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Brazil, Amazonas, Manaus — Praça São SebastiãoMonumento Comemorativo a Abertura dos Portos — Monument to the Opening of the [Amazon] Ports
[Panel 1] Mandado Construir em MDCCCXCIX pelo Exmo Senr. Jose Cardoso Ramalho Júnior, Governador do Estado do Amazonas. [In English: Construction Ordered, 1899, by His Excellency, Mr. Jose Cardoso Ramalho Junior, Governor of the State of Amazonas.] "ASIA" [Panel 2] 15 de Novembro de MDCCCLXXXIX. [November 15, 1889.] "AMERICA" [Panel 3] Monumento Levanta do em substitução ao que foi erguido n’esta praça em XII de Setembro de . . . — Map (db m26407) HM
Brazil, Bahia, Salvador — Igr. Basílica de N. Sr. do Bonfim — ["Basilica Church of Our Lord of the Good End"]
Igreja de pergrinação do século XVIII, com arcadas laterais. Local de grade devoção popular, possui internamente coleção de ex-votos. This simple 18th century church with arches on both sides has been the site of pilgrimages for many years and is dearly beloved by the Bahian people. It is believed to have special curative properties, and those seeking divine intervention often leave replicas of body parts or photographs of the infirm inside the church. Bahia Brasil Terra da Felicidade VISA — Map (db m26089) HM
Brazil, Paraná, Foz do Iguaçu — Alberto Santos-Dumont MemorialParque Nacional do IguaçuPatrimonio Natural da Humanidade
As alturas não me intimidam. —Santos-Dumont, Foz do Iguaçu, 24 Abril 1916. Posso dizer-ihe, Frederico Engel, que estas maravilhas em torno das cataratas não podem continuar a pertencer a um particular (Santos–Dumont) Foz, 25 de Abril de 1916. Com esta estátua o sonho de Elfrida E. N. Rios, pioneira da cidade, tornou-se realidade. —Foz, 25 de Abril de 1979. (English translation) “Heights do not intimidate me.” . . . — Map (db m26178) HM
Brazil, Rio de Janeiro — 01246020 — Copacabana FortArmy History Museum
Together with the Arpoador Rock and Cape, the Fort is part of an important landscape group located between two highly populated neighbourhoods: Copacabana and Ipanema. Date: inaugurated in 1914 by President Marechal Hermes da Fonseca. Last Restoration: in 1987, with the coastal artillery batteries phased out, the fort with its 12-meter thick walls, became the Army History Museum. Features: at the entrance of the Fort is a grotto with a statuette of Santa Barbara, . . . — Map (db m25962) HM
Brazil, Rio de Janeiro — Praça 15 de NovembroPrefeitura da Cidade do Rio De Janeiro
Esta região guarda a memória do período colonial Brasileiro. No Século XVII, o núcleo original da cidade desloca-se do morro do Castelo para a várzea e consolida-se ao longo da Rua Direita, hoje Primeiro de Março. Junto à rua, na praia de N.S. do Ó, aterrado surge o Terreiro do Carmo, depois chamado Largo do Paço, por se ter instalado ali o Paço dos Governadores (1743), atual Paço Imperial. O velho largo recebe o nome de Praça 15 de Novembro por ocasião da Proclamação da República em 1889, . . . — Map (db m26313) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Carleton Martello Tower
Construction of this tower was begun by the British Army during the War of 1812 as one of the projected series of fortifications intended to block the western land approach to Saint John. Subsequent to its completion in 1815 the tower was largely neglected, seeing only occasional use in times of emergency, including service as a fire control headquarters in the second world war. The original structure typifies the English martello tower design, a popular form of coastal defence in the British . . . — Map (db m539) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara on the Lake — Niagara on the Lake Historical District
(Left side is in English) In 1778, Loyalist refugees began crossing from Fort Niagara to settle the west bank of the Niagara River. A town was laid out in a grid pattern of four-acre blocks and grew quickly, gaining prominence as the first capital of Upper Canada from 1792 to 1796. Following Niagara’s destruction during the war of 1812, the citizens rebuilt, mainly in the British Classical architectural tradition, creating a group of structures closely related in design, materials, and . . . — Map (db m24585) HM
Egypt, Governorate of Alexandria, Alexandria — Pompey's Pillar — [Alexandria Serapeum]
Pompey’s Pillar is one of the most famous glories of Alexandria. It has been estimated that this pillar was in the middle of a portico containing some 400 columns. The Arabs called it “Amoud el-Sawari”, Column of the Horsemen. The Pillar is the tallest ancient monument in Alexandria. This column has been admired by all throughout history for its grand scale. A number of stories were related to it. One such story claims 22 people had lunch on its capital! Another favorite . . . — Map (db m59921) HM
France, Île-de-France (Paris), Paris — L’Obelisque de Luxor(The Luxor Obelisk)
(North-west face of the pedestal) En presence du roi Louis Philippe 1er, cet obelisque transporté de louqsor en France a été dresse sur ce piédestal par M. Lebas, ingénieur, aux applaudissements d’un peuple immense, le XXV octobre M.D.CCC.XXXVI.

(English translation by Google Translate with modifications:) In the presence of King Louis Philippe I, this obelisk, transported from Luxor to France, was placed on this pedestal by M. Lebas, engineer, to the applause of an immense crowd, the . . . — Map (db m61674) HM

France, Île-de-France (Paris Département), Paris — Bureau de Gustave EiffelGustave Eiffel’s office
Gustave Eiffel, en compagnie de sa fille Claire, s’était aménagé un petit appartement au sommet de la Tour où il accueillait de hôtes de marque dans le cadre de réceptions intimes. Cette scène évoque la viste que lui fit Thomas Edison le 10 septembre 1889. A cette occasion, le physicien et inventeur américan, offre à Gustave Eiffel un modèle de son fameux phonographe qu’il vient présenter é l’Exposition Universelle de 1889.

Gustave Eiffel’s office Accompanied by his daughter Claire, . . . — Map (db m60918) HM

France, Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur (Vaucluse), Bonnieux — 8 — BelvedereLou Badareù
Lieu qui offre la plus belle vue sur le bas du village, la plaine agricole, la vallée du Calovon, les villages voisins, les monts de Vaucluse et le mont Ventoux. Ce lieu est l’emplacement de la Chapelle Notre Dame de Sept Douleurs bâtie par la Confrérie des Pénitents Blancs. Elle fut aliénée pendant la revolution et revint à la famille de Rouvil, puis à la collectivité lors de l’achat de l’hôtel. Le 11 juin 1909, un séisme provoqua deux importantes fissures sur la façade ouest de l’èglise . . . — Map (db m61976) HM
France, Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur (Vaucluse), Bonnieux — Bonnieux
Le nom gallo-romain est Bitrona. On trouve ensuite Castrum Bonilis (Xeme S.) Bonils (XIIeme S.) de Bonilis (XIVeme S.). La forme provençale est Bonieux La préhistoire est ici présente en de nombreux lieux (habitants néolithiques, notamment sur les franges du plateau de Claparedes). L’agglomération gallo-romaine se situait aux abords de la plaine (villas romaines, déterminées en plusieurs lieux): la partie surélevée ayant été oppidum celto-ligure; c’est autour de cette zone mieux protégée . . . — Map (db m61989) HM
Guatemala, Sacatepéquez, La Antigua Guatemala — Antigua Guatemala UNESCO World Heritage Site
La Antigua Guatemala Santiago de Guatemala Trazada en 1543, Capital del Reino de Guatemala hasta su traslado en 1775. Declarada patrimonio de la humanidad e incluida en la lista de la Convención del Patrimonio Cultural Mundial de UNESCO, con el número 65. Luxor, Egipto 1979. La Antigua Guate 1985. English translation: La Antigua, Guatemala, Santiago de Guatemala Established in 1543, the capital of the Kingdom of Guatemala until being moved in 1775. Declared as global . . . — Map (db m70570) HM
Ireland, Connacht (County Galway), Inishmore, Aran Islands — Dún Aonghus
This, one of the finest prehistoric fortresses in Western Europe, consists of three dry-stone ramparts, and the remains of a fourth, the outermost of which encloses an area of 11 acres. Outside the second rampart there is a 30 foot band of upright stones forming a defensive band or “chevaux de frise.” Considerable alterations were made in the 19th century when the buttresses in the inside wall were erected. Tá sé seo ar cheann de na dúnta réamh-stairiúla is breátha in . . . — Map (db m25053) HM
Ireland, Connacht (County Mayo), Murrisk — Murrisk Friary / Mainistir Mhuraisce
Murrisk - from Muraisc (Sea-marsh) Murrisk Friary This small house of Augustinian friars, located here on the south shore of Clew Bay in the shadow of Croagh Patrick, was founded in 1457 by Hugh O'Malley. It was dedicated to St Patrick, some of whose relics were preserved here. The only surviving buildings are the small church and the range of domestic buildings which bordered the cloister on its east side - the chapter house below, where the friars met to . . . — Map (db m27587) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Dublin), Dublin — Fusiliers’ Arch
In memory of the officers, non-commissioned officers and men of the Royal Dublin Fusiliers who fell in the South African War A.D.1899·1900 Fortissimis suis militibus hoc monumentum eblana dedicavit MCMVII Hartshill•Ladysmith•Talana•Colenso• Tulega Heights•Laings Nek Fusiliers' Arch [Inscription is from the Monuments of St. Stephen's Green marker found in the park] The form of this arch, 12 feet in width, is that of a Roman Triumphal Arch. It stands 32 feet 6 inches high. . . . — Map (db m22470) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Dublin), Dublin — Leinster HouseMalton Trail
Since 1924, Leinster House has been the seat of the two houses of the Oireachtas, Dail and Seanad (Irish Parliament and Senate), who meet here a total of 90 days a year. Designed in 1745 by the architect Richard Cassels, who also designed the Lying-In Hospital off Parnell Square, it was built as a town residence for the duke of Leinster on what was then known as Molesworth Fields, adding a character to the area that has remained to this day. This view is one of many superb quality . . . — Map (db m22459) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Dublin), Dublin — Oscar Wilde House
Oscar Wilde 1854 - 1900 Poet, Dramatist, Wit Lived Here 1855 to 1878 — Map (db m24754) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Dublin), Dublin — Saint Patrick’s ParkPáirc Naomh Pádraig
Tradition has it that Saint Patrick baptised the first Irish Christians in a well, situated here in St. Patrick's Park, with water from the River Poddle, which still flows underground. A small wooden church was erected here to commemorate the event. The parish church on this site was known as Saint Patrick's in Insula (on the island) because it was located on an island between two branches of the River Poddle. In 1191 John Comyn, the first Anglo-Norman Archbishop of Dublin, gave the church the . . . — Map (db m22468) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Dublin), Dublin — St. Patrick's CathedralMalton Trail
This majestic view of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin is a colour reproduction from a series of original aquatints etched by James Malton, whose work, A Picturesque and Descriptive View of the City of Dublin, gives us a glimpse of Dublin at the close of the 18th-century. Malton was “struck with admiration at the beauty of the capital of Ireland and was anxious to make a display of it to the world”. It is here that St. Patrick was said to have baptised converts to Christianity . . . — Map (db m22465) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Fingal), Howth — Howth Abbey, St. Marys / "Mainistir" Bhinn Éadair
Howth Abbey, St. Marys Sigtrygg, King of Dublin, founded the first church here in 1042. When this church was amalgamated with another on Ireland's Eye in 1235, it was re-founded by Luke, Archbishop of Dublin. Much of the present church dates from the 15th and 16th centuries. In the southeastern corner is a chantry containing the tomb of Christopher St. Laurence, carved around 1470, with the effigy of the Knight and his wife on top. Surrounding the tomb can be seen representations of the . . . — Map (db m27205) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Laois), Borris In Ossory — Millenium Fountain
The threshold and other rough stone was salvaged from one of the last thatched houses in the village. It was demolished in the year 2000. — Map (db m24721) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Longford), Longford — County Longford Great War Memorial1914 - 1918
[Northeast Face] To Perpetuate the Memory of the 284 Gallant Soldiers of the County Longford who fell in the Great World War. This Cross was erected by the generous subscriptions of their sorrowing relatives, comrades and sympathisers. R. I. P. [Handwritten note hanging below reads:] In memory of the 325 Longford men and women who died in World Wars One and Two and other conflicts R. I. P. [Southwest face] Those loving Heroes good and . . . — Map (db m27355) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Donaghmore — Donaghmore Church and Round TowerDomhnach Mór agus Cloightheach
Donaghmore Church and Round Tower A monastery was reputedly founded here in the 5th century by St Patrick, who placed it in the care of St Cassán, whose relics were venerated here. The Round Tower was not built until the 11th or 12th century. It is well-preserved, but its upper part was badly restored in 1841 - the four windows which normally face North, South, East and West from the top of Round Towers are not found here, and the stone at the top of its roof is missing. . . . — Map (db m22542) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Duleek — Connell's HouseDuleek Heritage Trail
Close to the Courthouse along the western perimeter of the village green is Connell's House, the oldest house in Duleek. This building was in existence at the time of the famous Battle of the Boyne in 1690. — Map (db m24793) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Duleek — St Mary's AbbeyDuleek Heritage Trail
One of the great churches of the 12th century, St. Mary's Abbey, was built by the Augustinians on lands presented to them by Hugh de Lacy, Overlord of Meath. In the 1500s a massive square tower was built alongside the earlier round tower. The latter is no longer standing but the ‘scar’ where it was joined onto the square tower is clearly visible on its north side. Within the church are some early cross-slabs, a Romanesque pilaster-capital and the base and head of the South Cross, and . . . — Map (db m26384) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Duleek — The Lime TreeDuleek Heritage Trail
William of Orange and Mary accepted the throne of England in 1698, supplanting King James II who took refuge with his ally and sponsor Louis XIV of France. The tensions between James and William would reach their highpoint in 1690 at the battle of the Boyne in Meath, where James was defeated. In Duleek at the time there was a very significant colony of Huguenots (French Protestants) who had fled persecution in France. Subsequently to the Battle of the Boyne the people of Duleek planted . . . — Map (db m24802) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Kells — Kells Round TowerKells Heritage Trail
