|Brazil, Bahia, Salvador — Zumbi dos Palmares Monument|
Zumbi dos Palmares
“É chegada a hora de tirar nossa nação das trevas da injustica racial.”
Nasceu livre, em 1655, na Serra da Barriga, união dos Palmares, Alagoas. Neto de Aqualtune, não permitiu a submissão de seu povo ao jugo da corda portuguesa, pois queria a liberdade para todos, dentro ou fora do Quilombo. Persistiu na luta e tornou-se líder do Quilombo, sento ferido em 1694, quando a capital Palmares foi destruída. Em 20 de Novembro de 1695, . . . — Map (db m26125) HM|
|Ontario, Toronto — Mary Ann Shadd Cary — 1823 – 1893|
| Mary Ann Shadd Cary was an anti-slavery activist, an advocate for the rights of women, and a pioneering woman newspaper editor and publisher. The daughter of a free African American shoemaker and abolitionist, Shadd began a life of teaching at age 16 by founding a school for African American children in the slave state of Delaware. Following the passing of the Fugitive Slave act (1850), many escaped and free African Americans (like Shadd) sought refuge in Canada. Shadd moved to Windsor, . . . — Map (db m57756) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — John Brown's Convention 1858|
| English Text:
On May 10, 1858, American abolitionist John Brown held the last in a series of clandestine meetings here at First Baptist Church. Brown planned to establish an independent republic within the United States and wage guerrilla war to liberate the South from slavery. He came to Upper Canada to recruit blacks who had fled here in the wake of the Fugitive Slave Law (1850). On October 16, 1859, Brown and 21 supporters seized the government arsenal at Harpers Ferry, . . . — Map (db m71386) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — The Abolition Movement in British North America|
|From 1783 until the 1860s, abolitionists in British North America took part in the fight to end slavery both at home and in the United States. Thanks to the determination of colonial officials, anti-slavery organizations, and the thousands of African Americans who took refuge in Upper and Lower Canada and the Maritimes during this period, the colonies became a centre of abolitionist activity, as evidenced by the convention held here at this church by John Brown in 1858. This struggle for human . . . — Map (db m71391) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Dresden — Josiah Henson — (1789 - 1883)|
After escaping to Upper Canada from slavery in Kentucky, the Reverend Josiah Henson became a conductor of the Underground Railroad and a force in the abolition movement. The founder of the Black settlement of Dawn, he was also an entrepreneur and established a school, the British-American Institute. His fame grew after Harriet Beecher Stowe stated that his memoirs published in 1849 had provided “conceptions and incidents” for her extraordinarily popular novel, . . . — Map (db m78377) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Dresden — Spirituality and Community — Spiritualité et Communauté|
Built around 1850, this modest rural church was moved from Mersea Township to this site in the 1960s and is representative of the churches in which Reverend Henson preached while living at Dawn.
Reverend Josiah Henson was most closely associated with the Dawn settlement’s British Methodist Episcopal (B.M.E.) Church in which he preached many of his sermons. That church was demolished in the 1940s due to safety concerns, although the organ was saved and is displayed inside . . . — Map (db m78388) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Dresden — The Dawn Settlement — La Colonie de Dawn|
In the 1830s, the Reverend Josiah Henson and other abolitionists sought ways to provide refugees from slavery with the education and skills they needed to become self-sufficient in Upper Canada. They purchased 200 acres of land here in 1841 and established the British American Institute, one of the first schools in Canada to emphasize vocational training. The community of Dawn developed around the institute. Its residents farmed, attended the institute, and worked at sawmills, . . . — Map (db m78376) HM|
|Ontario (County of Essex), Tecumseh — The Banwell Road Area Black Settlement|
|Beginning in the 1830s, at least 30 families fleeing enslavement and racial oppression in the United States settled in the Banwell Road area in Sandwich East. They had the opportunity to purchase land through two Black-organized land settlement programs – the Colored Industrial Society (a mission of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Sandwich East) and the Refugee Home Society (administered by Black abolitionist Henry and Mary Bibb of Maidstone). Freedom and land ownership meant . . . — Map (db m90183) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Underground Railroad in Canada|
|From the early 19th century until the American Civil War, settlements along the Detroit and Niagara rivers were important terminals of the Underground Railroad. White and black abolitionists formed a heroic network dedicated to helping free and enslaved African Americans find freedom from oppression. By 1861, some 30,000 freedom-seekers resided in what is now Ontario, after secretly traveling north from slave states like Kentucky and Virginia. Some returned south after the outbreak of the Civil . . . — Map (db m37379) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Fort Erie — Bertie Street Ferry Landing — c. 1796 - 1950|
|Over the centuries there have been many ferry landings along the Niagara River. Some were built by local merchants and some as government licenced landing points.
The longest operating ferry dock was here, near the foot of present-day Bertie Street. It was licenced to Henry Windecker c. 1796.
This hub of activity was not only a crossing point to and from the United States, but was also the location of customs, immigration, vehicle registration, and a railroad terminus.
During the . . . — Map (db m75876) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Fort Erie — Freedom Park|
|From around 1830 to 1860, thousands of freedom seekers used the Underground Railroad to reach sanctuary in Canada - the “promised land”. Many crossed the Niagara River from the United State to Fort Erie, including Josiah Henson and his family, who arrived on the 28th of October 1830. The book Uncle Tom’s Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe, was patterned after his life.
This park has been created to celebrate their lives and to remind present and future generations of their . . . — Map (db m75878) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Chloe Cooley and the 1793 Act to Limit Slavery in Upper Canada|
|On March 14, 1793 Chloe Cooley, an enslaved Black woman in Queenston, was bound, thrown in a boat and sold across the river to a new owner in the United States. Her screams and violent resistance were brought to the attention of Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe by Peter Martin, a free Black and former soldier in Butler's Rangers, and William Grisley, a neighbour who witnessed the event. Simcoe immediately moved to abolish slavery in the new province. He was met with opposition in the . . . — Map (db m75858) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Negro Burial Ground 1830|
|Here stood a Baptist church erected in 1830 through the exertions of a former British soldier. John Oakley, who although white, became pastor of a predominantly negro congregation. In 1793 Upper Canada had passed an act forbidding further introduction of slaves and freeing the children of those in the colony at twenty-five. This was the first legislation of its kind in the British Empire. A long tradition of tolerance attracted refugee slaves to Niagara, many of whom lie buried here. — Map (db m75862) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — The Upper Canadian Act Against Slavery (1793)|
|Inspired by the abolitionist sentiment emerging in the late 18th century, Lieutenant-Governor J.G. Simcoe made Upper Canada the first British territory to legislate against slavery, which had defined the conditions of life for most people of African ancestry in Canada since the early 17th century. The Act of 1793 did not free a single slave, but prevented their importation and freed the future children of slaves at age twenty-five. Faced with growing opposition in the colonies, slavery . . . — Map (db m75865) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), St. Catharines — BME Church — National Historic Site|
|[Text on left side of marker]:
The Salem Chapel, British Methodist Episcopal Church was the first Black church in St. Catharines. Originally known as the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the name was changed to reflect their loyalty to the British Empire. In 1793, the "Upper Canada Act Against Slavery" was passed, allowing Blacks aged 25 years and older freedom from slavery in Canada. This created a safe haven for African American runaway slaves and made Canada the destination . . . — Map (db m75867) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), St. Catharines — Harriet Ross Tubman c. 1820-1913|
|A legendary conductor on the Underground Railroad, Harriet Tubman became known as the "Moses" of her people. Tubman was born into slavery on a Maryland plantation and suffered brutal treatment from numerous owners before escaping in 1849. Over the next decade she returned to the American South many times and led hundreds of freedom seekers north. When the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 allowed slave owners to recapture runaways in the northern free states, Tubman extended her operations across the . . . — Map (db m75868) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), St. Catharines — Harriet Tubman|
After the passing
of the USA 1850
Fugitive Slave Law
"I wouldn't trust
Uncle Sam with
my people no
longer: I brought
them all clear
off to Canada." — Map (db m75869) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), St. Catharines — Harriet Tubman — (c. 1822-1913)|
|Born on a Maryland plantation, Harriet Tubman escaped slavery to become one of the great heroes of the 19th century. The most famous "conductor" on the Underground Railroad, she courageously led many of the people she rescued from American slavery on dangerous, clandestine journeys to safety and freedom in Canada. Tubman helped these Black refugees settle after their arrival and played an active role in the fight to end slavery. She became the public face of the Underground Railroad in British . . . — Map (db m75870) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), St. Catharines — Rev. Anthony Burns 1834-1862|
|Born a slave in Virginia, Burns escaped from servitude in 1854 and fled to Boston, where he was arrested under the Fugitive Slave act of 1850. Abolitionists came to his defence and serious riots ensued. This was the last trial of a fugitive slave in Massachusetts. Four months after his return to his owner in Virginia, he was sold to a North Carolina planter. However, in 1855 Burns was ransomed with money raised by the Rev. L.A.Grimes of Boston, and began studies at Oberlin College, Ohio. Burns . . . — Map (db m76249) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), St. Catharines — Salem Chapel, British Methodist Episcopal Church|
|Salem Chapel, built in 1855, was an important centre of 19th-century abolitionist and civil rights activity in Canada. Harriet Tubman, the famous Underground Railroad "conductor", lived near here from 1851 to 1858 and is traditionally associated with Salem Chapel. Many of those aided to freedom became church members and put down roots in the local community. The auditory-hall design typifies the style associated with the Underground Railroad-related churches in Ontario. — Map (db m75873) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), St. Catharines — Victoria Lawn Cemetery 1855 — St. Catharines Heritage Corridor|
|The first person to be buried on this land was a sailor known simply as Brooks. that year, 1855, when the land was still known only as Potter's Fields, seven others were also buried, beginning the establishment of St. Catharines' largest and most historically significant cemetery.|
Officially opened in 1856 as St. Catharines Cemetery, it was unusual in that it was an all-denominational burial ground, virtually unheard of in the 1800s. While plots in different sections were assigned to . . . — Map (db m76332) HM
|California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Mary Ellen Pleasant Memorial Park — 1814 - 1904|
| Mother of Civil Rights in California.
She supported the western terminus of the underground railway for fugitive slaves, 1850-1865. This legendary pioneer once lived on this site and planted these six trees.
Placed by the San Francisco African-American Historical and Cultural Society. — Map (db m85557) HM|
|Connecticut (Hartford County), Hartford — John Haynes|
1594 – 1654
Of Copford Hall. Essex England. Third Governor of Massachusetts. A founder of this commonwealth & its first Governor. A lover of religious liberty. A man trusted and honored.
Near this place he was buried & by this tablet The Connecticut Society of The Colonial Dames of America commemorates his public services.
A.D. 1915 — Map (db m44068) HM|
|Connecticut (Middlesex County), Middletown — The Abolitionist Movement|
|The Abolitionist Movement
On this site, on a spring evening in 1834, a violent mob descended on a small group of Middletown residents who had come together to work towards abolishing slavery. The abolitionists, both black and white citizens, were members of the newly formed Middletown Anti-Slavery Society. They held their meetings in a small factory, and it was here that a mob of local bigots – some of them prosperous “gentlemen” – attacked the abolitionists, pelting . . . — Map (db m71118) HM|
|Delaware (Kent County), Camden — KC-41 — Camden|
|Founded 1783 on the tract “Brecknock” by Daniel Mifflin and settled largely by Quakers. Once called Piccadilly and Mifflins Cross Roads. Incorporated 1852, it was a center of anti-slavery sentiment. Several homes were by tradition stops on the Underground Railroad — Map (db m39508) HM|
|Delaware (Kent County), Camden — KC-73 — Camden Friends Meeting|
|Burial Place of John Hunn This house of worship, built in 1805, was first a Preparative Meeting under the care of Motherkiln (Murderkill) Monthly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). In 1830, Camden Monthly Meeting was formed by uniting with Motherkiln and Duck Creek Monthly Meetings. It has since absorbed all other Quaker Meetings in Kent and Sussex Counties. Many members were active in the anti-slavery movement. Local Quakers such as the Hunn, Jenkins, and Cowgill families, . . . — Map (db m39513) HM|
|Delaware (Kent County), Camden — John Hunn — 1814 - 1894 — Quaker Abolitionist|
|Chief engineer of the Underground Rail Road in the State of Del. and the richest man in Del. He was convicted and fined in 1846 by the U.S. Dist. Court, later he was fined twice for $10,000.00 each by Del. but was advised the fines wouldn't be imposed if he'd promise not to continue his efforts to aid fugitives in their escape from slavery. Instead, Hunn avowed never to withhold a helping hand from the down-trodden in their hour of distress. His great land holdings and all his possessions were . . . — Map (db m39514) HM|
|Delaware (Kent County), Magnolia — KC-91 — Warner Mifflin — 1745 - 1798|
|A native of Virginia's Eastern Shore, Mifflin came to Delaware as a young man. Born into a slaveholding Quaker family, he manumitted his own slaves in 1774-75 and later became one of America's foremost abolitionists of the 18th century. As an elder of the Religious Society of Friends, he traveled extensively to convince others to free their slaves as
well. He addressed the legislatures of several states and presented numerous petitions and memorials to the United States Congress opposing . . . — Map (db m39456) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Middletown — NC-210 — Former Site of the Alston and Hunn Farms|
|Near this location were the farms of John Alston (1794-1872) and John Hunn (1818-1894), cousins who shared the Quaker faith and were well documented operatives on Delaware's Underground Railroad. John Alston sometimes employed fugitives as laborers on his farm and in 1850, sheltered a young woman named Molly who was later captured there by bounty hunters. In his diaries, Alston wrote this prayer, "Enable me to keep my heart and house open to receive thy servants that they may rest in their . . . — Map (db m88341) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Odessa — NC-90 — Appoquinimink Friends Meeting House|
|Believed to be one of the smallest Quaker Meeting Houses in the nation, the Appoquinimink Friends Meeting House was built in 1785 by David Wilson and presented to the Friends as a gift. Local tradition identifies this structure as a stop on the Underground Railroad during the years preceding the Civil War. While enroute to destinations north of Delaware, runaway slaves would hide in the loft of the church in order to escape capture. Prominent local Quakers who served as agents on the Railroad . . . — Map (db m10308) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Smyrna — NC-89 — Clearfield Farm|
|Built in the mid-eighteenth century by Captain David Clark, Clearfield Farm was the home of his grandson John Clark (1761 -1821), Governor of Delaware from 1817 -1820. John Clark served as Colonel in the Delaware Militia and as Justice of the Peace before being elected Governor in 1816. After his term expired, Clark moved into the town of Smyrna to become President of the Commercial Bank of Smyrna. Following his death, the property was inherited by his granddaughters. Local folklore identifies . . . — Map (db m69112) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-128 — Freedom Lost|
|By the late 1700s the institution of slavery was declining in Delaware. A changing economy and the active efforts of Quakers and Methodists had led to the manumission of many slaves and dramatic growth of the state’s free black population. Though Congress outlawed importation of slaves in 1808, demand for slave labor in the expanding states of the Deep South continued to grow. A nefarious criminal element sought to fill this need by kidnapping free blacks for sale into slavery. Such was the . . . — Map (db m10950) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-84 — Gravesite of Bishop Peter Spencer (1779-1843) — And His Devoted Wife, Annes|
|Born a slave, Bishop Spencer was the father of Delaware’s independent Black church movement. In 1813, he founded the Union Church of Africans, presently known as the African Union Methodist Protestant Church. The mother AUMP church stood on this site from 1813 to 1970. The Union American Methodist Episcopal Church (UAME), formally organized in 1865, traces its origins to Spencer. He was also the founder of “August Quarterly” in 1813, one of the oldest Black folk festivals in America. — Map (db m2607) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-76 — Meeting House 1816 — Religious Society of Friends|
|Grew from New-Wark Meeting established 1682. Present house is third in this vicinity. Friends School begun here in 1748 has operated continuously. Among 3,000 buried in yard are founders of Wilmington, John Dickinson, "Penman of the Revolution," and Thomas Garrett, Leader of Underground Railroad on Delmarva Peninsula. — Map (db m10943) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-88 — Thomas Garrett — Stationmaster on the Underground Railroad|
|Born August 21, 1789, in Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, Garrett came to Wilmington in 1822. A prominent merchant, his home and business were located nearby on Shipley Street. Garrett was committed to the anti-slavery efforts of his Quaker faith. He is credited with assisting more than 2,700 of “God’s Poor” to escape slavery through the secret network known as the Underground Railroad. Though he was convicted and fined by the U.S. District Court in 1848 for aiding runaway slaves, he . . . — Map (db m67356) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-125 — Wilmington Friends Meeting — Burial Place of Thomas Garrett|
|The first Meeting House on this site was built in 1738. It was replaced in 1748 when a larger building was constructed. The old Meeting House was then converted into a school. Known as Wilmington Friends School, it was relocated to a new facility in 1937, and is the oldest existing school in the state. The present Meeting House was built in 1816. Wilmington was the last major stop on the East Coast overland route of the Underground Railroad. One of the central figures of this clandestine . . . — Map (db m10941) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Frederick Douglass 1817 - 1895 — The Extra Mile — Points of Light Volunteer Pathway|
|A Famed orator and writer Frederick Douglass was also a key architect of the movement that ended slavery, the very institution into which he was born. Even after his goal to abolish slavery was achieved, Douglass persisted in his struggle for equality. His work in the women’s rights and civil rights movements helped set the stage for further landmark change in this country.
