City Hall to protest Jim Crow laws that were a constant reminder of Blacks' . . . — Map (db m73036) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Kneeling Ministers
Responsible for much planning and leadership, the clergy played a central role in the Birmingham Campaign--like the famous Palm Sunday incident in 1963 (see nearby plaque). Local clergy like Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth worked with out-of-town ministers, . . . — Map (db m73080) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Non-Violent Foot Soldiers
The central principle of the American Civil Rights Movement was non-violence, based on the strategies of Mahatma Gandhi, who led India's independence struggle against the British Empire. Being non-violent did not mean being passive. Using "direct . . . — Map (db m83833) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Non-Violent Foot Soldiers
Those who participated in the marches and other demonstrations in the Birmingham Campaign agreed to a pledge of nonviolence. A few of the "Ten Commandments" of the pledge were: "Meditate daily on the teaching and life of Jesus. Remember always that . . . — Map (db m83834) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Police Presence
May 1963 Helmeted police stand ready in Kelly Ingram Park outside the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, one of many strategic hubs from which "Project C" organizers launched marches. Police try to keep marchers away from City Hall, usually stopping . . . — Map (db m73032) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Reflecting Pool
Throughout May 1963, the pressure continued to build. The downtown business district was closed, a prominent black-owned motel was bombed, and 3,000 federal troops were dispatched to restore order before Birmingham was officially desegregated. This . . . — Map (db m73021) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth
No one did more to bring about positive change in Birmingham than the Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth. In his struggle for equal rights, he survived a series of assaults, including the bombing of his home and a brutal armed beating by the Ku Klux Klan. . . . — Map (db m73025) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth Bethel Baptist Church
Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth's tenure as pastor of Bethel Baptist Church (1953-1961) was marked by demonstrations, bombings and passionate sermons critical of segregation laws. His activism earned him a house bombing, frequent beatings, arrests, and . . . — Map (db m83836) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Sixteenth Street Baptist ChurchHas Been Designated a National Historic Landmark.
This property possesses National Significance in commemorating the history of the United States. In 1963 it was the staging ground for the Birmingham Campaign Civil Rights Youth Marches and the place where a bomb killed four young girls, "Martyred . . . — Map (db m63733) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Children's Crusade
On May 2, 1963, more than 1,000 students skipped school and marched on downtown, gathering at the 16th Street Baptist Church. Bull Connor responded by jailing more than 600 children that day. So the next day, another 1,000 students filled the park . . . — Map (db m73017) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Foot Soldiers
When notoriously racist police commissioner Eugene "Bull" Connor sicced dogs on the "Foot Soldiers" of the movement, civil rights leaders hoped it would shine a national spotlight on their plight, but the country at large remained woefully ignorant. . . . — Map (db m73398) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Water Cannons
Bull Connor ordered the fearless "Child Crusaders" to be blasted with high-pressure fire hoses, and he once again loosed the dogs on the young demonstrators. When the media finally exposed the nation to the cruel scene, President John F. Kennedy . . . — Map (db m73019) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Zion Memorial Gardens
Mt. Zion Baptist Church began burying here in the mid-1800s. On June 2, 1970, New Grace Hill Cemetery, Inc., a subsidiary of the Booker T. Washington Insurance Company in Birmingham, purchased this cemetery and officially named it Zion Memorial . . . — Map (db m35602) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Charles Lee MooreCity of Florence Walk of Honor
Recipient of 1989 of the first Kodak Award for Photojournalism, Charles Moore chronicled such major events as the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960's South, political violence in Haiti, and the air war in Vietnam. — Map (db m56376) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Henry S. "Hank" KlibanoffCity of Florence Walk of Honor
A keen observer and researcher of the Civil Rights Movement in the South, Hank Klibanoff won the Pulitzer Prize in 2007 for The Race Beat: The Press, the Civil Rights Struggle, and the Awakening of a Nation. — Map (db m38643) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Moulton — Judge Thomas M. Peters
A scientist of national fame, Peters (1810-1888) lived for many years in Moulton with his wife Naomi (Leetch), a relative of President James K. Polk, who possibly visited here. A man of many talents, Peters was a noted linguist, early civil rights . . . — Map (db m69670) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Auburn — Desegregation at Auburn
The first African American student entered the library to register at Auburn University at this site. Acting on a court order, Auburn president Ralph Brown Draughon accepted the application of Harold Franklin as the first African American student in . . . — Map (db m90861) HM
Alabama (Lowndes County), Lowndesboro — Campsite 3Selma to Montgomery Trail
Robert Gardner Farm March 23, 1965 — Map (db m61847) HM
Alabama (Lowndes County), Lowndesboro — Elmore BollingMay 10, 1908 - December 4, 1947
Lowndesboro, AL—Enraged whites, jealous over the business success of a Negro are believed to be the lynchers of Elmore Bolling. Bolling, 39, was found riddled with shot gun and pistol shots 150 yards from his general merchandise store. . . . — Map (db m85460) HM
Alabama (Lowndes County), Lowndesboro — Viola Liuzzo
In memory of our sister Viola Liuzzo who gave her life in the struggle for the right to vote... March 25, 1965 Presented by SCLC/WOMEN Evelyn G. Lowery, National Convener - 1991 - The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Joseph E. . . . — Map (db m85461) HM
Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — Campsite 2Selma to Montgomery Trail
Rosie Steele Farm March 22, 1965 — Map (db m70954) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Shorter — Shorter, AlabamaA New Town in an Older Community
Shorter was originally called Cross Keys for the birthplace in South Carolina of an early settler, J.H. Howard. It was later named Shorter for former Alabama Governor John Gill Shorter. The town embodies the memories of the proud Creek Indian . . . — Map (db m85463) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — Butler Chapel AME Zion Church
Before the mid-1960s, Tuskegee’s black population faced many challenges when attempting to register to vote. Furthermore, the State of Alabama redrew the town’s political boundaries in an effort to prevent registered blacks from voting in local . . . — Map (db m69048) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Rev. Dr. Joseph E. Lowery Boyhood Home Site(Dean of Civil Rights Movement)
Side A Dr. Joseph Echols Lowery was born in Huntsville on Oct 6, 1921, to Dora and Leroy Lowery. He grew up in Lakeside (Methodist) church. He began his education in Huntsville, spent his middle school years in Chicago, and returned to . . . — Map (db m85550) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mobile — Dr. H. Roger Williams(1869-1929)
Dr. Williams opened one of the early African-American drugstores- Live and Let Live on this site in 1901. Born on a sugar plantation in Louisiana, he graduated from Meharry Medical School in 1900 and was the second black physician to practice . . . — Map (db m86393) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mobile — John L. LeFloreNon-Partisan Voters League
After the NAACP was outlawed in 1956, LeFlore and the Non-Partisan Voters League took a more active role in civil rights in Mobile. LeFlore served as its director of casework. He was a plaintiff in Bolden vs. Mobile and the judgement changed . . . — Map (db m86391) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Mathews — The Jonesville Community(Honoring Mr. Prince Albert Jones Sr.)