This tower is located on the grounds of St Columba's church and was built in the 10th century as part of the early Christian monastery. Such towers were referred to as a cloigteach meaning bell tower. Modelled on early Italian belfries, they were used as lookout towers and as places of refuge during attack, particularly from Norse invaders. The tower is ninety feet high from the original street level to the base of its roof and has six floors but no internal staircase. Access to the upper . . . — Map (db m26440) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Kells — St Columba's ChurchKells Heritage Trail
Diarmuld MacCarroll, High King of Tara, is said to have granted the dun of Cenannus to St Columcille in the 6th century for the purpose of establishing a monastery. This may explain why in 804 the Columban community on the island of Iona (Hebrides), then the principal Columban monastery, moved to Kells to escape the reaches of Norse raiding parties. St Columba's church stands on the site of the original Columban monastery. It became a cathedral church 1152 when the diocese of Kells was . . . — Map (db m26444) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Loyd — Spire of LoydKells Heritage Trail
The tower, a mock lighthouse, was erected in 1791 by the First Earl of Bective in memory of his father Sir Thomas Taylor. The architect was Henry Baker who completed the design of the Kings Inns in Dublin after Gandon. The tower has an internal spiral stone staircase and was used in the 19th century to view the horseracing and the hunt. A section of land adjoining the tower was given to the Kells Union Workhouse in 1851 to be used as a paupers' graveyard. A famine road existed between the . . . — Map (db m27324) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Newgrange — Knowth / Cnogbha
Within the great mound of Knowth there are two passage-tombs and around it, eighteen satellite tombs. The site remained a focal point for over 4,000 years. There is evidence of occupation from 3,000 B.C. to 1,200 A.D. This project has been part-financed by the European Regional Development Fund — Map (db m27219) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Newgrange — The Woodhenge/Pit circle / The Winter Soltice
The Woodhenge/Pit circle If you were here 4000 years ago in the Early Bronze Age you would be standing inside a large wooden enclosure. The passage tomb was no longer in use at this time but the site was still a focal point for ritual and celebration. Because the enclosure was made of wood, it hasn't survived above ground. However, evidence of it was found by archaeologists. They found postholes where the huge wooden stakes had been. They also found pits where small animals had been . . . — Map (db m22522) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Trim — Newtowntrim Cathedral / Ardeaglais an Bhaile NuaCathedral of Saints Peter and Paul — Ardeaglais nPheadair agus nPhóil
The priory of Newtowntrim was founded in 1202 by Simon de Rochfort, Bishop of Meath, for a community of Augustinian canons (priests). As well as functioning as part of the monastery, the church became the cathedral for the diocese of Meath after Simon petitioned the Pope to transfer his cathedral from Clonard to this site, where it could be protected by the great Norman castle at Trim. The Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul was one of the largest and most sophisticated churches built in . . . — Map (db m27240) HM
Ireland, Munster (County Clare), Kilfenora — Historic Kilfenora / Cill Fhionnúrach Stairiúil
Historic Kilfenora The monastery of Kilfenora or Chill Fhionnúrach (the church of the white brow) is said to have been founded in the 6th century by St. Fachnan. The outline of the early monastic circular enclosure can still be traced in the curve of the roads to the south and west of the cathedral. The early history of the site is obscure, with the first historical reference occurring in 1055 when the stone church at the site was burned. The material remains, in particular the group . . . — Map (db m23694) HM
Ireland, Munster (County Kerry), Dunquin — The Blaskets
This group, the most westerly off the Irish coast, comprises 7 sizeable islands and isolated rocks spread in a line west by south over 2½ miles of the Atlantic, the largest (Great Blasket) 2 miles off shore. Antiquities of the early Christian period include oratories, crosses and “beehive” cells on Inis Mhicileáin and Inis Tuaisceart, and church ruins on the Great Blasket. The economy of the islands, based mainly on fishing with some farming, in 1839 supported 13 . . . — Map (db m24096) HM
Ireland, Munster (County Limerick), Abbeyfeale — Reverend William Casey
His grateful fellow countrymen at home and beyond the seas have erected this monument to the memory of Rev. William Casey, for a quarter of a century prior to his death, the parish priest of this parish. He found his people struggling in the toils of landlordism: he left them owners of the soil and freemen. By his death, religion lost a shining light; the cause of temperance a strenuous advocate; the poor without distinction of creed, an ever helpful friend; and Ireland a devoted son. But . . . — Map (db m24739) HM
U.S Virgin Islands, St John, Cruz Bay — Establishment of Virgin Islands National ParkA Grassroots Contribution
The Virgin Islands government had proposed a territorial park for the Reef Bay region of St. John as early as 1937. This led to feasibility studies by the U.S. Department of the Interior to determine if the resources of St. John warranted the inclusion of the island in the National Park system. After World War II, both a National Recreation Area and National Park were considered.

While Laurance Rockefeller provided the necessary funding for the purchase of the land that would eventually . . . — Map (db m60712) HM

U.S Virgin Islands, St John, Cruz Bay — Philanthropy in the National Park Service
Private philanthropy has a long history and important role in the development of America’s National Park system.

Charitable donations by the Rockefeller family, notably by Laurance S. Rockefeller, helped to establish, enlarge or improve national parks across the United States. From Maine to Hawaii and Alaska to the Virgin Islands, over two dozen national park sites, including Acadia, Great Smokies, Grand Teton and Yosemite have benefited from his generosity and conservation ethic.

The . . . — Map (db m60716) HM

Alabama (Autauga County), Prattville — Heritage Park
Located within Daniel Pratt Historic District, this park overlooks Autauga Creek and the manufacturing complex around which this New England style village developed. Daniel Pratt founded Prattville in 1839, and patterned the town after those of his native New Hampshire. Pratt chose this site to manufacture cotton gins because of the abundant water power. The many artesian wells gave Prattville the name, "The Fountain City." Some of the buildings in view here have been used continuously since . . . — Map (db m27958) HM
Alabama (Coffee County), Enterprise — Rawls Hotel
Original two-story brick structure built 1903 by Japheth Rawls, developer of some of earliest turpentine plants in Coffee County. Building remodeled 1928 and three-story wings added by Jesse P. Rawls, founder of first electric power system in Enterprise. Hotel was center for business and social gatherings until its closing in early 1970's. Listed on National Register of Historic Places 1980. — Map (db m30308) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Muscle Shoals — Howell & Graves School
Marker Front: Muscle Shoals City was incorporated on April 24, 1923. Among the leading developers were New York realtors A.L. Howell and C.T. Graves. Their interest in Muscle Shoals was inspired by the vision of Henry Ford to use power from Wilson Dam and the Nitrate Plants to "employ one million workers and build a city 75 miles wide." Although Ford's vision remained unfulfilled, Howell & Graves helped develop the town by building the first City Hall, bungalows, a service station, and . . . — Map (db m28580) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Sheffield — Furnace Hill
Center of Industry for new town of Sheffield. Five blast furnaces with 75 ft stacks build 1886~1895 1/2 mile west. Promoted by E. W. Cole and E. Ensley. Iron ore and limestone from Franklin Co., coke from Walker Co. and Virginia used. Hattie Ensley Furnace, most successful, produced 221 tons pig iron daily. Iron barged down Tennessee River. Furnaces operated by Sloss ~ Sheffield Iron & Steel Co until 1927. — Map (db m28428) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — Cahaba First State Capital1818-1826
This stone marks the site of Cahaba, selected November 21, 1818 as the first permanent capital of Alabama. The seat of goverment remaining here until removed to Tuscaloosa by the Legislature, January 1825. On December 13, 1819, it was fixed as the Seat of Justice of Dallas County, and so continued until December 14, 1865. As state capital and as county seat, Cahaba was representative of the best in the life of a Great Commonwealth. Erected by the Alabama Centennial Commission and . . . — Map (db m22609) HM
Alabama (Etowah County), Gadsden — Dwight Mill Village
Dwight Manufacturing Company of Chicopee, Massachusetts selected this site in Alabama City for a cotton mill in 1894. The Mill and the village covering 240 acres was constructed under the direction of Howard Gardner Nichols. There were 160 New England style cottages in the original construction plan, each home had a distinctive architectural style and color scheme. Later construction brought the total number of homes in the village to 700. This model Village was designed with its own . . . — Map (db m18575) HM
Alabama (Houston County), Dothan — Shelley General Store
Side 1 William Lafayette Shelley (1868-1953), son of Mark Shelley and Mary Jane Ronie Shelley, was a progressive farmer and entrepreneur in the Tumbleton community of Henry County, Alabama. “Papa Billy”, as he was known by family, impacted the religious, educational, political and banking fabric of the county. He built this store near his home in 1911 as a cannery for canning vegetables as well as peaches acquired from Georgia. His canned goods carried the Shelley label. . . . — Map (db m73377) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Jefferson County Courthouse Site
The county seat of Jefferson County was moved from Elyton to Birmingham in 1873. On this site stood the first Courthouse in the City of Birmingham. The Italianate style structure was designed by architect W. K. Ball. Completed in 1875, the two-story red brick building cost $30,500. In 1887 it was condemned as unsafe, and a new Courthouse was planned. (Reverse): In 1889 a second Jefferson County Courthouse was constructed on this site. Charles Wheelock and Sons of Birmingham and . . . — Map (db m27095) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Sloss Furnaces
The crossing of railroads in 1872 adjacent to this site gave rise to the industrial city of Birmingham. In 1881 Alabama railroad magnate and entrepreneur James Withers Sloss, capitalizing on the unusual coincidence of coal, iron ore and limestone in the area, founded the Sloss Furnace Company as an iron manufacturer and built blast furnaces beside the railroad crossing. Production of pig iron at Sloss Furnaces began in 1882 and continued for almost 90 years. Early 20th century additions to the . . . — Map (db m23498) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Iron Man: Vulcan
The giant, cast iron statue you see towering above you is Vulcan, the Roman god of metalwork and the forge. The 56-foot tall statue was commissioned by Birmingham leaders to represent their new, growing city at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. After a smashing success at the fair, he was brought home to Birmingham. — Map (db m26297) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Vestavia Hills — A History Of Vestavia Hills
In 1924, George Ward, a former mayor of Birmingham, 1905-1909, 1913-1914, visited the City of Rome, Italy. He was so intrigued by the unique beauty of the Temple of the Vestal Virgins on a Roman hilltop that he vowed to build a replica of it on a chosen site near Birmingham. The site he selected was on a beautiful crest of Shades Mountain approximately two miles east of here. The temple was completed in 1925. In Roman mythology, Vesta was the goddess of fire and of the family hearth, she . . . — Map (db m25352) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Vestavia Hills — Sibyl Temple
Side A Sibyl Temple was moved to this site from its original location in 1975. George Ward built it on the brow of his 20-acre mountaintop “Vestavia” estate in 1929. It marked the entrance to the lower 10 acres where he planned a wildflower and bird sanctuary. Mr. Ward modeled his “Temple of the Sibyl” gazebo after the hilltop temple in Tivoli, Italy. It was constructed of red-hued sandstone quarried in the area. He intended Sibyl Temple to be the monument to his . . . — Map (db m37708) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Florence's Early Water Tower 1890
Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, this tower of native stone was completed in 1890 as the foundation for a wrought- iron tank with a capacity of 280,000 gallons of water. It is 70 feet high and is located on the highest elevation in the city. Water was pumped here from Cypress Creek. It was constructed during the Industrial Boom at which time the population of Florence increased from approximately 2,000 in 1887 to over 6,000 in 1889. It was replaced by the adjoining standpipe in 1935. — Map (db m35234) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Gilbert Elementary School
Gilbert School, named in honor of Henry C Gilbert, school superintendent 1892-1904 and long time member of Board of Education was built in 1920, costing $79,000. The structure was planned by George D Waller, architect. A relief sculpture portraying a teacher Henry Grady Richard's served as Principal from 1921 to 1964. The original building and 14 classrooms, library, cafeteria auditorium and supporting facilities. later a three classroom annex and private dwelling made into three classroom . . . — Map (db m28149) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Auburn — General James Henry Lane HouseWoman's Club of Auburn
The Lane House, built in 1853 at the corner of Thach and College Street, was home to several Auburn University notables, E. T. Glenn, Treasurer, leased it in 1873. Gen. James H. Lane, Aide to Gen. Stonewall Jackson and Head of Engineering, purchased the house in 1884. Daughter Mary married Dean George Petrie, author of Auburn Creed. Daughter Kate Meade Lane was the last resident. Mollie Hollifield Jones purchased the house in 1960 for the Woman's Club. The house was moved to its present . . . — Map (db m31350) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Opelika — Bean's Mill
Side 1 Here in 1897 the first iron bridge in Lee County was built. In 1903 George W. Bean bought the mill, operating it until his death in 1952. About 1910 Bean installed an iron overshot wheel to replace the old turbine. Later, the dam height was raised two feet. On March 30, 1939, FDR on his way to Warm Springs stopped his motorcade for a visit. In 1989 John M. Ross purchased the deteriorated mill with 80 acres. Ross reconstructed the mill to operating condition in 1997. On October . . . — Map (db m73533) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Hotel Monte Sano“Monte Sano” – Spanish for “Mountain of Health”
