|Australia, New South Wales, Tuross Head — McWilliam Park Whale Burial Site|
Whales (generally humpback or southern-right) can provide a magnificent spectacle off this coastline during their annual migration south, from September to November.|
Many long-time residents of Tuross Head can recall the arrival of a whale on the beach below, in November, 1980. The whale unfortunately did not survive this ordeal and was buried under the prominent grass mound to be seen on the foreshore. — Map (db m38375) HM
|Brazil, Paraná, Foz do Iguaçu — Alberto Santos-Dumont Memorial — Parque Nacional do Iguaçu — Patrimonio Natural da Humanidade|
|As alturas não me intimidam. —Santos-Dumont, Foz do Iguaçu, 24 Abril 1916.
Posso dizer-ihe, Frederico Engel, que estas maravilhas em torno das cataratas não podem continuar a pertencer a um particular (Santos–Dumont) Foz, 25 de Abril de 1916.
Com esta estátua o sonho de Elfrida E. N. Rios, pioneira da cidade, tornou-se realidade. —Foz, 25 de Abril de 1979.
(English translation) “Heights do not intimidate me.” . . . — Map (db m26178) HM|
|Alberta, Banff — Banff Park Museum|
|Opened in 1895, the Banff Park Museum was moved into this building in 1903. Its cross-log motif exemplifies an architectural style common in the town at the time. Norman Bethune Sanson, the museum’s curator from 1896 to 1932, energetically developed the collections, initially put together by the Geological Survey of Canada. Throughout its early years the museum dealt with natural and human history but by the late 1950s was limited to natural history. While this building was refurbished in 1985, . . . — Map (db m8836) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — Above The Sunken Garden|
The mound in the centre of the quarry was of an inferior grade of limestone and therefore not quarried. Left intact, it provided a natural viewpoint amid the developing garden beds. Jennie Butchart planted a pair of arbor vitae (trees of life) on either side of the walkway in 1920. They have become a distinguishing part of the Sunken Garden and have been replaced three times. — Map (db m74451) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — Coast Salish Totem Poles|
Eagle with Salmon, Orca, Bear with Salmon
This Totem Pole, carve in Contemporary Coast Salish style by master carver Doug LaFortune of the Tsawout First Nation, was dedicated on September 9th, 2004 in celebration of the 100th anniversary of The Butchart Gardens.
Raven, Beaver with Grouse, Otter with pups & clam, Frog
This Totem Pole, carved in Classic Coast Salish style by master carver Charles Elliott of the Tsartlip . . . — Map (db m74456) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — Ross Fountain Lookout|
This smaller quarry was a source of limestone in the 1860s. It was here that Ian Ross, grandson of Mr. and Mrs. Butchart, devised his spectacular fountain with the assistance of his plumber, Adrian Butler and his electrician, Vic Dawson. The Ross Fountain commemorated the 60th Anniversary of The Butchart Gardens when it was installed in 1964. — Map (db m74441) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — Ross Fountain Lookout|
Directly behind the Ross Fountain lies Tod Inlet and the site of the Vancouver Portland Cement Company established in 1904. Adjacent to the plant at Tod Inlet was a village that housed the employees. — Map (db m74444) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — Seed & Fireworks Fields|
In 1903, the land now occupied by the Butchart Gardens was purchased from a local dairy farmer, Mr. Fernie. Reservoirs were excavated in 1969 to ensure a water supply for irrigation. The single jet fountain was installed to aerate the water supply in the largest reservoir, now the focal point of the fireworks display. — Map (db m74459) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — The Japanese Garden|
The first of Jennie Butchart's formal gardens, the Japanese Garden was started in 1906. A Japanese landscape artist, Isaburo Kishida, assisted her with the design. Under the supervision of Hugh Lindsay the first of Mrs. Butchart's head gardeners, labourers from the cement works implemented Kishida's plan. Jennie installed a torii gate to mark the entrance to the garden. The magnificent purple beech on each side of the gate and the Japanese maples at the head of the stone stairs down into . . . — Map (db m74513) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — The Quarry Walls|
The barren rock face of the quarry presented Jennie Butchart with a challenge. She hung in a bosun's chair to plant ivy in the crevices in the rock walls. — Map (db m74437) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — The Sunken Garden|
The Limestone deposit was exhausted in 1908 and the quarry abandoned. Mrs. Butchart conceived the idea of transforming the barren pit into a garden and thus the Sunken Garden came into being. In 1910 she planted Lombardy poplar trees in an attempt to block the view of the cement factory. By 1912 the development of the garden was underway and it was completed in 1921. — Map (db m74428) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — The Sunken Garden Lake|
The deepest part of the quarry floor was sealed, lined and allowed to fill with water from a natural spring forming a lake 40 ft deep in places. Mr. Butchart stocked the pool with trout which would rise to the surface to be fed when he clapped his hands. — Map (db m74438) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Sidney — Year of the Ocean|
If the Oceans of the world perish, so shall we. This mural was painted in celebration of the "International Year of the Ocean", and is a brief glimpse into the story of ocean science on the west coast. A mere fraction of the story is depicted here.
The mural is a dream of the Ocean, and like a dream it flows across a montage of images floating through space and time. Beginning in the distant past, with an Ancient Navigator lovingly holding our Ocean planet, it ends with a . . . — Map (db m75463) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — A Natural Harbour — Fisherman's Wharf Park|
[Photo caption reads] A detail of the View of Victoria, 1860.
Major Bay is largely undeveloped.
BC Archives POP01538
[Photo caption reads] Bird's-Eye View of Victoria, Vancouver Island, B.C. 1878, detail.
Drawn by E.S. Glover, Published by M.W. Waitt & Co., Victoria, B.C.
The shores around Shoal Point and Major Bay offered a protected landing point and by the 1890's the development of the Outer Wharves changed the look of the untouched . . . — Map (db m74383) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Abkhazi Garden — The Garden that Love Built|
Peggy Pemberton-Carter met Prince Nicholas Abkhazi, in Paris in 1922. Prince Nicholas, the last surviving son of an ancient line of kings of Abkhazia on the Black Sea, had been living there in exile since escaping the Bolshevik Revolution. They found themselves "amiable", taking walks together, visiting galleries and conversing in their common language of French. They kept in touch through correspondence and met occasionally over the next few years. Peggy and her mother lived in . . . — Map (db m75253) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Chinese Cemetery|
Before 1903 the remains of early Chinese immigrants were buried in the low-lying, southwestern corner of Ross Bay cemetery. This area was often flooded after a heavy rainstorm. In the early 1900s, high winds and waves eroded a few waterfront Chinese graves, exposing coffins and sweeping away their remains. In 1903 the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association (CCBA) purchased this site for a cemetery.