(Obverse) The Jonesville Community on Old Pike Road in Mathews, named for wealthy landowner George Mathews from Olgethorp County Ga. was designated by the Montgomery County Commission on October 16th, 2007 to honor the life and legacy . . . — Map (db m68716) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — A RefugeSelma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
The City of St Jude, always a refuge for African Americans, hosted the marchers on the last night of their journey. This religious complex—named for the patron saint of impossible situations—housed a school church and hospital and had a . . . — Map (db m91481) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama's First Capitals / The Alabama State Capitol
Alabama's First Capitals On March 3, 1817, Congress designated the town of St. Stephens on the Tombigbee River north of Mobile as capital of the newly formed Alabama Territory. There in 1818, the territorial legislature named Huntsville as the . . . — Map (db m86063) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 10 — An Intersection of History: Court SquareSelma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
At the intersection of Commerce Street and Dexter Avenue, Court Square is arguably the most historic location in America. As the center of 19th century Southern economic and political power, Montgomery's Court Square was host to a massive slave . . . — Map (db m91736) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Aurelia Eliscera Shines BrowderCivil Rights Pioneer
Side 1 Aurelia Eliscera Shines Browder was born January 29, 1919, in Montgomery, Alabama. She graduated with honors in 1956 from Alabama State Teachers College (now Alabama State University). In April 1955, Browder's refusal to give up . . . — Map (db m71349) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Bernard Whitehurst and the Whitehurst Case / Montgomery: Learning From the Past
(side 1) Bernard Whitehurst and the Whitehurst Case On December 2, 1975, Bernard Whitehurst was shot to death by a police officer in Montgomery, Alabama. He died behind a house on Holcombe Street, running from police officers . . . — Map (db m69366) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Beulah Baptist ChurchOrganized 1880
Beulah Baptist Church was organized in the home of Monday and Dora Duvall, on the corner of Hull and Winnie Streets. Rev. William (Billy) Jenkins served as the pastor when the first church building was erected on Norton Street. Beulah served as the . . . — Map (db m71377) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Birth of Montgomery Bus BoycottBoycott planned & publicized here at ASU's Councill Hall
Side 1 On Dec. 1, 1955, at Alabama State College (now Alabama State University) in a basement room in Councill Hall, the Montgomery Bus Boycott was planned and publicized after the arrest that day of Rosa Parks, who refused to give up . . . — Map (db m91279) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 6 — Black Churches Provide Significant Support for the March and VotingSelma to Montgomery National Historic Trail — Holt Street under Interstates 65 and 85
As the social and cultural epicenters of Montgomery's black communities in the 1950s and 1960s, black churches also played a political role, providing sanctuary and strength against discrimination On December 5, 1955 following the first day of . . . — Map (db m91464) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Charlie and Lucille TimesCivic Leaders and Civil Rights Activists
Side 1 Lucille and Charlie (d. 2/7/78) Times were married on February 3, 1939. Shortly after, the Times' joined the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Mr. Times received several medals and a . . . — Map (db m81804) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — City of St. Jude/The Selma to Montgomery March
(side 1) City of St. Jude Founded by Father Harold Purcell in the 1930s, the City of St. Jude included church, school, medical facilities, social center and rectory. Its mission was to provide spiritual, educational, social and . . . — Map (db m86070) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Civil Rights Freedom RidersMay 20, 1961
On May 20, 1961, a group of black and white SNCC members led by John Lewis left Birmingham for Montgomery on a Greyhound bus. They were determined to continue the "Freedom Ride" from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans that had met with violence in . . . — Map (db m71256) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Cleveland Court Apartments
On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks left work and boarded a downtown bus. Her destination was home, Cleveland Court Apartment No. 634. She didn't make it home that day as she was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white man. This single . . . — Map (db m86074) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Day Street Baptist Church
Organized from Bethel Baptist Church, congregation founded 1882 with Rev. George Casby as first minister. Originally met in frame building; fund-raising began for this edifice in 1906. Designed by Wallace Rayfield, Tuskegee Institute architect and . . . — Map (db m71081) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist ChurchOrganized 1877
The second black Baptist Church in Montgomery. First pastor was Rev. C. O. Boothe. Present structure built 1885. Designed by Pelham J. Anderson; built by William Watkins, a member of the congregation. Many prominent black citizens of Montgomery . . . — Map (db m25128) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Elijah Cook / City of Montgomery v. Rosa Parks
Elijah Cook Born a slave in Wetumpka in 1833, Elijah Cook became a leader in Montgomery’s African American community. Credited with helping to establish the city’s first school for blacks in the basement of the Old Ship AME Zion Church in . . . — Map (db m69222) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — First Baptist Church (Brick-A-Day Church)
Organized in 1866, this pioneering congregation grew out of First Baptist Church, now on Perry Street, where early parishioners had worshipped as slaves. The first building, facing Columbus Street, was erected in 1867. Nathan Ashby served as first . . . — Map (db m36499) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 7 — Four Points: One of Several Black Business Hubs in MontgomerySelma to Montgomery National Historic Trail — Corner of Mildred and Mobile Streets
Four Points: One of Several Black Business Hubs in Montgomery, and the Impact of Desegregation on Black Business Districts The intersection of Mildred and Moore Streets was once home to Four Points, a thriving black business . . . — Map (db m91462) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Fred David GrayCivil Rights Attorney and Legislator / Advocate for Victims and History
Side 1 Born in 1930 in Montgomery, Gray was among the foremost civil rights attorneys of the 20th century. Forced by segregation to leave Alabama to attend law school, he vowed to return and "destroy everything segregated I could find." . . . — Map (db m80842) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 4 — From Bus Boycott to Voting Rights: Community Activism 1955-65Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail — West Jefferson Davis near Loveless School
The foundation of the civil rights movement was based in the grassroots strength of West Montgomery. The historic black communities located along this route provided the leadership and support for over a decade. Whether it was the clergymen, the . . . — Map (db m91466) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Georgia GilmoreFebruary 5, 1920 - March 3, 1990
Georgia Gilmore, cited as a “solid energetic boycott participant and supporter.” Lived in this house during the days of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Once arrested on a bus, Gilmore was ardent in her efforts to raise funds for the Movement . . . — Map (db m28197) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Harris House
Front Between May 20-24, 1961 Dr. Harris opened this home to a group of 33 students from Nashville, Tennessee, who were challenging interstate bus segregation. Known as the Freedom Riders, the group was attacked at the historic Montgomery . . . — Map (db m86119) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Here Stood Mrs. Rosa ParksMother of the Civil Rights Movement