Site of Hotel Monte Sano, built in 1887 by the North Alabama Improvement Company with the assistance of Michael and James O’Shaughnessy. The 233-room hotel opened on June 1, 1887 and served as a health resort and haven for famous visitors including Helen Keller, the Vanderbilts, and the Astors. Guests arrived via the “Tally Ho” stagecoach or the Monte Sano Railway, which served the mountain community. The hotel closed in 1900, and the W.W. Garth family later purchased it for their . . . — Map (db m27796) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama State Capitol
Has been desiginated a Registered National Historic Landmark Under the provisions of the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935 this site possesses exceptional value in commemorating and illustrating the history of the United States U.S. Department of the Interior National Park Service 1962 — Map (db m74156) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Horseshoe Bend Battleground Monument
Here on the Horseshoe Battleground General Andrew Jackson and his brave men broke the power of the Creek Indians under Chief Menawa March 29, 1814 — Map (db m51673) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Jackson Trace
This stone marks the terminus of the route traced through the wilderness by Jackson's army during the Horseshoe Bend campaign. — Map (db m51670) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Alabama Central Female College
After the seat of government was moved to Montgomery in 1847, the Tuscaloosa Capitol and its furnishings were deeded to the University of Alabama to be used for educational purposes. In 1857, the University Board of Trustees leased the building for ninety-nine years to the newly formed Baptist affiliated Alabama Central Female College. At this time, a large brick four story dormitory was constructed at the west of the building. On August 22, 1923, the historic building was totally . . . — Map (db m29064) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Denny Chimes
Marker Front: This bell tower, and enduring symbol of Alabama's first university, was erected in honor of President George H. Denny, under whose leadership (1911 to 1936) The University of Alabama gained national prominence. Conceived by Jerome M Britchey and his classmates, this free-standing campanile carillon was built by Skinner, Maxwell, and Company and dedicated May 27, 1929, with Governor Bibb Graves presiding. Converted in 1945 from a bell carillon to an electronic system and . . . — Map (db m29610) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Masons Marks
To identify their work masons often carved special marks into the bottom, sides, or back of the stones. Their supervisors were thus able to distinguish between the quality and quantity of each mason's work. Blocks for the building were quarried from local sandstone from the banks of the nearby Black Warrior River. Over a dozen different masons marks and directional signs appear throughout the ruins. Such identifying marks had been used by stone masons since the European Middle Ages. — Map (db m29116) HM
Alaska (Fairbanks North Star Borough), Fox — Pipeline History
On November 16, 1973, through Presidential approval of pipeline legilation, Alyeska Pipeline Service Company received permission to begin construction of the 800-mile trans Alaska pipeline, its pump stations and the Marine Terminal at Valdez. The 360-mile road from the Yukon River to Prudhoe Bay was built, and construction of the Valdez Terminal was begun in 1974.At the same time, work started on pump stations and the pipeline work pad. The lengths of pipe were placed under the . . . — Map (db m20215) HM
Alaska (Skagway Borough), Skagway — Fatal Duel
Frank Reid, guarding the approach to Sylvester's Wharf, where the vigilantes were meeting to restore law and order, shot "Soapy Smith" who failed to stop when challenged, July 8, 1898. — Map (db m72790) HM
Arizona (Gila County), Young — The Pleasant Valley War a.k.a. The Graham-Tewsbury FeudCirca 1882 - 1892
One of the West’s Longest and Bloodiest feuds took place here and around Pleasant Valley. The Grahams and the Tewksburys had been in the cattle business and it seems probable that they first fell out over the division of cattle they jointly owned (some believe stole). “Sheep were introduced into the valley in 1887 and this was an aggravating factor, drawing in cattle and sheep men from Holbrook and Flagstaff. Historians still debate the details of the feud that included brand changing, . . . — Map (db m78742) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Kingman — Santa Fe Locomotive No. 3759
Presented to the city of Kingman as an historical monument in 1967 by the Santa Fe Railway Company. This "Mountain Type" coal-burning steam locomotive was built in 1927 by the Baldwin Locomotive Works. It was rebuilt and converted to oil fuel in 1941. No. 3759 was on the passenger run between Los Angeles and Kansas City for many years, making ten round trips monthly. Average east-bound speed was 54.3 MPH; west-bound 60.2 MPH. Kingman was a "water stop" on the east-bound run. No. 3759 . . . — Map (db m29360) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Lake Havasu City — London Bridge
Opened By The Right Honorable The Lord Mayor Of London Alderman Sir Peter Studd G.B.E.M.A.D.Sc. In The Presence Of The Honorable Jack Williams Governor Of Arizona October 10, 1971 Robert P. McCulloch Sr          C.V. Wood Jr.           Founder                         Master Planner       Lake Havasu City              Lake Havasu City Map (db m4328) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Lake Havasu City — Robert P. McCulloch, Sr.
[Upper Plaque]: In grateful memory Robert P. McCulloch, Sr. Whose purchase of London Bridge in 1968 saved it for the enjoyment and use of prosterity [Lower Plaque]: October 10, 1981 on this 150th Anniverary London Bridge was formally dedicated to the citizens of Lake Havasu City — Map (db m6974) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Oatman — Oatman, ArizonaElevation 2700 Feet
Oatman was founded about 1908. By 1931, the areas mines which had produced over 1.8 million ounces of gold. By the mid 1930's, the boom was over and in 1942 the last remaining mines were closed as nonessential to the war effort. Burros first came to Oatman with early day prospectors. The animals were also used inside the mines for hauling rock and ore outside the mines. Burros were used for hauling water and supplies. As the mines closed and people moved away, the Burros were . . . — Map (db m18964) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Winslow — Barringer Meteor Crater
Has Been Designated A Registered Natural Landmark Under the provisions of the Historic Sites act of August 21, 1935 this site possesses exceptional values in illustrating the natural history of the United States. U.S. Department of the Interior National Park Service 1968 — Map (db m41532) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Green Valley — Titan II Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Museum
Tucson Air Museum Foundation of Pima County Titan II Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Museum Established May 8, 1986 571st SMS, 390th SMW Davis-Monthan AFB Strategic Alert July 1963 – November 1982 National Historic Landmark April 6, 1994 Dedicated October 14, 1994 — Map (db m26926) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — El Conquistador Water Tower
Constructed in 1928, the tower is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and has been designated as a Tucson Landmark. The tower's Spanish colonial revival sheathing was designed by Tucson architect Roy Place and added in 1932. In 1994, the tower was restored by the City of Tucson and the Tucson-Pima County Historical Commission with the assistance of the Arizona Heritage Fund. — Map (db m26288) HM
Arizona (Santa Cruz County), Patagonia — Cady HallPatagonia Hotel
John H. Cady came to Arizona as a solder in the 1860's and was stationed at Fort Crittenden on Sonoita Creek. Later Cady became a resident of Patagonia and in December of 1900 began building the Patagonia Hotel. He continued to add to the structure until he considered it to be one of the finest in the country. Now knows as Cady Hall, the building is the home of the Patagonia Womens Club — Map (db m24300) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Jerome — Jerome, ArizonaToo Strong to Die
The first mining claims were filed in 1876, within 20 years Jerome was a billion dollar copper mecca and one of the wildest, wickedest mining towns in the west. Drinking, gambling, brawls and frolicking with ladies of the night occurred around–the-clock in two dozen magnificent saloons. By the time mining shut down in 1952, enough copper had been produced to put 13 pounds in the hands of every citizen in the world. Gold and silver production covered mining expenses. Through the . . . — Map (db m33149) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Prescott — Plaza Bandstand
As early as 1865, Lucian Bonaparte Jewell organized a Brass Band in Prescott, but by the 1870s the regimental bands from Ft. Whipple began to dominate the local music scene. The original Plaza Bandstand, built in the late 1800s, had survived the fire of 1900, but was eventually removed. On July 8, 1908, The Prescott Brass Band was reorganized and showed interest in erecting a permanent ornamental Bandstand on the Plaza. It was not until May, 1910, that Henry Rockmark was awarded the contact for . . . — Map (db m59299) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Prescott — Santa Fe Depot
Prescott’s first railroad arrived on December 31, 1886. The current depot was built by the Santa Fe, Prescott and Phoenix Railway, also known as the “Peavine”, in 1907. Designed in the Mission Revival style of poured concrete with a barrel tile roof, it occupies a prominent location at the north end of Cortez Street and was the center of shipping and receiving in Yavapai County. The tracks were last in use on December 31, 1986, the 100th anniversary of the arrival of the railroad. . . . — Map (db m18767) HM
Arkansas (Monroe County), Holly Grove — Beginning Point of the Louisiana Purchase Survey
This stone marks the base established Nov.10,1815 from which the lands of the Louisiana Purchase were surveyed by the United States Engineers. The first survey from this point was made to satisfy the claims of the soldiers of the war of 1812 with land boundries. — Map (db m6037) HM
California (Alameda County), Alameda — 440 — Alameda Terminus of the 1st Transcontinental Railroad
[Center and Main Marker:] This plaque marks the terminus of the First Transcontinental Passenger train that started in New York City and terminated at Alameda Point Pier On September 6, 1869. Erected by the U.S. Naval Air Station, Alameda in cooperation with the Alameda Historical Society Dedicated Aug. 22, 1953. Wm G. Huff Small Upper Marker:] Ceremonies commemorating the 100th Anniversary of this historical event were . . . — Map (db m29447) HM
California (Alameda County), Livermore — 641 — Concannon Vineyards
Here, in 1883, James Concannon founded the Concannon Vineyard. The quality it achieved in Sacramental and commercial wines helped establish Livermore Valley as one of America’s select wine growing districts. Grape cuttings from this vineyard were introduced to Mexico between 1889 and 1904 for the improvement of its commercial viticulture. — Map (db m31397) HM
California (Alameda County), Livermore — 586 — Cresta Blanca Winery
Here, Charles A. Wetmore planted his vineyard in 1882. The Cresta Blanca wine he made from its fruit won for California the first international award. The highest honor at the 1889 Paris Exposition. First bringing assurance to California wine growers that they could grow wines comparable to the finest in the world. — Map (db m52090) HM
California (Alameda County), Livermore — Mills Square Flag PoleRaised September 9, 1905
Made from one log, originally 126 feet in length. 18 inch diameter at base, 5,300 pounds Shortened 14 feet in 1959 City of Livermore Historic Preservation Landmark Site Dedicated July 1998 — Map (db m17785) HM
California (Alameda County), Livermore — 241 — Robert LivermoreFirst Settler of Livermore Valley
Born in England 1799 – Died Rancho Las Positas 1858; Arrived in Monterey 1822. Married Josepa Hicutera y Puentas 1830. Settled on Rancho Las Positas 1835. “Next to the Mission Padres, he was the first man to engage himself in the culture of grapes, fruit and grain.” The Livermore Hacienda was a short distance north of this spot. — Map (db m31410) HM
California (Alameda County), Livermore — 957 — Wente Bros. Winery
Here the first Wente Vineyards of 47 acres was established by C.H. Wente in 1883. In 1935 his sons, Ernest and Herman, introduced California’s first varietal wine label, Sauvignon Blanc. The efforts of the Wente family have helped to establish the Livermore Valley as one of the premier wine-growing areas of California. In their centennial year, Wente Bros. is the oldest continuously operating, family-owned winery in California. California Registered Historical Landmark No.957 Plaque . . . — Map (db m31408) HM
California (Alameda County), Niles — Completion of the Transcontinental RailroadNiles, California
“May God continue the unity of our country as this railroad unites the two great oceans of the world.” The gold spike ceremony at Promontory, Utah in May of 1869 united the tracks of the Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads. However the trails did not span the United States from ocean to ocean until some months later. In September the final link between San Francisco and Sacramento was completed near the Flour Mill of Jesus Vallejo, a short distance east of this location. — Map (db m24473) HM
California (Alameda County), Pleasanton — 510 — Francisco Solano Alviso Adobe
This building, erected in 1844-46 by Francisco Solano Alviso, was the first adobe house to be built in the Pleasanton Valley. It was originally called Alisal-The Sycamores. Following the Battle of Sunol Canyon, General John C. Frémont withdrew to this building, which became his headquarters for several days. — Map (db m3558) HM
California (Alameda County), San Leandro — 824 — San Leandro Oyster Beds
During the 1890s the oyster industry thrived until it became the single most important fishery in the state. Moses Wicks is supposed to have been the first to bring seed oysters around the horn and implant them in the San Leandro beds. The oyster industry in San Francisco Bay was at its height around the turn of the century, it reached a secondary peak by 1911 and then faded away because of polluted conditions of the bay. — Map (db m55020) HM
California (Alpine County), Kirkwood — Caples Lake
In 1849 Dr. James Caples passed through here on his way to California’s gold country. After a brief stay in Old Hangtown (Placerville) Caples remembered the lake and returned here with his family to establish a way station that served weary travelers for thirty years. The lake known variously as Summit Lake, Clear Lake, and Twin Lakes, is two miles long and has a surface area of 600 acres. Dedicated by the Historical Society of Alpine County. — Map (db m11048) HM
California (Alpine County), Kirkwood — 315 — Kit Carson