Traditional Chinese burial practices had the remains exhumed after seven years, the . . . — Map (db m75449) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — From Mudflat to Rain Garden — Fisherman's Wharf Park|
A sports field served James Bay for many years until the Community envisioned a new park space. On August 27th, 2009 City Council adopted the Fisherman's Wharf Management Plan. The plan was completed in two phases and the Mayor celebrated the grand opening with residents on October 2nd, 2012.
[Inset photos and text follow]
A small shanty-town was also born during this era with houses in the bay. 1940's.
1940 - Today
The map underlay shows the shoreline of 1940. Major Bay's . . . — Map (db m74385) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Giants Rooted Among Us|
Gaze up into a Giant sequoia. Let your imagination soar. Fully grown, they are the largest living things on the planet. Their ancestors stood among dinosaurs. Today, the Giant sequoia is found naturally in fewer than 100 groves in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Giant sequoias were planted in Beacon Hill Park. Look for them along Circle Drive (behind you) and just off the Goodacre Lake path.
Shaped by Fire
Lightning-sparked forest fires are common in the mountains of . . . — Map (db m74141) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — 5 — Signs of Lekwungen — We Are Still Here — Beside the "Lookout" on Beacon Hill - míqən|
There are messages in the landscape here, surviving traditional place names, and the soil itself preserves ancient stories waiting to be told.
This is the land of the Lekwungen People, known today as the Esquimalt and Songhees Nations. As you travel through the city, you will find seven carvings that mark places of cultural significance. To seek out these markers is to learn about the land, its original culture, and the spirit of its people.
The hill here is called MEE-qan which . . . — Map (db m74378) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Spewhung|
Turkey Head was known by the indigenous people as Spewhung.
A large shell-midden along this shoreline indicates that this was an ancient village site to which first peoples brought many fish, bird, mammal and plant resources. Food was gathered from Chatham and Discovery Islands (Stsnaang and Tlchess) in the distance and from Jimmy Chicken-Mary Tod Island (Kohweechella island, "where there are many fish"), nearer shore.
Artwork by Charles Elliott, Temoseng
BC 150 Years, 2008 — Map (db m75329) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Tlikwaynung|
This small islet and the adjacent shore were once an indigenous encampment connected with the village at McNeill Bay, Chikawich, to the west. The people living here ate over 20 species of fish and 15 species of birds, as well as deer, sea mammals, raccoon and marten. Across the water lies Trial Island, Tlikwaynung, a place where there were lots of seals.
Artwork by Charles Elliott, Temoseng
BC 150 Years — Map (db m75340) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — William (Billy) Barker — 1817 - 1894|
Baptized: March, Cambridgeshire, England
June 7 1817
Died: Victoria, B.C., Canada
July 11, 1894
On August 17 of 1862, Barker struck gold at 52 feet on Williams Creek, Cariboo. The town of Barkerville bears his name. Like many miners he was soon broke, but Barker continued to mine and prospect throughout the Cariboo for the rest of his life.
The fabulous wealth of the Cariboo mines laid the foundation for British Columbia. With this monument, Billy Barker is honoured as a builder . . . — Map (db m74827) HM|
|New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Friar's Head / Le Cap Friar|
Friar's Head takes its name from the stone pillar or stack (photo 1) that rises from the beach directly below the observation deck. While occupying Eastport, the British navy was said to have used the stone pillar for target practice, altering its outline to that of a hooded monk or Friar in deep contemplation.
Native American Passamaquoddy legend referred to this rock as the Stone Maiden. The legend speaks of a young brave leaving on a long journey, telling his lover to sit . . . — Map (db m63629) HM|
|New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Panoramic View of Cottages — Vue Panoramique des Résidences d'Éte|
Two of the Campobello Company's founders, Alex S. Porter and Samuel Wells, and several of the luxury hotel visitors, including James Roosevelt and families by the name of Sturgis, Cochrane, Prince, and Pell purchased land and refurbished or built large cottages. Five cottages remain today: the Prince, Roosevelt, Hubbard, Wells-Shober, and Johnston cottages in what is now the Roosevelt Campobello International Park's historic core.
This circa 1914 photo identifies the various . . . — Map (db m63641) HM|
|New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Passamaquoddy Tidal Power Project — Projet de Centrale Électrique Marée Motrice|
During the years FDR summered on Campobello, the daughter of one of Campobello's summer colonists married Dexter P. Cooper, an eminent American engineer. Cooper studied the tremendous rise and fall of Passamaquoddy Bay's tides and became obsessed with the potential of generating electricity from the 2 billion cubic metres (70 billion cubic feet) of seawater that entered and left the bay twice each day.
Passamaquoddy tides are among the highest in the world, and range from a maximum . . . — Map (db m63611) HM|
|New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Passamaquoddy Tribe / La Tribu Passamaquoddy|
Passamaquoddy Bay takes its name from the Native American Passamaquoddy Tribe. The word means People of the Pollock-Spearing Place. The Passamaquoddy have a rich heritage, once occupying much of what is now eastern Maine and western New Brunswick. They lived inland, seasonally, where during the colder months they subsisted mainly by hunting and fishing. During the warmer months, they moved to the shore (where there were cooler temperatures and fewer biting flies) to harvest abundant . . . — Map (db m63617) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Victoria County), Englishtown — Bird Islands|
Bird Islands is actually made up of two individual islands - Hertford and Ciboux. Home to an ancient Mi’kimaq legend, the great deity, Ktchi’scam, molded prophet Glooscap out of the earth ad breathed life into him with a lightening bolt. One day while Gloosscap was fishing in his canoe, he saw two beautiful maidens watching him from the shore. In excitement, Glooscap jumped up from the canoe, causing it to break into two pieces. The young girls laughed at Glooscap and in . . . — Map (db m80075) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Chatham — The Legend of the Paw Paw — Tecumseh Parkway|
|The Paw Paw tree (Asimina triloba) is native to the southern, eastern, and mid-western United States and extends to Canada only in the extreme southern part of Ontario. It has the largest edible fruit native to North America. The fruit looks somewhat like a small banana and has a custard taste.