Commemorating the centennial Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated Here stood Mrs. Rosa Parks Mother of the Civil Rights Movement and honorary member of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. where she boarded the Montgomery . . . — Map (db m85986) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Heroes' WelcomeSelma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
The ranks of marchers swelled enormously by the last leg of the trip on Wednesday, March 24, 1965. By the time they arrived at the last campsite, only two miles from the city limits at the Saint Jude complex, they were 10,000 strong. Dirty and . . . — Map (db m91482) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Holt Street Baptist Church
Congregation founded by former members of Bethel Baptist Church in 1909. Under leadership of Rev. I.S. Fountain, group met for four years in Labor's Hall, corner of Cobb and Mobile Streets, before purchasing this site and constructing church in . . . — Map (db m71086) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Home of Dr. E. D. Nixon, Sr.20th Century Civil Rights Activist
Nationally recognized as a pioneer of the modern day Civil Rights Movement, Edgar D. Nixon, Sr., posted bail for segregation law violator Rosa Parks. In her defense, Nixon gathered the support of Montgomery blacks in implementing the successful . . . — Map (db m81801) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Home of Ralph David Abernathy(March 11, 1926-April 30, 1990)
This was the home of Dr. Ralph David Abernathy, a central leader of the historic events of the Civil Rights Movement. Dr. Abernathy graduated from Alabama State University in 1950 and from Atlanta University in 1951. He and his family lived . . . — Map (db m71232) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Johnnie R. and Arlam Carr, Sr. Home
This home was originally owned in 1901 by Emily V. Semple. It changed hands several times until purchased by Flora K. Daniels and Arlam and Johnnie R. Carr, Sr. The Carrs moved into this residence in 1943. They resided here during the 1955 . . . — Map (db m71265) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 9 — Judge Frank M. Johnson: Judicial Fairness in the Age of SegregationSelma to Montgomery National Historic Trail — Molton and Montgomery Streets
Following two attempted marches from Selma in 1965 civil rights leaders turned to the federal courts for legal protection prior to the Selma To Montgomery March. Federal District Court Judge Frank M. Johnson, Jr., appointed by President . . . — Map (db m91321) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Juliette Hampton Morgan / Montgomery City-County Public Library
(side 1) Juliette Hampton Morgan Juliette Hampton Morgan was a white Montgomery, Alabama librarian whose privileged upbringing seemed unlikely to produce the determined civil rights activist that she became. Her letters to the . . . — Map (db m71258) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Lilly Baptist Church"The Lilly" — 820 Hill Street
Lilly Baptist Church, established November, 1900 as a missionary church of Bethel Missionary Baptist. Originally located on St. Clair Street in a small frame building. Moved May 27, 1973, into new 1500-seat sanctuary at present location. Education . . . — Map (db m71088) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Minister's Home / Dr. Martin Luther KingDexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church
Side A House built circa 1912. It has been the home of the ministers of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church since 1919. Its most famous occupant, Dr. Martin Luther King, lived here from Sept. 1954-Feb. 1960. During this time he led the Bus Boycott . . . — Map (db m86132) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Montgomery County Circuit Court / Sit-Ins and Marches at the Montgomery County Courthouse
Montgomery County Circuit Court Site of Major Civil Rights Cases 1956-1960 In 1956, 89 persons were indicted for violating an anti-boycott law; Rosa Parks' conviction was appealed; the Montgomery Improvement Association car . . . — Map (db m94925) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Montgomery's Panel Project
Montgomery's Cotton Slide The history of Montgomery Panel Project is place on top of the remains of Montgomery's Cotton Slide. The Cotton Slide was used to transport heavy cotton bales from the streets above to the waiting steamboats below. . . . — Map (db m78145) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Mount Zion African Methodist Episcopal AME Zion Church
Side 1 Located in the heart of one of Montgomery's historic African-American neighborhoods. Mount Zion A.M.E. Zion Church was constructed in 1899 and heavily remodeled in 1921. It served as a significant center for religious, political, and . . . — Map (db m86411) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Louise McCauley Parks / The Bus Stop
Side A A Lady of Courage Born in Tuskegee, AL on February 4, 1913, to James McCauley, a carpenter, and Leona Edwards, a teacher. Moved with mother and brother to Pine Level, AL after parents' separation. Enrolled in Mrs. White's School . . . — Map (db m36503) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Louise ParksShe sat down - So we can stand up — February 4, 1913 - October 24, 2005
Mother of the modern day civil rights movement — Map (db m91278) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Side 1 On December 1, 1955, Rosa Louis McCauley Parks was arrested on this site for refusing the order of city bus driver J. F. Blake to vacate her seat under the segregation laws of the Jim Crow era. She was taken to police . . . — Map (db m91286) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Parks Branch Library / Bertha Pleasant Williams
Side 1 Rosa Parks Branch Library Second public library for blacks in City of Montgomery, this building opened in 1960 as Montgomery Branch Library on Cleveland Avenue. Designed by architect James Miller Davis, it served the black . . . — Map (db m71388) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Parks Montgomery Bus Boycott / Hank Williams Alabama Troubadour
Side A At the bus stop on this site on December 1, 1955, Mrs. Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to boarding whites. This brought about her arrest, conviction, and fine. The Boycott began December 5, the day of Parks’ trial, as a . . . — Map (db m86422) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Selma-to-Montgomery March
Side A The Selma-to-Montgomery March ended here on March 25, 1965, when 25,000 civil rights marchers arrived at the Alabama State Capitol to demand the right to vote for African Americans. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and other civil rights . . . — Map (db m62747) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 3 — Support: Local and OrganizationalSelma to Montgomery National Historic Trail — Near Early and Oak Streets
The civil rights movement in Montgomery was born from the support of both organized groups and individual residents. The day-in-day-out support came from local citizens, who were guided by groups on both the local and the national level. The . . . — Map (db m91467) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The E. L. Posey Parking Lot
This site, known as “Posey’s Parking Lot,” served the black community as one of two major transportation centers during the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Mrs. Rosa Parks’s December 1, 1955 arrest following her refusal to surrender her seat at . . . — Map (db m71261) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Hon. Rufus A. Lewis1906 - 1999
Lewis began an earnest voting rights drive in the early 1940s. Credited with registering 4 generations of Montgomery voters. He established Citizenship Schools that tutored prospective black voters to fill out the literacy text, a barrier before the . . . — Map (db m86429) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Jackson-Community House/The Montgomery City Federation of Women’s Clubs
(side 1) The Jackson-Community House In 1853, Jefferson Franklin Jackson, a native Alabamian and U.S. Attorney for the Alabama Middle District, built this two-story clapboard home originally with a dogtrot pattern. A Whig Party . . . — Map (db m71236) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Selma to Montgomery Voting Rights MarchLed by Martin Luther King, Jr.