On this spot, which marks the summit of the Kit Carson Pass stood what was known as the Kit Carson Tree on which the famous scout Kit Carson inscribed his name in 1844 when he guided the then Captain John C. Fremont, head of a government exploring expedition over the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Above is a replica of the original inscription cut from the tree in 1888 and now is in Sutter’s Fort, Sacramento. — Map (db m12032) HM
California (Alpine County), Kirkwood — 378 — Memorial to Pioneer Odd Fellows
At this point in August 1849, a group of Odd Fellows nearing their goal, the California gold mines, paused in their struggle up these granite walls to paint on this and adjacent boulders their names and the three links of the Great Order They so dearly loved. Pioneers of California Pioneers of the Brotherhood of Man We Salute You. Your bodies have blended with the dust of the West. Your spirit lives and inspires. Dedicated to their memory, by the Grand Lodge of California . . . — Map (db m21293) HM
California (Alpine County), Markleeville — 318 — Ebbetts PassHistorical Landmark
Named after Major John Ebbett and pointed out in 1853 to surveyor G.H. Goodard who referred to it as a “route of great promise – probably the best one for a transcontinental railway.” No emigrant train used this route but a stage road was completed here in 1864 to serve mining region of Silver City. — Map (db m11444) HM
California (Alpine County), Markleeville — Hermit ValleyHistorical Landmark
In 1856 a road was completed following the present sign route 4 from Murphys to this point, and thence northward via Faith and Charity Valleys to Hope Valley where it joined the Carson Pass Road. This connection was used by emigrants in 1856 and 1857. Remnants of the route are still visable to the north of this sign and along State Route 4 to the west. — Map (db m10316) HM
California (Amador County), Drytown — 31 — Drytown
Founded 1848. Oldest town and first in which gold was discovered in Amador County. Its venerable town hall and other picturesque structures remain. Was not "dry" as name implies, containing 26 saloons at one time. — Map (db m10406) HM
California (Amador County), Ione — Buena Vista Store
Buena Vista's store and house situated in Jackson Valley, was built by John Fitzsimmons, then sold to Sam Cook, then to James Norris and afterwards to Jacob and Verona Strohm. Once situated in Lancha Plana it was moved by the Chinese who discovered gold beneath its foundation. A bargain was made that it be moved six miles to Buena Vista. The Chinese and Sam Cook rebuilt it on this site. Its roof is supported by rafters made of Georgia Pine brought "round the horn." Built in 1850, it is one of Amador County's oldest landmarks. — Map (db m10189) HM
California (Amador County), Jackson — Kennedy Mining and Milling Company1860 - 1942
In the late 1850’s, Andrew Kennedy discovered gold in an outcropping of quartz. The mine produced over $34.2 million in gold, making it one of the richest gold mines in the world. With a depth of 5,912 feet, it was the deepest mine in North America when it was closed by the War Production Board in 1942. The mine office building was constructed in 1908 and contained as assay room with bullion furnace, administrative offices and guest rooms on the third floor. This plaque is in memory of the . . . — Map (db m19797) HM
California (Amador County), Jackson — 34 — Pioneer Hall
The Order or Native Daughters of the Golden West was organized on these premises The site of the Pioneer Hall on September 1, 1886. This tablet is placed In memory of the founding of the order by Ursula Parlor No. 1, N.D.G.W. The Mother Parlor April 12, 1932 Charter Roll The thirteen original signers (Sept. 11, 1886) Lilly O. Reichling (Dyer), Founder Ellen Boarman (Farrington) • Maggie Stasal • Rose Stasal • Nellie Fontenrose • Emma Boarman (Wright) . . . — Map (db m28039) HM
California (Amador County), Kirkwood — Maiden's Grave
Broken dreams and hope, carried 2000 miles through scorching deserts and over loft mountains. At last...the sight of the promise land. Those of you who visit this grave carry a torch of love and hope (which this young girl lost), and pass it on, to generations unborn. Rechall Melton was laid to rest here, on a cold and frosty morning, Oct.4,1850. Blessed are the pure of heart for they shall see God. — Map (db m11983) HM
California (Amador County), Sutter Creek — In Memory of General John A. SutterBenefactor of the Great State of — California
Who mined here and gave Sutter Creek its name and under whose regime gold was discovered. Also to those pioneer mothers, fathers and miners of the Mother Lode, which has produced millions is gold. This rock used in Mother Lode Champion hand drilling contests. — Map (db m13407) HM
California (Amador County), Sutter Creek — 1007 — Knight Foundry
Knight Foundry was established in 1873 to supply heavy equipment and repair facilities to the gold mines and timber industry of the Mother Lode. Samuel N. Knight developed a high speed, cast iron water wheel which was a forerunner of the Pelton Wheel design. Knight Wheels were used in some of the first hydroelectric plants in California, Utah, and Oregon. This site is the last water powered foundry and machine shop in California. A 42 inch Knight Wheel drives the main line shaft, with smaller water motors powering other machines. — Map (db m10415) HM
California (Amador County), Sutter Creek — Leland Stanford, Jr.1824 – 1893
A man of tremendous ambition, Leland Stanford, Sr., was one of California’s most distinguished businessmen, politicians, philanthropists, and proponents of education. Lured to California by the Gold Rush in 1852, he became an owner of Sutter Creek’s Union-Lincoln Mine. Stanford went on to become California’s governor, a U.S. Senator, member of the Central Pacific Railroad, “Big Four” and founder of Stanford University, a living memorial to his son, Leland Stanford, Jr. — Map (db m12610) HM
California (Amador County), Volcano — 29 — Volcano
[Larger Marker]: Started 1848 by soldiers of Colonel Stevenson’s Regiment. Named by miners because of apparent volcanic appearance. Here the first California rental library, 1850, was established. And one of the first “Little Theaters” founded by the “Volcano Thespian Society”, 1854 Interesting Civil War History. [Smaller Marker]: Volcano - Right Here! 1934 plaque placed in Pine Grove as "obituary" when planned dam would flood Volcano. . . . — Map (db m11336) HM
California (Amador County), Volcano — Volcano
Discovered in 1848 by Colonel Stevenson’s men who mined Soldiers’ Gulch in ’49. First covered wagon party sluiced rich gravel beds. By ’53, men swarmed flats and gulches naming them picturesquely. Hydraulic operations, begun in ’55, brought thousands of fortune seekers to form town of 17 hotels, library, theaters and courts of justice. During Civil War, Volcano gold served the Union. “Volcano Blues” smuggled cannon “Old Abe” in, by hearse, to quell rebels. Mellow with . . . — Map (db m11365) HM
California (Butte County), Chico — 840-2 — Chico Forestry Station and Nursery
In 1888, the State Board of Forestry established an experimental forestry station and nursery, a companion to the Santa Monica Station established in 1882. The two were the first such stations in the nation. Exotic and native trees were tested and produced for scientific and conservation purposes. The station was operated by the Board of Forestry until 1893. California Registered Historical Landmark No. 840-2 — Map (db m29720) HM
California (Butte County), Chico — 329 — Rancho Del Arroyo Chico
A vast expanse covering 26,000 acres, Rancho Chico was purchased in 1849-50 by John Bidwell. In 1865 he began construction of the mansion nearby, which in time became the social and cultural center of the upper Sacramento Valley. It was through his advancement of agriculture, however, that Bidwell made his greatest contribution. The introduction here of plants from all over the world opened the door to California’s present agricultural treasure house. Registered Historical Landmark No.329 — Map (db m29615) HM
California (Butte County), Oroville — 770 — Chinese Temple
Dedicated in the spring of 1863, this building served as a temple of worship for 10,000 Chinese then living here. Funds for its erection and furnishings were provided by the Emperor and Empress of China and local Chinese labor built the structure. The building was deeded to the City of Oroville in 1935 by the Chinese residents. — Map (db m17727) HM
California (Butte County), Oroville — 809 — The Last Yahi Indian
For thousands of years the Yahi Indians roamed the foothills between Mt. Lassen and the Sacramento Valley. Settlement of this region by the White Man brought death to the Yahi by gun, by disease, and by hunger. By the turn of the century only a few remained. Ishi, the last known survivor of these people, was discovered at this site in 1911. His death in 1916 brought an end to stone age California. — Map (db m17743) HM
California (Calaveras County), Altaville — 499 — Altaville Grammar School
This brick building, erected in 1858 with funds raised by a dance in the Billiard Saloon of the N.R. Prince Building (which still stands), is one of the oldest schools of California. Used as a school until 1950, it was then replaced by the present Mark Twain Elementary School in Altaville. — Map (db m10143) HM
California (Calaveras County), Altaville — 735 — Prince-Garibardi Building
This structure was erected in 1852 by B. R. Prince and G. Garibardi for a general merchandise business. Improved in 1857 with living quarters on the second floor, it is still used for living and warehouse purposes. — Map (db m11047) HM
California (Calaveras County), Angels Camp — 287 — Angels CampHome of the Jumping Frog — Romance - Gold - History
Founded in 1849 by George Angel, who established a mining camp and trading store 200 feet below this marker. A rich gravel mining area and one of the richest quartz mining sections of the Mother Lode. Production records of over $100 million for Angels Camp and vicinity. Prominent in early day California history. Townsite established in 1873. Locale of Mark Twain's famous story, The Jumping Frog of Calaveras. Frequented by Joaquin Murietta, Black Bart and other early day bandits. — Map (db m14460) HM
California (Calaveras County), Calaveritas — 255 — Calaveritas
Calaveritas, settled in 1849 by Mexicans, was a flourishing mining town complete with stores, saloons, gambling houses, and fandango halls. Joaquin Murieta is reported to have frequently visited its Fandango Halls and gambling houses. Destroyed by fire in 1858. — Map (db m12992) HM
California (Calaveras County), Campo Seco — 257 — Campo Seco
Settled in 1849 by Mexicans who worked placers in Oregon Gulch. Rich copper deposits discovered in 1859. The largest living cork oak tree in California was planted here in 1858. Ruins of Adams Express Building still standing. — Map (db m10629) HM
California (Calaveras County), Copperopolis — 296 — CopperopolisState Registered Landmark No.296
Copper here discovered by W. K. Reed and Thomas McCarty in 1860. Mines utilized during the Civil War and the First and Second World Wars. During Civil War period was the principal copper producing section of the United States. — Map (db m13002) HM
California (Calaveras County), Copperopolis — 281 — O'Bryne Ferry
In 1852 a chain cable bridge replaced the ferries that once crossed here, to be supplanted in its turn by a covered truss structure in 1862. Some writers claimed this was the locale of Bret Harte's Poker Flat. In late “49” there was a large camp here, with miners washing gold out on both banks of the Stanislaus River. — Map (db m13013) HM
California (Calaveras County), Jenny Lind — 266 — Jenny Lind
Settled in the 1840’s as a flourishing gold mining, cattle ranching and farming community. — Map (db m13040) HM
California (Calaveras County), Mokelumne Hill — 663 — Calaveras County Courthouse and Leger Hotel
A portion of this building served as the Calaveras County Courthouse from 1852 to 1866, when the county seat was removed to San Andreas. George W. Leger then acquired the court building and made it a part of his adjoining hotel, which has been operating since early gold mining days. It was known as the Grand Hotel in 1874 when fire damaged it and destroyed its dance hall. Restored in 1879, it has since been known as the Leger Hotel. — Map (db m11537) HM
California (Calaveras County), Mokelumne Hill — 265 — Chili Gulch
Richest placer mining section, extending five miles, in Calaveras County. Received name from Chileans who worked gulch in 1848 and 1849, and scene of the so-called Chilean War. Largest known quartz crystals recovered from mine on south side of gulch. — Map (db m11515) HM
California (Calaveras County), Mokelumne Hill — 269 — Mokelumne Hill
Mokelumne is an Indian word, first applied to the nearby river. Earliest settlement was at Happy Valley by French trappers. Gold was discovered by discharged members of Stevenson's Regiment in 1848. Center of the richest placer mining section of Calaveras County and one of the principal mining towns of California. Corral Flat produced over thirty millions in gold. Sixteen feet square constituted a claim. The so-called 'French War' for possession of gold mines occurred in 1851. 'Calaveras . . . — Map (db m12996) HM
California (Calaveras County), Murphys — 272 — Douglas Flat
Douglas Flat was a roaring mining camp of the early 1850s. In 1857 the Harper and Lone Star Claims produced $130,000 worth of gold. The so-called Central Hill Channel, an ancient river deposit from which vast quantities of gold have been taken, is located here. — Map (db m2563) HM
California (Calaveras County), Murphys — 275 — Murphys
One of the principal mining communities in Calaveras County, named for the discoverer of gold on the flat in 1849. The objective of many immigrants coming over the Sierras by Ebbetts Pass, Murphys Flat and surrounding mines produced 20,000,000 dollars in gold. Early regulations restricted claims to 8 ft. square. Suspension flume conveying water across Murphys Creek and drainage race draining the flat, were two outstanding accomplishments of early day miners. Business portion of town destroyed . . . — Map (db m3887) HM
California (Calaveras County), Murphys — 466 — Peter L. Traver Building
Constructed by Peter L. Traver in 1856, this is the oldest stone building in Murphys. Its iron shutters and sand on the roof protected it from the fires of 1859, 1874, and 1893. It served as a general store, a Wells Fargo office, and later a garage. — Map (db m2611) HM
California (Calaveras County), Murphys — 465 — Site of Brownsville
A thriving mining camp on rich Pennsylvania Gulch in the 1850’s and 1860’s. Named for Alfred Brown, former owner of Table Mountain Ranch. Laws of Brownsville Mining District provided that each miner could own one wet and one dry claim, not to exceed 150 square feet. — Map (db m11501) HM
California (Calaveras County), San Andreas — 258 — Fourth Crossing
Located on the Stockton-Murphy Road at the fourth crossing of the Calaveras River, this early mining settlement, once called Foremans, was famous in the 1850's for its rich placer ores. Later, it became an important stage and freighting depot and served the Southern Mines until after the turn of the century. — Map (db m11969) HM
California (Calaveras County), San Andreas — Pioneer Cemetery
