|Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Crossakiel — Jim Connell|
| Author of “The Red Flag”
which became the anthem of the
International Labour Movement
Born Rathniska, Kilskyre 1852
Died Lewisham, London 1929
Oh, grant me an ownerless corner of earth,
Or pick me a hillock of stones,
Or gather the wind wafted leaves of the trees
To cover my socialist bones,
This monument was unveiled on 26th April, 1998 by
Peter Cassells, general secretary, ICTU, before an
international gathering from the trade unions and . . . — Map (db m27347) HM|
|Israel, Northern District (Upper Galilee Regional Council), Snir — The Sanctuary of Pan|
|The conquests of Alexander the Great (3rd c. BCE) brought the Greeks to the East, and to Banyas. The Greeks were taken by the natural beauty of the site, touched particularly by the cave in which the springs welled. It is no wonder that they sanctified this cave, dedicating it to Pan, god of the forest and the shepherds. Thus came the name Panyas, later becoming "Banyas" in Arabic pronunciation.Towards the end of the first century BCE, the Romans incorporated Banyas into Herod's empire. To show . . . — Map (db m64764) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Golden Sheaf Bakery Annex — City of Berkeley Landmark - designated in 1978 — Clinton Day, Architect, 1905 * Jim Novosel, Architect, 2000|
|Listed on the National Record of Historic Places
In 1877, English immigrant John G. Wright founded the Golden Sheaf, Berkeley's first wholesale/retail bakery. The original bakery, with a public dining room, stood around the corner on Shattuck Avenue. Bakers lived in an on-site dormitory and students boarded in rooms upstairs. The business grew into the region's largest bakery, and this annex was constructed to house its fleet of horse-drawn delivery wagons. Wright helped found a bakers' . . . — Map (db m50360) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Toveri Tupa – Finnish Hall — August Trille, Designer, 1908 — Listed on the National Register of Historic Places|
|City of Berkeley Landmark
designated in 1979
Toward the end of the 19th-century, a large Finnish immigrant community was located in west Berkeley. Together they constructed this wooden building which integrates traditional Finnish and American vernacular elements. An auditorium with stage, a kitchen and dining hall, a library, and a sewing room helped make Toveri Tupa (“Comrades’ Lodge”) a center of community life.
Vigilante mobs vandalized the building after striking . . . — Map (db m53834) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Workingman’s Hall — 1879 — Berkeley History|
|Originally located at Sixth and Delaware streets, this simple wooden building was constructed by volunteers from the Workingman’s Club, a west Berkeley political organization. Built as a reading room for laborers, it was used briefly as Berkeley’s town hall shortly after completion. In 1882, a Methodist congregation moved the building to this location. It later was home to a succession of churches, schools, and fraternal organizations.
The rustic gabled structure without ornamentation is . . . — Map (db m53836) HM|
|California (Contra Costa County), Antioch — The Cannery Lady|
|In the early 19th century many canneries operated throughout California. The rich agricultural and fishing areas of east Contra Costa County hosted a number of canneries and packing sheds. The picturesque Antioch waterfront was home to two canneries and one packing shed.
Hickmott Canning Company, also known as Hickmott Foods, was on the river on the East side of town. Western California Canners, later known as Tullie Lewis Foods, occupied the waterfront on the West side of town. Between the . . . — Map (db m18292) HM|
|California (Kern County), Delano — The Forty Acres|
|Has been designated a
National Historic Landmark.
This property possesses national significance
in commemorating the history of the
United States of America.
Forty Acres embodies and conveys multiple layers of national significance associated with César Chávez. The Farm Worker Movement that thrived under his leadership, and a wider range of civil rights and social reform movements that helped define Twentieth Century American history. — Map (db m54836) HM|
|California (Los Angeles County), San Pedro — American Merchant Marine Veterans Memorial|
| Panel 1: American Merchant Marine Veterans Memorial
The United States Merchant Marine has faithfully served our country in times of war and peace, hauling life and cargo to every corner of the world.
This memorial is dedicated to those brave men and women of all races, creeds and colors who answered that call to serve.
Dedicated National Maritime Day May 22, 1989 Panel 2:
Jasper D’Ambrosi [1926 – 1986]
The sculptor, Jasper D’Ambrosi was born and . . . — Map (db m58658) HM|
|California (Los Angeles County), San Pedro — American Merchant Marine Veterans Memorial Wall of Honor|
| American Merchant Marine Veterans
Wall of Honor
Dedication: National Maritime Day, May 22, 2003
[List of state and local government officials]
Gene Frank Construction, Builder
Randall B. Montgomery, Engraver
Jerry Sturm, JSA, Design Architect
American Merchant Marine Veterans Memorial Committee, Inc.
[Lists of Officers, Directors, Committee Members and Advisers]
[Lists of "Platinum," "Gold" and "Silver" Contributors]
[Additional . . . — Map (db m50928) HM|
|California (Los Angeles County), San Pedro — Harry Bridges Memorial — ILWU|
| Panel 1:
1901 – 1990
of the ILWU
Harry Bridges was an Australian seaman who came ashore and started longshoring in San Francisco in 1922. Unsafe working conditions, corrupt hiring practices and low wages convinced Harry to join with other waterfront workers along the Pacific Coast to form a Union to fight for and protect workers interests. Their successful efforts led to the Big Strike of 1934 and creation of a . . . — Map (db m51146) HM|
|California (Los Angeles County), San Pedro — 1021 — Liberty Hill|
|In 1923 the Marine Transport Industrial Workers Union 510, a branch of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), called a strike that immobilized 90 ships here in San Pedro. The Union protested low wages, bad working conditions, and imprisonment of union activists under California's criminal syndicalism law. Denied access to public property, strikers and supporters rallied here at this site they called "Liberty Hill." Writer Upton Sinclair was arrested for reading from the Bill of Rights to a . . . — Map (db m42107) HM|
|California (Monterey County), Soledad — Cesar Chavez Park — In Commemoration and Appreciation — Dedicated on March 31, 2008|
|"Preservation of one's own culture does not require contempt or disrespect of other cultures."
Cesar E. Chavez (1927-1993)
Cesar Chavez was a Mexican American Labor leader & cofounder of the United Farm Worker (UFW). Cesar Chavez was born in Yuma, Arizona. Cesar was raised in migrant worker camps and left school after 8th grade to work in the fields. He joined the U.S. Navy from 1939-1945.
From 1952 until 1962, Chavez worked for the Community Service Organization and in 1962 . . . — Map (db m26874) HM|
|California (Plumas County), Cromberg — Sloat Towne Hall|
|The Sloat Towne Hall is the only remaining public building in Sloat. It was built in 1935 as a union and meeting hall, and was donated by the United Independent Workers’ Union to the community in 1956.
The town of Sloat once boasted a population of over 2,000 people, made up mostly of employees at the lumber mill and box factory, miners, ranchers and itinerant workers.
Western Pacific named the station of Sloat in 1910, in honor of Commodore John Drake Sloat, who took possession of . . . — Map (db m56554) HM|
|California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — In Memory of Howard Sperry and Nick Bordoise|
|In memory of Howard Sperry and Nick Bordoise, who gave their lives on Bloody Thursday, July 5, 1934, so that all working people might enjoy a greater measure of dignity and security.
Sperry and Bordoise were fatally shot by San Francisco police at the intersection of Mission and Steuart Streets, when longshoremen and seamen attempted to stop maritime employers from breaking joint strike. Community outrage at these killings sparked a general strike by all San Francisco unions.
The maritime . . . — Map (db m26162) HM|
|California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — The Garcia and Maggini Warehouse — San Francisco Landmark No. 229|
|At this location, on July 3, 1934, a dramatic clash occured, one that eventually touched the nation. Longshoremen, sailors, teamsters, and other waterfront workers had closed down Pacific coast shipping since May, in what came to be known as "The Big Strike". Business interests and employers, attempting to break the strike, or "open the port", formed the Industrial Association, and created the Atlas Drayage Company, which then rented space in this building, Garcia & Maggini Warehouse. On July . . . — Map (db m21179) HM|
|California (Santa Clara County), San Jose — Labor Temple|
|The San José Labor Temple, located at 72 North Second Street, was a hub of the city’s turn of the century labor movement. It was established informally between 1901 and 1903 by Harry Ryan, an early San José labor leader, and Jack London, the famous California author. Jack London wrote the last portion of his classic, The Call of the Wild, as well as parts of The Sea Wolf, here in Harry Ryan’s office. The building became the official San José Labor Temple in 1911 and served this . . . — Map (db m30444) HM|
|California (Yuba County), Wheatland — 1003 — Durst Hop Ranch — Site of Wheatland Hop Riot — August 3, 1913|
| Second major labor dispute in the U.S.A. Initiated by the I.W.W. Labor movement. — Map (db m57628) HM|
|Colorado (Teller County), Victor — Labor Wars|
Miners Win 8-hour Day
Underground gold mining was difficult, dangerous, labor intensive work. Two major labor conflicts between the Association of Mine Owners and the Western Federation of Mines (WFM) Labor Union changed Victor and Gold Camp forever.