“I prefer to be true to myself, even at the hazard of incurring the ridicule of others, rather than to be false, and incur my own abhorrence.” — Map (db m92084) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 336 — From 1890 to 1910 — Dupont Circle — Diverse Visions / One Neighborhood|
| From 1890 to 1910, some of the nation’s finest architects built mansions at or near Dupont Circle in Queen Anne, Richardsonian Romanesque, Italian Renaissance or Colonial Revival style. Wealthy couples living elsewhere built most of the early mansions. They sought a home in DC for the social season - January to April – because of a desire to socialize with the presidents, members of Congress, and foreign diplomats (especially if there was a daughter to marry off), and a realization that . . . — Map (db m89393) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Harriet Tubman circa 1820 - 1913 — The Extra Mile — Points of Light Volunteer Pathway|
|Harriet Tubman escaped a life of slavery only to return south, at her own peril, time and again, to lead more than 300 fugitive slaves through the Underground Railroad to safety and freedom. After the Civil War, Tubman raised money to clothe and educate newly freed African-American children and established a home for and indigent African-Americans.
“I had crossed the line of which I had so long been dreaming, I was free; … to this solemn resolution I came; I was free, and they should be free also.” — Map (db m91877) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 18 — The Sage of Anacostia — An East-of-the River View — Anacostia Heritage Trail|
|This imposing property once belonged to Anacostia’s most famous resident: Frederick Douglass. After escaping slavery as a young man, Douglass rose to become a distinguished abolitionist, writer, publisher, and orator. By the 1860s Douglass was one of the nation’s intellectual and political giants who had President Lincoln’s ear. Douglass argued early in the Civil War that Lincoln should allow African Americans to fight as soldiers in the Union army. President Rutherford B. Hayes appointed . . . — Map (db m88723) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — Frederick Douglass National Historic Site|
|Also known as Cedar Hill, this site encompasses the estate owned by Frederick Douglass from 1877 until his death in 1895. In honor of Douglass’ work as an author, orator, abolitionist, statesman, and civil rights leader, this site is designated a Literary Landmark by Friends of Libraries U.S.A. — Map (db m40846) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Freedmen’s Memorial Monument to Abraham Lincoln — or Freedom’s Memorial|
|In grateful memory of Abraham Lincoln. This monument was erected by the Western Sanitary Commission of Saint Louis, Mo., with funds contributed solely by emancipated Citizens of the United States declared free by his Proclamation, January 1st A.D. 1863. The first contribution of five dollars was made by Charlotte Scott, a freed woman of Virginia, being her first earnings in freedom and consecrated by her suggestion and request, on the day she heard of President Lincoln’s death, to build a . . . — Map (db m41617) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — W.3 — Asbury United Methodist Church — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
| Stories of slavery and freedom, of struggle and achievement are woven through the history of this African American congregation. Founded in 1836, by the time of the Civil War Asbury United Methodist Church was the preeminent Black church in the city, its membership of 600 making it the largest of 11 African American congregations in Washington. Today, Asbury counts among its members descendants of District slaves who tried a dramatic escape to freedom in 1848 aboard the ship Pearl. . . . — Map (db m70316) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — W.4 — New York Avenue Presbyterian Church at Herald Square — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
| “The churches are needed as never before for divine services,” President Abraham Lincoln
So said President Lincoln from his pew in New York Avenue Presbyterian Church. While other churches were occupied by the federal government for offices and hospitals during the Civil War, Lincoln insisted this church remain open for worship. The pastor, Dr. Phineas D. Gurley, was the president’s spiritual guide through the war and during the fatal illness of Lincoln’s young son, Willie, . . . — Map (db m32926) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — .4 — The Roots of Freedom and Equality — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
| “It is known to you that events have transpired within the last few days, deeply affecting the peace and character of our community.”
With these words, city officials tried to calm the angry mobs gathering on this corner in April 1848. The crowds blamed the National Era, an abolitionist newspaper located near this sign, for the attempted escape of 77 African American slaves on the ship Pearl. They threatened to destroy the Era’s printing press. The . . . — Map (db m25271) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Foggy Bottom — Leonard A. Grimes — (1815 - 1873)|
| Leonard A. Grimes, a Black man born free in Leesburg, Virginia, owned a residence on this corner from 1836 to 1846.
In the 1830s, he owned a successful coach business transporting passengers in and around Washington. He also carried slaves seeking freedom in the North and was an early organizer of the Underground Railroad.
From 1840 to 1842, he was imprisoned in Richmond for aiding an escape. In 1846 Grimes moved with his family to New Bedford, Massachusetts where he continued his . . . — Map (db m46970) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Northwest — Metropolitan Wesley A.M.E. Zion Church — The Gate Way to Freedom|
2nd Church Built 1833.
Admitted to Philadelphia-Baltimore Conference, 1837.
3rd Church Built 1888.
Relocated present site, 1956.
Bishop Raymond Luthe Jones, Presiding Bishop, 4th Episcopal District.
Dr. William B. Baker, Presiding Elder.
Rev. R. H. Collins Lee, Minister.
Alphonzo Starks, Ch.
Hattie H. Williams, Sec.
William H. Moore, Treas.
Charles W. Wade, M.D.
Mabel H. Shaw
Edward W. Weyms
Stewart A. Hardy
R. H. . . . — Map (db m11042) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Old Soldiers Home — President Lincoln’s Cottage at the Soldiers’ Home — A National Trust Historic Site|
| President Lincoln and his family lived in this country home for over a quarter of his presidency. Escorted by his cavalry guard, Lincoln rode to the White House every morning either on horseback or by carriage, and returned here each evening to rejoin his family and friends, meet with visitors and colleagues and reflect on military strategy and emancipation. This sculpture captures a moment in his daily life during those years.
Dedicated February 12, 2009 in recognition of the . . . — Map (db m52838) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Penn Quarter — e.2 — Ending Slavery in Washington — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
|To your right at the end of Indiana Avenue is Washington's first City Hall/Courthouse. Across Sixth Street is the H. Carl Moultrie I Courthouse, a successor to the original courthouse. The Old City Hall/Courthouse opened in 1822, with offices for the mayor, city administrators, and federal courts. Today it is the city's third-oldest public building, after the White House and the Capitol. The City Hall/Courthouse witnessed key events in abolition history. In 1848 abolitionist Daniel Drayton . . . — Map (db m56124) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Shaw — Mary Ann Shadd Cary House|
| [Panel 1:]
Mary Ann Shadd Cary House
Has been designated a
National Historic Landmark
This site possesses national significance
In commemorating the history of the
United States of America.
An African American renaissance woman, abolitionist, educator, editor, military recruitment officer, woman suffragist, lawyer, and mother, Mary Ann Shadd Cary lived at his residence from 1881-1886. Her life is distinguished by her dedication to freedom, equality, and the . . . — Map (db m61813) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Southwest — 10 of 17 — Escape from Slavery — River Farms to Urban Towers — Southwest Heritage Trail|
|Before the Civil War, Washington was a slave-holding city. But many of its citizens–especially free blacks and abolitionists–assisted freedom seekers at locations known as stops on the Underground Railroad.
The largest attempted slave escape began the evening of April 15, 1848. In the gathering dark, 77 men and women slipped aboard the Pearl, waiting ½ mile down river from this sign. Captain Daniel Drayton had agreed to sail them down the Potomac and then north to . . . — Map (db m20605) HM|
|Florida (Alachua County), Micanopy — F-860 — Moses Elias Levy|
|Moses Elias Levy (1782-1854), a Moroccan born Jewish merchant, came to Florida after its cession from Spain to the United States in 1821. Before his arrival, Levy acquired over 50,000 acres in East Florida. In 1822, Levy began development on Pilgrimage Plantation, just northwest of the future town of Micanopy. The plantation's main commodity was sugar cane, which Levy had reintroduced to Florida. Levy and his partners, including the Florida Association of New York, helped to draw Jewish . . . — Map (db m93854) HM|
|Florida (Miami-Dade County), Key Biscayne — Escaping to Freedom in the Bahamas|
|In the early 1820's, enslaved Africans, runaways, and "Black Seminoles" seeking freedom from slave catchers and plantation masters, secretly worked their way down to CAPE FLORIDA. They met with bold captains of sloops from the British Bahamas who offered transportation across the Gulf Stream. In 1821 as reported by eyewitnesses, some 300 freedom seekers bartered for passage aboard 27 sloops, or chose to sail Indian dugout canoes 107 nautical miles to secluded Andros Asland. The construction of . . . — Map (db m79723) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — El Pueblo de Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose — Fort Mose Historic State Park|
| Great Seal of the State of Florida:"In God We Trust" On the shore of Robinson Creek, 1/4 mile east of this marker, was the site of a Spanish mission for Indians left homeless during the Queen Anne's War. Since 1688, Negro slaves from the English colonies had found refuge in Spanish St. Augustine. On March 15, 1738, Governor Manuel de Montiano freed them in the name of the King, and later formed a village for them named Gracia Real, at Mose. Here the freedmen would . . . — Map (db m65579) HM WM|
|Georgia (Chatham County), Tybee Island — 25-32 — History of Emancipation: — Gen. David Hunter and General Orders No. 7|
|On April 13, 1862, following the Union capture of Ft. Pulaski during the Civil War, Maj. Gen. David Hunter issued General Orders No. 7 freeing those enslaved at the fort and on Cockspur Island. Hunter, an abolitionist advocating the enlistment of black soldiers in the Union Army, ordered freedmen subject to military service. Not yet committed to a comprehensive plan of emancipation, President Abraham Lincoln overturned the orders. However, Hunter’s orders were a precursor to Lincoln’s own . . . — Map (db m13830) HM|
|Illinois (Adams County), Quincy — Douglas' Disciple|
| "I regard (Richardson) as one of the truest men that ever lived; he 'sticks to judge Douglas through thick and thin" (A. Lincoln, 1860). Douglas composed the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act. William A. Richardson, another Quincyan and Douglas' political disciple, facilitated its passage through the turbulent U.S. House of Representatives. This bill opened to slavery an area guaranteed free since the Missouri Compromise, leading to the formation of the Republican Party and Lincoln's return . . . — Map (db m58760) HM|
|Illinois (Adams County), Quincy — Lincoln's 1854 Visit|
| On November 1, 1854 an incensed Lincoln attached the immorality of slavery in a speech at Kendall Hall. Lincoln was awakened from a five-bear political slumber by Douglas's Kansas-Nebraska Act, attacking it in a series of speeches in central Illinois in late 1854. Lincoln's Quincy friend Abraham Jonas invited him to address the Kansas-Nebraska question here on behalf of the Congressional candidacy of Archibald Williams. Jonas predicted a payoff to Lincoln politically. "Whigs . . . — Map (db m58788) HM|
|Illinois (Adams County), Quincy — Search for Equality|
| "Who shall say, I am the superior, and you are the inferior?" asked Lincoln in July 1858. The Lincoln-Douglas Debates focused on slavery. During the October 13th Quincy debate Lincoln affirmed: "...in the right to eat the bread without leave of anybody else which his own hands earns, he is my equal and the equal of every other man." As President, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation and advocated voting rights for African-Americans who fought for the Union. By the . . . — Map (db m58798) HM|
|Illinois (Bureau County), Princeton — Owen Lovejoy Home|
|This two-story frame structure was the home of abolitionist Owen Lovejoy, who was born in Maine in 1811. Lovejoy moved into the house in 1838, when he became a Congregationalist minister. He was leader in the formation of the Republican Party in Illinois, and he served as a representative in the state legislature, 1855-1857, and in the United States Congress from 1857 until his death in 1864. His home was well known as a shelter for runaway slaves. Owen was a younger brother of Elijah Lovejoy, . . . — Map (db m44351) HM|
|Illinois (Champaign County), Champaign — The First Congregational Church — Champaign Historic Site|
| The First Congregational Church, built in 1855-56, was popularly known as the “Goose Pond” Church, because the site was once a water-filled area, home to flocks of wild geese and ducks. The church became a meeting center for numerous groups aspiring to improve life in the booming “New Town” then rising up along the tracks of the recently completed Illinois Central Railroad.