California Pioneers Reinterred From Poverty Bar Cemetery [Left Column] Mr. and Mrs. Calhoun Elva Lucy Drennan Mr. Hussky [Right Column] John Laplasse Christian Kientz Henry Christian Kientz ---Were known to have been buried at Poverty Bar Cemetery now covered by the waters of Comanche Reservoir. They and other persons who were found in unmarked graves, have been reinterred in this plot. — Map (db m13020) HM
California (Calaveras County), Valley Springs — 295 — Paloma (Fosteria)
Gwin Mine, Paloma, and Lower Rich Gulch were mined for placer in 1849. Quartz was discovered by J. Alexander in 1851. Property acquired by Wm. M. Gwin, California's first U.S. Senator, in 1851. The Gwin Mine closed, in 1908, yielded millions. — Map (db m14449) HM
California (Calaveras County), Valley Springs — Valley Spring
The original three foot narrow gauge line was built by the San Joaquin & Sierra Nevada Railroad, extending from Brack’s Landing on the Mokelumne River, east to Valley Springs. The depot and turntable were built around the time of completion of the last section, which was finished in April 1885, at a total cost of $409,570. The line was changed to standard gauge by Southern Pacific around 1904. It was then extended 13 miles further east to Kentucky House to service the Calaveras Cement Company . . . — Map (db m10635) HM
California (Calaveras County), West Point — 253 — Sandy Gulch
This site, in 1849, was a trading center for pioneer miners of Northwestern Calaveras County. It was named after the gulch where William and Dan Carsner found large nuggets imbedded in the course sand. Water for mining was brought from the Middle Fork of the Mokelumne River. Through the Sandy Gulch and Kadish Ditches. Quartz mining began in the early fifties. The first custom stamp mill was at the head of Sandy Gulch. The school and elections precincts were established early. Hangman’s . . . — Map (db m11975) HM
California (Calaveras County), West Point — 268 — West Point
Named by famous scout Kit Carson while searching for pass over Sierras. One emigrant road forked at Big Meadows, and north branch came directly to West Point. A thriving trading post prior to gold discovery. Bret Harte, famous author, lived here for a period — Map (db m44371) HM
California (Colusa County), Colusa — 890 — Colusa County Courthouse
Erected in 1861, this Federal/Classic Revival style building is the oldest remaining courthouse in the Sacramento Valley. The “Southern” style reflects the county’s heritage from the Ante-Bellum South and states-rights sympathies during the Civil War. In its early years, the courthouse also served as the County’s center of cultural, social and religious activities. California Registered Historical Landmark No. 890 — Map (db m57626) HM
California (Contra Costa County), Crockett — 731 — The Old Homestead
This was the first American home in Crockett. Constructed in 1867 by Thomas Edwards, Sr., on land purchased in 1866 from Judge J.B. Crockett. Located on an earlier Indian village near the Carquinez Straits, its timbers, some of which were brought around the Horn, have been well preserved. — Map (db m12153) HM
California (Contra Costa County), Diablo — 905 — Mount Diablo
Mount Diablo, sacred to Native Americans who lived and worshipped there for over 5,000 years became a critical reference point for Spanish explorers in the 18th century, and American trappers and early California settlers in the 19th. In 1851 Colonel Leander Ransome established the crossing of the Mount Diablo Base and meridian lines from which most of California and Nevada are surveyed. California Registered Historical Landmark No. 905 Plaque placed by the State Department of Parks . . . — Map (db m17541) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — “Gold Boys Gold”
On January 24, 1848, James Marshall set off early and alone to inspect progress in deepening the ditch that channeled water from the sawmill back to the river. Suddenly, he bent over and picked up a few particles gleaming in the icy water. “Hey, boys, by God, I believe I’ve found a gold mine,” he called, walking toward the mill hands. The men ran to meet him. One seized a flake, bit it, and when the metal did not break, yelled, “Gold, boys, gold!” After they had . . . — Map (db m17241) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — Cabin of James Marshall
This cabin was erected by Marshall and occupied by him from 1856 : 1870. Born in New Jersey October 8, 1810. Came to California in 1845 – Died at Kelsey, this state, August 10, 1885. The discovery of gold by Marshall in the tailrace of John A. Sutter’s Mill at Coloma on January 24, 1848 started the historic migration to California by land and sea. The original sawmill, the building of which Marshall superintended was located 2190 feet north of this cabin on the American River. On an . . . — Map (db m12215) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — ColomaAn Artists View
”The principle street of Coloma was alive with crowds of moving men, passing and repassing, laughing, talking, and all appearing in the best of humor. It was a scene that no other country could ever imitate.” from “A California Journal” by Charles Gillespie Look over your left shoulder and you will see the view this artist saw in 1853 — Map (db m12274) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — James W. MarshallDiscoverer of Gold
“Boys I believe I have found a gold mine” so said James W. Marshall to his millworkers on January 24, 1848, after he discovered gold in the tail race of Captain John A. Sutter’s sawmill at Coloma. This discovery started the great Gold Rush to California which resulted in its admission to the Union as the thirty first state on September 9, 1850. This plaque dedicated in his honor by E Clampus Vitus, January 27, 1957 — Map (db m12224) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — James W. Marshall1810 - 1885
Erected by the State of California in memory of James W. Marshall 1810 - 1885 Whose discovery of gold January 24, 1848 in the tailrace of Sutter’s Mill at Coloma started the great rush of Argonauts. — Map (db m71527) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — Partners In History
Friday, Aug. 27, 1847…made a contract and entered in partnership with Marshall for a sawmill to be built on the Amer. Fork. So wrote John Augustus Sutter, methodically recording the agreement that led to California’s astonishing gold rush. Sutter left Germany for the United States in 1834, after several years in the Midwest, reached the Sacramento Valley in 1839. A year later he received a 48,000-acre land grant from the Mexican government and began creating a small empire near the . . . — Map (db m17226) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — Sutter Mill Replica
This replica of Sutter’s Mill was based on research from many sources – a drawing by James Marshall, an old photograph of the mill, and the results of several excavations made on the original mill site. The building is 60 feet long, 20 feet wide, and 39 feet high, and 80,000 board feet of lumber were used in construction. The structure is assembled with wooden pegs – no nails were used. As in the original mill, all timbers were adzed by hand. The replica was placed here because the . . . — Map (db m12206) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — 748 — The Coloma Road
Here in the Valley of the Cul-lum-mah Indians, James W. Marshall discovered gold on January 24, 1848, in the tailrace of Sutter’s sawmill. The Old Coloma Road, opened in 1847 from Sutter’s Fort to Coloma, was used by Marshall to carry the news of the discovery to Captain John A. Sutter. During the Goldrush it was used by thousands of miners going to and from the diggings. In 1849 it became the route of California’s first stage-line, established by James E. Birch. — Map (db m12272) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — The Tailrace
Here on a chilly morning in January, 1848, carpenter James Marshall picked up the small pieces gold that touched off one of the largest, most frenzied mass migrations in history. Within a year of Marshall’s discovery, six thousand gold seekers swarmed over the western slope of the Sierra Nevada. Thousands more who followed completely changed the what had been a quiet, remote Mexican province. — Map (db m17608) HM
California (El Dorado County), El Dorado — 486 — El Dorado
El Dorado, meaning “The Gilded One”, was first known as Mud Springs from the boggy quagmire the cattle and horses made of a nearby watering place. Originally a important camp along the old Carson Emigrant Trail. By 1849 – 50 it had become the center of a mining district and the crossroads for freight and stage lines. At the height of the Rush its large gold production supported a population of several thousand. — Map (db m13148) HM
California (El Dorado County), El Dorado — 700 — El Dorado (Mud Springs)
Trading post, emigrant stop, and mining camp of the 1850’s. This became one of the remount stations of the Central Overland Pony Express. Here at the Nevada House on April 13, 1860, pony rider William (Sam) Hamilton changed horses while carrying the first west-bound mail of the Pony Express from St. Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento, California. — Map (db m11571) HM
California (El Dorado County), El Dorado Hills — 699 — Mormon TavernOverland Pony Express Route - California
At this site on the old Clarksville-White Rock Emigrant Road was Mormon Tavern. Constructed in 1849, this popular stage stop was enlarged and operated by Franklin Winchell in 1851. It became a remount station of the Central Overland Pony Express and on April 4, 1860, pony rider Sam (Bill) Hamilton changed horses here on the first eastbound trip. — Map (db m12056) HM
California (El Dorado County), Georgetown — 521 — Greenwood
John Greenwood, a trapper and guide who came to California in 1844, established a here a trading post in 1849. The mining town of Greenwood, which developed during the Gold Rush, boasted a theater, 4 hotels, 14 stores, a brewery, and 4 saloons. Among its illustrious citizens was John A. Stone, California songwriter, who was buried here in 1863. — Map (db m10447) HM
California (El Dorado County), Pilot Hill — 551 — California’s First Grange Hall
Pilot Hill Grange No.1, of 29 charter members: Master, F. D. Brown; Secretary, A. J. Bayley; was organized August 10, 1870. The Grange Hall, dedicated at this site November 23, 1880, was built by Alcander A. Bayley — Map (db m11607) HM
California (El Dorado County), Placerville — Emigrant Jane
Drove a band of horses across the plains and from the proceeds of their sale she erected this building in 1861. — Map (db m13272) HM
California (El Dorado County), Placerville — 141 — Hangmans Tree
This city in the days of ’49 was called “Hangtown” This was the site of Elstner’s Hay Yard on which stood the ‘Hangman’s Tree’ where vigilantes executed many men for various crimes. The stump of the tree is under this building. — Map (db m10504) HM
California (El Dorado County), Placerville — Methodist Episcopal Church
Erected in 1851, Oldest church building in El Dorado County. It originally stood on the corner of Cedar Ravine and Main Street. The Ponderosa Pine beams are hand hewn. First church bell was purchased from the sailing ship “Staffordshire.” Restored by public contribution. — Map (db m11055) HM
California (El Dorado County), Placerville — 475 — PlacervilleOriginally Known as “Hangtown” — Incorporated May 13, 1854
Established on banks of “Hangtown” Creek as rich mining camp in spring of 1848. Millions in gold were taken from its ravines and hills. Supply center for surrounding mining camps and transportation terminus for famous Comstock Lode. John M. Studebaker, Mark Hopkins, Leland Stanford, Phillip Armour, and Edwin Markham were among well-known men who contributed to Placerville’s early history. Also, “Snowshoe” John A. Thompson who carried from 60 to 80 pounds of mail on skies . . . — Map (db m12732) HM
California (El Dorado County), Rescue — 747 — The Coloma Road
Past this point on the Old Coloma Road, running between Sutter’s Fort and his sawmill on the American River, James W. Marshall rode with the first gold discovered at Coloma on Jan. 24, 1848. Traveled by thousands to and from the diggings, this road became the route of California’s earliest stage line, established in 1849 by James E. Birch. — Map (db m11268) HM
California (El Dorado County), Shingle Springs — 456 — Camp Site of Boston-Newton Party
On this site the Boston-Newton Joint Stock Association encamped on September 26, 1849. The company left Boston April 16 and arrived at Sutter’s Fort September 27. After a remarkable journey across the continent a rich store of written records preserved by these pioneers has left for posterity a fascinating picture of the Gold Rush. — Map (db m11568) HM
California (El Dorado County), Skinners — 703 — Pleasant Grove House
This was the site of a popular roadhouse, where the ponies of the Central Overland Pony Express were changed during July 1, 1860 to June 30, 1861. From here the route of the pony riders continued westward to Folsom and eastward through Rescue, Dry Creek Crossing, and Missouri Flat to Placerville. — Map (db m10442) HM
California (Fresno County), Coalinga — 344 — Arroyo de Cantua14 Miles
Headquarters of notorious bandit, Joaquin Murieta. Killed here July 25, 1853, by posse of State Rangers, led by Captain Harry Love. Terrorized mining camps and stage operations during his career. — Map (db m20128) HM
California (Humboldt County), Shelter Cove — Cape Mendocino Lighthouse
Lit Dec. 1, 1868, the light from its first order Fresnel lens swept 30 miles to sea. Decommissioned in 1951, the structure slowly began to inch toward the 422’ cliff. The light was dismantled in 1998 and moved to Point Delgada, Shelter Cove by the Cape Mendocino Lighthouse Preservation Society. The lantern roof portion was airlifted by the Army National Guard. Funded during the Lincoln administration, the lighthouse is now a monument to those hardy and long-suffering keepers of the light and to . . . — Map (db m1093) HM
California (Kern County), Arvin — 371 — Francisco Garces O.F.M
Padre Garcés, first recorded non-Indian to visit this locality, came in April of 1776, seeking a new route from Mexico to California. His epic journey covered more than two thousand miles of uncharted wilderness, opening trails that later became highways and railroads. — Map (db m11932) HM
California (Kern County), Bakersfield — Beale Memorial Clock Tower
The Beale Memorial Clock Tower was a gift to the City of Bakersfield from Truxtun Beale in memory of his mother, Mary Edwards Beale. Dedicated on April 2, 1904, the clock tower originally stood in the center of the intersection at Chester Avenue and 17th Street in downtown Bakersfield. In the summer of 1952, a series of earthquakes shook Kern County causing extensive damage to the clock tower. The clock tower was demolished in the quake’s aftermath. Only the original clock works, . . . — Map (db m25001) HM
California (Kern County), Bakersfield — 137 — Gordons FerryCalifornia Historic Landmark
Gordon’s Ferry was an overhead cable type of ferry operated during the 1850’s by Major Gordon. An adobe station house was located on the south bank of Kern River, just a few yards to the west of this marker. It was also a station on the Butterfield Overland mail stage route from 1858 to 1860. — Map (db m25149) HM
California (Kern County), Bakersfield — 588 — Kern River Slough