Popular attributes relates the presence of several groves of this thicket-forming understory tree along this section of the Thames River to American soldiers who carried the fruit with them from . . . — Map (db m71405) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Shoreline Breakwall|
| Shoreline Breakwall
Over time, the force of water and ice has eroded the river bank, creating the need to stabilize the shore. Parks Canada, the Essex Region Conservation Authority (ERCA) and Environment Canada partnered to stabilize the shoreline using limestone mined in Amherstburg, and created small islands with submerged spawning reefs. These features provide habitat, and shelter fish and other aquatic life from the current and wake created by passing freighters. . . . — Map (db m71161) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Detroit River|
|The Detroit River is unique in Canada, the United States and indeed, the world. Its shores embrace the largest metropolitan area on any international border - but rather than separating communities, the river connects them culturally and economically.
Archaeological finds date First Nations communities at the river as early as 400 A.D. while French settlers reached the area by the mid-1600's. The river and its watersheds represent the history of North America in a way that is not . . . — Map (db m37378) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Niagara River Remedial Action Plan|
|Niagara's beauty has been an inspiration for today's environmental movement. Early conservationists such as George Catlin and Frederick Olmstead, who invented the concept of national parks, came to view its wonders. Nurtured by such visions and encouraged by the leadership of Colonel Casimir Gzowski, The Niagara Parks Commission established the first provincial park in Ontario in 1885.
The Remedial Action Plan (RAP) today unites concerned citizens committed to restoring Niagara's ecosystem . . . — Map (db m64652) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Niagara River Recreation Trail|
|This trail is provided and maintained through the earnings of The Niagara Parks Commission. The Commission is a self-funding agency of the Ontario Government dedicated to preserving and enhancing the beauty of the lands adjacent to the Niagara River for the enjoyment of its visitors.
—Pamela Verrill Walker, Chairman, The Niagara Parks Commission, 1988. — Map (db m79579) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Table Rock|
|This is the site of the historic landmark, Table Rock, a shelf of bare rock 61 metres (200 feet) long, 18.3 metres (60 feet) wide. Once part of the crest of the Horseshoe Falls it was left isolated when the Falls receded. Rock falls in 1818, 1828, 1829, 1850 and 1934 reduced its size. The remaining overhang was blasted off for safety reasons in 1935. — Map (db m64668) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — The Boundary Waters Treaty|
|"It is further agreed that the waters herein defined as boundary waters and waters flowing across the boundary shall not be polluted on either side to the injury of health or property of the other."
Widely regarded as the first environmental agreement, the 1909 Boundary Waters Treaty was the first international treaty to articulate principles of boundary water resource development, to address cross-boundary pollution and to prohibit the diversion of boundary waters. Further, in . . . — Map (db m64648) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Thomas Baker McQuesten — K.C., M.L.A. — 1882 – 1945|
|Thomas Baker McQuesten was born in Hespeler, Ontario June 30, 1882. In 1934 he was appointed Minister of Highways and Public Works for the Province of Ontario and Chairman of the Niagara Parks Commission. He served in both positions for ten years.
During his term as chairman of the Niagara Parks Commission, he was instrumental in the building of Oakes Garden Theatre; The construction of the Niagara Parkway from Clifton Hill to the whirlpool; the Niagara Parks School of Horticulture; Mather . . . — Map (db m78489) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Whirlpool Rapids Gorge|
|An ancient river pre-dating the Wisconsin Glacier flowed through the channel of the Whirlpool Rapids and the Whirlpool draining glacial Lake Erie. After the retreat of the glacier when the present river broke through the rock barriers at Thompson Point it re-excavated the Whirlpool and the Whirlpool Rapids Gorge. — Map (db m79581) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Southern Terminus of The Bruce Trail|
|This cairn marks the southern terminus of the Bruce Trail, a cross-country foot trail established along or adjacent to the Niagara Escarpment extending from Tobermory on Georgian Bay in the north to this southern terminus at Queenston Heights.
Bruce Trail, Niagara to Tobermory. — Map (db m79046) HM|
|Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Wittenberg District), Lutherstadt Wittenberg — Mains Water Well on the Market Square — Röhrwasserbrunnen auf dem "Marktplatz"|
The members of the union "New Jungfernröhrwasser", including Caspar Pfreundt und Christoff Niemeck, commissioned the construction of this water main in 1559. At the start there were 19 members. The water was taken from the spring area to the individual courtyards along a 2.7 km pipe, which used the natural downwards gradient of the terrain. The pipes were made of hollowed tree trunks, connected to each other using iron joints. Wells were constructed in different forms and using different . . . — Map (db m69874) HM|
|Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Wittenberg District), Lutherstadt Wittenberg — Röhrwasserbrunnen in the/im "Lutherhof"|
The members of the union "Old Jungfernröhrwasser", including Lucas Cranach the Younger and Hans Lufft, commissioned the construction of these water mains in 1556.
There were 20 members at the start. The water was taken from the spring area to the individual courtyards along a 2.7 km pipe, which used the natural downwards gradient of the terrain. The pipes were made of hollowed tree trunks, connected to each other using iron joints. Wells were constructed in different forms and using . . . — Map (db m70033) HM|
|Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Wittenberg District), Lutherstadt Wittenberg — Wittenberg's Water-Piping System — Wittenberger Röhrwasser|
Wittenberg's Water-Piping System
a technical monument from the 16th century
1n 1556 a group of distinguished local residents (Hieronymus Krapp, Christoff Kelner, Hans Lufft, Lucas Cranach, Caspar Pfreundt, Conradt Rühel and Christoff Schramm) formed a "Piping Union" in order to have water mains constructed. This water supply system later became known as the "Old Maiden Water Piping System" (Altes Jungfernröhrwasser). The water was piped in hollowed tree trunks connected with iron . . . — Map (db m69913) HM|
|Germany, Thuringia (Weimarer Land Kreis (District)), Buchenwald Memorial — "Goethe's Oak" / „Goethe-Eiche”|
Position of the "Goethe's Oak"
Standort der „Goethe-Eiche”
[French and Russian text not translated] — Map (db m76562) HM|
|Ireland, Connacht (County Mayo), Louisburg — Famine Museum and Granuaile Centre, Louisburgh — Clew Bay Archeaological Trail site 12 — Slí Seandálaíochta Chuan Módh|
| Cluain Cearbhán - Meadow of the Buttercups
The Famine Museum in Louisburgh recounts local memories of the famine, presents coverage of the famine in the media, nationally and locally, and shows how links have been established between Louisburgh and other parts of the world, culminating in the local famine walk along Doo Lough Valley.