The congregation and its minister were strongly opposed to American slavery, and worked . . . — Map (db m31118) HM|
|Illinois (Coles County), Oakland — Home of Dr. Hiram Rutherford|
| This was the home of Dr. Hiram Rutherford, who was involved in 1847 in a case in which Abraham Lincoln represented a slaveholder. Rutherford and Gideon Ashmore harbored a family of slaves who had sought their help. The slaves belonged to Robert Matson, a Kentuckian, who had brought them north to work on his farm. While the slaves were being sheltered in Ashmore’s Tavern, Matson obtained a Court Order to have the slaves jailed. Rutherford and Ashmore sued out a Writ of Habeas Corpus for their . . . — Map (db m30877) HM|
|Illinois (Coles County), Oakland — The Matson Slave Trial — Looking for Lincoln|
| Top Section
Dr. Hiram Rutherford was a key person involved in Abraham Lincoln’s famous slave case, the only instance in his career where Lincoln represented the rights of a slave owner. Robert Matson brought slaves from Kentucky to work his farm north of Independence each year until after the harvest. By doing so, Matson was taking advantage of a common loophole in Illinois law, which allowed slaves to be held here while in transit. In 1847, one of Matson’s slaves, Jane Bryant, argued . . . — Map (db m30867) HM|
|Illinois (Fayette County), Vandalia — First Protest Against Slavery — 1837|
| At the beginning of Lincoln's second term as a state representative, several southern legislatures were concerned that the Federal Government would abolish slavery in the District of Columbia. Most of the members of the Illinois Legislature shared this concern. Many Illinois residents in the early 1800's - or their ancestors - came to Illinois from the slave states of Kentucky and Tennessee. In January 1837 the Illinois Legislature adopted a resolution that condemned abolition societies. . . . — Map (db m42490) HM|
|Illinois (Kane County), West Dundee — Duff House|
This New England style farmhouse was built circa 1848, by Samuel Wilder to resemble his former New York State home. Robert and Lucy Duff purchased this property in 1868; however, historians claim they lived at this location during the Civil War and that the Duff House was a station on the "Underground Railroad". The mission of the "Underground Railroad" was to secretly assist runaway slaves by a loosely constructed network of escape routes that originated in the South, intertwined . . . — Map (db m94312) HM
|Illinois (Knox County), Galesburg — Lincoln-Douglas Debate|
|On October 7, 1858, Abraham Lincoln and Stephan A. Douglas met in Galesburg for the fifth of seven joint debates. From a platform erected along the east side of Old Main on the Knox College campus, Lincoln said: "He is blowing out the moral lights around us, when he contends that whoever wants slaves has a right to own them." — Map (db m37056) HM|
|Illinois (La Salle County), Ottawa — First Lincoln-Douglas Debate — Looking for Lincoln|
First Lincoln-Douglas Debate
Abraham Lincoln's first heated exchanged with Stephen A. Douglas on Aug 21, 1858 in Ottawa was received coolly by his advisors. They insisted Lincoln had treated Douglas entirely too "tenderly." Lincoln, however, wrote a friend: "The fire flew some and I am glad to know I am yet still alive." The population of this canal town, industrial center, and county seat more than doubled as 14,000 people poured into Washington Square to watch the . . . — Map (db m65302) HM|
|Illinois (La Salle County), Ottawa — Lincoln and Douglas Debate|
This tablet marks the site
of the first
Lincoln and Douglas Debate
held August 21st, 1858.
Erected by Illini Chapter
Daughters of the American Revolution
August 21st, 1908. — Map (db m65297) HM|
|Illinois (La Salle County), Ottawa — The First Lincoln-Douglas Debate|
|On August 21, 1858, the first of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln and United States Senator Stephen A. Douglas took place in this park. Approximately 10,000 people gathered to hear the two candidates discuss the question of slavery in America. Candidate Lincoln rebuffed attempts to portray him as an abolitionist, one advocating the immediate emancipation of all slaves in the United States. Although Lincoln said he personally believed slavery was morally wrong, he maintained that the . . . — Map (db m65299) HM|
|Illinois (La Salle County), Ottawa — Washington Square — Site of First Lincoln-Douglas Debate|
|On August 21, 1858, the first of the famous debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas was held in Washington Square. Here ten thousand heard the two candidates debate for a seat in the United States Senate.
Principally, the great debates revolved around a single sentence in the Declaration of Independence. The phrase "all men are created equal" was central to Lincoln's argument, his primary evidence for the antislavery intentions of the Founding Fathers. Lincoln eloquently . . . — Map (db m65325) HM|
|Illinois (Lake County), Gurnee — The Mother Rudd Barn — Historic Garden — 1840 s|
|The Mother Rudd Home is the oldest building in Warren Township. It served as a stagecoach stop, inn, tavern and post office. After the organization of the township in 1850, it was the official town hall and all caucuses and elections were held here.
It is believed that the Mother Rudd Barn was a stop on the Underground Railroad. Shelter and food were provided to escaped slaves as they journeyed from the South to freedom in the North and Canada. All that is left of the barn is this . . . — Map (db m55519) HM|
|Illinois (Macon County), Decatur — Let Us All Be United|
| By 1856 Abraham Lincoln had realized that his former political party, the Whigs, was in ruins. The political landscape had changed to the point that Lincoln accepted an invitation to attend an Anti-Nebraska Editors Convention held at the Cassell House in Decatur, Illinois, on George Washington's birthday, February 22, 1856. Lincoln was the only politician invited to attend. The rest of the delegates were Illinois newspaper editors who were opposed to the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act. . . . — Map (db m56884) HM|
|Illinois (McLean County), Bloomington — The Lost Speech|
| Horace Greeley's New York Tribune reported on the Bloomington convention for its national readership: "It was most emphatically a convention of the people, where all classes, opinions and shades of belief were represented---but all inspired with one common resolve to resist further aggressions of the slave power to the bitter end." The "shades of belief" were broad. The old Whig Party had collapsed. New movements focused on single topics. Here in Bloomington abolitionists, . . . — Map (db m57458) HM|
|Illinois (Morgan County), Jacksonville — Lincoln and Slavery|
| Pictured in the crowd listening to Abraham Lincoln's speech is Joseph O. King, a prominent merchant who later became mayor of Jacksonville. He helped found a political group that agitated for the exclusion of slavery from the free territories. Their first meeting, with King as clerk, took place in his store on the north side of the square. Most of the men who belonged were abolitionists. The Congregational Church was the only local church that supported this position. King's group . . . — Map (db m57653) HM|
|Illinois (Sangamon County), Springfield — The Underground Railroad in Lincoln's Neighborhood|
|The Underground Railroad refers to the efforts of enslaved African Americans to gain their freedom by escaping bondage. Acts of self-emancipation made runaways "fugitives" according to the laws of the time. While most began and completed their journeys unassisted, each subsequent decade in which slavery was legal in the United States saw an increase in active efforts to assist escape. Abraham Lincoln's neighbor, Jameson Jenkins, played an important role in the hopes of freedom seekers passing . . . — Map (db m48450) HM|
|Illinois (Stephenson County), Freeport — Second Joint Appearance — Abraham Lincoln & Stephen A. Douglas|
|The second round in a seven-round bout between political giants Stephen A. Douglas and Abraham Lincoln was held in Freeport on August 27, 1858. In what has become a legendary struggle, Lincoln and Douglas contested for a seat in the United States Senate, but the soul of the nation was at stake – not just a Senate seat.
Douglas was the incumbent. However, the election was a hurdle in his dream of becoming President of the United States in 1860. Lincoln was a relatively unknown . . . — Map (db m93499) HM|
|Indiana (Boone County), Zionsville — Lincoln's Stop in Zionsville, Indiana|
|Abraham Lincoln enroute to Washington as President Elect on February ll, 1861 addressed the Citizens of Zionsville at the Railroad Depot which stood on this site. — Map (db m8326) HM|
|Indiana (Decatur County), Greensburg — 16.2007.1 — Donnell -V.- State, 1852|
| Side one:
Luther Donnell was convicted in Decatur Circuit Court (1849) of aiding fugitive slaves, Caroline and her four children, to escape to Canada. In Donnell v. State, Indiana Supreme Court reversed the conviction, claiming that under U.S. Supreme Court decision in Prigg v. Pennsylvania federal law superseded a state law regarding aid to fugitive slaves.
Prigg, a pro-slavery decision, was used in this case and elsewhere to benefit the anti-slavery cause. The . . . — Map (db m44752) HM|
|Indiana (Decatur County), Greensburg — 16.2008.1 — Escape of Caroline, 1847|
| Side one:
Caroline and her four children escaped Kentucky slave owner October 31, 1847; they crossed Ohio River near Madison. After passing near here, Fugit Township black and white residents hid family close to Clarksburg. While hidden, family seized by a white resident, but escaped before owner claimed them. Residents separated family to avoid another capture.
Family members safely escorted from Decatur County and reunited in Union County. Family reached Canada. . . . — Map (db m44743) HM|
|Indiana (Elkhart County), Bristol — 20.2007.1 — Graves et al v. Indiana|
| Side One:
In 1847, three Kentucky men tried to capture Thomas Harris, fugitive slave in Bristol; a justice of the peace ruling freed Harris, who fled. In 1848, the Elkhart Circuit Court convicted the three men of causing a riot in 1847. In 1849, Indiana Supreme Court reversed Circuit Court based on 1842 Prigg v. Pennsylvania decision of U.S. Supreme Court.
This incident is an example of local judicial officers countering a pro-slavery federal decision.
The . . . — Map (db m30744) HM|
|Indiana (Floyd County), New Albany — 22.2004.1 — A Gateway to Freedom|
|As early as 1821, enslaved blacks seeking freedom crossed the Ohio River from Louisville to New Albany. Antebellum and Civil War periods brought more fugitives. Many freedom-seekers were aided by other slaves, free blacks, and anti-slavery whites -- all risking violence and arrest. Not everyone who tried to escape succeeded.
Many freedom-seekers coming through New Albany achieved their goal, traveling as far north as Canada. The Underground Railroad refers to a . . . — Map (db m30841) HM|
|Indiana (Fulton County), Rochester — The Underground Railroad — 1850 - - 1865|
|In memory of Fulton County Citizens who harbored fugitive slaves on their way to freedom in Canada. In Indiana, the underground railroad began along the Ohio River in 1850. After the Fugitive Slave Law was passed requiring citizens to help capture runaway enslaved persons. The underground railroad was the creation of those objecting to the law. It continued until the end of the Civil War in 1865. Hoosiers eventually set up a series of stations across the State to hide, to protect, and to pass . . . — Map (db m37667) HM|
|Indiana (Gibson County), Oakland City — 26.2005.1 — James Washington Cockrum|
| Side 'One'
Born 1799 in North Carolina. Purchased land 1818 in Gibson County. Cockrum and Jacob Warrick Hargrove laid out the town of Oakland (now Oakland City) on January 15, 1856. Cockrum and his son William Monroe Cockrum, along with sympathizers in Warrick, Gibson, and Pike counties, aided enslaved blacks seeking freedom. Cockrum died November 19, 1875.
James W. Cockrum's barn, originally located on this property, was used to hide freedom seekers. The Underground . . . — Map (db m47807) HM|
|Indiana (Hamilton County), Westfield — 29.2008.1 — Rhodes Family Incident|
| Side A:
In 1837, an enslaved family of three escaped from Missouri; settled six miles north of here 1839 with name Rhodes. In 1844, Singleton Vaughn arrived at their home to claim them; family resisted until neighbors arrived. Vaughn agreed to take family to Noblesville for trial. In route, a crowd stopped Vaughn, demanding the family be taken to Westfield.
(Continued on other side)
(Continued from other side)
Urged on by the crowd, driver of wagon carrying family . . . — Map (db m27812) HM|
|Indiana (Harrison County), Corydon — 31.2008.1 — Oswell Wright|
Born in Maryland early 1810's. Bought land in Corydon, May 1849. In November 1857, Kentuckians arrested Wright and two white men, Charles and David Bell; they were indicted and jailed in Kentucky for aiding escape of fugitive slave. Bells rescued in jailbreak 1858. Wright convicted May 1859; completed sentence in kentucky Penitentiary; released June 1864.
Wright, a free black, lost his own freedom for helping a slave escape. Died in Corydon, March . . . — Map (db m9615) HM|
|Indiana (Harrison County), Corydon — 31.2003.3 — St. Paul African Methodist Episcopal Church|
Free blacks and former slaves organized an African Methodist Episcopal congregation in Corydon by 1843. In 1851, church trustees purchased land in Corydon in order to build a church and for school purposes. In 1878, church trustees purchased land at this site and later built a frame church.
In August 1975, the congregation dedicated the brick church adjacent to this site. William Paul Quinn, appointed A.M.E. missionary 1840, established many . . . — Map (db m9752) HM|
|Indiana (Henry County), Greensboro — 33.1976.1 — Underground Station|
|Seth Hinshaw, (1787-1865), well-known abolitionist, operated a station of the Underground Railroad on this site, prior to the Civil War. He also operated a store in which he refused to sell goods produced by slave labor. In 1843, Hinshaw helped erect Liberty Hall, which was located one block west of this site, where many fiery anti-slavery meetings were held under his direction. — Map (db m63804) HM|
|Indiana (Jackson County), Seymour — 36.2008.2 — Alexander McClure|
| Side 'One'
On April 15, 1860 at the Seymour railroad depot, a shipping box was damaged while being transferred; McClure was discovered inside and immediately identified himself as a fugitive slave from Nashville, Tennessee. The box had been shipped from Nashville, addressed to Levi Coffin in Cincinnati, who strongly denied any knowledge of the escape plan.
Adams Express Company agents took McClure to Louisville jail, where his owner claimed him, then took him to . . . — Map (db m46663) HM|
|Indiana (Jay County), Balbec — A Station on the Underground Railroad|
|Tradition says Eliza Harris of Uncle Tom's cabin fame rested here in her flight to Canada — Map (db m45184) HM|
|Indiana (Jay County), Pennville — 38.1972.1 — West Grove|
|Early Quaker settlement established 1836; center of Underground Railroad activity. Meeting house erected here, 1840, on land donated by Enos and Margaret Lewis; used by Congregational Friends, by Spiritualist society, as school, community hall; razed 1927. — Map (db m66818) HM|
|Indiana (Jefferson County), Madison — 39.2004.3 — Eleutherian College|
College developed 1854 from Eleutherian Institute, founded 1848. Thomas Craven and anti-slavery advocates in the area created and supported the institution for education of students of all races and genders. This structure, built in the 1850s for classes and a chapel, was purchased for restoration 1990. Designated National Historic Landmark 1997.
Eleutherian provided one of earliest educational opportunities for women and African-Americans before . . . — Map (db m74046) HM|
|Indiana (Jefferson County), Madison — 39.2006.2 — John H. and Sarah Tibbets|
The Tibbets provided assistance to fugitive slaves here in their home (now part of National Park Service, Network to Freedom); John piloted them to the next safe haven. Both were members of Neil’s Creek Anti-Slavery Society and Anti-Slavery Regular Baptist Church at College Hill. John served as a trustee for the church and Eleutherian College.
Free blacks from Madison and surrounding area and white abolitionists helped fugitive slaves. The . . . — Map (db m74045) HM|
|Indiana (Jefferson County), Madison — 39.2004.2 — Lyman Hoyt|
Born in Vermont 1804. Moved to Jefferson County 1834, where he owned land and had several manufacturing businesses. Active in Neil’s Creek Anti-Slavery Society and in forming Liberty Party for abolition of slavery. He and his family supported Eleutherian College. He died 1857. Home listed in National Register of Historic Places 2003.