Just south of this point stood the Butterfield Overland Stage site known as Kern River Slough. Operating through present Kern County during 1858 – 1861. This famous line ran from St. Louis, Missouri to San Francisco until the outbreak of the Civil War. Dedicated June 30, 1957 Marker placed by Kern County Historical Society El Tejon Parlor No. 239 N.D.G.W. Kern County Museum State Registered Historical Landmark No. 588 Re-dedicated Oct. 6, 1996 — Map (db m24946) HM
California (Kern County), Bakersfield — 278 — Rio de San FelipeCalifornia Historical Landmark
One mile north of here on May 1, 1776, Francisco Garces of the Franciscan Order, crossed Kern River in his search for a shorter route from Sonora, Mexico to Monterey, California. He was the first known explorer to describe this river, which he named Rio de San Felipe. Dedicated May 1, 1938 Bakersfield Parlor No.42 N.S.G.W., El Tejon Parlor No.239 N.D.G.W., Kern County Historical Society, Kern County Chamber of Commerce Department of Natural Resources Reg. No.278 State of . . . — Map (db m24984) HM
California (Kern County), Glennville — 495 — Glennville Adobe
Kern County’s oldest residence. Built before Civil War by Thomas Fitzgerald as trading post at junction of two Indian trails. Present Greenhorn Road follows east – west trail (later McFarlane Toll Road) to Kern River mining districts. Town named in 1857 after James Madison Glenn, an early settler. State Registered Landmark No.495 Building and land donated to Kern County by Mr. and Mrs. Hal Duval Marker placed by California State Division of Beaches and Parks in cooperation . . . — Map (db m25032) HM
California (Kern County), Grapevine — 300 — Rose Station
Wm. B. Rose, in 1875, a mile east; built an adobe stage station on the site of the Overland Mail Way Station established 1858. From 1853 to 1875 site was known as Rancho Canoa (trough). Originally vaquero camp of the Sebastian Indian Reservation. Rose Station was a stockmen's headquarters, post office, and polling place. Dedicated November 16, 1941 Bakersfield Parlor No.42, N.S.G.W. El Tejon Parlor No.239, N.D.G.W. Kern County Historical Society Kern County Chamber of Commerce . . . — Map (db m20196) HM
California (Kern County), Grapevine — 133 — Sebastian Indian Reservation
The Sebastian or Tejon Indian Reservation (headquarters 10 miles east of here) was established in 1853 by Gen. Edward Fitzgerald Beale as one of several California Reservations. The number of Indians quartered here varied from 500 to 2000. General Beale acquired title to this area under Mexican Land Grant of 1843. In 1864 the U.S. Government transferred the Indians to other reservations. Dedicated Nov. 12, 1937 Bakersfield Parlor Number 42, N.S.G.W. El Tajon Parlor Number 239, . . . — Map (db m20161) HM
California (Kern County), Johannesburg — 18 — Red Mountain
One of the richest silver strikes occurred in the community of Red Mountain. The Kelly and Grady claims started a silver boom which brought prosperity to this region in the 1900's. In one 60 day period over $170,000 in silver was mined from a hole less than 75 feet deep. — Map (db m78593) HM
California (Kern County), Lake Isabella — 742 — Campsite of Edward Kern
Near this spot at the confluence of the north and south forks of the Kern River the Theodore Talbot Party of Captain John C. Fremont’s third expedition to the West camped for several weeks during December 1845 and January 1846. The river was named by Fremont in honor of Edward M. Kern, Topographer for the expedition. Kern County was established in 1866 and derived its name from that of the river. California Registered Historical Landmark No.742 — Map (db m25092) HM
California (Kern County), Lebec — 283 — Don Pedro Fages
In 1772, Don Pedro Fages, leaving the first written record of explorations in the south San Joaquin Valley, passed this site, traveling from San Diego to San Luis Obispo via Cajón Pass, Mojave Desert, Hughes Lake, Antelope Valley, Tejón Pass, Cañada de los Uvas (Grapevine Canyon), and Buena Vista Lake. Dedicated October 9, 1938 Bakersfield Parlor No.42 N.S.G.W. El Tejon Parlor No.39, N.D.G.W. Kern County Historical Society Kern County Chamber of Commerce Department of . . . — Map (db m20132) HM
California (Kern County), Lebec — 129 — Fort Tejon
This military post was established by the United States Army on June 24, 1854, to suppress stock rustling and for the protection of Indians in the San Joaquin Valley. As regimental headquarters of the First Dragoons, Fort Tejón was an important military, social, and political center. Camels for transportation were introduced here in 1858. The fort was abandoned September 11, 1864. — Map (db m2605) HM
California (Kern County), Mojave — 652 — Mojave 20-Mule Team Borax Terminus
Just west of this point was the Southern Pacific terminus for the 20-mule-team borax wagons that operated between Death Valley and Mojave from 1884 to 1889. The route ran from the Harmony Borax Mining Company works, later acquired by the Pacific Coast Borax Company, to the railroad loading dock in Mojave over 165 miles of mountain and desert trail. A round trip required 20 days. The ore wagons, which hauled a payload of 24 tons, were designed by J. W. S. Perry, Borax Company superintendent in . . . — Map (db m11928) HM
California (Kern County), Tehachapi — 643 — "Old Town"
The oldest settlement in Tehachapi Valley, known as 'Old Town,' was established here during the 1860s. It was long an important station on the road between Southern California and the San Joaquin Valley, the community began to decline when residents gradually removed to nearby Greenwich, later renamed Tehachapi, after completion of the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1876. — Map (db m11913) HM
California (Kern County), Tehachapi — 508 — Tehachapi Loop
From this spot may be seen a portion of the world-renowned “Loop.” It was completed in 1876 under the direction of William Hood, Southern Pacific Railroad Engineer. In gaining elevation around central hill of loop a 4000 foot train will cross 77 feet above its rear cars in tunnel below. — Map (db m11903) HM
California (Kern County), Tehachapi — Tehachapi Pass Railroad LineConstructed 1874 – 1876 — Commemorated October 1998
In front of you is the world famous Tehachapi Loop which is about halfway upgrade to the Tehachapi Pass. This steep line averages 2.2% in gradient in its 28 miles of length. This feat of civil engineering genius was crowning achievement of civil engineer William Hood of the Southern Pacific Railway Company. It is one of the seven wonders of the railroad world. The Tehachapi Pass Railroad Line was cut through solid and decomposed granite by up to 3000 Chinese laborers from Canton, China. They . . . — Map (db m11910) HM
California (Lake County), Hidden Valley Lake — 450 — Stone HouseState Historical Marker #450
Oldest building in Lake County. Erected of stone in 1853-4 by Robert Sterling, whose wife was first white woman in Coyote Valley. Rebuilt in 1894. Headquarters of the Guenoc Land Grant and the first store in the valley. — Map (db m16127) HM
California (Lake County), Middletown — 467 — Old Bull Trail Road and St. Helena Toll Road
The Old Bull Trail Road ran from Napa Valley to Middletown. It was built by volunteers in the 1850’s. A number of grades were 35 percent. It was an official road in 1861 and abandoned in 1868. St. Helena Toll Road also ran from same points. Was completed in 1868. The grades ran to 12 percent. State of California purchased from John Lawley heirs in 1925. — Map (db m11989) HM
California (Lassen County), Litchfield — 677 — Noble Emigrant Trail
This route was first used in 1852 by emigrants to Northern California seeking to avoid the hardships of the Lassen Trail. It crossed the desert from the Humbolt River in Nevada, passed this point, and proceeded over the mountains to the town of Shasta. Later, 1859-1861, it was known as the Ft. Kearney, South Pass and Honey Lake Wagon Road. From this point Peter Lassen and J.C. Bruff on October 4, 1850, saw Honey Lake while on an expedition hunting for Gold Lake. — Map (db m10269) HM
California (Lassen County), Susanville — Birth of Peter Lassen
“Peter Lassen was born on October 31, 1800 in Farum, Denmark. At the time Farum was a small village about 15 miles northwest of Copenhagen. Peter was a son of humble parents. His mother was Johanne Sophie Westergaard and his father was Lars Nielson. In the church records Lars Nielson was called farm laborer, day laborer or smallholder. “As it will be seen, Peter’s family name was not Lassen. His father was called Lars Nielson – and it was in honor of him that Peter was . . . — Map (db m14179) HM
California (Lassen County), Susanville — 675 — Noble Emigrant Trail
This meadow, now a city park, was a welcome stopping place on the Noble Emigrant Trail, pioneered by William H. Nobles in 1851 and first used in 1852. Here, emigrants en route to the Northern California mines were able to rest, refresh their stocks, and obtain provisions at Isaac Roop's establishment, from which grew the city of Susanville. — Map (db m10268) HM
California (Lassen County), Susanville — Peter Lassen Grave
In memory of Peter Lassen the pioneer who was killed by the Indians April 26, 1859 Aged 66 years — Map (db m10261) HM
California (Lassen County), Susanville — 76 — Roop's Fort
Built in July 1854 by Isaac N. Roop. First called Roop's House, and used as stopping place by emigrant trains. It was the locale of the "sagebrush war" fought in 1863 between Plumas County and Lassen County citizens. — Map (db m10266) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Lancaster — 658 — Western Hotel
This buiding, erected by the Gilroy family in 1876, this building was purchased in 1902 by George T. Webber, who operated it as the Western Hotel. The Lancaster Chamber of Commerce was organized in its dining room. Between 1905 and 1913, construction crews of the Los Angeles-Owens River Aqueduct were housed here, and it became a center of commercial and social activity in the early life of the community. — Map (db m53028) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Long Beach — 1014 — Long Beach Marine Stadium
Created in 1932 for the rowing events of the Xth Olympiad, the Stadium was the first manmade rowing course in the United States. Its width allowed four teams to race abreast, eliminating additional heats and allowing oarsmen to enter the finals at the peak of their form. Later it served as the venue for the 1968 and 1976 United States men’s Olympic rowing trials and the 1984 United States women's Olympic rowing trials. The site remains an important training and competitive center for rowers, including our National and Olympic teams. — Map (db m2614) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — James Dean1931 - 1955
Key scenes from the classic motion picture "Rebel Without a Cause" were filmed at the Griffith Observatory in Spring 1955. Although many movies have been filmed at Griffith Observatory, "Rebel Without a Cause"was the first to portray the Observatory as what it is and to contribute positively to the Observatory's International reputation. This monument acknowledges Griffith Observatory's long and continuous involvement with Hollywood film production by remembering the young star of . . . — Map (db m20240) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Newhall — 1006 — Beale's Cut Stagecoach Pass
[This site was designated as California Registered Historic Landmark No. 1006 on May 11, 1992. There are three rock and concrete bases which at one time displayed three different plaques. The plaques are now missing.] California Office of Historic Preservation Statement of Significance: Beale's Cut is the only physical and cultural feature of its kind in the entire Los Angeles Basin. At the time of its construction in 1862, the actual creation and maintenance of the Cut was . . . — Map (db m60396) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Newhall — 688 — Lyons Station
This site was the location of a combination store, post office, telegraph office, tavern, and stage depot accommodating travelers during the Kern River gold rush in the early 1850s. A regular stop for Butterfield and other early California stage lines, it was purchased by Sanford and Cyrus Lyons in 1855, and by 1868 at least twenty families lived here. Eternal Valley Memorial Park has called their final resting place "The Garden of the Pioneers." California Registered Historical Landmark . . . — Map (db m20098) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Newhall — Oak of the Golden Dream
In 1839, the Mexican Government granted to Antonio del Valle some 48,000 acres of The Santa Clarita Valley known as the Del Valle Rancho. On March 9, 1842, Francisco Lopez y Arbello, the brother-in-law of Antonio del Valle, visited the Rancho. While napping under a great oak tree, he dreamt that he was surrounded by gold and was very rich. Upon awaking, he picked a bunch of wild onions that were growing around some sycamore trees just north of the great oak tree. Attached to the onion . . . — Map (db m20112) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Newhall — 168 — Oak of the Golden Dream
Francisco Lopez made California’s first authenticated gold discovery on March 9, 1842. While gathering wild onions near an oak tree in Placerita Canyon he found gold particles clinging to the roots of the bulbs. The San Fernando placers and nearby San Feliciano Canyon were worked by Sonoran miners using panning, sluicing and dry washing methods. Lopez’s find predated James Marshall’s strike at Sutter’s Mill by six years. California Registered Historical Landmark No.168 First registered . . . — Map (db m51516) HM
California (Los Angeles County), San Pedro — Fort MacArthur / 500 Varas Square Historic District[Port of Los Angeles]
Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo, exploring for Spain, discovered Alta California and named San Pedro Bay, “Bahia de los Fumos” (Bay of Smokes, October 1542. The smoke on the Bay shore came from the native Suang-Na Indian Fires. Sebastian Vizcaino named San Pedro Bay in honor of Saint Peter of Alexandria (a 4th Century Christian Martyr of Egypt), November 1632. Juan Jose Dominguez a retired Spanish soldier, received in 1784 one of the first land grants from Pedro Fages, the Spanish . . . — Map (db m51010) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Sylmar — 653 — “The Cascades”
This is the terminus of the Los Angeles-Owens River Aqueduct, which brings water 338 miles from the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada to the City of Los Angeles. Begun in 1905, the great aqueduct was completed November 5, 1913. The Mono Craters Tunnel project, completed in 1940, extended the system 27 miles to its present northernmost intake near Tioga Pass. California Registered Historical Landmark No.653 Plaque placed by the California State Park Commission in cooperation with the Los . . . — Map (db m20089) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Watts — Watts TowersNational Historic Landmark — [Watts Towers of Simon Rodia State Historic Park]
Panel 1: Watts Towers California Historical Landmark No. 993 Panel 2: Unconventional Life, Unconventional Art Simon Rodia has been referred to as a visionary and a man of great passion. A self-taught laborer from Italy, he had a singular goal in life: “I had in my mind I’m gonna do something, something big.” He made his living as a cement worker and tile setter on construction jobs by day. He began his towers in 1921, working by himself on . . . — Map (db m51953) HM