Ended at the foot of the Capitol steps on March 25, 1965 Here Dr. King addressed 25,000 people "I believe this march will go down as one of the greatest struggles for freedom and dignity in the nation's history." . . . — Map (db m80847) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 11 — Thousands Protest at the Seat of GovernmentSelma to Montgomery National Historic Trail — Dexter Avenue
On Thursday, March 25, 1965, the Selma to Montgomery marchers left St. Jude and continued through the streets of Montgomery, the crowd swelling in numbers as they approached Court Square. By the time they reached Dexter Avenue, a crowd of more . . . — Map (db m91322) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Tribute to Montgomery's "Foot Soldiers"
The ten bronze roundels displayed on this wall are a tribute to the "foot soldiers" who toiled for 382 days during the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955 and 1956. The roundels depict individuals who were involved in, and events that occurred . . . — Map (db m91276) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church
Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church was organized in 1918 at this location by ministers of what later became the American Lutheran Church under whose auspices the congregation organized a day school on the property across the street. That school . . . — Map (db m86469) HM
Alabama (Perry County), Marion — Muckle's Ridge
Side 1: The site that became Marion was settled by Michael McElroy, traditionally known by his alias, Michael Muckle, around 1817. McElroy sold his property, which had become known as Muckle’s Ridge, to Anderson West in 1818. West and his . . . — Map (db m70089) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Malone Hood Plaza
The Autherine Lucy Clock Tower is dedicated to the sacrifice and commitment of a courageous individual who took a stand for change at a crucial time in the history of The University of Alabama. The open arches, which mirror the architecture of . . . — Map (db m37918) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Site Of The Stand In The Schoolhouse Door / Foster Auditorium, 1939
Foster Auditorium is the site of the June 11, 1963, “stand in the schoolhouse door” by Governor George C. Wallace in defiance of a court order requiring The University of Alabama to admit African-American students Vivian Malone and James . . . — Map (db m37917) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — University of Alabama’s Slavery Apology
Buried near this plaque are Jack Rudolph and William “Boysey” Brown, two slaves owned by University of Alabama faculty, and William J. Crawford, a University student who died in 1844. Rudolph was born in Africa about 1791 and died . . . — Map (db m40389) HM
Alabama (Winston County), Haleyville — The Honorable Frank Minis Johnson, Jr.
Born in Winston County, Alabama in 1918, Frank M. Johnson, Jr. transcended the prejudices of his time and made his mark as one of the great jurists in American history. He married his Winston County sweetheart, Ruth Jenkins, in 1938. During . . . — Map (db m80559) HM
Arizona (Maricopa County), Phoenix — Eastlake Park
Peace Eastlake Park has served the inhabitants of Phoenix since the late 1880's. Originally known as Patton's Park, it was developed by the Phoenix Railway Company to serve as a recreational area for patrons of the city's trolley system. The . . . — Map (db m55058) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — The Right to Vote
The State of Arkansas is Dissolved In 1867, the state of Arkansas ceased to exist. It was dissolved, as were all states still in rebellion when the Confederate government surrendered in 1865. Readmission to the Union required that the states . . . — Map (db m51927) HM
California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Frances Albrier(1898-1987) — Champion of Equal Rights and Social Justice
It was just automatic for me to stand up and tell a person, “You’re wrong. You’re mistreating me. You’re discriminatory. Why don’t you give me a chance?” Great generosity coupled with anger at injustice guided the life of . . . — Map (db m54814) HM
California (Alameda County), Oakland — 1946 General Strike
Site of the 1946 General Strike when Woman Retail Clerks fought For the Right to Organize a Union — Map (db m72701) HM
California (Alameda County), Oakland — The Black Panther's First Office
On January 2, 1967 The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense 0pened the Party’s first office at this location — Map (db m72382) HM
California (Contra Costa County), Richmond — Rosie the Riveter MemorialHonoring American Women's Labor During WWII
The area where you are now standing was alive with activity during World War II, when it was known as Kaiser Shipyard #2. It was one of four shipyards carved from Richmond's coastline to serve the war effort. The Rosie the Riveter Memorial . . . — Map (db m94433) HM WM
California (El Dorado County), South Lake Tahoe — 1048 — Site of Echo Summit
In 1968, Echo Summit served as a high-altitude training center and site of the U.S. Olympic Men's Track and Field Trials. Four world records were shattered here on the track carved out of the El Dorado National Forest. The U.S. team selected for the . . . — Map (db m89152) HM
California (Kern County), Delano — The Forty Acres
Has been designated a National Historic Landmark. This property possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America. Forty Acres embodies and conveys multiple layers of national significance . . . — Map (db m54836) HM
California (Los Angeles County), San Fernando — César Chávez Memorial — March 31, 1927 - April 23, 1993
Panel 1: “Show me the suffering of the most miserable So I will know my people’s plight.” “Free me to pray for others For you are present in every person.” “Help me take responsibility for my . . . — Map (db m79107) HM
California (San Diego County), San Diego — Father Antonio UbachLast of the Padres — 1835 – 1907
Antonio Dominic Ubach, passionate advocate for California Native Americans, and defender of Indian rights, ran St. Anthony’s Indian School on this site from 1856 to 1891. Father Ubach, created programs to help hundreds of Indian children adapt to an . . . — Map (db m11647) HM
California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Compton's Cafeteria Riot - 1966Uptown Tenderloin — Lost Landmarks
One August evening in 1966, transgender women and gay men banded together to fight back against oppression after a police officer harassed one of them at Gene Compton's Cafeteria. This confrontation was the first known full-scale riot for . . . — Map (db m90982) HM
California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Dalt Hotel c. 1910Former Hotel Dale
The tenants' mobilization and resistance to the planned conversion of the hotel in 1979 to a tourist hotel provided the catalyst for the San Francisco Board of Supervisors enactment of the SRO (Single Room Occupancy) Hotel Anti-Conversion Ordinance. . . . — Map (db m91001) HM
California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Dr. Sun Yat Sen1866 - 1925
Founder of the Kuo Min Tang, Champion for Democracy, Father of the Chinese Republic and first President. Lover of mankind. Proponent of friendship and peace among the nations based on equality, justice and goodwill. — Map (db m69511) HM