Hoyt condemned the Fugitive Slave Law and participated in helping fugitives escaping through Jefferson County. The . . . — Map (db m74044) HM|
|Indiana (Jefferson County), Madison — Madison's Riverfront / Underground Railroad|
Once a bustling commercial and industrial area,
Madison’s riverfront has greatly changed since the
City’s founding in 1809. On these banks stood
factories, mills, hotels and taverns, typical of a
busy river port on the frontier. Annual flooding
has forced the move to higher ground, leaving
behind a restful park area for all to enjoy.
The Underground Railroad was neither . . . — Map (db m22775) HM|
|Indiana (Knox County), Vincennes — 42.2009.1 — Mary Clark|
| Side One:
Born circa 1801, Clark, a slave, was purchased in Kentucky in 1814 by B. J. Harrison, brought to Vincennes in 1815, and indentured as his servant. In 1816, G.W. Johnston purchased her indenture for 20 years. In 1821, Clark and attorney Amory Kinney petitioned Knox County Circuit Court to terminate her indenture because she was held illegally “as a slave.”
Circuit Court ruled Clark “freely” entered into her indenture and had . . . — Map (db m23219) HM|
|Indiana (Lake County), Merrillville — 45.1949.1 — First Physician|
| Henry D. Palmer, M.D. (1809-1877) located at this site in 1836. First physician in Lake County, he was also counselor to the pioneers for 40 years and member of the underground railroad aiding escaped slaves. — Map (db m27716) HM|
|Indiana (Madison County), Pendleton — 48.2013.1 — Abolitionists Mobbed|
In 1843, Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society sent speakers to New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana to hold "One Hundred Conventions" on abolition. When speakers encountered citizens with deeply held racist ideas, they were often targets of violence. On September 16, a crowd gathered near here to listen to George Bradburn, William A. White, and Frederick Douglass.
During Bradburn's speech, more than thirty men marched in, armed with stones and . . . — Map (db m69254) HM|
|Indiana (Marion County), Indianapolis — 49.2006.2 — John Freeman|
|In 1844, John Freeman, a free black, purchased land in Indianapolis. By 1853, he owned land in this area worth $6,000. In June 1853, a slaveholder claimed Freeman was his runaway slave. Freeman spent nine weeks in jail; he hired lawyers; claim was dismissed. Black citizens held public meeting August 29 at Masonic Hall to congratulate Freeman.
Under Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, seizure of free blacks and freedom seekers in the north was common.
The Underground Railroad refers to a . . . — Map (db m1833) HM|
|Indiana (Marion County), Indianapolis — 49.2007.2 — Ovid Butler, Sr.|
|(Front): Born 1801 in New York; moved to Indiana 1817. Admitted to bar 1825; became influential lawyer. Settled in Indianapolis 1836. His opposition to slavery on moral and religious grounds was reflected in his political affiliations and support of anti-slavery newspapers; his writings publicly condemned slavery and the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. (Back): Butler wrote North Western Christian University charter 1849; founders wanted to provide "liberal and Christian education" . . . — Map (db m4644) HM|
|Indiana (Montgomery County), Crawfordsville — Elston Memorial Home — Col. Isaac C. Elston Home|
| Small Upper Brass Plaque - by Front Door:
This property is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. United States Department of Interior.
Large Middle - Brass Plaque
In Memory of the Soldiers of the Revolutionary War of 1776 Buried in Montgomery County
Jacob Miller •
Alexander Foster •
Sebastion Stonebraker •
Presly Sims •
Samuel Gregory •
John Hardee •
William Mason •
John McNulty •
James McArthur •
Samuel Newell •
Robert . . . — Map (db m9396) HM|
|Indiana (Montgomery County), Crawfordsville — 54.1995.1 — Speed Cabin|
|Site of house reputed to be a stop on the "Underground Railroad." Reconstructed cabin, which was portion of house owned by John Allen Speed, now located on grounds of lane Mansion. Speed, active in abolitionist movement, was Mayor of Crawfordsville, 1868 - 1869. — Map (db m3870) HM|
|Indiana (Parke County), Bloomingdale — Underground Railroad Station — Alfred & Rhoda Hadley|
| 1850 —————— 1868
A memorial to
Alfred & Rhoda Hadley
and others of Bloomindale
who maintained an
Underground Railroad Station
to assist fugitive
slaves to Freedom.
Parke Co. & Penn Twp.
1926 — Map (db m59730) HM|
|Indiana (Randolph County), Winchester — 68.2010.1 — Randolph County Quakers|
When this meeting house was dedicated 1898, membership in Quarterly Meeting of Friends at Winchester was largest in the world. Migration of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) into this area began 1814 with the arrival of families from southern states seeking good farm land; population grew and significantly influenced development of the county.
Men and women participated in humanitarian and social reforms including temperance, woman . . . — Map (db m69283) HM|
|Indiana (Ripley County), Milhousen — 69.2004.1 — Union Church|
August 12, 1843 Union Church organized as Freewill Baptist church at home of Harvey Marshall. Church covenant states: “We cannot receive slaveholders into the church nor those who believe that slavery is right.” First church building completed 1859 near here. In 1914, members changed denomination and name of church. New church built here 1921.
Strong anti-slavery stance of Freewill Baptist churches contributed to end of slavery and . . . — Map (db m73987) HM|
|Indiana (Ripley County), Osgood — Abolitionists|
|A network of anti-slavery leaders involved families of Isaac Levi, a Revolutionary War veteran. He came to Claytown (Osgood) in 1832 from Vevay where he apparently was part of the Underground Railroad; his brother-in-law, John Ewing of Ohio joined him here. Both had served in 1794 under Lt. William Henry Harrison.
Funded by the Reynolds Foundation
and Black Community Trust — Map (db m45940) HM|
|Indiana (Ripley County), Osgood — The Fugitive Trail|
|One of the main Underground Railroad routes came from Madison to the Ohio River north to Holton, Otter Village, and east to Osgood. It then followed the rail line east to Laughery switch, then turned north to Napoleon. So many fugitive slaves came through this path that it was called the Fugitive Trail, clearly in operation by the mid 1840's. Apparently no slave was caught on this line and it ran until 1861.
Funded by the Reynolds Foundation
and Black Community Trust — Map (db m45938) HM|
|Indiana (Ripley County), Versailles — 69.2004.2 — Stephen S. Harding|
| Side One
Born 1808 Ontario County, New York. Moved with family to Ripley County, 1820. Prominent abolitionist and orator, delivering powerful anti-slavery speeches throughout the area, often against public sentiment. Was active in Liberty Party and Republican Party. Received several appointments from President Abraham Lincoln. Died February 12, 1891.
Harding was an early leader in the opposition to slavery, helping to bring freedom to enslaved people in . . . — Map (db m45873) HM|
|Indiana (Switzerland County), Vevay — Historical Site - Switzerland County Courthouse|
Martha A. Graham
( Drawing of the River Paddle-wheeler. )
Designed in the Greek Classic style by David Dubach, Architect, and built by John Haley c. 1864, with restoration completed c. 1992. It is said the dungeon served as an “underground railroad” during the Civil War. — Map (db m46132) HM|
|Indiana (Switzerland County), Vevay — The Dungeon|
| A stop on the underground
railroad bringing slaves
1862 - 1864
This memorial placed in honor of the
descendants of the Rayls and Pickett
families in the Bicentennial year 1976. — Map (db m45896) HM|
|Indiana (Tippecanoe County), Westpoint — Underground Railroad|
|Site of station of Underground Railway used by Quakers during pre-Civil War days in smuggling slaves to Canada. Leader of the enterprise was Buddell Sleeper. — Map (db m34871) HM|
|Indiana (Wayne County), Centerville — 89.2013.1 — George Washington Julian|
A political leader defined by his moral convictions, Julian (1817-1899) advocated for abolition, equal rights and land reform, during a period marked by slavery, Civil War, monopolies, and discrimination against blacks, immigrants, and women. As U.S. Representative, 1849-1851, he supported legislation providing abolition and equal access to public lands.
Julian, long-time Centerville resident, served as attorney in notable fugitive slave cases, . . . — Map (db m69282) HM|
|Indiana (Wayne County), Dublin — 89.2003.1 — Indiana’s First Woman’s Rights Convention|
|A convention was called for by reform-minded Congregational Friends meeting at Greensboro, Henry County, January 1851. Convention held October 14-15, 1851 at Dublin adopted resolutions for political, social, and financial rights for women. Women and men who favored abolition, temperance and suffrage attended. The 1852 convention formed Indiana Woman's Rights Association to promote united action for woman's rights. Association's 1853 convention demanded equality in all political rights and . . . — Map (db m270) HM|
|Indiana (Wayne County), Fountain City — Home of Levi Coffin|
|1827 1847 This house was called the "Union Depot of the Underground Railroad," and more than 2000 escaped slaves were cared for here. Tablet placed by Wayne Co. Society of Indianapolis — Map (db m4482) HM|
|Indiana (Wayne County), Fountain City — 89.2002.1 — Levi Coffin|
|(Front Side): Levi Coffin (1798-1877), a Quaker abolitionist, lived in Newport (now Fountain City) with his family 1826-1847. Moved from North Carolina because he and his wife, Catharine, opposed slavery. Advocated, and sold in his store, free-labor products not produced by slaves. House built circa 1839; designated a National Historic Landmark 1966. (Back Side): Coffin's Reminiscences (1876) documented work in Underground Railroad and antislavery movement. The . . . — Map (db m4480) HM|
|Iowa (Cass County), Lewis — Fighting Slavery – Aiding Runaways — John Brown Freedom Trail — December 20, 1858 - March 12, 1859|
Iowa assumed an important place in America’s Underground Railroad history when Missourians closed off the Missouri River to Kansas bound settlers. For Iowa residents involved in helping runaways, the work was a dangerous and illegal business. Most in the state wanted to avoid the slavery issue, while a dedicated minority saw Iowa standing forth as a beacon of anti-slavery hope.
John Brown’s Last Iowa Trip
John Brown, with twelve men, women, and children escaping slavery from . . . — Map (db m93885) HM
|Iowa (Cass County), Lewis — Lewis Freedom Rock Veterans Memorial — Ray "Bubba" Sorensen II|
In sparsely settled Cass County
an entire company was enlisted
in Lewis, 1862.
Company I 23rd Infantry
Maj. Belle Reynolds
[Mounted Veteran Paver Bricks] — Map (db m93805) WM
|Iowa (Cass County), Lewis — Rev. George B. Hitchcock House|
Rev. George B. Hitchcock House
has been designated a
National Historic Landmark
This site possesses national significance
in commemorating the history of the
United States of America
This property is listed in the
of Historic Places
by the United States
Department of the Interior — Map (db m93862) HM
|Iowa (Iowa County), Ladora — Historic Grinnell|
|Marker Front: Josiah Bushnell Grinnell, a native of Vermont, was the person to whom Horace Greeley gave his famous advice “Go West, young man, go West.” Grinnell took that advice and in 1854 founded the city that now bears his name. A leader in state government, Grinnell in 1857 chaired the legislative committee that planed Iowa’s system of public education from the elementary through university level. A foe of slavery, he gave shelter in 1859 to the fiery abolitionist John . . . — Map (db m33683) HM|
|Kansas (Allen County), Humboldt — Aunt Polly Crosby's Cabin Site|
| Aunt Polly Crosby, First Mother of the Church, Poplar Grove Baptist. Site of her cabin. — Map (db m57483) HM|
|Kansas (Allen County), Humboldt — Humboldt Underground Railroad|
| On the East Bank [of the Neosho River], escaped slaves traveled through caves and tunnels to secret Underground Railroad stations. — Map (db m57486) HM|
|Kansas (Atchison County), Atchison — 11 — Atchison|
On July 4, 1804, Lewis and Clark exploring the new Louisiana Purchase, camped near this site. Fifty years later the town was founded by Proslavery men and named for Sen. D. R. Atchison. The Squatter Sovereign, Atchison's first newspaper, was an early advocate of violence against abolition. Here Pardee Butler, Free- State preacher, was set adrift on a river raft and on his return was tarred and feathered. Here Abraham Lincoln in 1859 "auditioned" his famous Cooper Union address ~ unmentioned . . . — Map (db m77888) HM|
|Kansas (Bourbon County), Fort Scott — "But I Can Fire a Pistol"|
| "But remember this, I am a girl, but I can fire a pistol and if ever the time comes I will send some of you to the place where there is [sic] 'weeping and knashing of teeth'...."
Gene Campbell, in a letter to James Montgomery, January 4, 1859.
Gene Campbell's anger testifies to the hatred and ill will prevalent during the pre-Civil War era called "Bleeding Kansas," and to her anguish over the violence - on this site - that ended the life of her fiancé, pro-slaver John . . . — Map (db m54075) HM|
|Kansas (Bourbon County), Fort Scott — Western Hotel: Symbol of Strife|
After the army sold Fort Scott in 1855, the infantry barracks located here (reconstructed in front of you) became the pro-slavery Western Hotel. The building across the parade ground directly behind you became the anti-slavery Free State Hotel. The two hotels symbolized the strife over slavery that divided Kansas in the late 1850s, an era known as “Bleeding Kansas.”
Violence visited Fort Scott often during Bleeding Kansas, and the Western Hotel played a role in several . . . — Map (db m36272) HM|
|Kansas (Douglas County), Lawrence — John Brown and the Siege of Lawrence, September 14-15, 1856|
On the afternoon of September 14th, 1856, the Free State settlement of Lawrence, Kansas Territory was threatened with invasion by an army of 2700 Pro-slavery Missourians under the command of Generals David R. Atchison and John W. Reid. Encamping near Franklin, four miles southeast of Lawrence, the Missourians were determined to wipe out the town that stood as a symbol of New England abolitionism.
Less than four months earlier, Atchison and Sheriff Jones led the Sack of Lawrence, . . . — Map (db m76325) HM|
|Kansas (Douglas County), Lawrence — Liberty Hall|
The Herald of Freedom,
published on this site 1855-56
Site of Liberty Hall,
Lawrence's first opera house 1870-1911
The Bowersock Opera House
(Liberty Hall), built in 1912
Designed by Samuel B. Tarbet & Co.
in the Beaux Arts style — Map (db m54573) HM|
|Kansas (Elk County), Elk Falls — 112 — Prudence Crandall|
| In 1831, Prudence Crandall, educator, emancipator, and human rights advocate, established a school which in 1833, became the first Black female academy in New England at Canterbury, Connecticut. This later action resulted in her arrest and imprisonment for violating the "Black Law."
Although she was later released on a technicality, the school was forced to close after being harassed and attacked by a mob. She moved with her husband Reverend Calvin Philleo to Illinois.
After her husband . . . — Map (db m57960) HM|
|Kansas (Elk County), Elk Falls — Prudence Crandall|
| The State of Connecticut proudly joins the State of Kansas in honoring the lifetime achievements of Prudence Crandall, educator and champion of human rights. Crandall’s courage and determination serve as examples of all who face seemingly insurmountable odds and to those who refuse to be limited by social conventions. To this day, her efforts to promoted equality in education remain unequaled.