The Granuaile Centre recounts the life and times of the 16th century O'Malley Chief and Sea Captain, Granuail (Grace O'Malley or Gráinne . . . — Map (db m28044) HM|
|Ireland, Connacht (County Mayo), Murrisk — Murrisk Fisherman's Monument|
Ag Críost an mhuir
Ag Críost an t-iasc
I líontaih Dé go gcastar sinn
This monument was erected to honour the
contributions of the traditional seafaring
fishing community in Murrisk.
We celebrate their memory and ask you to remember
all those who lost their lives in Clew Bay
Names of boats associated with sea fishing in Murrisk up to mid 1960's
Officially unveiled by
Cathaoirleach of Mayo County Council
Gerry Coyle &
Most Rev. Michael Neary DD
Archbishop of Tuam . . . — Map (db m80404) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Dublin), Dublin — Lord Ardilaun|
| Prior to 1877 St. Stephen's Green was a private square for the use of the residents of the Green. In that year, through the generosity of Sir Arthur Edward Guinness (Lord Ardilaun) negotiations were concluded for converting it into a public park.
Lord Ardilaun paid off debts against the park and invested an additional £20,000 in laying out the grounds as a park and garden. The bronze statue of Lord Ardilaun was erected by public subscriptions in 1892.
The Right . . . — Map (db m25311) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Fingal), Howth — Howth The Village / Binn Éadair ______ — The Fingal Way / Sli Fhine Gall|
| A Fishing Village
References to the fishing industry in Howth can be found from the twelfth century, although in the seventeenth century the port was also known in the area as a base for pirates roaming Dublin Bay. In Elizabethan times a wooden quay was built but as vessel size increased the importance of Howth for goods and passenger traffic declined. In the nineteenth century various plans were put forward for a harbour at Howth and in 1807 construction commenced using stone quarried . . . — Map (db m27057) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Fordstown — Girley / Fordstown — Meath Villages|
| An introduction to Fordstown
Fordstown is named after the Norman-Irish Ford family, who lived in the area. One part of the townland is sometimes referred to as Ballaghboy. Today, Fordstown is a growing, vibrant community. ‘Fordstown Street Fair’ is an old world fair, hosted by Fordstown in October each year since 2004. Fordrew Rovers
Fordrew Rovers Football Club was formed in 1997 and play in Drewstown. They progressed from Division 4A to Division 1 in four years. They won . . . — Map (db m27318) HM|
|Ireland, Munster (County Kerry), Dunquin — The Blaskets|
| This group, the most westerly off the Irish coast, comprises 7 sizeable islands and isolated rocks spread in a line west by south over 2½ miles of the Atlantic, the largest (Great Blasket) 2 miles off shore.
Antiquities of the early Christian period include oratories, crosses and “beehive” cells on Inis Mhicileáin and Inis Tuaisceart, and church ruins on the Great Blasket.
The economy of the islands, based mainly on fishing with some farming, in 1839 supported 13 . . . — Map (db m24096) HM|
|Ireland, Ulster (County Donegal), Slieve League — Chough / Cág Cos-dearg — Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax — Walking Through Donegal / Ag Siúl Tríd Dhún na nGall|
The Chough is called cág cos-dearg in Irish - the red-footed jackdaw. It can be easily recognized by its glossy black coat, its red bill and legs, a sharp shrill call and its acrobatic flight. They normally nest in crevices and caves on rocky cliffs such as those found at Sliabh Liag.
The numbers of Chough in Europe are declining in about 90% of its population range and the Sliabh Liag Cliffs are one of its few remaining strongholds. Reasons for this decline are associated with changes . . . — Map (db m71696) HM|
|Ireland, Ulster (County Donegal), Slieve League — Farming on Sliabh Liag / Feirmeoireacht ar Shliabh Liag — Walking Through Donegal — Ag Siúl Tríd Dhún na nGall|
Local farmers use the cliffs of Sliabh Liag as a grazing area for sheep. Hardy varieties of sheep suited to harsh mountain environments are raised to produce wool which was traditionally woven locally to produce the world famous Donegal Tweeds.
Baineann ne feirmeoirí áitiúla úsáid as Shlaibh Liag mar thalamh innilte do chaoire. Tógtar caoire de chineáil crua atá fóirsteanach do thimpeallacht sléibhe garbh le olann a shaothrú. Bhíodh an olann seo a sníodh le bréidín cháiliúil Dhún na . . . — Map (db m71630) HM|
|Ireland, Ulster (County Donegal), Slieve League — Fishing /Iascaireacht — Walking Through Donegal — Ag Siúl Tríd Dhún na nGall|
The sea has always been a central part of the lives of the people who live in this area. Fishing once provided an important source of income for many local families. However, today the industry is in steady decline. Donegal Bay, once busy with boats of all sizes, now supports only minimal fishing activity.
Is páirt lárnach do shaol na ndaoine a chónaíonn sa cheantar seo an fharraige. Chuidigh an teacht isteach ó thionscal na h-iascaireachta go mór le mórán de na teaghlaigh áitiúla lá den . . . — Map (db m71644) HM|
|Ireland, Ulster (County Donegal), Slieve League — The Bog / An Portach — Walking Through Donegal — Ag Siúl Tríd Dhún na nGall|
The principal fuel for heating homes in this area has always been turf, which is cut out of the bog. Cutting the turf begins around April or May when wet sods are spread on the surface to begin drying. These are then 'footed' into small piles to dry thoroughly. Once dried the turf can then be transported home in time for the winter.
The remains of old turf workings are very evident in this area and can be recognized as banks and steps across the landscape.
Ba í móin an príomh ábhar . . . — Map (db m71668) HM|
|Saint Lucia, Soufrière — The Pitons World Heritage Site|
|The Pitons Management Area (PMA) was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List as a natural site on Wednesday, 30th June 2004 at the 28th session of the World Heritage Committee.
The status as a World Heritage Site was conferred on the basis of Criterion I (outstanding examples representing major stages of earth’s history) and Criterion III (superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance) for natural sites.