The first labor war was triggered by a union strike in 1894 over wages and number of hours miners worked per day. Two men were killed in a gun battle between striking miners and sheriff’s deputies. The strike was finally settled in . . . — Map (db m46892) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — 16 — Cesar Chavez — 1927 - 1993|
|Led by his desire to secure a better quality of life for migrant farm workers, Cesar Chavez helped found the United Farm Workers of America, the first effective farm workers' union in the United States. Under his leadership of nonviolent protest, the UFW was able to secure improved wages and benefits, more humane living and working conditions, and better job security for some of the poorest workers in America. Through his life of service, Chavez provided inspiration to countless others. . . . — Map (db m15471) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Linotype Model 31 — Line-Casting Machine|
|The Linotype was introduced in Baltimore in 1883 by Ottmar Mergenthaler, a German-born inventor. By replacing hand-set type with machine-set type, the speed of composition was vastly increased by this important advance in printing.
This machine saw more than a half century’s service molding lines of type from molten metal in the Washington Post’s composing room. It is representative of the very heart of the “hot type” newspaper production process which was used at the Post from 1888 to 1980. — Map (db m29511) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Federal Triangle — 11 — From Workers to Environment — Make No Little Plans — Federal Triangle Heritage Trail|
|The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, whose mission is to protect human health and the environment, has occupied the majority of offices in this block since 2001. EPA West (this building), the adjacent Mellon Auditorium, and the EPA East building share once continuous, monumental faç designed by Arthur Brown, Jr. The projecting temple front of the auditorium, colonnades at both ends, and generous sculptures unify the complex. Because this 1934 building originally housed the Department of . . . — Map (db m57210) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Mount Vernon Square/Shaw — 2 of 17 — For the Working People — Midcity at the Crossroads — Shaw Heritage Trail|
| "There is not a wrong too long endured that we are not determined to abolish." Samuel Gompers.
This large office building opened in 1916 as the headquarters of the American Federation of Labor. With 2.5 million members, this union was the nation's largest and most powerful. The building's design by Milburn, Heister & Co. symbolized the union's maturity and strength.
The AF of L's first president was London-born Samuel Gompers (1850-1924). Gompers immigrated to New York in 1863, . . . — Map (db m22625) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Northwest — United Mine Workers of America Building|
|Has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America Associated with the American Labor Movement since the 1930's, this building served for over two decades as organized labor's command post under the stewardship of United Mine Workers of America President John I. Lewis and continued as the UMWA's headquarters until 2000. — Map (db m19990) HM|
|Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — F-384 — German-American Club|
|Organized in 1901, the German-American Club was one of the few non-latin ethnic clubs in Tampa. Club members laid the cornerstone for a building on the northeast corner of Nebraska Avenue and 11th Avenue on February 23, 1908, followed by a grand opening on January 1, 1909. Fine classical details and proportions marked the three-story building, with concrete block molded to appear as tooled stone masonry. With a stage for speakers or theatrical productions, a swimming pool and a bowling . . . — Map (db m32372) HM|
|Florida (Putnam County), Crescent City — F-564 — Asa Philip Randolph|
|Civic Rights Activist, Trade Union Leader, Crusader for Justice. 1889–1979.
“Salvation for a race, nation or class must come from within. Freedom is never granted; it is won. Justice is never given; it is exacted.”
Asa Philip Randolph was born in Crescent City, Florida on April 15, 1889 to Rev. James Williams and Elizabeth Robinson Randolph. His father was a minister at this church where Randolph attended as a youth. In 1925 he became the founder and president of the . . . — Map (db m5514) HM|
|Georgia (Glynn County), St Simons Island — 063-34A — The Wesley Oak|
|Not far from this spot stood the "great tree" under which Charles Wesley had prayers and preached, March 14, 1736, the first Sunday after his arrival. There were about twenty people present, among whom was Mr. Oglethorpe. A year later, Georgia Whitfield, appointed by the Bishop of London to serve as Deacon at Savannah and Frederica, wrote in his Journal (August 8, 1737): "In the evening we had publick Prayers, and expounding of the second Lesson under a large tree, and many more present than . . . — Map (db m12370) HM|
|Illinois (Bureau County), Cherry — Cherry Mine Disaster|
|Just north of town are remnants of the Cherry Coal Mine, where 259 miners lost their lives in one of the worst mine disasters in United States history.
The St. Paul Coal Company began mining coal at Cherry in 1905 and by 1909 was mining 300,000 tons annually. The owner and sole customer was the Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul Railroad.
On Saturday, November 13, 1909, the mine caught fire. A load of hay, intended for the mule stables at the bottom of the mine, was apparently ignited . . . — Map (db m36734) HM|
|Illinois (Cook County), Chicago — Site of the Haymarket Tragedy|
On the evening of May 4th, 1886, a tragedy of international significance unfolded on this site in Chicago’s Haymarket produce district. An outdoor meeting had been hastily organized by anarchist activists to protest the violent death of workers during a labor lockout the previous day in another area of the city. Spectators gathered in the street as speakers addressed political, social, and labor issues from atop a wagon that stood at the location of this monument. When . . . — Map (db m47728) HM|
|Illinois (Grundy County), Diamond — The Diamond Mine Disaster|
|The Diamond Mine of the Wilmington Coal Mining and Manufacturing Company, located near Braidwood on the Grundy-Will County line, was the site of a major mine disaster in Illinois.
The mine was on a marshy tract of land that had no natural drainage. At midday of February 16, 1883, the east side of the mine collapsed from the weight of melting snow, ice, and heavy rains. An alarm was sounded, and miners who were near the escapment shaft hurried to the surface. The main passage to the shaft . . . — Map (db m6868) HM|
|Illinois (Vermilion County), Danville — Workers Memorial — Vermilion County, Illinois|
|Mourn for Fight for
the Dead the Living
Remember Vermilion County Workers
Killed on the Job
Left Column of Names
David Farnsworth - Danville PBPA •
Charles Deck - UAW # 579 •
David Clayburn - UAW # 579 •
Russell Weathers - Teamsters # 26 •
Steve Maddox - BMWE # 2703 •
Robert Wire - IBEW # 538 •
Dusty Rhodes - AIW # 972 •
Paul Lyons - Teamsters # 26 •
Bessie Mealer - AFGE # 1963 •
Lloyd Bender - Laborers # 624 •
John . . . — Map (db m10556) HM|
|Illinois (Vermilion County), Westville — Memorial To Westville Area Coal Miners|
|They made this community the melting pot of nations and proved that men of all nationalities and creeds can work and live together.
"To the men who went to work below allowing the top to build and grow giving their labors in brawn and sweat creating the Finest Home Town Yet." — Map (db m11393) HM|
|Indiana (Marion County), Indianapolis — 49.1999.1 — Bowen-Merrill Fire / Indianapolis Fire Department|
Side A:Bowen-Merrill FireOn March 17, 1890 the Bowen-Merrill Company stationery and book store at 16-18 West Washington Street caught fire. Eighty-six firemen fought the blaze. The wood framed roof and floors collapsed, dropping many men into the fire. Thirteen deaths resulted, the deadliest fire for firefighters in Indianapolis history.
Indianapolis Fire DepartmentVolunteer force founded 1826; established as Indianapolis Fire Department with paid force . . . — Map (db m41185) HM|
|Indiana (Vigo County), Terre Haute — Charles Luna|
| 1906 - - - - - 1992
President, Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen
1963 - 1969
President, United Transportation Union
1969 - 1972
Contributing six decades to the Rail Labor Movement, Charles Luna began working as a Yard Switchman in 1928 on the AT&SF Railroad, and within a year was elected Local Chairman. He was elected Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen Vice President in 1954, and President of the BRT in 1963, and became President of the newly formed United . . . — Map (db m58537) HM|
|Indiana (Vigo County), Terre Haute — 84.1992.1 — Home of Eugene V. Debs|
|Debs (1855-1926) was leading pioneer in industrial unionism, social reformer, and peace advocate.
Founded American Railway Union, 1893; cofounded American Socialist Part, 1900; and ran five times for United States Presidency.
Home built in 1890; declared National Historic Landmark, 1966. — Map (db m8928) HM|
|Indiana (Vigo County), Terre Haute — Jerry Wurf|
| 1919 - - - - - 1981
President, the American Federation of State,
County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME),
1964 - 1981
As president of AFSCME, Jerry Wurf was responsible for the union’s growth from 240,000 to one million members. He also helped pioneer landmark public-sector collective bargaining laws in many states.
Served as Executive Director of AFSCME District Council 37 in New York City, 1959 to 1964.
Joined AFSCME in 1947 after working as an organizer for . . . — Map (db m58579) HM|
|Indiana (Vigo County), Terre Haute — Joseph A. Beirne|
| 1911 - - - - - 1974
Communications Workers of America
1938 - 1974
Joseph Beirne helped found the CWA in 1938, and served as President until 1974, helping develop CWA into the largest communications union in the Nation.
In 1949, when the CWA joined the CIO, he was appointed to the CIO Community Services Committee, and was made Chairman in 1952. He became Chairman of the AFL-CIO’s Community Services Committee in 1955, and of its International Affairs . . . — Map (db m58536) HM|
|Indiana (Vigo County), Terre Haute — Michael J. Quill|
| 1905 - - - - - 1966
Co-Founder and First International President of
Transport Workers Union of America, AFL-CIO
1934 - - - Elected President of Transport Workers.
Organizing Subway, Bus and other Transit
workers from Coast to Coast.
1942 - - - Organized Airline Maintenance and Flight
Classification Workers of most
American and International Airlines
1954 - - - CIO Railroad Workers affiliated with TWU.
Member New York City . . . — Map (db m58581) HM|
|Indiana (Vigo County), Terre Haute — Mother Jones|
| 1830 - - - - - - 1930
Field Organizer, United Mine Workers of America
“The most dangerous woman in America”
A teacher and seamstress, Mary Harris “Mother” Jones began her crusade for workers’ rights with the Knights of Labor in the 1870's.