The building which housed Crandall’s academy in Canterbury, Connecticut, opened as a museum in . . . — Map (db m57961) HM|
|Kansas (Jackson County), Holton — Edward D. Holton|
Businessman • Philanthropist
Holton • Kansas
Est. 1857 — Map (db m63874) HM|
|Kansas (Jackson County), Netawaka — 17 — Battle of the Spurs|
| Just before Christmas, 1858, John Brown "liberated" eleven slaves in Missouri. He hid them in a covered wagon and circled north on the underground railway toward Nebraska and freedom. En route a Negro baby was born. Late in January they reached Albert Fuller's cabin on Straight creek, a mile and a half south of this marker. Here a Federal posse barred their way. Both sides sent for reinforcements. Help for Brown arrived first, Topeka abolitionists leaving in the midst of Sunday church. . . . — Map (db m53291) HM|
|Kansas (Jefferson County), Valley Falls — 13 — Battle of Hickory Point|
|In September, 1856, a band of Proslavery men sacked Grasshopper Falls (Valley Falls) and terrorized the vicinity. On the 13th, the Free-State leader James H. Lane with a small company besieged a party of raiders in log buildings at Hickory Point, about one-half mile west of this marker. Unable to dislodge them, Lane sent to Lawrence for artillery and reinforcements. Col. James A. Harvey responded next day only to find that Lane had raised the siege and departed. "Sacramento," historic Mexican . . . — Map (db m55362) HM|
|Kansas (Leavenworth County), Leavenworth — Bleeding Kansas — Historic Wayside Tour #12|
| "Each man carried a bowie-knife, a revolver, a pair of breeches, a shirt and a very don't-care a damn expression...The stews and brothels, the hospitals and poorhouses of the East can furnish thousands more of just such scabby, scurvy, scapegoats, who will rejoice in a fancy jaunt to Kansas. We are in favor of Kansas becoming a Free State, we hope it will. But if freedom has so far fallen from her high estate that she has to use such men, such means, and such measures as are now being . . . — Map (db m46709) HM|
|Kansas (Leavenworth County), Leavenworth — Leavenworth — The Oldest City in Kansas|
Leavenworth was founded in June, 1854, although it was not incorporated until the following summer. During the territorial struggle which flared between proslavery and Free-State forces, the city was the scene of many incidents which contributed to the reputation of “Bleeding Kansas.”
At this location Leavenworth’s first municipally-owned city building, the Market House, was opened in 1858. City business was conducted on the second floor. Merchants, including several . . . — Map (db m71724) HM|
|Kansas (Linn County), Mound City — Fort Montgomery — Replica built in 2000|
Original cabin/fort built in 1855 five miles west of Mound City. The original building was the second cabin owned by James Montgomery as the first one was burned by proslavery Missouri Border Ruffians.
The logs were placed vertically on the building and were so tightly fit together that bullets could not penetrate the walls. The family slept in the loft. The cabin had a cellar used to shelter fugitive slaves and was also an escape for Colonel Montgomery through a tunnel that went into . . . — Map (db m93375) HM
|Kansas (Linn County), Trading Post — 46 — Marais des Cygnes Massacre|
|Nothing in the struggle over slavery in Kansas did more to inflame the nation than the mass killing which took place May 19, 1858, about four miles northeast of this marker. Charles Hamelton who had been driven from the territory by Free-State men, retaliated by invading the county with about thirty Missourians. Capturing 11 Free-State men, he marched them to a ravine and lined them up before a firing squad. Five were killed, five were wounded, and one escaped by feigning death. The site and . . . — Map (db m4359) HM|
|Kansas (Linn County), Trading Post — Marais des Cygnes Massacre State Historic Site Trail|
| A Nation at Odds
The mid 1800s were a time of turmoil and tragedy in the U.S. The issue of slavery polarized the nation. It created a moral, political, and economic dilemma. The struggle over slavery ultimately led to the Civil War, splitting the Northern and the Southern states.
Tension in Kansas Territory
The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 created Kansas Territory. The voters of the territory would decide if it was to be a free or slave state. (The state of Missouri lies 1,200 . . . — Map (db m39862) HM|
|Kansas (Linn County), Trading Post — Murder on the Marais des Cygnes|
| The bloodiest single incident in the Kansas-Missouri border struggles, 1854-1861, occurred May 19, 1858, when about 30 Proslavery Missourians seized 11 Kansas Free-State men near Trading Post and marched them to a ravine 225 yards northwest of this marker. Lining up their prisoners, they callously shot them down, killing five and wounding five others. One escaped injury by feigning death. Northerners were horrified, and John Greenleaf Whittier immortalized the fallen in a poem, "Le Marais du . . . — Map (db m39861) HM|
|Kansas (Linn County), Trading Post — Sounds from the past...hoof beats and heartbeats. — Frontier Military Historic Byway|
| Pro- and anti-slavery forces made their way to this area on horseback and on foot in the fight over whether Kansas would be a free state or a slave state. Skirmishes, scuffles and screams could be heard in the woodlands nearby.
The Marias des Cygnes Massacre occurred just northeast of here on May 19, 1858 when pro-slavery forces came from Missouri and captured 11 free-state men, killing five of them in a ravine. In December, 1858, John Brown gathered 11 slaves in Missouri and brought them . . . — Map (db m33944) HM|
|Kansas (Miami County), Osawatomie — 50 — John Brown Country|
Osawatomie - the name derives from a combination of Osage and Pottawatomie - was settled in 1854 by Free-State families from the Ohio Valley and New England. John Brown, soon to become famous for his militant abolitionism, joined five of his sons at their homes near the new town in October 1855. By the spring of 1856, local defiance of Proslavery laws and officials was so notorious that 170 Missourians "punished" the area by looting Osawatomie. Two months later Free-State men destroyed a . . . — Map (db m69325) HM|
|Kansas (Miami County), Osawatomie — John Brown of Kansas|
|Erected May 9, 1935 by The Woman's Relief Corps Department of Kansas Auxiliary to the Grand Army "John Brown of Kansas He dared begin He lost But losing won"
Eugene N. Ware — Map (db m4347) HM|
|Kansas (Miami County), Osawatomie — 6 — Old Stone Church — Osawatomie Driving Tour|
Built by Rev. Samuel Adair
Dedicated July 14, 1861 — Map (db m69315) HM|
|Kansas (Miami County), Osawatomie — Old Stone Church|
One of the first churches in Kansas, this church was built by a Congregationalist group and is typical of the church structures built during pioneering days in Kansas. It was dedicated to public worship in 1861, and its first pastor was the Reverend Samuel L. Adair brother-in-law of John Brown, the famous abolitionist.
Ad Astra Per Aspera — Map (db m69319) HM|
|Kansas (Miami County), Osawatomie — 9 — Soldiers Monument — Osawatomie Driving Tour|
Erected to honor the 5 men killed in the Battle of Osawatomie on August 30, 1856.
Dedicated August 30, 1877
[Monument inscription reads]
In commemoration of those who on the 30th of August, 1856, gave up their lives at the Battle of Osawatomie in defence of freedom.
Theron Parker Powers
Born Oct. 1, 1832.
David R. Garrison
Born Dec. 14, 1826.
George W. Partridge . . . — Map (db m69304) HM|
|Kansas (Nemaha County), Sabetha — 32 — The Lane Trail|
| Near here the towns of Plymouth and Lexington once stood as outposts on the Lane Trail, approximated today by US-75. Named for abolitionist James H. Lane, the trail was established in 1856 to bypass proslavery strongholds in Missouri and provide free-state settlers a safe route into Kansas. Rock piles known as "Lane's chimneys" marked the trail. Leaving Iowa City, settlers went west into Nebraska and south into Kansas, passing through Plymouth, Lexington, Powhattan, Netawaka, and Holton before . . . — Map (db m52952) HM|
|Kansas (Shawnee County), Topeka — A Turning Point for Equality|
Across the field in front of you stands the former Monroe Elementary School. Parents of six students that attended this school in 1949 participated in the Brown v. Board of Education lawsuit. On May 17, 1954, the US Supreme Court issued a breakthrough ruling on Brown v. Board of Education declaring that "... in the field of education... Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." This schoolhouse is still a place for education today. During your visit you can . . . — Map (db m81395) HM
|Kansas (Shawnee County), Topeka — Constitution Hall -Topeka — 1855 -|
Free State Capitol of Kansas Territory, 1855-1861
Used as the Kansas Capitol, 1864-1869
Constitution Hall is Topeka's oldest building. In October 1855, Free Staters held Topeka's first convention here, to organize a free state government and ratify the Topeka Constitution. This was the first of the four constitutions leading to Kansas statehood.
The Topeka Constitution was far reaching for its time, proclaiming There shall be no slavery in this state. The Topeka . . . — Map (db m47297) HM|
|Kansas (Wyandotte), Kansas City — Quindaro Ruins Archaeological Park|
Many battles punctuated the movement to establish and maintain Kansas as a free state during the Civil War period. The quest for freedom exacted a heavy toll and caused many the ultimate sacrifice including John Brown the abolitionist.
Modern day battles were equally important to the survival of the township of Quindaro. The battle to save the Quindaro ruins and preserve a legacy of freedom was waged for nearly two decades. During the early 1980’s a plan had been . . . — Map (db m86331) HM|
|Kansas (Wyandotte County), Kansas City — John Brown|
Erected to the memory of
by a grateful people — Map (db m69455) HM|
|Kansas (Wyandotte County), Kansas City — Quindaro, Kansas — 1857 1862 — A Kansas City, Kansas Historic Site|
Near this site was located the historic town of Quindaro, founded in 1856 as a port-of-entry for free-soil immigrants into Kansas. The principal founder was Abelard Guthrie, who named the town for his Wyandotte Indian wife, Nancy Quindaro Brown. Other proprietors included Joel Walker, S.N. Simpson, Vincent J. Lane, Charles Robinson, and Sylvester Storrs. The townsite stretched from 17th [Street] to 42nd Street and from Parallel [Parkway] to the Missouri River. The Missouri River was then . . . — Map (db m69458) HM|
|Kentucky (Boone County), Burlington — Passage To Freedom From Slavery — Memorial to the Undergrond Railroad in Boone County, Kentucky — Another Marker in Rabbit Hash|
|In memory of all the slaves in Boone County,
those who helped them, and the slaves’ descendants
who remember & honor them and their legacy.
Dedicated 21 March, 2005 by the Problem Solving Team, a diverse
group of students, grades five through eight, St. Joseph Academy,
Walton, Kentucky. The team designed a memorial package as part
of the monument challenge sponsored by the National
Underground Railroad Freedom Center, Cincinnati, Ohio. The
memorial design was awarded a first place . . . — Map (db m79290) HM|
|Kentucky (Campbell County), Bellevue — Bellevue, Kentucky|
|Incorporated March 15, 1870, on part of original land grant to Gen. James Taylor, pioneer, for whose farm this city was named. A general in War of 1812, banker, and statesman, whose farm was an underground railroad station.
President of the first town trustees was George D. Allen.
Hometown of Anna E. Wolfram, one of Kentucky's first women doctors. — Map (db m49115) HM|
|Kentucky (Franklin County), Frankfort — 2235 — Emily Thomas Tubman House|
| (Side A) Summer home of Emily Thomas Tubman, philanthropist and emancipator. Born in Virginia in 1794, she was reared in Kentucky as ward of Henry Clay. She married Georgia merchant Richard Tubman in 1818. A widow after 1836, she gave to many Kentucky charities. When Frankfort First Christian Church burned in 1870, she donated $30,000 to build a new structure. Over. (Side B) After her husband's death, Tubman asked Georgia legislature to free her slaves and let them live in . . . — Map (db m85105) HM|
|Kentucky (Jefferson County), Louisville — 2072 — Kentucky Fugitives to Canada|
|Thornton and Lucie (also called Ruthy) Blackburn were slaves in Louisville, 1830-31. Thornton was hired out to Wurts and Reinhard's store at 4th and Main. When Lucie was sold to Virgil McKnight, the two escaped by steamboat. They were claimed two years later in Detroit by owners. The couple was rescued in "The Blackburn Riots of 1833," Detroit's first racial riot. — Map (db m70442) HM|
|Kentucky (Larue County), Hodgenville — Slavery in the Valley|
|Abraham Lincoln most likely encountered slavery while living here as a young child in 1811, when Lincoln was two years old, this portion of Kentucky was part of Hardin County. At the time, there were 1,007 slaves in Hardin County, compared to 1,627 white males who were sixteen years of age or older. Five years later, when the Lincoln family moved from Kentucky, the owner of nearby Atherton’s Ferry owned eight slaves.
Historians are just beginning to learn about the history of slavery in . . . — Map (db m60024) HM|
|Kentucky (Madison County), Richmond — 533 — "Lion of White Hall"|
|West of here is White Hall, home of Cassius M. Clay (1810-1903). For a half century, Clay was a "firebrand" in American life. Fearless abolitionist, publisher of anti-slavery paper, The True American, captain in the Mexican War, legislator and Minister to Russia. When Ft. Sumter fell, he organized civilian guard for U.S. Capitol until army could protect. — Map (db m67793) HM WM|
|Kentucky (Mason County), Maysville — Paxton Inn|
The property upon which this Inn stands
was acquired by
James A. Paxton in 1810.
Paxton and subsequent nineteenth century
owners of this building operated it as an Inn.
Lawyers and townspeople gathered here.
In 1918, the Mason County Mutual Telephone
Company purchased the site. For the next 49 years,
various telephone businesses owned this property.
In 1967 ownership of the building passed
to the Limestone Heritage Foundation, Inc.,
agents for the Limestone . . . — Map (db m84141) HM|
|Kentucky (Mason County), Maysville — Underground Rail Road — Circa 1840|
Prior to the end of the Civil War, escaping slaves sought freedom via the Underground Rail Road. Fugitives led by "conductors" traveled by darkness to refuges or "stations." Quilts often guided them, sometimes with the Drinking Gourd (Big Dipper) and safety or danger marks. Here, a light in Ripley's Rankin House marks the goal across the river. — Map (db m83976) HM|
|Kentucky (Trimble County), Bedford — 1822 — Trimble County Jail — Delia Webster - Abolitionist|
|Old stone jail erected ca. 1850 on site of original jail; second story added in 1899. For some 133 years, until 1983, this building was physical symbol of law and order in Trimble County. Its most noted prisoner, ardent abolitionist Delia Webster, was incarcerated here briefly during 1854. The jail is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. — Map (db m65676) HM|
|Maine (Cumberland County), Portland — Charles F. Eastman — Conductor on the Underground Railroad & Entrepreneur — Portland Freedom Trail|
| Eastman (1821-1880) was barber, second-hand clothing dealer, mariner and hack driver. He was also a financial supporter of the Abyssinian Meeting House and School.