The Government and People of . . . — Map (db m82687) HM|
|Switzerland, Zurich (Zurich) — Fountain from Paris|
|Fountain from Paris, 1870 to initiate the
1982 World Convention of Water Experts in Zurich.
The four nymphs personify simplicity, purity, sobriety and charity.
They symbolise international co-operation in providing people
everywhere with pure and salubrious water.
(Plaques in French and German are also found on the fountain) — Map (db m67089) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Antrim), Bushmills — Bushmills History & Heritage|
The natural life cycle of a salmon is one of nature's wonders. A salmon begins its life in the shallow water and gravel beds of the river as eggs then fry. These small fry stay in the river until they mature into par. The next stage of their life is when they mature into smolts and take on the colouring of the mature salmon.
The smolts move downstream around May or June to begin their epic migration to feeding grounds in the north Atlantic. Here, they feed on fish, such . . . — Map (db m70892) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Antrim), Bushmills — Dunluce Castle — Causeway Coastal Route|
Welcome to Dunluce Castle
Dunluce Castle, dramatically positioned on this sheer headland between the Giant's Causeway and Portrush, was built between the 15th and 17th centuries. At this time it was one of the finest castles in the region and served to control the land and sea routes of North Ulster. Inside the castle you will discover centuries of stories and legends that reveal the turbulent history of the MacQuillans, the MacDonnells and the Scottish settlers who . . . — Map (db m70900) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Antrim), Bushmills — Hamill Terrace — Causeway Coastal Route|
Welcome to Hamill Terrace
Renowned as the gateway to the Giant's Causeway and for the oldest licensed whiskey distillery in the world, Bushmills has a unique heritage of historic buildings and mills.
Images (clockwise from top):
Bushmills Mills, Bushmills Distillery sign, The Causeway Tram c.1890
[Map and Causeway Coastal Route Journey linear locator]
Among many prizes, Bushmills whiskey was awarded a gold medal at the Paris Exhibition of . . . — Map (db m70873) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Antrim), Dunseverick — Dunseverick Castle — Causeway Coastal Route|
Dunseverick Castle and its rocky peninsula were given to the National Trust in 1962 by farmer Jack McCurdy.
The term Dun (fort) indicates a royal site. This was the fort of Sobhairce. It may have been a royal stronghold in the Iron Age (around 500 B.C.) and traditionally was one of the great duns of Ireland.
St. Patrick reputedly visited Dunseverick in the 5th Century. The extensive earthworks on the headland may be the remains of the royal fort from which the Antrim kingdom of . . . — Map (db m70859) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Fermanagh), Belleek — Welcome to Belleek|
Beal Leice, meaning 'the mouth of the flagstone', lies in the most westerly point of Northern Ireland, hidden in the Erne valley between the Sligo mountains and the Atlantic. The village, which was first laid out during the Plantation of Ulster about 1610, originated as a fort standing at the highest crossing point on the River Erne, a river which is part of the most extensive inland waterway in Western Europe. Today it has a population of 790.
Established in 1857, . . . — Map (db m72553) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Fermanagh), Irvinestown — Centenary Gardens House 1 — St. Patrick Meets the Mystery, Legends and Religion of Ireland|
In this house the story of St. Patrick meeting the legends and spiritual traditions of the Celtic People in Ireland is presented. St. Patrick became familiar with them during his time of captivity.
The Celtic Religion of Ireland
Before St. Patrick
The Celts believed that gods and spirits were everywhere. They had sun worship, tree worship and wind worship. This is a hymn to nature by the Celtic poet Amergrin who lived 500 years before Christ.
'I am the wind that breathes upon . . . — Map (db m72630) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — The Walled City|
[Keyed photo of Double Bastion overlook]
1. Lumen Christi College - co-educational school on the site of Bishop Hervey's casino.
2. The Windmill - the stump of the building fought over during the 1689 siege.
3. St Columba's, Long Tower - the city's first Roman Catholic church.
4. Creggan Country Park - watersports and outdoor centre with some of the best views over the city.
5. Brandywell - home of soccer and Gaelic football.
6. The City Cemetery - a sacred, shared place . . . — Map (db m71004) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Magnolia Springs — The Springs|
| Old tales have it that early explorers and even pirate vessels obtained potable water from springs scattered throughout the community of Magnolia Springs. This park is located at the largest of dozens of springs in the area.
In 1865 The Springs played a part in history by refreshing and restoring battle worn Federal troops traveling from the fallen Fort Morgan to Spanish Fort and Old Blakeley.
While building a log and timber bridge over Magnolia River, many of the Yankee soldiers . . . — Map (db m68486) HM|
|Alabama (Colbert County), Tuscumbia — Yellow Fever Epidemic 1878 / The 31 Victims of Yellow Fever Who died in Tuscumbia|
| Side AYellow Fever Epidemic 1878
Taking 31 Lives in Tuscumbia Citizen's Relief Committee:
F.H. Aydlett, H.M. Finley, J.J. Davis, James Jackson, Chm.
J.W. Rand Jr., F.A. Ross, J.N. Sampson, Sec. and C. A. Womble.
This committee, together with volunteers of both white and black~~ assisted by trained nurses brought from Memphis~~ nursed the sick, carried supplies, prepared the bodies, dug graves, and buried the dead.
Doctors, Serving around the . . . — Map (db m29263) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Building The Park — Visiting the Park — Restoring Vulcan Park|
|Side 1 - Building the Park
In the mid-1930’s, civic leaders worked to move Vulcan to a place of honor on Red Mountain. The park was built through the combined efforts of several groups: the Kiwanis Club of Birmingham, the Birmingham Parks and Recreation Board, the Alabama Highway Department, Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company, and local workers. These groups worked together to raise money from the WPA and other sources, acquire the land, and plan and build the park.
The . . . — Map (db m83807) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Clay — The Cahaba Heart River of Alabama|
|On Cahaba Mountain to the NW, springs form a fragile stream that grows as it carves through the steep, rocky terrain of Birmingham suburbs, flowing south on the Gulf Coastal Plain to the Alabama River, at the site of Alabama's first capital, Cahawba. The Cahaba has sustained human life at least 10,000 years and remains a major drinking water source. It is known nationally for biological diversity and beauty and, at 191 miles, is Alabama's longest free flowing river. It nurtures 69 rare, . . . — Map (db m25110) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Homewood — Hollywood / Hollywood Town Hall / Hollywood Country Club|
|Clyde Nelson, born in Columbiana, Alabama, was only 26 when he began development of the Town of Hollywood in 1926. With a sales force of 75 and the slogan "Out of the smoke zone, into the ozone" his beautiful community soon took shape. Homes were usually designed by local architect George P. Turner in Spanish Mission style as was the rage in Hollywood, California. Many were also of the English Tudor design.