California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Frances E. Willard
Inspired by San Francisco in 1883 Became the first world organizer of women. Standing here in 1883 she said "We are one world of tempted humanity" Map (db m18462) HM
California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Gene Compton's Cafeteria Riot 1966
Here marks the site of Gene Compton's Cafeteria where a riot took place one August night when transgender women and gay men stood up for their rights and fought against police brutality, poverty, oppression and discrimination in the Tenderloin. . . . — Map (db m91015) HM
California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Harvey MilkMay 22, 1930 - November 27, 1978
Harvey Milk Plaza is named in honor of San Francisco Supervisor Harvey Milk, California’s first elected official to be openly gay. In 1975, Harvey Milk opened Castro Camera at 575 Castro Street and moved into the apartment upstairs. Harvey’s . . . — Map (db m21067) HM
California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Harvey MilkMay 22, 1930 - November 27, 1978
Harvey Milk made history as the first openly-gay elected official in California, and one of the first in the nation, when he won election to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors in November 1977. His camera store and campaign headquarters at 575 . . . — Map (db m64066) HM
California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — José Sarria
José Sarria Court honors the humor, political savvy, and talent of a great San Franciscan. Born in 1923, José's performance career began in the 1950's. In 1961, Sarria ran for San Francisco City Supervisor; the first openly gay candidate to run . . . — Map (db m88599) HM
California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Leonard MatlovichA Gay Vietnam Veteran
In memory of Leonard Matlovich who lived in this building for several years. His epitaph reads: A Gay Vietnam Veteran When I was in the military they gave me a medal for killing two men and a discharge for loving one. Never . . . — Map (db m64100) HM
California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Mary Ellen Pleasant Memorial Park1814 - 1904
Mother of Civil Rights in California. She supported the western terminus of the underground railway for fugitive slaves, 1850-1865. This legendary pioneer once lived on this site and planted these six trees. Placed by the San . . . — Map (db m85557) HM
California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — 691 — Sarcophagus of Thomas Starr King
Apostle of liberty, humanitarian, Unitarian minister, who in the Civil War bound California to the Union and led her to excel all other states in support of the United States Sanitary Commission, predecessor to the American Red Cross. His statue, . . . — Map (db m91855) HM
California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — The Rainbow Flag
On November 8, 1997, this Rainbow Flag was installed to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the election of Harvey Milk to the Board of Supervisors of voters of District 5. This victory by an openly gay man was a watershed for the Queer rights . . . — Map (db m21083) HM
California (San Joaquin County), Lodi — Laura de Force Gordon1838 - 1907
A famous womens' rights activist, she began speaking on behalf of womens' rights in 1868. Laura ran for the California State Senate in 1871, long before women could vote. In 1873 she bought the first of several newspapers which she used as a forum . . . — Map (db m91788) HM
California (San Luis Obispo County), Atascadero — Your American Heritage Monument
The purpose of this monument is to forever stand as a tribute to our nation's Founding Fathers who created the two most important documents that laid the foundation of our country: the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. This . . . — Map (db m67581) HM
Colorado (Prowers County), Granada — Amache - Granada Relocation Center
Marker No. 1: Amache During the first months of World II, the United States Government ordered over 110,000 men, women, and children of Japanese descent to leave their homes, and incarcerated them in remote, military-style camps. . . . — Map (db m62111) HM
Colorado (Prowers County), Granada — Amache Remembered
(Front) Dedicated to the 31 patriotic Japanese Americans who volunteered from Amache and dutifully gave their lives in World War II, to the approximately 7000 persons who were relocated at Amache, and to the 120 who died there during . . . — Map (db m82732) HM WM
Colorado (Summit County), Breckenridge — Barney L. Ford1822 - 1902
In memory of an escaped slave who became a prominent entrepreneur and black Civil rights pioneer in Colorado. In 1880, Ford opened Ford's Restaurant and Chop House in Breckenridge. — Map (db m57958) HM
Delaware (New Castle County), Claymont — NC-99 — Old Claymont High School
Constructed 1924-25. Also known as the Green Street School. Prominent in United States history as the first public high school in the 17 segregated states to be legally integrated. In January 1951, eight black students applied for admission. Due . . . — Map (db m14705) HM
Delaware (New Castle County), Elsmere — NC-199 — The "Annie Oakleys": First Female Prison Guards in the United States
Completed in 1901, the New Castle County Workhouse at Greenbank was named the first penal institution in the United States to employ armed female guards. Nicknamed "Annie Oakleys" for their excellent shooting ability with the machine guns and rifles . . . — Map (db m74277) HM
Delaware (New Castle County), Hockessin — NC-137 — Hockessin School #107C
Also known as the Hockessin Colored School, this building was constructed in 1920 to serve the needs of the communities African-American students. Funding for construction was provided by the Delaware School Auxiliary Association and its primary . . . — Map (db m92145) HM
Delaware (New Castle County), Newark — Iron Hill School #112CPreserving History: The African-American Community of Iron Hill
The Iron Hill Museum is dedicated to the study of human and natural history of the Iron Hill Area. The Museum is currently engaged in a project to restore the Iron Hill School #112C and document the experiences of African-American students who . . . — Map (db m10053) HM
Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-138 — Brown v. Board of Education
Delaware remained a racially segregated society until the mid-twentieth century. Though the segregation of public schools was supported by the “separate but equal” doctrine that had been upheld by the nation’s highest court, the . . . — Map (db m3124) HM
Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-149 — Knotty Pine Restaurant
In 1875 the Delaware General Assembly enacted legislation requiring the racial segregation of public places such as train stations, hotels, and restaurants. For most of the next century this practice was strictly enforced. Established at this . . . — Map (db m10920) HM
District of Columbia, Washington — Belford V. Lawson and Marjorie M. Lawson Residence8 Logan Circle, NW — African American Heritage Trail, Washington D. C.