He owned and operated several barber shops with his four sons, including one on this site. Barber shops were important centers of communication in the anti-slavery movement and aided freedom seekers in changing their appearance. — Map (db m50425) HM|
|Maine (Cumberland County), Portland — Christopher Christian Manuel — 1781 - 1845 — Portland Freedom Trail|
| Activist, Barber and Musician
Born in Cape Verde, Africa
First President Portland
Union Anti-Slavery Society — Map (db m50434) HM|
|Maine (Cumberland County), Portland — Franklin Street Wharf — Portland Freedom Trail|
| Landing spot for many passengers on the Underground Railroad and embarkation point for their transit to Canada and England. Anti-slavery sympathizers were well-organized to greet stowaways from Southern cargo vessels, find them safe housing in Portland, supply clothing and passes and send them on to Canada. The wharves and ships of Portland employed large numbers of African Americans, providing well paying jobs, thus adding to community stability. — Map (db m20614) HM|
|Maine (Cumberland County), Portland — Home of Amos Noë and Christiana Williams Freeman — Portland Freedom Trail|
| First full-time called minister of the Abyssinian Meeting House 1841-1852
Rev. Freeman (1809-1893) was an instructor in the school maintained for African Americans in the Abyssinian Meeting House. As conductors on the Underground Railroad, the Freemans maintained both their home and the Meeting House as safehouses for freedom seekers. After they left Maine, Christiana Freeman (1812-1903) was a director of the Colored Orphans Asylum in New York City. During the Draft Riots of 1863, she was . . . — Map (db m50428) HM|
|Maine (Cumberland County), Portland — Home of Elias and Elizabeth Widgery Thomas — Portland Freedom Trail|
| Corner of India and Congress Street, known as a Station House on the Underground Railroad. The home was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1866.
The Thomases were prominent in the Portland Anti-Slavery Society, begun in 1833, which also worked to advance women's rights. They provided housing for such notables as Lucy Stone, Susan B. Anthony, William Lloyd Garrison, Charles Lenox Remond and Parker Pillsbury. — Map (db m50429) HM|
|Maryland, Baltimore — 1781 Friends Meeting House|
|The Friends Meeting House is the oldest religious building in Baltimore. In 1781, the Patapsco Friends Meeting, formerly located on Harford Road two miles north of the Inner Harbor, moved to this site. In 1784 a group of Quakers established a school here, which "provided guarded education for their children." The school eventually became the Friends School of Baltimore.
By the mid eighteenth century the Society of Friends exerted a strong influence socially, politically, and economically in . . . — Map (db m6282) HM|
|Maryland, Baltimore — Cherry Hill|
|Part of the city but green as a suburb, Cherry Hill is a distinctive African American planned community. Cherry Hill was established to provide housing for blacks who moved to Baltimore to work in industries during World War II. Originally it consisted of 541 rowhouses, 600 apartments, and a community building. Residents added 14 churches and many organizations. As the community grew, residents campaigned for schools, parks, recreation centers, and other facilities. This neighborhood, now older . . . — Map (db m6359) HM|
|Maryland, Baltimore — Frederick Douglass — Abolitionist / Orator / Author|
|Frederick Douglass was born into American slavery on Maryland's Eastern Shore in February 1818.
In March 1826, Douglass, a slave child, was sent to live in the Hugh Auld household at this location, from 1826-1831.
Douglass periodically resided in Fells Point as a slave until Monday, September 3, 1838, when he escaped to freedom via the Underground Railroad.
Douglass returned to Baltimore as a free man on May 19, 1870 to address the 20,000 participants in the 15th Amendment Celebration . . . — Map (db m2603) HM|
|Maryland, Baltimore — Henry Highland Garnet Park|
|This is a community park developed by the Special Impact Neighborhood Improvement Program and the Department of Recreatoin and Parks dedicated to the memory of Henry Highland Garnet by the Henry Highland Garnet Neighborhood Council.
Henry Highland Garnet was the son of an enslaved African chief born in Delaware in 1815. He became a Presbyterian preacher and lecturer. His famous speech delivered to the Convention of Free Men of Color at Buffalo, New York in 1843 was:
Brethren, arise! . . . — Map (db m6236) HM|
|Maryland, Baltimore — Hugh Lennox Bond — 1828-1893|
|Stalwart supporter of President Lincoln and of Emancipation. Chief Judge in the U.S. Fourth Circuit Court, where he was nicknamed "The Curse of the K.K.K" for his harsh sentences. — Map (db m6462) HM|
|Maryland, Baltimore — Mount Auburn Cemetery|
|Oldest cemetery for African Americans in Baltimore, founded in 1872 by Rev. James Peck, pastor, and trustees of Sharp Street Methodist Episcopal Church. Dating to 1787, the congregation served the community and was influential in the freedom movement of the 19th century and the civil rights movement of the 20th. Here rest former slaves, clergy, professionals, business owners and thousands of African American families. — Map (db m13540) HM|
|Maryland, Baltimore — Mount Clare — Freedom Seekers at Georgia Plantation — National Underground Railroad-Network to Freedom|
|In 1760, Mount Clare was built as the summer home of Charles Carroll, Barrister. Mount Clare was the center of Georgia, Charles Carroll’s 800-acre Patapsco River Plantation. The estate supported grain fields and grist mills along the Gwynn’s Falls, an orchard and vineyard, racing stables, brick kilns, and a shipyard on the Middle Branch of the Patapsco River.|
When it first went into operation, the Baltimore Iron Works had a labor force of eighty-nine individuals. . . . — Map (db m61209) HM
|Maryland, Baltimore — Solo Gibbs Park|
|Solo Gibbs Park was created in 1979 when 1-395 was built. The 1869 Sachse Bird's Eye View Illustrated Map shows the once larger neighborhood where, since the late 1700s a free African American community lived, worked and worshipped along side European descendant Quakers, Methodists, Baptists, and Lutherans. Baltimore's African Americans organized some of their first churches and schools near here on Sharp Street. Together these people promoted the abolition of slavery and participated in the . . . — Map (db m6356) HM|
|Maryland, Baltimore — The First Unitarian Church of Baltimore — (Unitarian and Universalist)|
|In 1817, when Baltimore Town boasted 60,000 inhabitants and Mount Vernon Place was still a forest, a group of leading citizens met in the home of Henry Payson "to form a religious society and build a church for Christians who are Unitarian and cherish liberal sentiments on the subject of religion." The name selected for the church, The First Unitarian Church of Baltimore was a precursor to the independence of thought and action that would become the hallmark of this group of free thinkers and . . . — Map (db m7168) HM|
|Maryland, Baltimore — Tyson House|
|Built by Elisha Tyson 1790 — Map (db m6120) HM|
|Maryland (Anne Arundel County), Annapolis — Dred Scott, 1700 - 1858 — Freedom Denied by the United States Supreme Court|
|Dred Scott was born a slave in Southampton, Virginia. His family was owned by Peter Blow who sold Scott to an army doctor named John Emerson. Dr. Demerson took Scott to live in the free states of Illinois and Wisconsin where, in 1836, Scott married Harriet Robinson. The couple had two daughters and two sons, both of whom died in infancy.|
In 1843, Scott, who now lived in the slave state of Missouri, attempted to buy his freedom from the widow of Dr. Emerson for $300. His bid for freedom was . . . — Map (db m75677) HM
|Maryland (Anne Arundel County), Annapolis — Roger Brooke Taney, 1777 - 1864 — Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court|
|Roger Brooke Taney was born in Calvert County, Maryland. After serving as attorney general of the U.S. and secretary of the Treasury, he was sworn in as chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court on March 15, 1836. He served until his death in 1864.|
Although Taney considered slavery an evil, he believed its abolition had to be led by the states in which slavery existed. He freed his own slaves when he inherited them and provided pensions to those too old to work.
In the infamous Dred . . . — Map (db m75675) HM
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Sparks-Glencoe — Gorsuch Tavern|
|At “19 mile stone” on York Road built in 1810 by Captain Joshua Gorsuch, a shipbuilder. The tavern was the meeting place of the Baltimore Countians who went to Pennsylvania to reclaim their slaves, thus bringing on the Christiana Riot of 1851. — Map (db m2057) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — Quarters #2 & 3 — Hampton National Historic Site — circa 1850|
|These two stone buildings, which replaced earlier log structures, housed slaves before the Civil War. After the abolition of slavery, they provided quarters for plantation and farm workers — Map (db m92522) HM|
|Maryland (Caroline County), Denton — Caroline Courthouse-In the Shadow of Justice — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
|Many facets of 19th century rural life focused on a county’s courthouse. Elected officials, lawyers, merchants, and ordinary citizens all had reasons to gather at the Caroline County Courthouse Square. For the enslaved and abolitionists, the square possessed a more sinister purpose.|
Conducted in the shadow of the courthouse—the symbolic center of government and justice—local slave auction exhibited the inhumanity and raw, lucrative economics of the antebellum slave trade. The . . . — Map (db m79340) HM
|Maryland (Caroline County), Denton — Choptank River Heritage Center-Steal Away by River — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
|The Choptank River was as entwined with the history of slavery and freedom on the Eastern Shore as any plantation. Slaves arrived by boat for auction and left the dock in the hands of a new owner. At wharves like this, black watermen played an important role in freedom’s network, bringing news, passing gossip, and occasionally whispering advice about the prospects for escape.|
A river crossing was always dangerous for fleeing slaves. Few could swim, and currents were strong. Bridges were . . . — Map (db m79342) HM
|Maryland (Caroline County), Denton — Moses and the Hounds — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
|Growing up as a slave near Easton, MD, Moses Viney often heard, “The wild geese come from Canada, where all are free.“ When he was 23 years old, Moses learned he might be sold to a new owner in the Deep South. To avoid this fate, he and two friends escaped on Easter morning in April 1840. They swore they would make it to Canada or die trying.|
Upon reaching the Choptank River, the trio attempted to cross a bridge near here. But the plantation’s hounds were hot on their trail, . . . — Map (db m79341) HM
|Maryland (Caroline County), Denton — Revolution or Fraud? — Emancipation in Caroline Co.|
|Maryland slaves were not freed by the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863, which excluded states that remained in the Union from its provisions. It was Maryland's new constitution, adopted by the narrow margin of 291 votes of almost 60,000 cast on November 2, 1864, that ended slavery in the state. The voluntary abolition of slavery here boosted the reelection campaign of President Abraham Lincoln. Though hailed as "The Mighty Revolution," emancipation and the new constitution resulted from . . . — Map (db m3389) HM|
|Maryland (Caroline County), Denton — Tuckahoe Neck Meeting House-Living Their Beliefs — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
|The Quakers, also known as Friends, who met in this Meeting House not only held strong opinions on the abolition of slavery and women’s rights, but they also acted on those beliefs.|
After 1790, the Friends who gathered here refused membership to slaveholders. They also played critical roles in the Underground Railroad, relying on family, friends, and business contacts in the North to move fugitives from one safe house to another along the many paths to freedom.
For many 19th century . . . — Map (db m79354) HM
|Maryland (Caroline County), Denton — William Still Center-Families Divided & United — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
|William Still’s mother Sidney and several of his siblings lived in a cottage on the plantation where they were enslaved. Sidney escaped with her children to join her husband in New Jersey, but she was soon recaptured and returned to Maryland. Leaving her two boys behind but taking her two daughters, she fled again, this time successfully. As punishment, her angry owner sold her sons Peter and Levin.|
Sidney gave birth to her last child, William, in freedom in New Jersey. As an adult living . . . — Map (db m79313) HM
|Maryland (Caroline County), Greensboro — Greensboro-Threatened by Ideas — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
|More than cargo flowed through commercial towns like Greensboro. Abolitionist ideas and freedom seekers on the move created tension within a society dependent on slavery.|
Site of the northern-most bridge over the Choptank River, Greensboro served as a link between the river and overland traffic. Dockworkers loaded and unloaded grains, timber, and manufacturing goods. Transferred to wagons, cargoes lumbered along to markets in Delaware, Philadelphia, and beyond.
In return, news and ideas . . . — Map (db m79356) HM
|Maryland (Caroline County), Harmony — “Sailing Away to Freedom”-Glipin Point — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
|Glipin’s Point was one of the busiest wharves along the Choptank River in Caroline County where steamboats and sailing vessels transported people, timber, agricultural products, and seafood. It sat just upriver from Dr. Anthony C. Thompson’s plantation where Harriet Tubman’s parents lived and where Tubman herself conducted several of her most famous escapes. |
Forty-year-old Joseph Cornish, a blacksmith and minister, was enslaved by Capt. Samuel W. LeCompte, USN, who worked him very hard. . . . — Map (db m79311) HM
|Maryland (Caroline County), Preston — Choptank Landing-Escape from Poplar Neck — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
| While the Choptank River could pose a troublesome barrier to those without a boat, others used the river as a path to freedom.|
Josiah Bailey, an enslaved logger and shipbuilder, rowed six miles up the river. His destination was Poplar Neck, where he alerted Harriet Tubman’s father, Ben Ross, that he wanted her help to escape.
In November 1856, Harriet arrived to lead Bailey, his brother Bill, and friends Peter Pennington and Eliza Manokey to Canada. Hotly pursued, Bailey made good his . . . — Map (db m79172) HM
|Maryland (Caroline County), Preston — Escape from Poplar Neck — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
| Harriet Tubman’s parents, Rit and Ben Ross, moved to Poplar Neck in 1847. Her father worked as a lumber foreman on Dr. Anthony C. Thompson’s 2,200 heavily forested acres. Harriet probably made her first escape from this place in 1849, and she covertly led her brothers to freedom from here on Christmas Day in 1854. |
Harriet Tubman’s parents were Underground Railroad agents. In 1857, they were suspected of aiding a group of escaped slaves, known as the Dover Eight. Fearing her parents’ . . . — Map (db m79173) HM
|Maryland (Caroline County), Preston — Leverton House-Finding Safe Haven — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
|Refugees from slavery came here for temporary sanctuary.|
Under the cover of darkness, they crept across these fields toward the home of Quaker Jacob and Hannah Leverton. The house, a rare, documented Underground Railroad station, still stands at the end of this driveway. All along the many paths to freedom, “agents” like the Levertons provided food, clothing, comfort, and transportation.
This safe house anchored a refuge that also included the homes of the free black . . . — Map (db m79303) HM
|Maryland (Caroline County), Preston — Linchester Mill-Living Dangerously — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
|Daily life at and around Linchester Mill provided fertile yet dangerous ground for those seeking freedom. |
The mill, a general store, post office and homes at this site brought whites and blacks, free and enslaved, into regular contact. Freedom and slavery existed side-by-side in stark contrast. Quakers and free blacks who lived near the mill secretly helped freedom seekers pass through the area. The mill’s dam provided a spot to cross Hunting Creek.
Underground Railroad agent Daniel . . . — Map (db m79299) HM
|Maryland (Caroline County), Preston — Mt. Pleasant Cemetery-Dangerous Rendezvous — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
| After Quakers sold their meetinghouse to the local black community in 1849, the new owners established Mt. Pleasant Methodist Episcopal Church. The original church building has since burned, but the modern day congregation still uses the cemetery.|
Laws restricted blacks from meeting in groups and a group of slaves gathering in a home or in the woods might arouse suspicion. But they did gather at cemeteries---a rare respite amidst the constant oversight that prevailed in the 19th century . . . — Map (db m79178) HM
|Maryland (Caroline County), Preston — The Underground Railroad — Seed of War|
| Among the factors that contributed to the coming of the Civil War was the increasing animosity between Southerners and Northerners over the issue of slavery. The operation of the Underground Railroad to help slaves escape to the free North and Canada, which was supported by Northern anti-slavery societies, was a sharp thorn in the sides of slaveholders.