California (Marin County), Inverness — Point Reyes Light Station
Point Reyes Light Station, built 1870, has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places by the United States Department of the Interior. — Map (db m890) HM
California (Mendocino County), Fort Bragg — 615 — Fort Bragg
Established in this vicinity June 11, 1857 by 1st Lieutenant Horatio Gate Gibson, 3rd Artillery, later Brigadier General, US Army. Named by Gibson in honor of his former company commander, Braxton Bragg, later General, C.S.A. Abandoned in October 1864. — Map (db m10585) HM
California (Mendocino County), Fort Bragg — Fort Building
The last remaining structure and once the original quartermaster’s storehouse and commissary of Fort Bragg Military Post 1857-1864, then located near Laurel and Redwood Avenues. — Map (db m10586) HM
California (Mendocino County), Mendocino — 714 — Mendocino Presbyterian Church
This is one of the oldest Protestant churches in continuous use in California. Organized as the Presbyterian Church on November 6, 1859, the building, constructed of redwood, was dedicated on July 5, 1868. — Map (db m10600) HM
California (Mendocino County), Mendocino — Point Cabrillo Light Station
The Point Cabrillo Light Station was built in 1908 by the US Lighthouse Service to protect the "Doghole Schooners" that plied the lumber trade between San Francisco and the Redwood Coast. These steam ships and sailing vessels were known for their ability to navigate the small coves, or "dogholes," of Mendocino's Rocky Shoreline. The third order Fresnel lens, which was turned by a clockworks mechanism with a descending weight, concentrated the light of a Kerosene Lamp through concentric prisms. . . . — Map (db m543) HM
California (Mendocino County), Mendocino — Temple Kwan Tai
California State Landmark #927 C.A. 1854 [California Registered Historical Landmark description states: One of the oldest of California's Chinese houses of worship in continuous use, the temple may date back as far as 1854, though its documented history reaches only to 1883. The Chinese built many temples in California, but most have been destroyed, and no others remain on the North Coast.] Map (db m11991) HM
California (Modoc County), Alturas — Chimney Rock
Site of pioneer cabin built by Thomas A. Denson in 1871 This Marker is dedicated to the pioneers of Modoc County by Alturas Parlor 159 Native Duaghters of the Golden West September 21, 1932 — Map (db m10246) HM
California (Modoc County), Cedarville — 14 — Cressler - Bonner Trading PostCalifornia Historical Landmark No. 14
The first building erected in Deep Creek settlement, now Cedarville, was built in 1865 as a trading post by James Townsend, who was killed in an indian fight it 1866. Purchased by William T. Cressler and John H. Bonner in 1867, the building was used as a trading post and general store until larger quarters were built in 1874. The mercantile, banking and ranching firm of Cressler and Bonner played a major roll in the settlement and development of Surprise Valley and Modoc County. The . . . — Map (db m10245) HM
California (Modoc County), Fandango Pass — 546 — The Applegate-Lassen Trail
This spot marks the convergence of two pioneer trails widely used by emigrants during the years 1846-1850. The Applegate Trail, established in 1846, led from the Humbolt River in Nevada to the Willamette Valley in Oregon. The Lassen Cut-Off, established by Peter Lassen in 1848, turned south at Goose Lake to the Northern Mines and settlements of California. — Map (db m10174) HM
California (Mono County), Bridgeport — "Bridgeport Inn"
The old Levitt House which became The Bridgeport Hotel and is now the Bridgeport Inn was built in 1877 by Sam Hopkins for Hiram L. Leavitt. Weary travelers in the old west used this historic hotel as a stage and buggy stop to and from the Bodie gold mining town. Legend has it that Samuel Clemens was a guest here and a bed room has been so named the “Mark Twain Room.” Legend also has it that the hotel is haunted by the “white lady” who has been seen by various guests through out the years. — Map (db m10365) HM
California (Mono County), Mammoth Lakes — Casa Diablo
A distinctive landmark and gathering place used by many early inhabitants of the area for bathing, food preparation, ceremonial and medicinal purposes. It was named “House of the Devil”, by early explorers, for it’s boiling hot springs, plumes of rising steam and spectacular geysers. From 1878 to 1881 it was a stage stop along the Bishop Creek—Bodie state route, a vital relay station for supplies, mail and equipment en route to the mining camps of Mammoth City, Mill . . . — Map (db m2950) HM
California (Monterey County), Monterey — The Custom House
The Custom House is the oldest government building in California. From 1822 through 1846, Monterey was both the capital city and primary port of entry for Alta California. Cargos of “everything under the sun” were brought ashore and assessed at the Custom House. On July 7, 1846, during the Mexican-American War, U.S. military forces raised the “Stars and Stripes” at the Custom House, marking the end of the Mexican era and the beginning of the American era in . . . — Map (db m63061) HM
California (Monterey County), Salinas — 870 — José Eusebio Boronda Adobe Casa
Built between 1844 and 1848 by José Eusebio Boronda, this is an outstanding example of a Mexican era rancho adobe. Virtually unaltered since its construction, it shows many features of the "Monterey Colonial" style which resulted from the fusion of New England and California building traditions during California's Mexican period. — Map (db m60397) HM
California (Napa County), Calistoga — 359 — Bale Grist Mill
This historic grist mill known as the “Bale Mill” was erected by Dr. E.T. Bale, Grantee Carne Humana Rancho, in 1846. The mill with its surrounding land was deeded to the Native Sons of the Golden West by Mrs. W.W. Lyman. Restored through the efforts of the Native Son Parlors of Napa County. Under the leadership of past Grand President Bismark Bruck, a grandson of Dr. Bale, and by the Historic Landmarks Committee of the Native Sons of the Golden West. The restored mill was dedicated . . . — Map (db m18672) HM
California (Napa County), Calistoga — Calistoga Depot
Built by Sam Brannan for the Napa Valley Railroad in 1868 one year before the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad. Second oldest remaining railroad station in California. Northern terminus of the Napa Valley Railroad and its successors the Napa Valley Branches of the Central Pacific Railroad and the Southern Pacific Railroad. Restored in 1978 by Calistoga Depot Association Dedicated March 17, 1979 Sam Brannan Chapter No.1004 E Clampus Vitus Map (db m54522) HM
California (Napa County), Calistoga — 685 — Calistoga Sam Brannan Center
The Calistoga Sam Brannan center, including the Sharpsteen Museum and the Sam Brannan Cottage, is dedicated to Calistoga’s early pioneers. The complex, named for Sam Brannan, Calistoga’s original entrepreneur, will preserve and perpetuate the rich heritage of this area for future generations. Dedicated August 19, 1978 Sam Brannan Chapter No.1004 E Clampus Vitus Map (db m18587) HM
California (Napa County), Calistoga — 359 — Dr. Edward Turner Bale
Edward Bale sailed from England to California in the 1830s and settled in Monterey where he was named surgeon-in chief of the Mexican Army by General Mariano Vallejo. In 1839 he married Vallejo’s niece, Maria Soberanes, and in 1841 was granted a large rancho in the upper Napa Valley. Cattle were raised for hides and tallow and wheat was planted along the river in this valley. Bale constructed a gristmill at his site to process the locally grown grain. He also built a sawmill on his rancho where . . . — Map (db m18635) HM
California (Napa County), Calistoga — 561 — Schramsberg
Founded in 1862 by Jacob Schram. This was the first hillside winery of the Napa Valley. Robert Louis Stevenson, visiting here in 1880, devoted a chapter of his “Silverado Squatters” to Schramsberg and its wines. Ambrose Bierce and Lilly Hitchcock Coit were other cherished friends. The original house and winery have been excellently preserved. — Map (db m52168) HM
California (Napa County), Napa — 878 — First Presbyterian Church Building
Designed by pioneer architects R.H. Daly and Theodore Eisen, this church is an outstanding example of late Victorian Gothic architectural styling. It is the best surviving example in this region of early works associated with Eisen, who later became an important Southern California architect. The First Presbyterian Church has been in continuous use since its construction in 1874. Longest early Pastorates are Richard Wylie and Erwin Bollinger. California Registered Historical Landmark No. 878 . . . — Map (db m18781) HM
California (Napa County), St. Helena — 814 — Beringer Brothers Winery
Built by Frederick and Jacob Beringer, natives of Mainz, Germany. This winery has the unique distinction of never having ceased operations since its founding in 1876. Here, in the European tradition, were dug underground wine tunnels hundreds of feet in length. These maintain a constant temperature of 58 degrees. A factor considered necessary in the maturing and aging of fine wines. California Registered Historical Landmark No.814 Plaque placed by the State Department of Parks and Recreation . . . — Map (db m18734) HM
California (Napa County), St. Helena — 563 — Charles Krug Winery
Founded in 1861 by Charles Krug (1825 – 1892). This is the oldest operating winery in Napa Valley. The pioneer wine maker of this world famous wine region, Krug made the first commercial wine in Napa County in 1858, at Napa. — Map (db m18693) HM
California (Napa County), Yountville — 693 — Grave of George C. Yount
George Calvert Yount (1794-1865) was the first United States citizen to be ceded a Spanish land grant in Napa Valley (1836). Skilled hunter, frontiersman, craftsman and farmer, he was the true embodiment of all the finest qualities of an advancing civilization blending with the existing primitive culture. Friend to all, this kindly host of Caymus Rancho, encouraged sturdy American pioneers to establish ranches in this area, which was well populated before the Gold Rush. CALIFORNIA REGISTERED . . . — Map (db m18632) HM
California (Napa County), Yountville — 564 — Site of Yount’s Blockhouse
In this vicinity stood the log blockhouse constructed in 1836 by George Calvert Yount, pioneer settler in Napa County. Nearby was his adobe house in 1837. And across the bridge his grist and saw mills, erected before 1845. Born in North Carolina in 1794, Yount was a trapper, rancher, and miller, and grantee of the Ranchos Caymus and LaJota. He died at Yountville in 1865. CALIFORNIA REGISTERED HISTORICAL LANDMARK No.564 Plaque placed by the California State Park Commission in cooperation with . . . — Map (db m18737) HM
California (Napa County), Yountville — 828 — Veterans Home of California
Established in 1884 by Mexican War Veterans and members of the Grand Army of the Republic who recognized the need for a home for California’s aged and disabled veterans. In January 1897 the Veterans Home Association deeded the home and its 910 acres of land to the State of California which has maintained it since that date. California Registered Historical Landmark No.828 Plaque placed by the State Department of Parks and Recreation in cooperation with the State Department of Veterans . . . — Map (db m18743) HM
California (Nevada County), Grass Valley — 855 — Mount Saint Mary’s Convent and Academy
Built by the Reverend Thomas J. Dalton and dedicated May 2, 1865 by Bishop Eugene O’Connell as Sacred Heart Convent and Holy Angels Orphanage. Under the Sisters of Mercy it served from 1866 to 1932 as the first orphanage of the Northern Mines. It functioned as an Academy (1868 – 1965) and a convent (1866 – 1968). — Map (db m12898) HM
California (Nevada County), Nevada City — 1012 — Pelton Wheel Manufacturing Site
The Pelton Water Wheel, first commercially manufactured here at George Allan’s Foundry & Machine Works in 1879, was a major advancement in water power utilization and greatly advanced hard-rock mining. Its unique feature was a series of paired buckets, shaped like bowls of spoons and separated by a splitter, that divided the incoming water jets into two parts. By the late 1800, Pelton Wheels were providing energy to operate industrial machinery throughout the world. In 1888, Lester Pelton moved . . . — Map (db m12796) HM
California (Nevada County), Nevada City — Purdon Bridge1895
Built by Cotton Brothers of Oakland, this steel bridge replaced several wooden bridges washed away in floods. It is the only bridge of the half-through truss design remaining in California. Purdon Crossing was a vital link of the main road from Nevada City to Downieville and the Northern Mines. — Map (db m45068) HM
California (Nevada County), Nevada City — 832 — South Yuba Canal Office
Headquarters for the largest network of water flumes and ditches in the state. The South Yuba Canal Water Company was the first incorporated to supply water for hydraulic mining. The original ditch was in use in May, 1850, and this company office was in use from 1857 to 1880. The holdings later became part of the vast P.G. & E. hydroelectric system. — Map (db m10836) HM
California (Nevada County), Nevada City — 899 — The National Hotel
This hotel, one of the oldest in continuous operation west of the Rockies, opened for business in August, 1856. Originally known as The “Bicknell Block”. The structure consists of three common-walled buildings of simple brick construction embellished with classic revival and wrought iron railing ornamentation. — Map (db m12891) HM
California (Nevada County), Rough and Ready — Fippin's Blacksmith Shop
Built in the mid 1850’s by John Fippin and John Single. Fippin married Single’s daughter, Julia, in 1867, and they raised 10 children. Local legend has it that one of Lotta Crabtree’s earliest performances was atop the anvil here. The building today is a combination of the original blacksmith shop and Single’s carpenter shop. W.H. (Bill) Fippin and Frank A. Fippin followed their father as smiths and ran the business until well into the 20th century. Members of the Fippin and Single families . . . — Map (db m10561) HM
California (Nevada County), Rough and Ready — 294 — Rough and Ready
Established in 1849 and named in honor of General Zachary Taylor, after the Rough and Ready Company of miners from Wisconsin, this was one of the principal towns of Nevada County. In 1850, articles of secession were drawn up establishing the 'Republic of Rough and Ready.' As a result of disastrous fires, only a few structures remain today that were built in the 1850s. — Map (db m10560) HM
California (Nevada County), Truckee — 134 — Donner Party
Near this spot stood the Breen cabin of the party of emigrants who started for California from Springfield, Illinois, in April 1846, under the leadership of Captain George Donner. Delays occurred and when the party reached this locality, on October 29, the Truckee Pass Emigrant Road was concealed by snow. The height of the shaft of the monument indicates the depth of the snow, which was twenty-two feet. After futile efforts to cross the summit the party was compelled to encamp for the winter. . . . — Map (db m11594) HM
California (Nevada County), Truckee — Donner Party1846 – 1847