The United Mine Workers of America’s first woman Organizer, she was a key figure in historic UMWA strikes from Pennsylvania to Western Canada. She on occasion was joined by Eugene Debs in support of . . . — Map (db m58469) HM|
|Indiana (Vigo County), Terre Haute — Patrick E. Gorman|
| 1892 - - - - - 1980
International President, 1923 – 1942
International Secretary-Treasurer, 1942 – 1976
Chairman of the Board, 1976 – 1979
Amalgamated Meat Cutters & Butcher Workmen
of North America
Longevity alone would make Pat Gorman a labor legend. His 56 years of service to Amalgamated members is unparalleled in Labor History.
Trained in the Law and skilled in using the pen, Pat Gorman was a . . . — Map (db m58585) HM|
|Indiana (Vigo County), Terre Haute — Patrick J. Quinlan|
| 1849 - - - - - 1893
United Association of Journeyman and
Apprentices of the Plumbing and
Pipefitting Industry of the
United States and Canada
1889 - 1892
A plumber born in Boston, Massachusetts, Patrick J. Quinlan was a member of an independent local of plumbers prior to the founding of the UA. In 1889, he began corresponding with Richard A. O’Brien, Secretary of the Knights of Labor District Assembly 85, and Philip Grace, Editor of the Pipe Trades . . . — Map (db m58540) HM|
|Indiana (Vigo County), Terre Haute — Peter J. McGuire — Father of Labor Day|
| 1852 - - - - - 1906
Founder and General Secretary
United Brotherhood of Carpenters
and Joiners of America
1881 - 1901
Father of Labor Day
Peter J. McGuire was founder of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America in 1881 and it General Secretary until 1901. He created the largest construction / industrial international union in North America.
In the year 1881, McGuire helped to found the Confederation of American Trade Unions which . . . — Map (db m58495) HM|
|Indiana (Vigo County), Terre Haute — Philip Murray|
| 1886 - - - - - 1952
United Steelworkers of America
1936 - 1952
Congress of Industrial Organization
1940 - 1952
Philip Murray went into the coal mines as a boy of 16. By 1916 he had risen through the ranks of the United Mine Workers to become President of District 5, in southwestern Pennsylvania, an important ally of UMW President John L. Lewis, and an International Vice President of the union.
In 1936 Murray was a key figure in the development of the . . . — Map (db m58560) HM|
|Indiana (Vigo County), Terre Haute — Samuel Gompers|
| 1850 - - - - - 1924
Born in London, Jan. 27, 1850. Apprentice Shoemaker, 1860. U. S. Immigrant and member Cigarmakers Local 144, New York City, 1863. President, Local 144, 1876. Leader in convening Federation of Trades and Labor Unions, 1881. Founder and first President, American Federation of labor, 1886. Organizer of 28 Unions. For more than four decades the leader and moving spirit of the American Labor Movement, which still bears his stamp. Died in San Antonio, Texas, Dec. 13, 1924. . . . — Map (db m58468) HM|
|Indiana (Vigo County), Terre Haute — Sidney Hillman|
| 1887 - - - - - 1946
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America
1914 – 1946
Textile Workers Organizing Committee
1937 – 1939
Sidney Hillman was a labor giant. He provided leadership for hundreds of thousands of working people. Hillman sought a Nation of social and economic justice, where “no child will cry for food in the midst of plenty.”
He saw an activist trade union movement as the key to social change. . . . — Map (db m58586) HM|
|Indiana (Vigo County), Terre Haute — Walter Philip Reuther|
| 1907 - - - - - 1970
“- - - - Whose memory is enshrined in the hearts of all of us.”
Born at Wheeling, W. Va. Sept. 1, 1907, the son of Valentine and Anna Reuther. One of four brothers, the oldest Theodore and two younger brothers Roy and Victor, both of whom also became leaders in the United Auto Workers.
After learning to be Die Maker, Reuther went to Detroit, worked at Ford Plant and lost his job because of Union activity; Toured Russia and Europe working in . . . — Map (db m58538) HM|
|Indiana (Vigo County), Terre Haute — William D. "Big Bill" Haywood|
| 1869 - - - - - 1928
Co-Founder and General Secretary-Treasurer,
International Workers of the World, 1905-1921
Western Federation of Miners, 1901-1906
Haywood’s visionary leadership as Secretary-Treasurer of the Western Federation of Miners laid the groundwork for his historic initiative, together with Eugene Debs and Mother Jones, to found the Industrial Workers of the World. Under his dynamic leadership, the IWW became a power to be . . . — Map (db m58488) HM|
|Indiana (Vigo County), Terre Haute — William H. Sylvis|
| 1828 - - - - - 1869
Born - Armagh, Pa. November 26, 1828
Died - Philadelphia, Pa. July 27, 1869
America’s First National Labor Leader.
Founder, National Union of Iron Moulders,
July 5, 1859
Founder, National Labor Union, 1866,
Father of the 8 hour day Campaign in the United States. Lived to see it enacted into law for Federal Employees in 1869.
Sylvis will always be remembered for these simple lines penned in 1863 -
“I love this . . . — Map (db m58496) HM|
|Kansas (Crawford County), Pittsburg — Alexander Howat — Miners’ Memorial at Immigrant Park|
| Among the many significant European immigrants in Kansas history is Alexander Howat, President of District 14 of the United Mine Workers of America. He was chiefly responsible for the organization of a powerful and militant union membership in the territory of the Cherokee-Crawford coal fields.
Alexander McWhirter Howat was born in Glasgow, Scotland, on September 10, 1876. At the age of three he emigrated with his parents to Troy, New York, moving from there to Braidwood, Illinois. Howat . . . — Map (db m35668) HM|
|Kansas (Crawford County), Pittsburg — Southeast Kansas Coal Mining — The Three Phases of Coal Mining in the Weir-Pittsburg Coal Field — Miners' Memorial at Immigrant Park|
| Phase One: Pioneer Mining
The coal fields of Cherokee and Crawford Counties covered over 300 square miles of land, making it a prime area for coal mining. When early settlers first moved into the area in the 1800's, they were amazed to see the coal seams outcropping at the surface of the land. They could easily pick up the coal by hand to bring back to their homes as a source of energy.
Because of its shallowness, the coal was easy to remove. Pioneer mining was done on the surface . . . — Map (db m35571) HM|
|Kansas (Crawford County), Pittsburg — The Amazon Army — Miners’ Memorial at Immigrant Park|
| The women’s march of 1921 epitomizes the spirit of the Kansas Balkans, an area known for its rich cultural heritage and turbulent strike-ridden history. On December 12 of that year, 3,000 (by some reports up to 6,000) women—wives and other female relatives of striking miners—marched from the Miner’s Hall in Franklin, Kansas, to the coal fields of Crawford County in an attempt to stop scab miners (replacement workers) from reporting to work. The protest caused the governor to send a . . . — Map (db m35692) HM|
|Kansas (Crawford County), Pittsburg — The Weir - Pittsburg Coalfield — Miners’ Memorial at Immigrant Park|
| With the discovery of coal in Cherokee and Crawford Counties in the late 1860's, thousands came to work the mines. Some came from American towns and cities but most were immigrants from Europe. Over fifty nationalities settled in this area. Many landed at Ellis Island and continued here by railroad before heading out to the coal camps. Some came to find work. Some to escape repression. Some to find a new life in America. All were seekers.
What they found was not the "paradise on Earth" . . . — Map (db m35522) HM|
|Kentucky (McCracken County), Paducah — Union Labor|
|Union labor helped build Paducah, including the flood wall on which this mural appears. Unions in construction, business, industry and government helped create a large middle class in Western KY especially after World War II. The region's earliest unions date to the 19th century. In 1892, the American Federation of Labor chartered the Paducah Central Labor Council, an association of local unions. The next year, the CLC, the ancestor of the Western KY Area Council, AFL-CIO, sponsored the city's . . . — Map (db m48502) HM|
|Maryland, Baltimore — Great Railroad Strike of 1877|
|The first national strike began July 16, 1877, with Baltimore and Ohio Railroad workers in Martinsburg, West Virginia, and Baltimore Maryland. It spread across the nation halting rail traffic and closing factories in reaction to widespread worker discontent over wage cuts and conditions during a national depression. Broken by Federal troops in early August, the strike energized the labor movement and was precursor to labor unrest in the 1880s and 1890s. — Map (db m63862) HM|
|Maryland (Prince George's County), Adelphi — Mother Jones — “Grand Old Champion of Labor”|
|Mary Harris “Mother” Jones, the legendary labor organizer, spent a life fighting for unions and the rights of workers. She died at the Burgess Farm near here on November 30, 1930, aged 100 years. — Map (db m61188) HM|
|Massachusetts (Bristol County), New Bedford — Commonwealth of Toil|
|Longshoremen’s Union. On this site in 1936, Cape Verdean and Portuguese dockworkers formed Locals 1413 and 1465 of the International Longshoremen’s Association (ILA). Prior to organizing, these dockworkers were chosen daily, based only on their physical ability, and had none of the benefits, security, or decent wages that came with the union. — Map (db m1614) HM|
|Michigan (Bay County), Bay City — L1413 — "Ten Hours or No Sawdust"|
When Bay City's sawmills opened in 1885, mill owners notified workers that wages would be 12 to 25 percent lower than in 1884. On July 6, 1885, Bay City millhands began to walk off the job. Their slogan, "Ten Hours or No Sawdust," represented their demand for a ten-hour workday, higher wages and semimonthly pay. On July 9, 1885, D.C. Blinn, editor of Bay City's Labor Vindicator and a member of the Knights of Labor, held a rally at Bay City's Madison Park. After the rally, . . . — Map (db m33693) HM|
|Michigan (Washtenaw County), Ypsilanti — S0509 — Willow Run|
Willow Run (1941-1953)
After entering World War II in 1941, America desperately needed military equipment and supplies. The Ford Motor Company had begun building this factory in April 1941. Outstanding industrial architect Albert Kahn designed Willow Run, one of the largest manufacturing plants under one roof in the world. Completed in early 1942, this bulwark of the "Arsenal of Democracy" produced 8685 B-24 Liberator Bombers and had a peak employment of 42,000 men . . . — Map (db m14296) HM|
|Minnesota (Hennepin County), Minneapolis — The Barrel-Makers' Co-ops — Saint Anthony Falls Heritage Trail|
|The red brick building at the corner of Third Avenue and First Street was one of many factories that supplied the barrels used for flour. Called coopers, the skilled workers who made barrels pioneered a new role for labor in Minneapolis. When their wages were cut in 1874 and a strike was broken, some of them formed a co-op. The idea spread, and by 1886 two-thirds of the coopers at the falls belonged to shops owned and managed by the workers. They prospered until flour sacks replaced barrels after 1900. — Map (db m44523) HM|
|Minnesota (St. Louis County), Hibbing — Finnish Workers Hall|
|The Finnish people were one of the first ethnic groups to arrive in this area in the late 1890's and early 1900's.