Belford V. Lawson (1909–1985) and Marjorie M. Lawson (1912–2002) were prominent attorneys. Mr. Lawson helped win landmark civil rights cases before the U.S. Supreme Court, including New Negro Alliance v. Sanitary Grocery (1938) . . . — Map (db m79362) HM
District of Columbia, Washington — Booker T. Washington 1856 - 1915The Extra Mile — Points of Light Volunteer Pathway
As an influential African-American, living in a time of escalating segregation, Booker T. Washington negotiated a course between accommodation and progress in advocating greater civil rights for blacks. His philosophy of “request” not . . . — Map (db m92066) HM
District of Columbia, Washington — 16 — Cesar Chavez1927 - 1993
Led by his desire to secure a better quality of life for migrant farm workers, Cesar Chavez helped found the United Farm Workers of America, the first effective farm workers' union in the United States. Under his leadership of nonviolent protest, . . . — Map (db m15471) HM
District of Columbia, Washington — Dr. George Edmund Haynes 1880 - 1960 and Ruth Standish Baldwin 1863 - 1934The Extra Mile — Points of Light Volunteer Pathway
Recognizing the need for a national infrastructure to support the black urban population through employment, education and advocacy, Ruth Standish Baldwin and Dr. George E. Haynes founded the National Urban League in 1910. The Urban League movement . . . — Map (db m92209) HM
District of Columbia, Washington — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Tree
"The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge..." Martin Luther King, Jr. 1929-1968 This tree named in honor of Dr. King, January 14, . . . — Map (db m70616) HM
District of Columbia, Washington — Frederick Douglass 1817 - 1895The Extra Mile — Points of Light Volunteer Pathway
A Famed orator and writer Frederick Douglass was also a key architect of the movement that ended slavery, the very institution into which he was born. Even after his goal to abolish slavery was achieved, Douglass persisted in his struggle for . . . — Map (db m92084) HM
District of Columbia, Washington — From June to December, 1917The Occoquan Steps
From June to December 1917 members of the National Woman's Party were imprisoned for picketing the White House to publicize the struggle to win the vote for Women. Those incarcerated in the District of Columbia's workhouse in Occoquan, Virginia . . . — Map (db m71336) HM
District of Columbia, Washington — Harriet Tubman circa 1820 - 1913The Extra Mile — Points of Light Volunteer Pathway
Harriet Tubman escaped a life of slavery only to return south, at her own peril, time and again, to lead more than 300 fugitive slaves through the Underground Railroad to safety and freedom. After the Civil War, Tubman raised money to clothe and . . . — Map (db m91877) HM
District of Columbia, Washington — Ida Wells-Barnett 1862 - 1921The Extra Mile — Points of Light Volunteer Pathway
Ida Wells-Barnett crusaded aggressively for civil rights her entire life and was unafraid to exercise those rights when custom ran contrary to the law. Involved in many civil rights causes, she played leadership roles in the women’s suffrage . . . — Map (db m91878) HM
District of Columbia, Washington — Joseph Baer Danzansky1914-1979 — Humanitarian …Businessman…Washingtonian
“All my life I have had a love affair with the City of Washington.” In a time of racial strife he brought reconciliation and mutual respect. In the struggle between management and labor he worked for reason and moderation. In a . . . — Map (db m92230) HM
District of Columbia, Washington — Mahatma Gandhi Memorial
[Inscription on base of statue - West Side:] महात्मा गांधी Mahatma Gandhi 1869-1948 “My Life Is My Message” [North Side:] . . . — Map (db m39923) HM
District of Columbia, Washington — Mansions, Parks, and PeopleCultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail - 16
On your right is Josephine Butler Parks Center, home of Washington Parks & People, a network of groups devoted to DC and its parks. The network's 1927 mansion, which once housed the Hungarian delegation, was part of an embassy row envisioned by Mary . . . — Map (db m63849) HM
District of Columbia, Washington — Pitts Motor HotelCultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail 14
The Pitts Motor Hotel, formerly located at 1451 Belmont Street, lingers in memory for two reasons. In the 1960s it was a gathering place of Civil Rights movement leaders. Later it became a "welfare hotel." In March 1968 the Reverend Dr. Martin . . . — Map (db m63706) HM
District of Columbia, Washington — 11 — Striving for EqualityA Fitting Tribute — Logan Circle Heritage Trail
This building was the headquarters of the National Council of Negro Women from 1943 to 1966. Political activist and educator Mary McLeod Bethune (1875-1955) founded NCNW in 1935 in her nearby apartment. She moved the organization here eight . . . — Map (db m80352) HM
District of Columbia, Washington — The Fedora
In 1920, Washington D. C. was home to the largest African American Community in the country. Numerous venues in the U street area showcased prominent musicians and politicians of the day. On this site stood the Pitts Motel and its Red Carpet Lounge. . . . — Map (db m63678) HM
District of Columbia, Washington — Thurgood Marshall
Real Justice The Spirit of Thurgood Marshall 7-2-08 to 1-24-98 I still believe firmly that the right will win out. Justice for all people, regardless of race, creed or color. The long-time NAACP lawyer who argued successfully in . . . — Map (db m88468) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — Campbell African Methodist Episcopal Church2562 Martin Luther King, Jr. Avenue, SE — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC
Campbell AME, established in 1867 as Mount Zion AME, was an outgrowth of its overcrowded parent church, Allen Chapel AME, founded in 1850. When it moved to a location near the present one in 1890, Mount Zion was renamed for AME Bishop Jabez B. . . . — Map (db m33749) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — The Growlery
Here stood Frederick Douglass’ rustic retreat from domestic society, where he could think, read and write undisturbed. Evoking the image of a lion’s lair, he called his hideaway the Growlery. It was simply furnished with a lounge, a high desk and a . . . — Map (db m5362) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Freedmen’s Memorial Monument to Abraham Lincolnor Freedom’s Memorial