Besides homes, Nelson built the magnificent Hollywood Country Club (burned 1984) on . . . — Map (db m27091) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Norwegian Light Beacon And Fog Bell|
|The light beacon and fog bell in Big Springs International Park were presented as a gift from Norway in 1973.
The light beacon served as on of the guiding lights to the mariner from 1903 to 1966 being situated on the west coast of Norway at Langbakneset. It is typical of some 1800 beacons which have been erected on the rugged Norwegian coast with all its fjords and islands.
The first beacons of this type were put in 1883. In the year 1973 Norway still uses about 1300 of these "oil . . . — Map (db m27905) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Thrasher Memorial Fountain|
|Tom Goodman Thrasher
August 4, 1916
-Grew up in Birmingham, Alabama
-Studied Engineering at the University of Alabama in Tuscalossa
-Married the former Dorothy Wright of Belmont, Mississippi
-Served in the Army in North Africa and European Theater during WWII and was discharge as a Lieutenant Colonel in March 1946
-Opened Thrasher Oil Company in Huntsville under a Shell Oil company Franchise in 1946
-Served as Executive Officer at Redstone Arsenal from May 1951 . . . — Map (db m30379) HM|
|Alabama (Morgan County), Decatur — Health and Civic Welfare — Restoring the Vision ... Preserving the Legacy|
|"The opportunies which were at hand in the development of the river and the region were being seized upon by our people with renewed courage and confidence.
We now kow that we couldn't be licked again, that what had been preached to us by TVA was the economic truth."
Barrell C. Shelton in "The Deactur Story" 1949
Early leaders envisioned a healthy and prosperous New Decatur, and their city plan included elements to promote health and civic welfare.
The Town's easy access to both the . . . — Map (db m53682) HM|
|Alabama (Morgan County), Decatur — Recreation and Refreshment — Restoring the Vision ... Preserving the Legacy|
|"We are definitely in an era of building the best kind of buildings the building of a great projects for the benefit of the public and with the definite objectives of building human happiness".
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Delano park was created with the democratic vision of a space that provides, recreation and refreshment for all. As part of the "City Beautiful" movement of the late 19th century, parks and greenspaces were important components of sound civic planning. Early known . . . — Map (db m53681) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Legacy of the Past|
|Box Canyon and Lomaki ruins are a short 15-minute walk from here, along the edges of ancient earthcracks. The 1/4-mile trail will take you back in time over 800 years to the remnants of this once-thriving community. You will see the few native plants that grow in this high-desert environment; how the eruptions of Sunset Crater Volcano affected the ancient inhabitants; and the plaza where daily activities such as cooking and grinding corn took place.
The whole picture of this prehistoric . . . — Map (db m60114) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Village/Abandonment|
You are entering the “Citadel,” a ruin from the late 1100s. Research has not been completed so it is important that we leave things as they are. Will there be extra storage spaces found, possible evidence for the defense theory? We do know this is one of the larger pueblos in Wupatki National Monument and could have been the home for many families. You are welcome to speculate about what will be found here, as we do.
What happened? Exact . . . — Map (db m60089) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Ancient Landscapes|
|Eight hundred years ago, a savannah-like grassland covered much of this high desert with abundant grasses. The residents would have collected and burned much of the nearby fuel, necessitating long walks to adjacent areas to gather wood. Sparse annual rainfall forced the inhabitants to catch and save as much water as they could, or walk miles to other sources.
Since the use of the area by modern ranchers, the land has undergone other dramatic changes. Cattle grazing stripped much of the . . . — Map (db m60105) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Daily Life|
An open area in the pueblo near the rim of the earthcrack is known as the plaza. In pueblos, the plaza was the center for many daily activities including grinding corn, making pottery, working obsidian into arrowheads, processing other plants for food, and cooking. It would have also been used for meetings, conducting trade, and as a controlled play area for children. During the warmer months, the plaza received extensive use from dawn until after dusk; rooms inside the pueblo were . . . — Map (db m60110) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Sunset Crater Volcano|
|The distant San Francisco Peaks would have looked much like they do today. To the east, however, Sunset Crater Volcano would still have been belching black smoke and cinders when the Sinagua and Anaszi lived here. The thick layer of cinders over the sandy soil helped hold moisture, which was beneficial to the growing of crops.
Eventually, even Sunset Crater Volcano grew quiet, and the winds blew the cinders away and dried out the soil.
Why the Lomaki residents departed is not . . . — Map (db m60107) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — The Citadel / Natural Features|
It was a remarkable achievement, to use primitive mortar and local stones to build the walls above you straight up from the edge of the top of the rock. “The Citadel” is the modern name given to this ruin because of its location, but archeologists wonder why the Anasazi often built in high, hard-to-get-at places. Some theories say it was defensive. Others say it was to avoid building on croplands, or for sun and breeze. Or was it more simple? Today we often . . . — Map (db m60087) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Albright Training Center History|
| The Horace M. Albright Training Center is a National Park Service facility for employee development. Established in 1963 and named for the National Park Service's second director, the training center serves as an educational program center for employees throughout the nation. — Map (db m39602) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Bright Angel Trail|
| Each year thousands of hikers enter Grand Canyon on the Bright Angel Trail. They follow a tradition - and a trail route - established by prehistoric people. For centuries humans have used this route for two key reasons: water and access. Water emerges from springs at Indian Garden, and erosion along the Bright Angel Fault creats a break in the cliffs, providing access to the springs.
When prospectors arrived here in the late 1800s, Havasupai Indians were using the route. Prospectors . . . — Map (db m39563) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Grandview, 1898|
| "No language can fully describe, no artist paint the beauty, grandeur, immensity and sublimity of this most wonderful production of Nature's great architect. [Grand Canyon] must be seen to be appreciated."
C.O. Hall, Grand Canyon visitor, 1895.
Reports like this from early tourists aroused curiosity and stimulated Grand Canyon tourism.