Two major "stations" on the Underground Railroad were located near Preston. Local Quakers, long opposed to slavery, operated one and . . . — Map (db m5411) HM|
|Maryland (Caroline County), Preston — Webb Cabin-Living Free — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
|Common in the mid-19th century, this cabin is a rare survivor today. James H. and Mary Ann Webb built this one-room house in the 1850s, using materials found in the surrounding landscape. Hand-hewn log walls rest on a foundation of ballast stones from ships that plied the Chesapeake Bay. The interior has fireplace, a root cellar, and a loft. It is typical of homes occupied by both free and enslaved blacks, including Harriet Tubman’s parents, Ben and Rit Ross, who lived nearby at Poplar . . . — Map (db m79305) HM|
|Maryland (Caroline County), Ridgely — Adkins Arboretum-Slavery Arboretum — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
|The forests and waterways of the Eastern Shore, traditional land of the Choptank and Nanticoke Indians, provided the backup for the austere home life, backbreaking labor, and dramatic escapes of enslaved blacks.|
Hundreds of acres of white oak, black walnut, poplar, hickory and sweet gum trees, located near river transportation provided income to local landowners. Harriet Tubman and her father Ben Ross not only graded and harvested timber, but Harriet also learned lessons for living off the . . . — Map (db m79355) HM
|Maryland (Dorchester County), Bucktown — Finding Freedom|
| The Call of Freedom
In the mid-19th century, 8,000 African Americans lived in Dorchester County. Roughly half were slaves; most of the rest worked as free laborers. Enslaved blacks, free blacks, and abolitionist whites worked together to operate the Underground Railroad, a secret network of "stations" and "conductors" that led hundreds of enslaved people to freedom and became a powerful national symbol of resistance to slavery.
A Childhood in Slavery
The Bucktown area has . . . — Map (db m3959) HM|
|Maryland (Dorchester County), Bucktown — Harriet Tubman — 1820-1913|
|The "Moses of her People", Harriett Tubman of the Bucktown District found freedom for herself and some three hundred other slaves whom she led north. In the Civil War she served the Union army as a nurse, scout and spy. — Map (db m3956) HM|
|Maryland (Dorchester County), Cambridge — Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge-Taking Refuge from Slavery — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
|It is no accident that for years more fugitives escaped from slavery in Maryland than any other state—the 1850 census recorded 259 runaways. Location played a critical role in these escapes. Networks of black and white abolitionists helped fugitives across borders to adjacent free states. Local terrain contributed too.|
In the 1840s and 1850s, settings like Blackwater offered refuge to Rit Geen Ross, Harriet Tubman’s mother, when she successfully hid her son Moses in Greenbriar Swamp, . . . — Map (db m78815) HM
|Maryland (Dorchester County), Cambridge — Finding Freedom|
|The Call of Freedom
Dorchester County occupies a central place in the story of the Underground Railroad, the secret network of "stations" and "conductors" that sheltered and shepherded hundreds of enslave African Americans to freedom in the mid-1800s. This county courthouse was the site of two famous Underground Railroad trials. An earlier courthouse her was the site of a dramatic escape engineered by the famed Underground Railroad conductor Harriet Tubman, a Dorchester native. . . . — Map (db m3964) HM|
|Maryland (Dorchester County), Cambridge — Harriet Tubman Memorial Garden-Celebrating an Icon — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
| The local community, joined by others across the nation, honors its native daughter, Harriet Ross Tubman. Her memory endures through artistic expression in works of literature, music, sculpture, paint, photography, performance, and more.|
Today’s descendants of enslaved and free blacks, as well as slave owners, continue to live and work in the area. There are relatives of some who escaped to freedom and descendants of Tubman’s family. One Tubman relative, Charles E. T. Ross, designed and . . . — Map (db m79140) HM
|Maryland (Dorchester County), Cambridge — Long Wharf-The River — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
|As a deep-water tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, the Choptank River was a commercial artery of the Eastern Shore since colonial times. Cargoes of timber, tobacco, and farm harvests were hoisted by dockworkers to waiting ships.|
During the early years of the slave trade, captive Africans were unloaded here too. Later, thousands of enslaved people were shipped from Long Wharf to plantations in the South.
Ironically, the Choptank River also served as a route to freedom, part of the . . . — Map (db m78737) HM
|Maryland (Dorchester County), Cambridge — Stanley Institute-Racing to Freedom — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
|In October 1857, ten years before Stanley Institute was established two large groups of enslaved families successfully fled this area.|
Caroline and Daniel Stanley and their six children escaped with Nat and Lizzie Amby and six others. Two weeks later, a group of 28 fled from nearby. Aaron and Daffney Cornish, Joe and Susan Viney, and Kit and Leah Anthony brought away numerous children. Siblings Joe and Sarah Jane Hill joined them.
Heavily armed, they appeared determined to avoid capture. . . . — Map (db m78719) HM
|Maryland (Dorchester County), Church Creek — Finding Freedom — National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom|
|The Call of Freedom Dorchester County occupies a central place in the story of the Underground Railroad, the secret network of “stations” and “conductors” assisting hundreds of enslaved African Americans to reach freedom in the mid-1800s. Church Creek and nearby Madison were ten important shipbuilding centers where some enslaved people learned skills in the maritime trades that helped them to use the creeks and rivers of the Chesapeake as passageways to . . . — Map (db m78804) HM|
|Maryland (Dorchester County), East New Market — Faith Community UMC Church-Living a Double Life — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
|During the 1840s and 1850s, the locals knew Reverend Samuel Green as a literate, highly respected Methodist Episcopal preacher and community leader. His church once stood here on land donated in 1843 by free woman Sarah Young. While the building no longer survives, the congregation remains active.
Like most African Americans in the region, Green’s family lived in fear of separation. His wife Kitty and children Sam Jr. and Sarah were enslaved. When Sam Jr. escaped in 1854, his owner was so . . . — Map (db m79150) HM|
|Maryland (Dorchester County), Madison — Madison-Preparing for Freedom — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
|Harriet Tubman spent her formative years in and around Madison, once called Tobaccostick. As a young woman, she worked for Joseph Stewart in his home and fields, until she joined her father Ben Ross in Stewart’s lumber harvesting operation. Tubman was a strong and independent worker with a network of useful contacts among the lumbermen, dockworkers, and watermen who frequented Madison.|
Free and enslaved black mariners were part of an extensive, secret network of communication, helping . . . — Map (db m78762) HM
|Maryland (Dorchester County), Madison — Malone's Church-Ties that Bind — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
|Harriet Tubman was born nearby on Harrisville Road at the Anthony Thompson plantation around 1822, where Thompson enslaved her father, Ben Ross, and about 40 other people. While Tubman’s roots began near here, she moved to Bucktown during her early childhood and returned to the area as a teen. In this place, she felt the nurturing bonds of family, faith and community.|
Hired to the Stewart family, Tubman began working with her father in these woods, cutting timber and floating it along . . . — Map (db m78765) HM
|Maryland (Dorchester County), Taylors Island — New Revived Church-Family & Faith Connections — Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway|
|Founded in 1876 as Jefferson Methodist Episcopal Church, New Revived United Methodist Church was one of five African American congregations established in this vicinity between 1864 and 1880. These churches were rooted in faith communities that had thrived long before emancipation. Connected by rugged logging roads and well worn footpaths, free and enslaved families and associates would meet to share meals, prayers, and limited socializing.|
Harriet Tubman’s own life confirmed these close . . . — Map (db m78782) HM
|Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — The Dred Scott Decision|
|At the dedication of the Roger Brooke Taney Bust in Frederick on September 26, 1931, Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes concluded that “it is unfortunate that the estimate of Chief Justice Taney’s judicial labors should have been so largely inﬂuenced by the opinion which he delivered in the case of Dred Scott [v Sandford].”
Dred and Harriet Scott were slaves who sued for their freedom after being taken from the slave state of Missouri into territory in which slavery had . . . — Map (db m89047) HM|
|Maryland (Harford County), Churchville — Calvary United Methodist Church|
|Established in 1821 by Richard Webster and in continuous use, the Calvary United Methodist Church is a rare example of an early Methodist Meeting House. It is constructed of stone from a local quarry and retains its original floor plan, including a slave gallery accessed by a separate entrance, and such features as pews, hardware and later gas light fixtures. — Map (db m1490) HM|
|Maryland (Harford County), Darlington — Lafayette at Colonel Rigbie’s House|
|Had Lafayette failed in quelling the mutiny of his troops here on Friday, April 13, 1781, the Battle of Yorktown might never have been fought. — Map (db m1286) HM|
|Maryland (Harford County), Havre de Grace — Alfred B. Hilton — Medal of Honor Recipient|
|After the Emancipation Proclamation was issued in 1863, the U.S. Army recruited both free blacks and slaves. In August 1863, freedman Alfred B. Hilton and his brothers Aaron and Henry enlisted in the 4th U.S. Colored Troops (USCT) in Havre de Grace. Of more than two hundred county men who joined the USCT, twenty-six served in that regiment. Appointed Color Sergeant and described by fellow Medal of Honor recipient Christian Fleetwood as a "magnificent specimen of manhood...splendidly . . . — Map (db m92020) HM|
|Maryland (Montgomery County), Brookeville — Madison House|
|On August 26, 1814 this house provided shelter for President Madison and his official party during the British burning of the federal buildings in Washington, D.C. in the War of 1812. The following day, August 27th, the Secretary of State James Monroe joined the President here and they returned to the Capitol. — Map (db m365) HM|
|Maryland (Montgomery County), Norwood — African Americans and Quakers in Sandy Spring|
|Sandy Spring has had large Quaker and African American populations since its founding in the 1720s.
Encouraged by their regional and national Religious Society, most Sandy Spring Quakers had freed their
slaves by about 1820, creating a significant free black population in the area. African Americans in Sandy
Spring owned and worked on farms, and ran schools, churches, and fraternal organizations such as the
Sharp Street United Methodist Church and the Odd Fellows Lodge.
In the . . . — Map (db m67633) HM|
|Maryland (Montgomery County), Silver Spring — William L. Chaplin Arrested!|
|On August 8, 1850 a hired carriage was forcibly stopped in the middle of Brookeville Pike (Georgia Avenue) near this spot by a Sheriff's posse from Washington, D.C. and a shoot-out ensued. The carriage was driven by William Chaplin, who was unarmed, and was carrying two men attempting to escape from slavery; Garland White, belonged to Senator Robert Toombs of Georgia, and Allen, belonging to Senator Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia. The posse consisted of six men led by John Goddard who were . . . — Map (db m3969) HM|
|Maryland (Prince George's County), Bowie — Seeking Freedom|
|"Billy", who went by William Whitington, and "Clem", also known as Clem Hill, escaped together on June 21, 1815, as shown in the ad printed in the Washington, D.C. newspaper, Daily National Intelligencer on June 26, 1815
It appears that Clem was captured since another runaway ad appears two years later for the capture of "...Clem, and his wife Sophy...", who ran away in the middle of May 1817. One runaway ad for them appears on June 14, 1817 in the Daily National Intelligencer. . . . — Map (db m69277) HM|
|Maryland (Prince George's County), Hyattsville — Osborne Perry Anderson|
|In Memory of
Osborne Perry Anderson
July 17, 1830 December 11, 1872
This dedicated and brave Christian traveled from Chatham, Canada to Harper's Ferry,
West Virginia, to fight beside John Brown in quest to abolish slavery. He later served as a Union soldier in the Civil War.
Greater Love Hath No Man Than This, That a Man Lay Down His Life for His Friend. John 15:13 — Map (db m90964) HM WM|
|Maryland (Prince George's County), Oxon Hill — Emancipation in Maryland|
|On November 1, 1864, new provisions of the Maryland State Constitution brought freedom to the enslaved people of Maryland after 200 years of bondage. Article 24 stated,
“That hereafter, in this State, there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except in punishment of crime … and all persons held to service or labor as slaves, are hereby free.”
Though enslaved people in the states that seceded from the Union had been freed in 1863, the Lincoln . . . — Map (db m75415) HM|
|Maryland (Queen Anne's County), Queenstown — Queenstown — Divided Loyalties|
|Queenstown, like most of the Eastern Shore in 1861, was a slaveholding community, and the impending conflict was regarded with concern and fear. When war erupted, families were torn apart because of their conflicting loyalities. It was not uncommon for some family members to be in the Confederate army and others in the Union.
The war took its toll on white Queenstown residents. With the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 and the 1864 Maryland constitutions abolution of slavery, many slave . . . — Map (db m3113) HM|
|Maryland (St. Mary's County), Scotland — Storm Blocks the Route to Freedom|
|In April 1848, the Chesapeake Bay's stormy weather doomed a maritime dash to freedom by 77 slaves from Washington D.C.
Anti-slavery activist William L. Chapin had arranged for the schooner Pearl to spirit the 77 to New York and liberty. But when Captain Daniel Drayton was forced to seek shelter in Point Lookout Creek and Cornfield Harbor, the fugitive slaves had no choice but to surrender.
Liberty for Some
Two of the Pearl's unlucky passengers, sisters Mary and . . . — Map (db m62551) HM|
|Maryland (Talbot County), Easton — Frederick Douglass — 1817 - 1895 — Negro Patriot|
|Attained freedom and devoted his life and talents to the abolition of slavery and the cause of universal suffrage. Visited England in 1845 and in 1859. Won many prominent friends abroad and at home. Was U. S. Marshall for the District of Columbia and U. S. Minister to Haiti. Was born in Tuckahoe, Talbot County. — Map (db m87682) HM|
|Maryland (Talbot County), St. Michaels — Frederick Douglass|
|Born on Tuckahoe Creek, Talbot County; lived as a slave in St. Michaels area, 1833-1836. Taught self to read and write, conducted clandestine schools for blacks here. Escaped north, became noted abolitionist orator and editor. Returned 1877, as U.S. Marshal for District of Columbia. Also served as D.C. Recorder of Deeds, U.S. Minister to Haiti. — Map (db m3732) HM|
|Maryland (Talbot County), Trappe — Nathaniel Hopkins — Soldier from Trappe|
|This was the home of Nathaniel Hopkins, known affectionately in Talbot County as "Uncle Nace." He was born a slave near here in 1831. After leaving his owner, Percy McKnett, and serving in the United States Colored Troops during the Civil War, Hopkins returned here to assist newly freed blacks in southern Talbot County. In 1878, he helped establish the county's first school for black children.