In grateful memory of Abraham Lincoln. This monument was erected by the Western Sanitary Commission of Saint Louis, Mo., with funds contributed solely by emancipated Citizens of the United States declared free by his Proclamation, January 1st . . . — Map (db m41617) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Japanese American Memorial to Patriotism During World War II
[Panel 1 of the historical narrative at memorial entrance]: On February 19, 1942, 73 days after the United States entered World War II, President Franklin Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 which resulted in the removal of 120,000 . . . — Map (db m40541) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Mary McLeod Bethune
1875–1955 Let her works praise her. I leave you love. • I leave you hope. • I leave you the challenge of developing confidence in one another. • I leave you a thirst for education. • I leave you a respect for the use of power. • I . . . — Map (db m5505) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Colonial Village — Frank D. Reeves7760 16th Street, NW — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC
Frank D. Reeves (1916–1973), a lawyer and civil rights activist, was part of the team that shaped the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court case outlawing school segregation. He advised Senator John F. Kennedy on minority . . . — Map (db m24679) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — 9 of 19 — Justice vs. InjusticeCultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail
These elegant 13th Street Houses were constructed when racial separation was legal and widely accepted. In 1910 the deeds for many houses across 13th Street had covenants banning “any negro or colored persons.” Those on this side . . . — Map (db m23603) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — 10 of 19 — On the HeightsCultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail
In the days of legally segregated public education (1862-1954), this school building was Central High, the gem of the School Board’s white division. But by 1949, it had few students, as the post-World War II suburban housing boom had drawn whites . . . — Map (db m23608) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — 17 of 19 — Social JusticeCultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail
Straight ahead is All Souls Church, Unitarian, long known for its social activism, starting with abolitionism in the 1820s and ranging through nuclear disarmament and interracial cooperation. During the segregation era, All Souls was one of the few . . . — Map (db m24152) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Freedman’s Savings And Trust
On this site stood the principal office of the Freedman’s Savings and Trust Company founded on March 3, 1865 to receive deposits from former slaves. Frederick Douglass served as its last president. The bank was closed on June 29, 1874. The building . . . — Map (db m32482) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — W.7 — Freedom PlazaCivil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail
“I have a dream.”                             Martin Luther King, Jr. August 1963 The block-long plaza at 13th and Pennsylvania Avenue just ahead to your left honors civil rights leader Martin Luther King . . . — Map (db m28528) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Metropolitan AME Church1518 M Street, NW — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC
This church started on Capitol Hill in 1821 as Israel Bethel, was founded by African Americans denouncing White racism at Ebenezer Methodist Episcopal Church. Later, Pastor Henry McNeal Turner helped persuade President Lincoln to accept Black . . . — Map (db m30056) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — .4 — The Roots of Freedom and EqualityCivil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail
“It is known to you that events have transpired within the last few days, deeply affecting the peace and character of our community.” With these words, city officials tried to calm the angry mobs gathering on this corner in April . . . — Map (db m25271) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — The United States Court of Claims
The United States Court of Claims held its first meeting in "Willard's Hotel" on this site on May 11, 1855. The court was established to allow citizens to sue the U.S. Government. In 1861, President Lincoln wrote of the court: "It is as . . . — Map (db m6587) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — W.6 — Willard Inter-Continental HotelCivil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail
"This hotel, in fact, may be much more justly called the center of Washington and the Union than either the Capitol, the White House or the State Department. . ." Nathaniel Hawthorne, Civil War reporter for the Atlantic Monthly At 6:30 a.m. . . . — Map (db m10905) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Foggy Bottom — Ingrid BergmanLisner Auditorium — The George Washington University
Lisner Auditorium was built in 1946, boasting the biggest stage south of New York City. On its opening night, October 29, 1946, the famed 29 year-old actress Ingrid Bergman was starring in Joan of Lorraine. When Ms. Bergman found out that . . . — Map (db m71605) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Foggy Bottom — St. Mary’s Episcopal ChurchAfrican American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC — 728 23rd Street, NW
[Panel 1]: St. Mary’s was the first Episcopal church in Washington where African Americans could worship free of discrimination. It was established in 1867 by 28 men and women, many of them formerly enslaved. Two White congregations, St. . . . — Map (db m46905) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Judiciary Square — DC Recorder of Deeds Building/WPA Era Murals515 D Street, NW — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC
DC’s Art Deco/Art Moderne Recorder of Deeds Building (1941) houses city land records. Many notable African Americans have served as recorders of deeds since President Garfield appointed Frederick Douglass to the post in 1881. These include Branche . . . — Map (db m29657) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Mount Vernon Square/Shaw — 1 of 17 — Words and DeedsMidcity at the Crossroads — Shaw Heritage Trail
Wealthy industrialist Andrew Carnegie donated funds to build the Beaux Arts-style building you see across the street to your left, the city’s first public library. The Central Library opened in 1903 with 12,412 books by its predecessor, the . . . — Map (db m21801) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), National Mall — Carousel on the Mall, Washington, D.C.