They built this building on this site in 1909. It was used for stage plays, dances and other social events put on for the Finnish community.
It was also a place for the workers to discuss working conditions and how to improve them. They were very instrumental in organizing the first unions. — Map (db m5144) HM|
|Missouri (Jasper County), Webb City — The Kneeling Miner — 1976 and 2006|
| This statue dedicated in honor of the hardrock miner, his family and those who served the Webb City District mining industry during the past century.
The Kneeling Miner, circa 1976
Jack E. Dawson [sculptor]
Originally sculpted in concrete
as a part of Webb City's Bicentennial celebration.
The Miner stood as a sentinel reminder of the mining
era and the work of the founding families.
Four early day miners served as models
for the original statue.
The Kneeling Miner in . . . — Map (db m37319) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Labor Temple|
|Red Lodge Miner’s Local No. 1771 had grown to more than a thousand members when this labor temple was built in 1909. The United Mine Workers of America organized nationally in 1896 and by 1898, Local No. 1771 had 200 members. The building is a testament to the labor struggles of Red Lodge coal miners and the primary symbol of labor history in the area. John Horne of Laurel designed the $36,000 building and Butte Local #22 contributed major funding. John Massow, building committee chairman, took . . . — Map (db m45412) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Miner's Union Hall|
|Built in 1890 at a cost of $23,000, this three-story building was once the social center of a bustling mining town. The first floor was constructed of native granite. The cast iron front held 6 large windows and small colored glass panes. The upper stories were brick, and the roof was covered with sheet metal. Interior walls and ceilings were plastered, and elaborate molded pine trim was artificially grained to look like hardwood. Lighting was by oil lamps, one of which weighed 400 lbs.|
The . . . — Map (db m49628) HM
|Nebraska (Douglas County), Omaha — Omaha Firefighters Memorial — Honor • Tradition|
| As pioneers settled in small towns and villages across Nebraska, the shout of “Fire” summoned fear and panic in every person who heard it. If they were lucky, bucket brigades could save part of a burning building and its surrounding structures.
By 1860, seven years before Nebraska became a state, the Pioneer Hook and Ladder Company was established to keep the City of Omaha safe in case of fire. These dedicated volunteers went from using hand-drawn to horse-drawn fire wagons and . . . — Map (db m58037) HM|
|Nebraska (Douglas County), Omaha — Union Walk|
This Union Walk is a reminder to all of our citizens, as well as a salute to the unionized men and women from all walks of life, who invested their energy, the sweat of their brow, and sometimes even their lives to forge a better life for themselves and their families. The Omaha / Council Bluffs metropolitan community is a better place because of the contributions of every one of the unions whose plaques grace this walk, as well as many of the others that came before us. Let us never . . . — Map (db m63498) HM|
|Nevada (Clark County), Hoover Dam — They Laboured that Millions might see a Brighter Day|
|In Memory of our Fellowmen who lost their lives in the construction of this dam. — Map (db m1312) HM|
|Nevada (Storey County), Virginia City — 30 — Old Miners Union Hall|
|The Miners Union was organized in 1867. The Union fought for recognition, safety, family welfare, and a living wage $4.00 per day. This building, owned and maintained since 1913 by Aerie 532 F. O. E., was built in 1876. The original hall was destroyed in the 1875 fire. — Map (db m21955) HM|
|Nevada (Storey County), Virginia City — The Glory of Solidarity and Fraternity|
|In Sept. 1864, while Atlanta smoldered, the first use of military force to allay labor unrest in the West occurred when Governor J. W. Nye ordered 2 companies of Calvary from Fort Churchill to end a strike by The Story County Miner’s League. The Unions of the Comstock believed they were essential components in a successful industrial economy. The Virginia City Miner’s Union was a vital part of local society and respected for their efforts to help disabled mineworkers, the widow and the . . . — Map (db m21957) HM|
|New Jersey (Atlantic County), Atlantic City — Atlantic City Workers Monument|
|Dedicated to the men and women
of organized labor who lost their
lives while working on the
redevelopment of Atlantic City
We honor these workers
[List of 25 names follow]
"You will always be remembered"
Erected April 28, 1998 by the members of the Atlantic - Cape May County CLC–AFL–CIO on behalf of their fallen brothers and sisters. — Map (db m36947) HM|
|New Jersey (Mercer County), Princeton — March of the Mill Children — 100th Anniversary|
|Princeton, New Jersey July 1903 – July 2003 Mary Harris “Mother” Joneswas a crusader for workers’ rights. She led several hundred children who worked in the textile mills on a march from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to President Theodore Roosevelt’s home in Oyster Bay, Long Island. Their demonstration publicized and protested the unspeakable crime of child labor. Mother Jones called upon Princeton’s mayor, H. L. Robinson, asking for permission to speak opposite the University . . . — Map (db m44850) HM|
|New Mexico (Grant County), Hanover — Ladies Auxiliary of Local 890 — Mine Mill & Smelter — (1951-1952)|
|After eight failed negotiating sessions and the expiration of their labor contract, Mexican-American workers at nearby Empire Zinc mine struck for wage and benefit equality. When an injunction prohibited union members from picketing, the women - wives, mothers, sisters, and daughters - took their places on the line.
(back of marker):
The "striking" women persevered despite life threatening situations, violence, incarceration and tension at home. Their determination made national . . . — Map (db m38229) HM|
|New York (Kings County), Brooklyn — F. D. N. Y.|
|To the men of the Fire Department who died at the call of duty at this site on August 2 1978 Soldiers in a war that never ends
Lieutenant James E Cutillo Bat 33 Eng 276
Firefighter 1st Gr Charles Bouton Ladder Co 156
Firefighter 1st Gr Harold S Hastings Bat 42 Eng 243
Firefighter 1st Gr James McManus Ladder Co 153
Firefighter 1st Gr George S Rice Ladder Co 153
Firefighter 1st Gr William O'Connor Ladder Co 156
This memorial is dedicated by the Bay Improvement Group — Map (db m39461) HM|
|New York (Nassau County), Glen Cove — Carpenters — 1914 World War 1918|
|In honor of the members of Local Union No. 1093 who served their country in the World War 1914 – 1918 Adam Donaldson • Frank S. Boday • Louis Myers • Edw. Nordstrom • Frank Hoebich • Everett Wicks • Patrick Hanlon • Daniel Murdock • Fred Cassell • Thomas Duffy • Edw. J. Wansor • Lester Underhill • George Kassoner • Patrick Trainor • Arthur Malloy • Harry Hicks • Benj. Isaac • Berger Person • Alex Murray • Herman Christenson • David Roy • James H. Jarvis • Andrew Hegeman • George Tuthill . . . — Map (db m65203) HM|
|New York (New York County), New York — DC 37 September 11, 2001 Memorial|
|In memory of the DC37 members who perished on September 11, 2001 at the World Trade Center
The Rev Mychal Judge, chaplain, Local 299
Carlos Lillo, paramedic, Local 2507
Ricardo Quinn, EMS Lieutenant, Local 3621
Chet Louie, OTB betting clerk, Local 2021
And in honor of all the DC37 men and women who joined in the rescue and recovery.
We will never forget their heroism and devotion.
District Council 37, AFSCME, AFL-CIO New York
Dedicated September 24, 2002 — Map (db m35192) HM|
|New York (New York County), New York — Union Square Park — National Historic Landmark|
|This site possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America.