The face of this rock formed the north end and the fireplace of the Murphy cabin. General Stephan W. Kearny, on June 22, 1847, buried, under the middle of the cabin the bodies found in the vicinity. Following is a complete list of the members of the Donner Party who occupied the various cabins and tents. Column 1 – Deceased: George Donner, Tamsen Donner, Jacob Donner, Elizabeth Donner, Isaac Donner, Lewis Donner, Samuel Donner, Sarah Keyes, Luke Halloran, John Snyder, Mr. . . . — Map (db m11600) HM
California (Nevada County), Truckee — 780-6 — TruckeeFirst Transcontinental Railroad
While construction on Sierra tunnels delayed Central Pacific, advance forces at Truckee began building forty miles of track east and west of Truckee moving all supplies by wagon and sled. Summit Tunnel was opened in December, 1867. The line reached Truckee April 3, 1868, and the Sierra was conquered. Rails reached Reno June 19, and construction advanced eastward one mile daily toward the meeting with Union Pacific at Promontory May 10, 1869, to complete the first Transcontinental Railroad. — Map (db m23560) HM
California (Orange County), Anaheim — 11 — Site of San Pedro Gate1857
The original townsite of Anaheim was surrounded by a living fence of willow trees to keep out the livestock which roamed freely on the open range. This is the site of the gate that was opened to permit travel to and from San Pedro and Los Angeles. — Map (db m49990) HM
California (Orange County), Huntington Beach — 36 — Auditorium and Tower
This 1926 structure is an excellent example of Lombard Romanesque Revival architecture. The school site was donated in 1908 to the five year old Huntington Beach Union High School district by the town developers, the Huntington Beach Company. Designed by Allison and Allison and built during the local oil boom, this landmark building continues to represent the spirit and pride of the community. — Map (db m50021) HM
California (Orange County), Lake Forest — 32 — Heritage Hill Historic Park
Vivid reminders of El Toro's past are preserved in Orange County's first historic park. The Serrano Adobe (circa 1883), El Toro Grammar School (1890), St. George's Episcopal Mission (1891), and Harvey Bennett Ranch House (1908) reflect the history of the area from the Rancho Canada de Los Alisos to its development as an agricultural community. — Map (db m50016) HM
California (Orange County), San Juan Capistrano — 31 — San Juan Capistrano Jail Cell
This jail cell was built in 1896 to serve as a holding cell for miscreants on their way to County jail. Originally located on the west site of Camino Capistrano at the intersection with Ortega Highway, it was the scene of several jailbreaks and one hanging. — Map (db m50015) HM
California (Orange County), Santa Ana — 12 — Santa Ana's Birthplace
Here on October 10, 1869, his 40th birthday, William H. Spurgeon climbed a sycamore tree to inspect this mustard covered valley. Impressed, he bought 74.9 acres of the Santiago de Santa Ana, and laid out a townsite between First and Seventh, Spurgeon and Broadway. — Map (db m49991) HM
California (Orange County), Westminster — 24 — Post Brother's Plow
Built by Charles R. Post in 1937 to reclaim farmlands ruined by floods, the Post Brothers' Plow is considered to be the world's largest plow. Measuring 37 ft. long, 12 ft. high, and 11 ft. wide, with a blade of 86 in. it was pulled by five 100 drawbar h.p. D-8 Caterpillar tractors. — Map (db m50008) HM
California (Placer County), Auburn — Placer County CourthouseHistorical Landmark
Site of First Public Hanging Area and Graveyard Third Courthouse Cornerstone Laid July 4, 1894 Dedicated July 4, 1898 — Map (db m12340) HM
California (Placer County), Auburn — 463 — Town of Ophir
Founded in 1849 as 'The Spanish Corral,' Area proved so rich that Biblical name of Ophir adopted in 1850. Most populous town in Placer County in 1852, polling 500 votes. Almost totally destroyed by fire in July 1853. Later became the center of quartz mining in this county. — Map (db m11922) HM
California (Placer County), Colfax — 780-9 — Cape Horn Promontory
View of Cape Horn Promontory North Fork American River Canyon Dedicated to the memory of thousands of Chinese who worked for Charles Crocker on the Central Pacific Railroad . They were lowered over the face of Cape Horn Promontory in wicker Bosun’s chairs to a point 1332 feet above the canyon floor. The ledge created for the railbed was completed May 1866. They are honored for their work ethic, and timely completion of the Transcontinental Rails ending in Promotory, Utah, May 1869. — Map (db m14437) HM
California (Placer County), Forest Hill — 398 — Yankee Jim's
Gold was discovered here in 1850 by 'Yankee Jim,' a reputed lawless character, and by 1857 the town was one of the most important in Placer County. The first mining ditch in the county was constructed here by H. Starr and Eugene Phelps. Colonel William McClure introduced hydraulic mining to this area in June of 1853. — Map (db m11924) HM
California (Placer County), Granite Bay — 585 — Pioneer Express Trail
Between 1849 and 1854, Pioneer Express riders rode this gold rush trail to the many populous mining camps on the American River bars now covered by Folsom Lake. - Beals, Condemned, Dotons, Long, Horseshoe, Rattlesnake, and Oregon - on the route to Auburn and beyond. — Map (db m10202) HM
California (Placer County), Newcastle — 780-3 — NewcastleFirst Transcontinental Railroad
Regular freight and passenger trains began operating over the first 31 miles of Central Pacific's line to Newcastle on June 10, 1864, when political opposition and lack of money stopped further construction during that mild winter. Construction was resumed in April 1865. At this point, stagecoaches transferred passengers from the Dutch Flat Wagon Road. — Map (db m11141) HM
California (Placer County), Nyack — 403 — Emigrant Gap
The spring of 1845 saw the first covered wagons to surmount the Sierra Nevada Mountains. They left this valley, ascended to the ridge and turned westward to Old Emigrant Gap. The wagons were lowered by ropes to the floor of Bear Valley. Hundreds followed, before, during and after the Gold Rush. This was a hazardous portion of the Overland Emigrant Trail. State Registered Landmark No. 403 Tablet placed by California Centennials Commission. Base furnished by Placer County Historical Society Dedicated June 25, 1950. — Map (db m548) HM
California (Placer County), Rocklin — 780-2 — RocklinFirst Transcontinental Railroad
Central Pacific reached Rocklin, 22 miles from its Sacramento Terminus, in May, 1864, when the railroad established a major locomotive terminal here. Trains moving over the Sierra were generally cut in two sections at this point, in order to ascend the grade. The first CP freight movement was three carloads of Rocklin granite pulled by the engine "Governor Stanford". The terminal was moved to Roseville April 18, 1908. — Map (db m11088) HM
California (Placer County), Roseville — 780-1 — RosevilleFirst Transcontinental Railroad
Central Pacific graders reached Junction, now Roseville, on November 23, 1863, crossing the line of the California Central, which began building northward from Folsom in May 1858. That line was abandoned in 1868. CP’s track reached Junction April 25, 1864 when trains began making daily runs 18 miles to and from Sacramento. Now Roseville is a major railroad distribution center. — Map (db m11079) HM
California (Riverside County), Riverside — No. 26 — Mount Rubidoux
With the backing of Southern Pacific Railroad magnate Henry E. Huntington, Mount Rubidoux was purchased by Frank Miller of the Mission Inn in 1906, in an attempt to beautify the mountain and to sell residential lots at its base, a road was built and vegetation planted, and a cross erected. The nation's first annual outdoor Easter sunrise service was initiated in 1909 and inspired similar programs across the country. The Peace Tower was built in 1925. Arthur Benton Architect. — Map (db m28600) HM
California (Sacramento County), Elk Grove — 719 — Elitha Cumi Donner - Wilder
This survivor of the ill-fated Donner Party was the daughter of George and Mary Blue Donner. Born near Springfield, Illinois, in 1832. She arrived in California in December 1846 with her sister, Leanna Charity Donner, and was rescued by the first relief party to reach the tragic scene. Married to Benjamin W. Wilder in 1853. She died on July 4, 1923, survived by her sister and two children. — Map (db m10521) HM
California (Sacramento County), Elk Grove — 680 — Murphy’s Corral
This is the site of the beginning of the conquest of California by the United States on June 10, 1846. American settlers led by Ezekial Merritt overpowered soldiers under Lt. Francisco Arce and took their Mexican Army horses from the corral of the Murphy Ranch on the north bank of the Consumnes River. The “Bear Flag” action in Sonoma followed on June 14, 1846. — Map (db m11869) HM
California (Sacramento County), Elk Grove — 817 — Site of the First County Free Library Branch in California
In 1908 Elk Grove acquired through the efforts of Miss Harriet G. Eddy, then principal of Elk Grove Union High School, the first county free library branch in California. Subsequently, California's county free library branch system has become one of the most outstanding in America. — Map (db m11868) HM
California (Sacramento County), Folsom — 558 — Folsom TerminalCalifornia’s First Passenger Railroad
Completion of the Sacramento Valley Railroad from Sacramento to Folsom was completed here February 22, 1856, by enthusiastic residents of both cities. The new line, 22 miles in length was commenced February 12, 1855, and was built by Theodore Dehone Judah, noted pioneer engineer. — Map (db m15613) HM
California (Sacramento County), Folsom — 240 — Mormon Island
Early in 1848 W. Sidney S. Willis (ES) and Wilford Hudson, members of the Mormon Battalion, set out from Sutter’s Fort to hunt deer. Stopping on the South Fork of the American River, they found gold. They told their story on returning to the Fort and soon about 150 Mormons and other miners flocked to the site, which was named “Mormon Island”. This was the first major gold strike in California after James W. Marshall’s discovery at Coloma. The population of the town in 1853 was more . . . — Map (db m17637) HM
California (Sacramento County), Folsom — 633 — Original Folsom Hydroelectric Plant
In the 1850's, Horatio Gates Livermore and later his sons, Horatio P. and Charles E. pioneered the development of ditches and dams on the American River for industry and agriculture. One historic result was Folsom Power House, which began operations in July 1895. Power was delivered to Sacramento at 11,000 volts, which was a new achievement in long distance high voltage transmission. The capital celebrated by a grand electric carnival September 9, 1895. The original generating plant, . . . — Map (db m706) HM
California (Sacramento County), Franklin — 657 — Alexander Hamilton Willard
Born, Charlestown, N.H. Aug. 24, 1778; Died Franklin, Mar. 6, 1865 Last surviving member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. He kept a journal and gave valuable service as a gunsmith. — Map (db m10520) HM
California (Sacramento County), Galt — 1 — Galt Water Tower
The original wooden water tower was built here in 1872. This water tower has stood as a beacon since 1936, connecting yesterday, today and tomorrow. Dedicated as a Galt Historical Landmark November 11, 1995 Map (db m72322) HM
California (Sacramento County), Gold River — 746 — The Coloma Road
Alder Springs, South of this point, marks the Old Coloma Road, running between Sutter’s Fort and Culluh-mah (Coloma). Established in 1847, this road was used by James W. Marshall in January 1848 to bring the first gold from Sutter’s Mill to the Fort. Later, travelled by thousands to and from the diggings, it became the route of California’s first stageline, established in 1849 by James F. Birch — Map (db m11901) HM
California (Sacramento County), Sacramento — 606 — B.F. Hastings Bank BuildingWestern Terminus of the Pony Express
This structure, erected in 1852-53, was occupied during the 1850’s by the B.F. Hastings Bank, Wells Fargo and Co., Various state officials, Sacramento Valley Railroad, and the Alta Telegraph Co. during April 1860-May 1861. The Alta Telegraph Co. and its successor, The California State Telegraph Co. were the agents here for the Central Overland Pony Express, owned and operated by the firm of Russell, Majors and Waddell. From this historic site the first Overland journey eastward of the Pony Express was begun on April 4, 1860. — Map (db m11388) HM
California (Sacramento County), Sacramento — 967 — California Almond Growers ExchangeAlmond Processing Facility
The California Almond Growers Exchange founded in 1910, was first successful grower-owned co-operative for marketing California almonds. It pioneered in many fields, including almond production, mechanization and marketing. The first structure on this property was built in 1915 and was designed to mechanize almond processing. This shelling plant was one of the earliest structures of its type, and contained the world’s first mechanical cracker. — Map (db m11862) HM
California (Sacramento County), Sacramento — California State Capitol
ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION – 1860 – 1874 Miner F. Butler – Won Design Competition, 1860 Ruben Clark, Supervising Architect, 1860 – 1865 Gordon P. Cummings, Supervising Architect, 1865 – 1870 Kenitzer & Bennett, Supervising Architect, 1870 – 1871 Gordon P. Cummings, Supervising Architect, 1872 – 1874 RESTORED AND STRUCTURALLY STRENGHTENED – 1975 – 1982 Authorized by: AB 2071, Assemblyman Leon Ralph, . . . — Map (db m14834) HM
California (Sacramento County), Sacramento — California State Capitol Park
HISTORY When Spanish governors ruled the California territory, its capitol was moved from town to town between San Diego and Monterey. San Jose had already been designated the capitol by the time California was granted statehood in 1850. In the next four years, Vallejo and Benicia took turns at that honor. In 1854 Sacramento became the home of the legislature. Though several cities were vying to become the permanent capitol, Sacramento’s claim was made secure in 1860 when the . . . — Map (db m15017) HM
California (Sacramento County), Sacramento — California State Indian Museum
This museum dedicated to LOYALTY – COOPERATION – PROGRESS And to the Ideals of AMERICAN DEMOCRACY — Map (db m14078) HM
California (Sacramento County), Sacramento — 526 — California’s First Passenger Railroad
The Sacramento Valley Railroad running from Sacramento to Folsom, was begun at this site on February 12, 1855. Here, at Third and R Streets, was located the Sacramento passenger terminal. The turntable and freight depot were at Third and Front Streets. Completion of the railroad was celebrated at Folsom on February 22, 1856. — Map (db m16056) HM
California (Sacramento County), Sacramento — 872 — California’s Historic Capitol
The historic Capitol was designed by architects M.F. Butler and Reuben Clark. Its style is an adaption of Roman Corinthian architecture. Work began in 1860 and by late 1869 the Capitol was partly occupied. In 1874, construction ended at a cost of $245 million. The west wing which once housed all branches of government is now a legislative facility. Its design and construction are tributes to California’s pioneer architects, craftsmen and builders. — Map (db m11341) HM
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