The year is 1898, and you have come to decide whether the lofty reports you've heard about Grand Canyon are true. Pete Berry, . . . — Map (db m39659) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Mining on Horseshoe Mesa|
| In 1890 prospector Pete Berry staked the Last Chance copper claim 3,000 feet below you on Horseshoe Mesa. The Last Chance Mine began a 17-year flurry of activity here at Grandview Point.
For a while the Last Chance Mine thrived. The ore was rich; it claimed a World's Fair prize in Chicago in 1893 for being over 70% pure copper. But the high cost of packing ore to the rim, then shipping it to be refined, doomed the operation. Berry and his partners sold the mine in 1901. The new owners . . . — Map (db m39662) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Mission 66|
| Responding to mounting political and public pressure, Congress authorized a ten-year program in 1955 to regenerate and modernize the national parks dubbed "Mission 66" for the target date of 1966, the National Park Service's 50th anniversary. The Albright Training Center is among the hundreds of new facilities built to accomodate the needs of the public and the National Park Service in the post World War II years.
[Drawing below text is of the Fort Necessity National Battlefield visitor center, 1964] — Map (db m39587) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Emma Dean|
| A slightly larger, but reasonable replica of the 16 ft. pine rowboat in which Major John Wesley Powell first explored the canyons of the Colorado River in 1869. This craft was constructed by Walt Disney Productions and used in the river running sequences of "Ten Who Dared," a motion picture version of Powell's River Expedition — Map (db m40323) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Saurischia Dinosaur Tracks|
| These tracks were made by a three-toed dinosaur known as a Saurischia therapod. It lived here about 170 million years ago during the Jurassic era when the environment was tropical. The footprints are raised natural sandstone castings of the original dinosaur tracks. After the dinosaur walked through sandy mud, its dried tracks were filled by more mud which eventually hardened into rock of the Kayenta formation. Later, the Kayenta layer tilted and spalled revealing the castings as well as the . . . — Map (db m40321) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — "The Peaks"|
| They dominate the horizon, rising 12,633 feet (3851 m) to Arizona's highest point. Visible for miles from all directions, they stand guard over a land which has long sustained people in spirit and natural resources. All of the region's Native peoples revere them.
Spanish friars christened these peaks as San Francisco Mountain in 1629 to honor their St. Francis of Assisi. The first wave of Spanish explorers, surprised that such large mountains did not spawn lakes or streams, charted them the . . . — Map (db m41664) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — Changes to Come|
| Buried under Sunset Crater's lava and cinders are perhaps dozens of pithouses. Those excavated revealed few artifacts; even building timbers had been removed. This suggests people had ample warning of the impending eruption.
The changed environment forced new adaptations, which included migration from the area. Those who stayed nearby had to adapt their traditional agricultural technology to lower elevations and cinder-covered land.
Wherever we live, changes occur around us. Some changes . . . — Map (db m41693) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — Geological Infant|
| Erupting less than 1,000 years ago, Sunset Crater is the youngest in an impressive field of volcanoes all around you. The 1,000-foot-high (305m) cinder cone we see today formed when basalt magma rose directly to the surface through a primary vent. Gas pressure produced a roaring fountain of lava estimated at 850 feet (260m) high.
Pressure blasted the lava into pieces, which cooled in flight and piled into this cone-shaped hill. As gas pressure decreased, lava oozed several times from the . . . — Map (db m41665) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — The Power to Symbolize|
| As a living ancestral homeland to the Hopi, Zuni, Yavapai, Havasupai, Navajo, Western Apache, and Southern Paiute, Sunset Crater is remembered, revered, and cared for.
People return often, bringing prayers and engaging in timeless traditions. Through the land, the past comes into the present, stories are recalled and values are evoked.
Hopi people believe that their ancestors' spirits, the Katsinas, travel from the San Francisco Peaks to the Hopi villages and back each year via . . . — Map (db m41678) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Community Sharing the Land|
This was a community of relatives and neighbors. Its members worked together to haul water, hunt animals, and gather plants. They likely assisted each other with large fields on the rims. They shared walls and resources, joy and sorrow, success and failure.
While cross-canyon dwellings may seem difficult to reach, a network of paths quickly closed the gaps. Close communication between households would have been common and necessary to a cooperative lifestyle.
At least five cliff . . . — Map (db m61366) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Complex Community|
The Island Trail, visible below you, follows the sharp meander of Walnut Creek. Many cliff dwelling rooms, unique in this area, were built throughout the canyon at the level of this trail. On both rims are numerous pithouses and pueblos.
On the very top of the rock promontory or "island" before you, are more rooms. Walls were constructed to block easy access to them.
Maybe this intriguing arrangement of sites met seasonal, security, social, or ritual needs.
Walnut . . . — Map (db m61304) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Days Work|
Puebloan traditions reach far back in time and are the basis for the social organization portrayed here. What responsibilities might you have had in this community, given your age and gender?
[Photo captions read]
Hopi men plant and tend the fields; women are the expert potters and piki bread makers.
Hopi life early 1900s
Photos: Cline Library Special Collections, NAU — Map (db m61350) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Ribbon of Life|
Perhaps people living here 800 years ago called this place Wupatupqa ("long canyon"), as it is known to some of their descendants, the Hopi. It was no doubt known as a place of abundance, given its wealth of plant and animal life and the presence of water.
A creek flowed intermittently through the gorge below you. Use the pictures to orient yourself; you are looking upstream. Walnut Creek rarely flows anymore, its waters impounded for use by the city of Flagstaff.
Significant . . . — Map (db m61305) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Time of Change|
When a volcanic eruption occurred near what is now Flagstaff, Arizona, people lost homes and lands they had cultivated for at least 400 years. A major life events for locals, the eruption was also visible to large population centers across the Southwest. Many people knew something significant had happened.
In the decades that followed, sparsely inhabited areas like Walnut Canyon and nearby Wupatki became densely settled.
By 1150, clustered communities replaced scattered farming . . . — Map (db m61325) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — An Efficient Design|
Overhanging ledges protected rooms from snow and rain, and shaded them during summer months. Thick walls of stone and mud insulated them from harsh winds and retained essential heat in winter.