Here workers exercised their rights to free speech and assembly and on September 5, 1882, observed the first Labor Day. — Map (db m24423) HM|
|New York (Rensselaer County), Troy — Kate Mullany House|
|Kate Mullany House has been designated a National Historic Landmark This house possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America. Kate Mullany, an Irish Immigrant, laundry worker, and a nationally recognized labor leader, organized and led one of the earliest labor unions for women, the Female Collar Laundry Union, in Troy during the 1860's. — Map (db m40827) HM|
|North Carolina (Alamance County), Burlington — Neighbors Divided|
|Industrialization came to the South later than it had in the North. The first generation of mill workers were transplanted farmers who had no tradition of labor unions. The nature of the mill village also made organized labor difficult. The mill owner – like the patriarch of a great family – controlled nearly every aspect of his workers’ lives. Resistance within such a world was hard to imagine. Still, as times changed, members of southern textile mill communities faced difficult . . . — Map (db m33311) HM|
|North Carolina (Nash County), Rocky Mount — E-118 — Operation Dixie|
|Black leaf house workers in eastern N.C.
unionized in 1946. First pro-union vote,
at tobacco factory 1 block W., precursor
to civil rights movement. — Map (db m48914) HM|
|Ohio (Allen County), Lima — Veterans Freedom Flag Monument|
| The Veterans Freedom Flag Monument dedicated May 22, 2010 to Veterans who made the sacrifice for freedom around the world, those who currently serve in the military and those who will serve in the future. Built entirely through the donations of men and women who understand the true cost of freedom they enjoy every day. — Map (db m63076) WM|
|Ohio (Athens County), Millfield — Millfield Coal Mine Disaster — November 5, 1930|
|Ohio's worst mine disaster occurred in this Sunday Creek Coal Company mine when an explosion killed 82 persons. Among the dead were the company's top executives who were in the mine inspecting new safety equipment. Nine hours after the explosion, rescuers discovered 19 miners alive underground, three miles from the main shaft. The disaster attracted national press coverage and international attention, and it prompted improvement of Ohio's mine safety laws in 1931. — Map (db m15611) HM|
|Ohio (Athens County), Millfield — Millfield Mine No. 6 - 1205 Disaster|
|In memory of the Millfield Mine No. 6 - 1205 disaster Nov. 5, 1930
J. H. Bergin•
Pr. R. Coen•
Andy Cuba Bycofski•
Charles . . . — Map (db m15614) HM|
|Ohio (Athens County), Nelsonville — 6-5 — The Hocking Valley Coal Strike — 1884-1885|
Following a wage reduction from 70 to 60 cents per ton after many Hocking Valley coal mines consolidated in 1883, the Ohio Miners' Amalgamated Association struck on June 23, 1884. The operators responded by offering an even smaller tonnage rate and a requirement for returning miners to sign no-strike contracts. The strike idled three thousand miners in 46 mines at Nelsonville, Murray City, New Straitsville, Carbon Hill, Buchtel, Longstreth, and Shawnee.
(Continued on other . . . — Map (db m37019) HM|
|Ohio (Coshocton County), Coshocton — William Green|
|March 3, 1870 – November 21, 1952. William Green, President of the American Federation of Labor from 1924 until his death, 1852, began his amazing and strenuous climb to the top run of labor's ladder at age 16, in the Morgan Run Coal Mines in Coshocton County.
Born in Coshocton County to parents of English descent, Hugh and Jane Oram Green, he learned their devout Baptist faith. Educated in a one room school house, he studied by coal oil lamp at night and was an avid reader all his . . . — Map (db m299) HM|
|Ohio (Cuyahoga County), Cleveland — 79-18 — The Ohio AFL-CIO|
|Following the national merger of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) in 1955, more than 2,000 labor delegates representing one million union members convened at the Cleveland Public Auditorium for the founding convention of the Ohio AFL-CIO in 1958. This leading labor organization achieved significant advances in the quality of life and security for working Ohioans during the second half of the twentieth century in areas of civil rights, . . . — Map (db m17953) HM|
|Ohio (Franklin County), Columbus — 105-25 — American Federation of Labor / United Mine Workers of America|
|American Federation of Labor
One this site, December 10, 1886, the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Union merged with the trade unionists of the Knights of Labor to create the American Federation of Labor. Delegates elected Samuel Gompers president and dedicated the Federation to improving the life of America's working men and women. The A.F.L. recognizes November 15, 1881, as its anniversary date to honor the origin and legacy of F.O.T.L.U.
United Mine Workers of . . . — Map (db m12968) HM|
|Ohio (Franklin County), Columbus — 88-25 — William Green, Labor Leader / The Columbus Streetcar Strike, 1910|
|William Green, Labor Leader
A native of Coshocton County, William Green (1870-1932) began his working life as a coal miner at age 16 and rose rapidly in the leadership of the United Mine Workers of America. Twice elected to the Ohio Senate, Green served as president pro tempore during his second term. He was instrumental in enacting Ohio's first worker's compensation law in 1912, at a time when progressive-era ideals conflicted with an impersonal industrial system where workers enjoyed few . . . — Map (db m12970) HM|
|Ohio (Hancock County), Findlay — First School Building|
First School Building
in Findlay 1827
[Dedicated June 1937] — Map (db m29197) HM|
|Ohio (Hancock County), Findlay — 21-32 — The Glass Industry of Findlay, Ohio|
| In 1884, the first natural gas well was successfully drilled in Findlay, and when The Great Karg Well, then the largest in the world, was drilled in 1886, the boom was on. Many industries, especially glass, were attracted to Findlay, lured by free or cheap gas for fuel. They included eight window, two bottle, two chimney lamp, one light bulb, one novelty, and five tableware glass factories. Famed manufacturing pioneer and inventor Mike Owens (later associated with Owens Illinois) managed the . . . — Map (db m29174) HM|
|Ohio (Hardin County), McGuffey — 15-33 — Village of McGuffey / Great 1934 Onion Strike|
Side A: Village of McGuffey
The Village of McGuffey was named for John McGuffey, who in the 1860s first attempted to drain the Scioto Marsh. A larger and more effective drainage effort, made by others who entered Hardin County in the 1880s, continued for several decades until thousands of acres of land were in production, principally of onions for which the marsh became nationally known. During the era of highest production of onions, most townspeople were involved in planting, . . . — Map (db m29062) HM|
|Ohio (Morgan County), Bristol — 10-58 — Miner's Memorial Park|
Agriculture dominated the economy of southeastern Ohio's Morgan County until the 1940s when harvests dwindled, the population declined, and land values dropped. Surface mining the area's rich underground coal deposits replaced agriculture as the major industry and revitalized the declining local economy. As the nation's demand for electricity grew over the next half-century, so did the demand for coal as fuel for nearby power generation plants. During mining's heyday in the 1960s . . . — Map (db m13595) HM|
|Ohio (Morgan County), Bristol — Ronald V. Crews Memorial Park|
|Named in honor of Ronald V. Crews, Mine General Superintendent of Central Ohio Coal Company, whose knowledge, dedication and friendship meant so much to so many.
Dedicated July 1972
“To Honor All The Miners”
-R. V. Crews Family — Map (db m13599) HM|
|Ohio (Summit County), Akron — 32-77 — 1936 Akron Rubber Strike|
| Five Depression-era strikes against many of Akron's rubber companies culminated in a giant "sit-down" strike against Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, the industry's leader, in February and March of 1936. The fledgling United Rubber Workers (URW), created in September 1935, used the tactic of being at work but not working that had been pioneered by rank-and-file workers in a successful 1934 strike against the General Tire and Rubber Company. After a peaceful month-long strike, the URW won . . . — Map (db m43625) HM|
|Ohio (Summit County), Akron — United Rubber Workers International Union — Since 1935|
| In downtown Akron at the Portage Hotel, 12 September 1935, a national convention of rubber workers met and organized the United Rubber Workers of America. Convention delegates elected Sherman Dalrymple president and dedicated the URW international union to the betterment of working conditions for rubber workers and all working men and women. — Map (db m43731) HM|
|Ohio (Warren County), Springboro — Odd Fellows Hall — Circa 1830|
|The Independent Order of Odd Fellows (IOOF) began in England in the 1700s as an association of common laborers who met together for fellowship and mutual aid. This was so unusual at the time that members were called “Odd Fellows,” and the name stuck. The IOOF soon spread to America and is one of the oldest fraternal organizations in the United States. Relief Lodge No. 148 was organized in Springboro in 1850. Local IOOF trustees purchased this building in 1866 and enlarged it to its . . . — Map (db m13702) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Braddock — The Great Steel Strike of 1919|
|In the largest work stoppage to that date, over 350,000 U.S. workers went off the job. Reverend Adalbert Kazincy, pastor of Saint Michael's here, championed the strikers and provided the church as a meeting place. The strike failed after 15 weeks. — Map (db m47044) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Homestead — Bost Building|
|Completed, early 1892. Through that summer, it was headquarters for the strike committee of the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers. Telegraph lines installed here transmitted the news from journalists who were covering the Homestead Strike. — Map (db m44871) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Homestead — Bost Building — Has Been Designated A — National Historic Landmark|
|This building possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America.