Hopkins also helped establish an Emancipation Day celebration in Talbot County to commemorate . . . — Map (db m3332) HM|
|Maryland (Washington County), Hagerstown — Washington County Jail — Fugitive Slaves Detained at the County Jail|
|An African American Heritage Report prepared by the Heritage Resources Group for the City of Hagerstown in 2002 identified the following historical incidents which suggest that the Washington County Jail was a significant site of activity along the Underground Railroad in pre-Civil War era times: A local petition was sent to the Maryland General Assembly in 1819 asking that the slave trade be halted in Washington County included a complaint that the Washington County Jail was being used to . . . — Map (db m5676) HM|
|Maryland (Washington County), Sharpsburg — “Forever Free”|
|The battle was over, but the two armies still faced one another. The Union army was still twice as strong. General Robert E. Lee, CSA "If McClellan wants to fight in the monring, I will give him battle again." Lee stayed at Antietam on more day. Then he went back across the Potomac to Virginia. Lee rebuilt his army and carried on the war for two and a half more years. Major General George B. McClellan, U.S.A. "After a night of anxious deliberation, and a full and careful survey of . . . — Map (db m6519) HM|
|Maryland (Wicomico County), Salisbury — Harriet Tubman — c. 1821 - 1913|
|"The midnight sky and the silent stars have been the witness of your devotion to freedom and of your heroism," wrote fellow abolitionist and Eastern Shore native Frederick Douglass of Harriet Tubman. A Civil War nurse, scout, spy, military strategist and early women's suffragist, the "Moses of her people" freed hundreds of slaves via the Underground Railroad.|
With the support of the Salisbury University community, sculptor James Hill and his students realized this work in 2009, with the . . . — Map (db m51021) HM
|Massachusetts (Bristol County), New Bedford — Captain Paul Cuffe — New Bedford Whaling National Historical Park|
|Paul Cuffe (1759-1817) was a sea captain, merchant, philanthropist, community leader, civil rights advocate and abolitionist. The son of an African father and Native American mother, Cuffe was born on the island of Cuttyhunk, off the coast of New Bedford. Proficient in mathematics and navigation, he worked his way up to ship owner and Captain. He founded one of the first integrated schools in America in Westport, petitioned the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for voting rights for people of . . . — Map (db m77465) HM|
|Massachusetts (Bristol County), New Bedford — Captain Paul Cuffe's Atlantic World|
Cuffe sought support in London from the African Institution - a group that was committed "to stimulating trade with Africa, without itself trading, to promote African education and improved farming methods, and to be a watch-dog against the slave trade." Cuffe was very warmly received in England by both government officials and members of the African Institution. He was granted special rights to trade with Sierra Leone and encouraged to continue working with the . . . — Map (db m86901) HM|
|Massachusetts (Bristol County), New Bedford — Frederick Douglass|
|1818–1895 “For my part, I should prefer death to hopeless bondage.”
New Bedford 1838-1841. — Map (db m1615) HM|
|Massachusetts (Bristol County), New Bedford — The Andrew Robeson House|
| Change of Address
Andrew Robeson, whaling merchant and steadfast abolitionist, built this Federal-style house in 1821 on a lot on North Second Street, diagonally behind you. The estate, with its conservatory, gardens, surrounding elm trees, and white picket fence, occupied two city blocks. The brick mansion stood then and now as a testament to the profits of the New Bedford whaling industry.
During the mid-19th century many of the whaling elite built homes in this neighborhood to be . . . — Map (db m77505) HM|
|Massachusetts (Bristol County), New Bedford — The Benjamin Rodman House|
|Wealth with a Conscience
Early whaling merchants lived in elegant houses along this street. But by the time Benjamin Rodman built this Federal style home in 1821, many of his wealthy friends were moving uphill away from this shoreside neighborhood.|
Though born into a prosperous whaling family, Rodman committed himself to the city's working poor. He and his wife Susan were founding members of the New Bedford Benevolent Society, created "to devise some means for the relief of the physical . . . — Map (db m76980) HM
|Massachusetts (Essex County), Lowell — Debating Slavery|
|By the late 1840’s, slavery was a defining political issue in northern cities. The topic was hotly debated in Lowell and created unlikely political alliances.
Abolitionists like William Lloyd Garrison visited Lowell as early as the 1830’s and labor reformers drew uncomfortable parallels between working conditions in the mills and slavery in the South.
Many labor reformers, however, strongly opposed the abolitionists. Yet several of Lowell’s most prominent investors, such as Amos . . . — Map (db m66046) HM|
|Massachusetts (Essex County), Newburyport — William Lloyd Garrison — Garrison the Liberator|
Garrison the Liberator
Presented by William H. Swasey July 4 1893
Side 2 I solicit no man’s praise. I fear no man’s censure. The Liberty of a People. Is the gift of God and Nature
Side 3 Neither God nor the World will judge us by our Professions. But by our practices.
Side 4 I am in earnest- I will not equivocate- I will not excuse- I will not retract a single inch and I will be heard — Map (db m84824) HM|
|Massachusetts (Hampshire County), Florence — Entrepreneurs and Philanthropists|
|The major industries established in Florence during the 19th century were founded by reform-minded individuals who championed progressive causes throughout their lives. Their success in business was matched by their generosity in giving. Many of the civic institutions of present day Florence are the result of their philanthropy. Samuel L. Hill, founder of the Nonotuck Silk Company, was among the radical abolitionists who formed a Utopian community in Florence in the 1840s. He continued to be an . . . — Map (db m65757) HM|
|Massachusetts (Hampshire County), Florence — Florence Manufacturing|
|Florence, or Broughton’s Meadow as it was originally called, was one of America’s early manufacturing centers. In 1837, Samuel Whitmarsh established the area’s first silk mill along the Mill River. Importing silk worms fed on homegrown mulberry leaves, Whitmash hoped to manufacture fabric and ribbons from domestically produced silk. The Northampton Association of Education and Industry, the anti-slavery utopian community, brought the factory in 1842. By 1846, the community was facing financial . . . — Map (db m65761) HM|
|Massachusetts (Hampshire County), Florence — The Anti-Slavery Community|
|Present-day Florence is the site of one of the most active centers of the anti-slavery movement in America. In 1842, members of the Northampton Association of Education and Industry, among them Samuel L. Hill and George Benson, established a utopian community organized around a communally owned and operated silk mill. Those who were drawn to this community sought to challenge the prevailing social attitudes of their day by creating a society in which “the rights of all are equal without . . . — Map (db m65759) HM|
|Massachusetts (Middlesex County), Marlborough — The John Brown Bell|
|Symbol of a nation's efforts to obtain freedom and equality for it's people
The John Brown Bell
owned, and placed here, John A. Rawlins Building Association, acting in behalf of Akroyd Houde Post 132, the American legion, with the co-operation and assistance of the Marlboro chamber of commerce, in tribute to the men of Co. I, 13th Massachusetts Volunteer militia. May their ideals, and achievements serve to remind us that freedom with equality is the promise to all men, everywhere fulfilled. . . . — Map (db m56437) HM|
|Massachusetts (Suffolk County), Boston — Memorial to Robert Gould Shaw and the Massachusetts 54th Regiment|
|[On the front of the monument, part of the relief itself]:
Omnia Relinqvit / Servare Rempvblicam
[Underneath the relief]:
Robert Gould Shaw Colonel of the Fifty Fourth Regiment of Massachusetts Infantry
born in Boston 10 October MDCCCXXXVII
Killed while leading the assault on Fort Wagner
South Carolina 18 July MDCCCLXIII
[Underneath this is a verse from James Russel Lowell's poem "Memoriae Positum"]:
Right in the van, on the red rampart's . . . — Map (db m20209) HM|
|Michigan (Calhoun County), Battle Creek — Sojourner Truth Memorial|
|In memoriam Sojourner Truth, born a slave in Ulster Co. N.Y. in the 18th century, died in Battle Creek Mich. Nov. 26, 1883 aged about 105 years. "Is God Dead" S.T.|
Formal dedication Nov. 26, 1997, 200th Anniversary — Map (db m82266) HM
|Michigan (Cass County), Cassopolis — L1352 — Chain Lake Baptist Church and Cemetery|
|In the 1830s southern runaway slaves bound for freedom in Canada came into Michigan near Cassopolis. In 1840, Cass County's Quaker community, which provided a haven for the fugitives, became an integral part of the Underground Railroad. Many free African-Americans also settled permanently in Calvin Township. In 1838, Cass County's first African-American church was organized here. In 1853 the Michigan Antislavery Baptist Association, later renamed the Chain Lake Baptist Association, was formed. . . . — Map (db m64712) HM|
|Michigan (Cass County), Cassopolis — 30 — Freedom Road — Michigan Legal Milestone|
|Beginning in 1829, Penn, Calvin, and Porter townships in Cass County were settled by Quakers who migrated there. Free Blacks also settled there, and both groups lived in harmony. Blacks in Cass County enjoyed many rights, such as the right to own land, the right to trial by jury, and the right to vote in elections—rights not available to all Blacks in the nation until the passage of the 14th and 15th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution. The free Blacks and Quakers in this area were the . . . — Map (db m79005) HM|
|Michigan (Cass County), Vandalia — Birch Lake Meeting House|
|Quakers from the mid-Atlantic region settled here during the 1830's. This is the site of the meeting house, built in 1856, which replaced a log cabin dating from 1837. The congregation contained many active Abolitionists, and this area soon became an important link in the Underground Railroad. In 1927 the property was deeded to the Birch Lake Cemetery Association to be used "for the spiritual betterment of the community." — Map (db m68407) HM|
|Michigan (Cass County), Vandalia — S137 — The Underground Railroad|
|Vandalia, prior to the Civil War, was the junction of two important "lines" of the "Underground Railroad." Slaves fleeing through Indiana and Illinois came to Cass County, where Quakers and others gave them shelter. Fugitives seeking a refuge in Canada were guided to "stations" to the east. Many stayed here and built a unique Negro rural colony. Slave-hunting by Kentuckians in 1847 led to legal action and increased North-South tensions. — Map (db m64724) HM|
|Michigan (Cass County), Vandalia — The Underground Railway|
|This boulder commemorates a station of the Underground Railway used from 1840 to 1850. It was the home of Stephen Bogue who aided runaway slaves on their way to freedom. — Map (db m68754) HM|
|Michigan (Jackson County), Jackson — S0015 — Under the Oaks|
|On July 6, 1854, a state convention of anti-slavery men was held in Jackson to found a new political party. Uncle Tom's Cabin had been published two years earlier, causing increased resentment against slavery, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act of May, 1854 threatened to make slave states out of previously free territories. Since the convention day was hot and the huge crowd could not be accommodated in the hall, the meeting adjourned to an oakgrove on "Morgan's Forty" on the outskirts of town. Here a . . . — Map (db m55195) HM|
|Michigan (Kalamazoo County), Kalamazoo — 44 — Lincoln at Kalamazoo|
|On August 27, 1856, here in this park, Abraham Lincoln, then an obscure lawyer, spoke to a rally for John Frémont, the Republican presidential nominee. This was the only time that Lincoln addressed an audience in Michigan. The event was almost unnoticed in the press. Some Republicans felt the speaker was too conservative on the antislavery issue. Four years later Michigan's vote helped put Lincoln into the White House. — Map (db m26760) HM|
|Michigan (Kalamazoo County), Schoolcraft — Underground Railroad House|
|This historic house was built in 1835 by Dr. Nathan Thomas, the first physician in Kalamazoo County. When asked in 1843 to assist escaping slaves from the south to reach Canada, he quickly agreed. Mrs. Thomas would provide food and arrange for them to sleep on the floor of the doctor's office. Fugitives would hide upstairs under the eaves if it was suspected bounty hunters were in the area. Dr. Thomas would arrange for them to travel after dark to Battle Creek and on to Canada. Dr. Thomas . . . — Map (db m68769) HM|
|Michigan (Oakland County), Farmington — 266 — First Quaker Meeting|
|In the 1820's, members of the Society of Friends played a key role in the settlement of several Michigan communities. Farmington was founded in 1824 by Arthur Power, a Quaker from Farmington, New York. In 1831, what was apparently Michigan's first formal Quaker Meeting was organized at Farmington. Power in 1832 gave the land for the meeting house and the old Quaker Cemetery located one-half mile west of here on Gill Road. Earlier, in 1828, these Friends opened a school. This industrious group . . . — Map (db m85104) HM|
|Michigan (Saint Clair County), Port Huron — Underground Railroad|
Prior to the Civil War, African American slaves, in brave and desperate attempts to flee from slave owners in the Southern states, passed through Port Huron via the Underground Railroad. It was not a real railroad but a system of routes where people opposed to slavery would provide escaping slaves with food, clothing, shelter and encouragement. Sympathetic people hid the escapees in houses and barns by day and then guided them to the next safe "station" at night.
Many escaped slaves . . . — Map (db m76050) HM|
|Michigan (Wayne County), Detroit — Detroit's Underground Railway Station|
|This tablet marks the site of Detroit's "Underground Railway Station"|
A large brick building known as "The Finney House Barn," was located here and used as a depot for helping slaves gain freedom into Canada from 1833 until the Civil War. Detroit was one of the important "stations," on the route to Canada and the Anti-Slavery Society organized in 1837, aided in the liberation of thousands of slaves. — Map (db m91616) HM
|Michigan (Wayne County), Detroit — S0069 — Finney Barn|
|Seymour Finney conducted one of the principal passenger depots of the underground railroad in the Detroit area. Finney, a tailor by trade, later became a hotel-keeper, and it was in this capacity that he assisted fugitive slaves in the era prior to 1861. In 1850 he purchased a site where in later years stood the Finney Hotel, and also erected a large barn which he operated along with his tavern. Strongly sympathetic to the abolitionist cause, Finney employed every means to assist escaping . . . — Map (db m41190) HM|
|Michigan (Wayne County), Detroit — S0224 — Frederick Douglass - John Brown meeting|
|In the home of William Webb, 200 feet north of this spot, two famous American's met several Detroit Negro residents on March 12, 1859, to discuss methods of abolishing American Negro slavery. John Brown (1800-1859), fiery antislavery leader, ardently advocated insurrectionary procedures, and eight months later became a martyr to the cause. Frederick Douglas (c. 1817-1895), ex-slave and internationally-recognized antislavery orator and writer, sought a solution through political means and . . . — Map (db m82809) HM|
|Michigan (Wayne County), Detroit — S0452 — George DeBaptiste Homesite|
|George DeBaptiste, a long-time Mason, and one of Detroit's most active and impassioned black community leaders, lived on this site during the 1850s and 60s. Born in Virginia about 1815, he moved to Madison, Indiana in 1838 and became involved in the Underground Railroad. Forced to leave because of his anti-slavery activities, DeBaptiste became the personal valet of General William Henry Harrison, whom he accompanied to the White House as a steward. In 1846, DeBaptiste came to Detroit and . . . — Map (db m14479) HM|
|Michigan (Wayne County), Detroit — The Black Presence in Detroit|
|This hallowed land was early Detroit. First came the Indians, then Cadillac and French settlers with their Black and Indian slaves. These early Blacks were French speaking Catholics with French names. History recorded that our first Black inhabitant was an unnamed female given the last rites by Father Daniel in 1736.
When the British came in 1760, they brought slaves who were used as trade goods. During the Revolutionary War, Blacks including Jean Baptiste Pointe Du Sable, the founder of . . . — Map (db m33483) HM|
|Michigan (Wayne County), Detroit — The Gateway to Freedom — Ed Dwight - Sculptor|
|Until Emancipation, Detroit and the Detroit River community served as the gateway to freedom for thousands of African American people escaping enslavement. Detroit was one of the largest terminals of the Underground Railroad, a network of abolitionists aiding enslaved people seeking freedom. Detroit's Underground Railroad code name was Midnight. At first, Michigan was a destination for freedom seekers, but Canada became a safer sanctuary after slavery was abolished there in 1834. With passage . . . — Map (db m33459) HM|