On August 28, 1963, Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, not far from here. On that same day, this carousel was part of a small but significant victory for Civil . . . — Map (db m68236) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Near Northeast — 7 — Provisions for the CityHub, Home, Heart — Greater H Street NE Heritage Trail
This high ground near the B&O Railroad tracks has been Union Terminal Market since 1931. That year Center Market on Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, came down to make way for the National Archives. Vendors seeking new locations clustered here. Before the . . . — Map (db m71684) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Near Northeast — 16 — The Fires of 1968Hub, Home, Heart — Greater H Street NE Heritage Trail
On Friday, April 5, 1968 the 600 block of H Street went up in flames. The Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., had been assassinated a day earlier, and grief-stricken, angry men and women had taken to the streets across the city. Some took part in . . . — Map (db m71692) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Near Northeast — 6 — The Iceman's ArenaHub, Home, Heart — Greater H Street NE Heritage Trail
Uline Arena was built in 1941 by ice maker Mike Uline to present ice skating, hocky, basketball, and tennis. The Dutch immigrant, originally named Migiel Uihlein, had made a fortune patenting ice production equipment and selling ice from his plant . . . — Map (db m71683) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Northwest — Bethune Museum-Archives
Mary McLeod Bethume "Council House" National Historic Site Designated October 15, 1982 by Act of Congress Born on July 10, 1875, in Mayesville, South Carolina, Mary McLeod Bethune was the daughter of sharecroppers. After attending Scotia Seminary in . . . — Map (db m17502) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Northwest — Constitution Hall
. . . — Map (db m50841) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Northwest — Howard UniversitySixth Street and Howard Place, NW — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC
Howard University, one of the oldest Black colleges in the United States, was established by Congress in 1866 to educate formerly enslaved individuals. Its name honors Freedman's Bureau Commissioner General Oliver Otis Howard, a member of the white . . . — Map (db m66401) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Northwest — Nelson Mandela — Freedom Fighter, Political Prisoner, Statesman
Panel 1: A Tribute to Nelson Mandela This tribute to Nelson Mandela was unveiled on 21 September 2013 by the Hon. Maite Nkoana-Mashabane, Minister of International Relations and Cooperation of the Republic of South Africa, and H.E. . . . — Map (db m77575) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Penn Quarter — National Council of Negro Women633 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW. — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC
The National Council of Negro Women was founded in 1935 by Mary McLeod Bethune (1875-1955) to "harness the power and extend the leadership of African American women." Early on, the Council campaigned to outlaw the discriminatory poll tax, develop a . . . — Map (db m30059) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Shaw — 6 of 14 — A Home Away From HomeCity Within a City — Greater U Street Heritage Trail
The Thurgood Marshall Center for Service and Heritage occupies the historic Italian Renaissance-style building of the 12th Street YMCA, known after 1972 as the Anthony Bowen YMCA. The 12th Street YMCA was the first African American YMCA in the . . . — Map (db m40767) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Shaw — 12 of 17 — Reaching for EqualityMidcity at the Crossroads — Shaw Heritage Trail
For much of the 1900s, inexpensive entertainments lined much of Seventh and Ninth Streets, from D to U Streets. Vaudeville houses, pool halls, record shops and taverns made for a busy night life. And everyone went to the movies. Two small theaters . . . — Map (db m27733) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Shaw — 5 — Spiritual LifeMidcity at the Crossroads — Shaw Heritage Trail
Washington’s first black Muslim temple opened in 1940 when the Nation of Islam established Temple No. 4 at 1525-1527 Ninth Street. The Nation of Islam’s second national leader, Elijah Muhammad (1897-1975), presided over the event. Founded in . . . — Map (db m28606) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Shaw — 10 of 14 — Strong Families and Eminent CitizensCity Within a City — Greater U Street Heritage Trail
The fine rowhouses in this part of the Shaw neighborhood, such as those on this street, were once home to many of the community’s old families and most distinguished citizens. Charles Hamilton Houston, a national leader in civil rights, was born . . . — Map (db m41927) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Shaw — Washington Afro-American Newspaper Office Building1800 11th Street, NW — African American Heritage Trail. Washington, DC
The independent weekly Afro-American, one of the most enduring Black newspapers in the country was founded in Baltimore in 1892 by John H. Murphy, Sr. The Washington Afro-American began publication in 1932, and operated from this . . . — Map (db m55538) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Southeast — Whitney M. Young, Jr. Memorial Bridge
Named in honor of Whitney Moore Young, Jr. 1921-1971 Humanitarian-scholar and venerable leader of the National Urban League whose work produced landmark changes in civil rights laws and notable progress towards social and economic justice . . . — Map (db m15606) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — Lincoln Memorial
[Dedication by Royal Cortissoz, above the statue by sculptor Daniel Chester French:] "In this temple as in the hearts of the people for whom he saved the Union the memory of Abraham Lincoln is enshrined forever." [Inscription . . . — Map (db m28607) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The Tidal Basin — Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial — National Mall and Memorial Parks, Washington, D.C.
“With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith, we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith, we will be . . . — Map (db m46398) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The Tidal Basin — The Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial
At this site will be erected the Martin Luther King, Jr .Memorial. The memorial will embody the man, the movement and the message. It will honor this 20th century visionary who brought about change through the principles of nonviolence and equally . . . — Map (db m208) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Union Station — 2 — Gateway to The Nation's CapitalHub, Home, Heart — Greater H Street NE Heritage Trail
With its view of the Capitol and Senate office buildings, and with the Library of Congress and the Supreme Court just a short stroll away, Union Station truly is the gateway to the heart of the nation's government. The station is also where official . . . — Map (db m71679) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Washington — 5 of 18 — Ambassadors of FaithRoads to Diversity — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail
Three dramatic religious structures dominate this corner. They are among some 40 religious institutions lining 16th Street between the White House and the Maryland state line. Many serve as unofficial “embassies” representing the . . . — Map (db m17076) HM
Florida (Bay County), Panama City — F-479 — The Gideon Versus Wainwright Case
This is the site of the landmark Gideon case, after which the Public Defender system was established in Florida and throughout the nation. In 1961, Clarence Earl Gideon (1910-1972) stood trial in this courthouse for the felony of burglary. Lacking . . . — Map (db m42115) HM
Florida (Broward County), Fort Lauderdale — F-716 — Fort Lauderdale Beaches Wade-Ins
On July 4, 1961, local NAACP president Eula Johnson and black physician Dr. Von D. Mizell began a series of nationally publicized "wade-ins" of Fort Lauderdale beaches. Johnson, Mizell, a third black adult, and four black college students . . . — Map (db m48852) HM

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