This was the headquarters of the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steelworkers at the time of the Homestead Strike. It is one of the principal structures associates with the "Battle of Homestead" on July 6, 1892, a significant event in the struggle for workers' rights. — Map (db m44873) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Homestead — Frances Perkins|
|United States Secretary of Labor, 1933-1945. Visited Homestead July 1933 to discuss New Deal policy. Local authorities barred her from meeting with aggrieved steelworkers in nearby Frick Park. Undeterred, she moved the assembly to federal property here, at the former United States post office. — Map (db m44867) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Homestead — Homestead Strike|
|On the morning of July 6, 1892, on orders of the Carnegie Steel Company, 300 Pinkerton agents attempted to land near here; strikers and citizens repulsed them. Seven workers and three Pinkertons were killed. 8,000 state militia arrived July 12; by November the strike was broken. — Map (db m39901) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Homestead — Mary Harris "Mother" Jones|
|Labor leader, workers' advocate. Arrested and jailed in Homestead for speaking to striking steelworkers, 1919. When a judge asked who gave her a permit to speak publicly, she replied, "Patrick Henry. Thomas Jefferson. John Adams!" — Map (db m44869) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), McKees Rocks — 1909 McKee's Rocks Strike|
|On July 14, unskilled immigrant workers led a strike against the Pressed Steel Car Company. Strain among the strikers, replacement laborers, and state police erupted into a riot on August 22. Eleven men were killed near this footbridge. Strikers were aided by the Industrial Workers of the World. — Map (db m40873) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), McKees Rocks — Presston|
|Pressed Steel Car Company provided worker housing at substantial cost to employees, keeping them in constant debt. During the 1909 McKees Rocks strike against the company, immigrant workers were evicted from their homes. The evictions led to the August 22 “Bloody Sunday Uprising” where at least 11 people died. The houses were sold after the company ceased operations in 1949. Constructed in 1899 as Schoenville, the neighborhood’s appearance remains similar to 1909. — Map (db m40905) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), McKeesport — Kennedy-Nixon Taft-Hartley Debate|
|On April 21, 1947, John F. Kennedy and Richard M. Nixon debated the Taft-Hartley Labor-Management Relations Act at the Penn-McKee Hotel. The first debate between the two House Labor Committee members was a precursor to the iconic Kennedy-Nixon presidential debate of 1960. — Map (db m54922) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Allegheny Cotton Mill Strikes|
|Major strikes by women cotton factory workers protesting 12-hour work-days occurred nearby in Allegheny City in 1845 and 1848. The strikes led to an 1848 state law limiting workdays to 10 hours and prohibiting children under twelve years of age from working in cotton and textile mills. — Map (db m40301) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Founding Convention of the AFL|
|On November 15, 1881, in nearby Turner Hall, a convention was held to form the organization which became the American Federation of Labor. Soon it was the nation's largest labor federation. It became part of the merged AFL-CIO in 1955. — Map (db m40940) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Founding Convention of the CIO|
|Near here on November 14, 1938, the first convention of the Congress of Industrial Organizations was held. 34 international unions were represented. Pittsburgh's Philip Murray was president from 1940-1952. — Map (db m40175) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Founding of the Ironworkers Union|
|On February 4, 1896, sixteen delegates met at Moorheads Hall here to form the International Association of Bridge, Structural, Ornamental, and Reinforcing Iron Workers. Active in the struggle for health and safety standards; by 1996 it had 140,000 members. — Map (db m40936) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Great Strike Ignites the Nation! — Great Railroad Strike of 1877|
|The Great Strike of 1877 was not exclusive to Pittsburgh. The first signs of what would become a popular uprising appeared on the B&O Line in Baltimore, on July 16th 1877. Unrest in Baltimore was initially suppressed. The next day, however, trainmen in Martinsburg, West Virginia went on strike. News from Martinsburg helped to re-ignite the flame of discontent in Baltimore. Citizens rose up in support of workers and met violent opposition from the Maryland National Guard.
Within a week, the . . . — Map (db m26106) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Henry Clay Frick — (1849-1919)|
|Pittsburgh industrialist and philanthropist, Frick was instrumental in the organization of the coke and steel industries. His controversial management style while chairman of Carnegie Steel led to the bloody Homestead Strike in 1892. — Map (db m40939) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Pat the Avenger Returns Fire — Great Railroad Strike of 1877|
|In The Great Strike of 1877, a labor dispute between workers and the Pennsylvania Railroad Company set off a popular uprising. The Philadelphia militia shot into an unarmed crowd on July 21st and then took shelter in the roundhouse at 26th Street. On the morning of July 22nd they marched eastward, retreating from the city. By then, thousands of citizens had raided arms and ammunition shops — preparing themselves to avenge the dead and defend their community. The people of Pittsburgh fired . . . — Map (db m26113) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Railroad Strike of 1877|
|In July, unrest hit United States rail lines. Pennsylvania Railroad workers struck to resist wage and job cuts. Here, on July 21, militia fatally shot some 26 people. A battle followed; rail property was burned. The strike was finally broken by US troops. — Map (db m40906) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Safe Haven Denied at Allegheny Arsenal — Great Railroad Strike of 1877|
|In the Great Strike of 1877, a labor dispute between workers and the Pennsylvania Railroad Company set off a popular uprising. Militiamen were called in to put down the strike and clashed with disgruntled citizens. On the second day of the conflict, the Philadelphia militia retreated eastward, pursued by angry Pittsburgh residents.
Fleeing the city, the troops sought refuge at the Allegheny US Arsenal, which once stood at this location. Looking for safe-haven and reinforcements, the troops . . . — Map (db m26213) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Seige at the 26th Street Roundhouse — Great Railroad Strike of 1877|
|On July 21st 1877, the Philadelphia militia fired into a vocal crowd of striking Pennsylvania trainmen and sympathizers. Twenty people were killed, including at least three children. Many more were wounded. Following the attack, the militia retreated to the roundhouse at 26th Street and Liberty Avenue as family, friends and neighbors prepared to avenge the dead.
While the tired and hungry militia hunkered down inside, a howling mob began to assemble outside the roundhouse. Accompanied by . . . — Map (db m26111) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — State Violence Incites Rioting — Great Railroad Strike of 1877|
|On July 20th, 1877, striking railroad workers in Pittsburgh successfully stopped trains from leaving the freight yard in the Strip District. The sheriff was called upon to clear the tracks by railroad officials, anxious to regain control of their lines. Already, many local police and militia had joined the crowd of friends and neighbors in support of the strike. Knowing that local militiamen would not use force against their own community, the sheriff requested assistance from the Philadelphia . . . — Map (db m26109) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — The Desperate and the Decadent — Great Railroad Strike of 1877|
|The Great Strike of 1877 was instigated by a ten percent cut in workmen’s wages on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad—one cut of many since the panic of 1873. The industry at large had experienced significant wage cuts and lay offs. By 1877, three million people, or 27% of eligible workers, were unemployed. Two fifths of the employed were on the job only 6 to 7 months of the year. As railroad companies downsized, the demands placed on the remaining workforce intensified. On July 19, 1877, . . . — Map (db m26108) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — The Empty Pocket Pays — Great Railroad Strike of 1877|
|In 1877, The Pennsylvania Railroad Company (PRR) was the largest corporation in the world. In that year the PRR, like railroads across the country, instituted massive lay-offs and wage cuts—reportedly due to declining profits. When workers on the B&O Railroad struck in July of 1877, the sentiment quickly spread to the PRR. In cities, like Pittsburgh, trains barreled through the middle of densely populated neighborhoods, creating pollution and posing a major safety hazard. The seething . . . — Map (db m26104) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — The Menace of the Iron Horse — Great Railroad Strike of 1877|
|Between 1865 and 1880, the railroad system grew rapidly, tripling in size and connecting urban areas throughout the country. Generally unchecked, railroad tracks cut through the heart of cities, with little concern for the best interests of residents and local business. Thirty-five-ton locomotives barreled down densely populated streets that ten years earlier saw only foot traffic and horse-drawn buggies. In 1876 alone, the Erie Railroad reported 61 deaths and 53 injuries among non-railroad . . . — Map (db m26110) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Twenty Murdered and a City Rises Up — Great Railroad Strike of 1877|
|A pivotal moment in The Great Strike happened here, on July 21st, 1877. Striking railroad workers blocked the tracks, while their families and supporters looked on from the hillside. Militiamen were brought in from Philadelphia to clear the workers from the tracks and restore train service. At about 5pm, they fixed bayonets and charged the unmoving crowd, which fought back by throwing stones. The troops subsequently opened fire on the striking workmen, and turned their guns on women and . . . — Map (db m26112) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Union Local 471 American Federation of Musicians|
|Organized in 1908, this local was one of the first African American musicians unions in Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh was at the forefront of the jazz world in the mid-20th century, and jazz greats Mary Lou Williams, Art Blakey, Ray Brown, and George Benson, among others, were members. A controversial merger with the white union local in the 1960s ended one of the oldest black union organizations in the United States. Headquarters was nearby, 1940-1954. — Map (db m56705) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — United Steelworkers of America|
|In the Grant Building here on June 17, 1936, the Steel Workers Organizing Committee was founded. Renamed in 1942, the USWA became one of the world's largest unions, embracing over a million workers. Philip Murray was its first president. — Map (db m43401) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Who Was the Howling Mob? — Great Railroad Strike of 1877|
|In 1877, the population of Pittsburgh was approximately 120,000. It is estimated that 30,000 people — a full quarter of the city's population — participated in The Great Strike and the rioting that ensued. Roughly half of the rioters were unemployed, this statistic points to the widespread participation of women, children, and adolescent boys. However, the privileged class that controlled the media went to great lengths to portray the rioters as shiftless drifters, tramps and . . . — Map (db m26107) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Work Accidents and the Law — (1910)|
|The pioneering study of industrial conditions in Allegheny County by Crystal Eastman documented 526 workplace deaths in one year. A component of the land-mark Pittsburgh Survey, it led to industrial accident prevention programs and workers' compensation laws. — Map (db m40934) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Beaver County), Aliquippa — Aliquippa Works|
|Aliquippa Works of Jones and Laughlin Steel Corporation production commenced in 1909 at this plant once the largest integrated steel plant. Over 14000 persons were employed here. Collective bargaining under the Wagner Act began here in 1937 as a result of efforts of local employees. — Map (db m48137) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Beaver County), Aliquippa — National Labor Relations Board versus Jones and Laughlin Supreme Court Ruling|
|In a landmark ruling on April 12, 1937, the United States Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the National Labor Relations Act in the case of National Labor Relations Board versus Jones and Laughlin Steel Corporation The company had fired unionized workers at its Aliquippa plant here, but the court ordered their reinstatement and established workers' rights to organize and bargain collectively. — Map (db m40244) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Berks County), Reading — Volunteer Firemen|
| In recognition
of more than a hundred
years of faithful,
unselfish and often heroic
service rendered by the
of the City of Reading, Pa.
“Greater love hath no man than
this: that a man lay down his
life for his fellow-man.”
Erected September 2, 1901.
Rainbow [Fire Company] No. 1
Instituted March 17, 1773.
Andrew F. Baer Pres.
Junior No. 2
Instituted Dec. 2, 1813.
John H. Ruth . . . — Map (db m25296) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Blair County), Altoona — Pennsylvania Railroad Shops|
|The PRR built its first repair facilities here in 1850 and opened its first track to Altoona during the same year. By 1925, Altoona was home to the nation's largest concentration of railroad shops, with 16,500 people employed in several locations. — Map (db m20998) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Blair County), Altoona — Railroad Shopmen's Strike of 1922|
|Over 300,000 skilled tradesmen went on strike against United States railroads to defend gains by unions during World War One. The Pennsylvania Railroad shops in Altoona led the anti-union opposition. The bitter struggle led to the 1926 Railway Labor Act that upheld unions’ right to organize. — Map (db m52867) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Bucks County), Bristol — Columbus 500 Celebration|
This monument was erected by the citizens of the 140th legislative district in tribute to Christopher Columbus and those who followed him to America.
We celebrate the 500th anniversary of the 1st voyage of Christopher Columbus, whose great talent, courage, and persistence helped link for the first time the nations of Europe with the Americas, encouraging further exploration and leading to the settlement of the New World, including the United States.
Commemoration . . . — Map (db m31448) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Cambria County), Nanty Glo — John Brophy — (1883-1963)|
|The American labor leader lived here in Nanty Glo. Brophy was president of District 2, United Mine Workers of America, 1916-1926; he gained national prominence for his "Miner's Program," calling for a shorter work week, nationalization of the mines, and a labor party. An official of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), 1935-1961, Brophy was a longtime advocate for a democratic labor movement. — Map (db m52911) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Carbon County), Jim Thorpe — Molly Maguire Executions|
|On June 21, 1877, four "Molly Maguires," an alleged secret society of Irish mine-workers, were hanged here. Pinkerton detective James McParlan’s testimony led to convictions for violent crimes against the coal industry, yet the facts of the labor, class, and ethnic conflicts, even the existence of the organization, remain contested. Six others were hanged on this day at the county jail in Pottsville; ten more were executed in Pa. through 1879. — Map (db m32153) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Centre County), Bellefonte — John Montgomery Ward — (1860-1925)|
|Baseball pioneer, born in Bellefonte, grew up here. Played for Providence, N.Y. Giants, Brooklyn, 1878-94. Pitched professional baseball's 2nd perfect game, 1880. Formed first players ' union, 1885, & Players' League, 1890. In Baseball Hall of Fame. — Map (db m65582) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Dauphin County), Harrisburg — Public Sector Unionism|
|Efforts to organize public workers in PA resulted in Acts 111 in 1968 and 195 in 1970. Tens of thousands of public employees joined unions. The movement to unionize public workers began in the 1930's. was legislatively restricted in 1947 & given partial recognition in 1957. — Map (db m6721) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Dauphin County), Hershey — Chocolate Workers' Sit-Down Strike|
|Hershey's Chocolate Workers Local 1 (CIO) responded to a labor-management impasse on April 2, 1937 by initiating the first sit-down strike in Pennsylvania and in the confectionery industry. The strike was ended by strike-breaking violence and government mediation. The union lost two subsequent representative elections. In 1939 workers affiliated with the Bakery & Confectionery Workers Local 464 (AFL). — Map (db m7135) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Fayette County), Republic — Penn-Craft|
|This experimental community for coal miners unemployed during the Depression was developed, 1937-43, by the American Friends Service Committee. On the 200-acre tract, fifty families built their stone houses, a cooperative store, and a knitting factory. A model for other self-help projects elsewhere, Penn-Craft was a successful example of the back-to-the-land movement of the 1930s. — Map (db m59682) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Indiana County), Indiana — William H. Sylvis|
|American labor pioneer. Born in Indiana County, 1828. Founder, National Union of Iron Molders, 1859. President, National Labor Union, 1868-1869. Sylvis strove for unity among working men and women regardless of race or nationality. He died, "labor's champion," 1869. — Map (db m40561) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Indiana County), Rossiter — Rossiter Strike Injunction|
|On April 1, 1927, 200,000 bituminous coal miners nationwide struck to protest wage reductions. In November, strikers in Rossiter were prohibited from assembling, marching, and hymn singing by a sweeping injunction issued by Indiana County Judge Jonathan Langham. The injunction and mine-workers’ conditions drew national interest and a U.S. Senate inquiry that included Senator Robert Wagner, key architect of the 1935 National Labor Relations Act. — Map (db m49200) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Lackawanna County), Scranton — Terence V. Powderly|
|Noted labor leader. Born Jan 22, 1849, in Carbondale. Grand Master Workman of the Knights of Labor, 1879-93. Scranton’s Mayor, 1878-84. Later Federal immigration official. Died in 1924. His home was near here. — Map (db m46429) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Luzerne County), Hazleton — Lattimer Massacre|
|Near here at Harwood, on Sept. 10, 1897, immigrant coal miners on strike began a march for higher wages and equal rights. Unarmed, they were fired upon at Lattimer by sheriff's deputies. Nineteen marchers--Polish, Slovak, and Lithuanian--were killed. The majority of the dead were buried in St. Stanislaus Cemetery, Hazleton. Others were interred in St. Joseph's & Vine Street Cemeteries, Hazleton, and in St. Patrick Cemetery, McAdoo. — Map (db m32151) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Luzerne County), Lattimer — Lattimer Massacre|
|Here on September 10, 1897, nearly 400 immigrant coal miners on strike were met and fired upon by sheriff's deputies. Unarmed, they were marching from Harwood to Lattimer in support of higher wages and more equitable working conditions. Nineteen of the marchers were killed, and 38 were wounded. This was one of the most serious acts of violence in American labor history. — Map (db m44043) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Luzerne County), Lattimer — Lattimer Massacre — September 10, 1897|
|"It was not a battle because they were not aggressive, nor were they on the defensive because they had no weapons of any kind and were simply shot down like so many worthless objects; each of the licensed life takers trying to outdo the others in the butchery."
Dedicated to these union brothers who made the supreme sacrifice
Sebastian Broztowski •
Michael Cheslock •
Frank Chrzeszeski •
Adalbert Czaja •
John Fotta •
Anthony Grekos •
Andrew Jurecek •
Stephen Jurics • . . . — Map (db m44136) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Luzerne County), Pittston — Twin Shaft Disaster|
|On June 28, 1896, fifty-eight men were killed in a massive cave-in of rock and coal here, in the Newton Coal Company's Twin Shaft Colliery. An investigative commission, appointed by the Governor, reported on Sept. 25. Although its safety recommendations would often be ignored, the disaster was a factor that led to a stronger unionization of this region under John Mitchell after 1900. — Map (db m10470) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Luzerne County), Pittston — Workers in Greater Pittston's Garment Industry|
|From the 1930s to the 1980s Pittston emerged as a national center for clothing manufacturing. Thousands of workers, mainly women, labored in many factories throughout the Greater Pittston area. Most were members of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU) that gained higher wages, workplace health & safety improvements, and employee rights. The ILGWU was active in civic and political life throughout Pennsylvania. — Map (db m10469) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Montgomery County), Pottstown — The Grubb Mansion — Historic Pottstown Walking Tour|
| The Grubb Mansion, located at 1304 High Street, is a Queen Anne Victorian built in 1906 by William I. Grubb. Mr. Grubb began his career as a slater and a carpenter. In 1893, at the age of 37, he formed a bicycle manufacturing company in a small shop along Queen Street between Charlotte and Evans Streets. In 1895, the company, known as the Light Cycle Co., moved to a new, three-story brick factory at Queen and Union Streets. During the next 35 years, the Light Cycle Co. manufactured bicycles, . . . — Map (db m23216) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Philadelphia County), Philadelphia — Carpenters' Hall|
|. . . for the purpose of obtaining instruction in the science of architecture and assisting such of their members as should by accident be in need of support, or the widows and minor children of members . . . By-laws of the Carpenters' Company Carpenters' Hall, completed in 1774, was the meeting place of a group of Philadelphia master builders known as the Carpenters' Company. The Carpenters banded together to establish architectural standards, to set prices for work, and to aid members' . . . — Map (db m9653) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Philadelphia County), Philadelphia — Mechanics' Union of Trade Associations|
|Formed nearby in 1827 as the first central labor council in the nation; recognized as the beginning of American labor movement. Represented workers as a class, not by craft. Advocated for ten-hour day; engaged in political activism and workers' education. — Map (db m9534) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Somerset County), Somerset — Quecreek Mine Accident and Rescue|
| On July 28, 2002, nine coal miners, trapped for four days due to flooding of the Quecreek Mine, were saved via a rescue shaft drilled here. Combined efforts of local, state, and federal agencies, mining and other industries, local mine workers, emergency responders, and community members led to the rescue. The incident prompted changes in mine safety, mapping, and drilling methods. It roused national media & public attention.
————————— . . . — Map (db m24163) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Somerset County), Windber — The Coal Miner — By Lawrence Whitaker|
|This statue presented to the citizens of this community by the district schoolchildren and dedicated to the men of the mines who by their labor and loyalty have helped to make Windber one of the best towns in the nation...1952
In honor of the proud coal miners who overcame hardships and faced great dangers on a daily basis. The toil and sacrifice of these loyal workers fueled the Industrial Revolution. — Map (db m21572) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Somerset County), Windber — Windber Strike of 1922-23|
|Windber-area Berwind White workers joined a national strike by United Mine Workers of America in April 1922 for improved wages and working conditions, civil liberties, and recognition. The strike lasted 16 months; families of strikers were evicted from company housing. A City of New York inquiry exposed deplorable living and working conditions and urged nationalization of coal mines. — Map (db m21579) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Tioga County), Blossburg — William B. Wilson|
|Homestead of William B. Wilson First U.S. Secretary of Labor 1913 - 1921 Member of House of Representatives 1906 - 1912 — Map (db m33176) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Washington County), California — Joseph A.“Jock” Yablonski — (1910-1969)|
|A longtime resident of California and elected official of the United Mine Workers of America. He led efforts to improve working conditions for coal miners. On December 31, 1969—shortly after his defeat as a reform candidate for president of the UMW—he, his wife Margaret, and their daughter Charlotte were assassinated. In 1972, reformers were elected to leadership of the UMW. — Map (db m346) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Washington County), Donora — Cement City|
|Located four blocks to the west. Built 1916-1917 as housing for employees at American Steel and Wire's Donora plant. A community of 100 units in 80 Prairie-style buildings, noted for the innovative use of poured-in-place concrete construction. One of several concrete communities built in the United States during this era, Cement City survived to house successive generations of families. A National Register Historic District. — Map (db m45008) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Westmoreland County), Arnold — Fannie Sellins — (1870-1919)|
|An organizer for the United Mine Workers, Fannie Sellins was brutally gunned down in Brackenridge on the eve of a nationwide steel strike, on August 26, 1919. Her devotion to the workers' cause made her an important symbolic figure. Both she and Joseph Starzelski, a miner who was also killed that same day, lie buried here in Union Cemetery where a monument to the pair was erected. — Map (db m58072) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Westmoreland County), Norvelt — Norvelt|
|Originally called "Westmoreland Homesteads," Norvelt was established April 13, 1934, by the federal government as part of a New Deal homestead project. With 250 homes, Norvelt provided housing, work, and a community environment to unemployed workers and their families during the Great Depression. It was renamed "Norvelt" in 1937 in honor of First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt and her interest in the project. — Map (db m55589) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Westmoreland County), Smithton — Darr Mine Disaster|
|On December 19, 1907, an explosion killed 239 men and boys, many Hungarian immigrants, in Darr coal mine near Van Meter. Some were from the closed Naomi mine, near Fayette City, which exploded on Dec. 1, killing 34. Over 3000 miners died in December 1907, the worst month in United States coal mining history. In Olive Branch Cemetery, 71 Darr miners, 49 unknown, are buried in a common grave. — Map (db m54926) HM|
|South Carolina (Anderson County), Honea Path — They Died for the Rights of the Working Man|
|These men were killed in Honea Path on September 6, 1934 in the General Textile Strike. This monument is dedicated to their memory, to their families and to all workers.
Claude Cannon, E.M. Knight
Lee Crawford, Maxie Peterson
Ira Davis, C.L. Rucker
Thomas Yarborough — Map (db m41259) HM|
|Texas (Galveston County), Texas City — 11890 — Sociedad Mutualista Mexicana in Texas City|
|In the 1870s native Tejanos organized Sociedades Mutualistas, mutual aid societies designed to protect their interests from the growing Anglo population of Texas. Although most of the early settlers of this area were of English, French, and German descent, increasing numbers of Mexican immigrants arrived in 1893 when construction began on the city's port facilities. In 1910 the Texas City census revealed a significant Hispanic populace.
In March 1914, under the auspices of Texas . . . — Map (db m50167) HM|
|Virginia, Alexandria — E-93 — Lee-Fendall House|
|“Light Horse Harry” Lee, Revolutionary War officer, owned this land in 1784. The house was built in 1785 by Phillip Fendall, a Lee relative. Renovated in 1850 in the Greek Revival style, the house remained in the Lee family until 1903. John L. Lewis, labor leader and president of the United Mine Workers of America and the Congress of Industrial Organizations, was the last resident owner, from 1937 to 1969. — Map (db m8567) HM|
|Virginia, Danville — Q 5K — Schoolfield|
|Schoolfield, established in 1903 as a textile mill village, was named for three brothers who founded Riverside Cotton Mills, later Dan River Mills. By the 1920s, this company town—complete with a school, churches, stores, a theatre, and other recreational facilities—was home to over 4,500 residents, mostly mill employees and their families, living in some 800 rental houses. A strike in 1930-31 ended a decade of employer/employee cooperation known as "Industrial Democracy," yet the . . . — Map (db m66051) HM|
|Virginia, Richmond — The Cupola Furnace and Foundry|
|The cupola furnace was last used here as part of the carwheel foundry, where railroad carwheels were cast until the 1950’s. The wall in front of you is the back wall of the building, and the arch behind you is the remains of the front wall of the original building. The foundry building was expanded considerably over time.
In the cupola furnace, iron was heated until it became molten, then poured into molds to produce various cast items. Furnaces at Tredegar once used pig iron from western . . . — Map (db m24135) HM|
|Virginia (Fairfax County), Herndon — The Rail Strike of 1916|
|In the years before motor vehicles came to dominate transportation, business was never better for the Washington & Old Dominion Railway. Demand for passenger and freight service boomed, while the W&OD's owners balked at spending the money necessary to keep the line running smoothly. The increasing dissatisfaction of the workers coincided with a campaign by the Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric Railroad Employees to unionize area rail workers. In the spring of 1916 many W&OD . . . — Map (db m44101) HM|
|Virginia (Shenandoah County), Fort Valley — Robert Fechner Memorial Forest|
|"By virtue of the authority vested in me as president of the United States...the Massanutten Unit of George Washington National Forest is hereby designated as the Robert Fechner Memorial Forest in honor of Robert Fechner, the first director of the Civilian Conservation Corps."
In March 1933, newly elected, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt faced national unemployment of 25%. Working quickly, Congress passed the Emergency Conservation Work legislation on March 31, 1933. One of the . . . — Map (db m65487) HM|
|West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Roundhouses and Shops / Railroad Strike of 1877|
|Roundhouses and Shops. The B&O Railroad reached Martinsburg in 1842,
and by 1849, a roundhouse and shops were
built. These first buildings were burned by
Confederate troops in 1862. The present west
roundhouse and the two shops were built in
1866. The east roundhouse was built in 1872.
These buildings represent one of the last
remaining examples of American industrial
railroad architecture still intact and in
use. These structures serve as important
reminders of the status of the . . . — Map (db m1197) HM|
|West Virginia (Fayette County), Mossy — Mossy — Paint Creek Scenic Trail — Raleigh, Fayette, & Kanawha Counties, WV|
|1913-Union organizer Mary "Mother" Jones imprisoned in Pratt.
1913-Approximate location of the striking miners tent colony that was fired on by mine guards wielding a machine gun mounted on the "Bull Moose" special train
1919-7 miners are killed in an explosion of the Weirwood Coal Mine.
1920-Striking miners terrorize Willis Branch with gunfire and destroy the mining complex with dynamite.
1989-Striking miners bombed the coal mine at Milburn, WV.
1990's-The last company . . . — Map (db m34438) HM|
|West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Two Treason Trials|
|Jefferson County's Most Famous Trial
In the room immediately behind this wall, the abolitionist John Brown and five of his raiders were tried for treason against the state of Virginia, murder and inciting slaves to rebel. Brown had led 21 men to seize the federal arsenal and armory at Harpers Ferry on the night of October 16, 1859 to start an insurrection to topple slavery. Fifteen people died before the raiders were taken.
Treason Trials in Charles Town - Again
Sixty three years . . . — Map (db m21767) HM|
|West Virginia (Kanawha County), Charleston — William Blizzard|
|Born in Kanawha County on 19 September 1892. Began work as a miner at age ten, and served as field organizer, UMWA. Noted as leader of 1921 Armed March. Indicted for treason but later acquitted. President of District 17 and vice-president of West Virginia Federation of Labor. Retired to Putnam County farm in 1955. Died on 31 July 1958. — Map (db m23011) HM|
|West Virginia (Logan County), Blair — Battle of Blair Mountain|
|In August of 1921, 7000 striking miners led by Bill Blizzard met at Marmet for a march on Logan to organize the southern coalfields for the UMWA. Reaching Blair Mt. on August 31, they were repelled by deputies and mine guards, under Sheriff Don Chafin, waiting in fortified positions. The five-day battle ended with the arrival of U. S. Army and Air Corps. UMWA organizing efforts in southern WV were halted until 1933. — Map (db m49915) HM|
|West Virginia (Ohio County), Wheeling — Augustus Pollack|
|Erected by Trade Union Members of United States in memory of Augustus Pollack whose business life and actions were always in sympathy with organized labor. — Map (db m16250) HM|