Small doors were covered with animal skins, mats, cotton cloth, or sticks woven together. Air entered at the bottom, circled past a small fire, and carried most of the smoke out a hole above the door. — Map (db m61365) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Cliff Homes and Canyon Life|
As recently as the mid-1200s, families lived, worked, and played in Walnut Canyon. Tending crops on the rim, traveling to gather food, and collecting water from the canyon bottom were part of a daily routine.
It may be difficult to imagine living here, constantly negotiating this rugged terrain. Our motorized lives make it easy to forget that, throughout most of history, peoples' existence was much more physical.
Who Were They?
Walnut Canyon's farming community flourished . . . — Map (db m61302) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Departure|
Despite all it had to offer, in time Walnut Canyon became a difficult place for farmers to live. Drier, colder conditions meant crop failures. More people and diminished resources meant nutritional stress, disease, and conflict.
However, these stressful time brought new means of coping. By 1250, people joined others in bigger villages to the south and east where archeological evidence suggests new beliefs and rituals arose.
"Many reasons are given for clan migration in Hopi . . . — Map (db m61370) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — From Ocean to Alcove|
| Limestone forms the massive overhang above you and the ledge you are standing on. In between, softer layers of silty limestone have retreated, eroded away. All of the cliff dwelling rooms in Walnut Canyon — more than 300 — were built in natural alcoves like this.
If you have visited Grand Canyon, you have met these rocks before. This is the Kaibab Formation, the rim rock of both canyons. Below, as in Grand Canyon, are the Toroweap Formation and Coconino Sandstone.
[Diagram . . . — Map (db m61342) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Migration is not abandonment.|
Walnut Canyon was once filled with the sounds of a busy community as families hunted, planted, and harvested with the seasons. Children were born, grew up, and raised children of their own. They were neither the first nor the last to use and value what this canyon has to offer. But they left behind the greatest legacy.
When they moved on they did not give up their responsibility to care for this ancestral village and those left behind. Sites were and are revisited by descendants. Prayers . . . — Map (db m61328) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Problem Solving|
Time has worn away details that once made these rooms complete. Still, bits of evidence tell us people devised ways to make their homes comfortable, durable, and suitable for changing circumstances.
Rooms were added as families grew or storage needs increased. Some rooms in Walnut Canyon show a surprising degree of remodeling at various times suggesting generations of reuse.
Regular replastering of outside walls kept moisture out and walls sound.
Inside walls were plastered too, . . . — Map (db m61341) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Room Functions|
Most rooms in this community did not house people. Archeologists think many rooms, like the one to your left, were used to store tools, food, and water. Residents could have stored a 100-day water supply without much difficulty, given large pottery vessels and the abundant storage rooms found in the canyon.
The larger rooms here are typical of living spaces, where people slept and sought shelter from bad weather. Family size is unknown, but several people probably lived together in one . . . — Map (db m61347) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Tension and Harmony|
With its steep and sheer walls, Walnut Canyon provided homebuilding advantages along with controlled access. Living here, people were situated to monitor their world. This was not uncommon; most villages of the time had some form of passive defense and line-of-sight communication.
Horizontal ledges served as pathways connecting home to home, such as those visible across the canyon. Game trails, natural breaks, and side canyons were the avenues linking the rim to the canyon floor. . . . — Map (db m61326) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — The Perfect Shelter|
For each room tucked into this rock alcove, nature provided the back wall, floor, and leak-proof ceiling; no excavation was needed. Builders simply laid up unshaped blocks of limestone for side walls, enclosed the front, and opened their doorway to the canyon. Here, only two walls remain.
How to Treat a Wall
Many hands have been at work on these walls: the women who first skillfully plastered them, the vandals who defaced them, and the preservation specialists who now repair them. . . . — Map (db m61340) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — The Quest for Water|
During the spring thaw, snowmelt rumbled through the narrow passage below you. Water flowed again during the summer monsoon. Shaded pools held precious water after the flow ebbed. Walnut Creek was the lifeblood of the community.
Still, people had to store large quantities of water for the dry months. They likely supplemented their supply by packing snow into large pots and collecting runoff from overhanging cliffs.
Women and children probably had the task of retrieving water from the . . . — Map (db m61356) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — What Happened Here?|
"It is very dusty work to dig for relics....We dug for an hour or more, and found...cornstalks, corncobs in abundance, beans, gourds, nuts, reeds, arrows, bowstrings,...coarse cloth, a child's sandal, a measuring stick with notches at regular intervals, smoothly worn sticks of hard wood, bone needles, a fish line, soapweed needles, broken pottery, etc. In visiting other dwellings we added to these relics, and came away heavily laden."
One woman's account of her trip to Walnut Canyon as . . . — Map (db m61368) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Wupatki National Monument — The Blowhole|
| This blowhole - a crevice in the earth's crust that appears to breathe - is one of several found in the Wupatki area. It connects to an underground passage - size, depth, and complexity unknown - called an earthcrack. Earthcracks resulted from earthquake activity in the Kaibab Limestone bedrock and have enlarged over time.
Archaelogists have yet to uncover any evidence of prehistoric structures or uses at the blowhole. Its connection to the Wupatki Pueblo remains a mystery.
Today, the . . . — Map (db m41701) HM|
|Arizona (Gila County), Globe — Old Dominion Mine|
|Included in this historic copper mine are the Globe ledge silver claims. Discovered in 1873, the first to yield profitable ore in the Globe-Miami district. The Old dominion included many other early claims. Production ceased in the 30s, due to subterranean flooding and the lowered price of copper. — Map (db m67463) HM|
|Arizona (Gila County), Payson — The Dude Fire|
|On June 25, 1990 a lightning caused fire entrapped ten members of the Perryville fire crew in this canyon. Resulting in six fatalities. Before the fire was contained it had burned more than 24,000 acres and destroyed over 70 structures.
This tragic event inspired Paul Gleason to formulate L.C.E.S. (Lookout, Communication, Escape Route, Safety Zones) now a minimum safety standard for wildland firefighting. Lessons learned from this incident continue to influence fire suppression around the world today. — Map (db m28210) HM|
|Arizona (Gila County), Payson — These Trees Planted in Memory of the Firefighters Who Died in the Dude Fire June 26, 1990|
|These Trees Planted in Memory of the Firefighters Who Died in the Dude Fire June 26, 1990
Sandra J. Bachman • Joseph Chacon • Alex S. Contreras • James L. Denny • James E. Ellis • Curtis E. Springfield — Map (db m28211) HM|
|Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Desert Laboratory|
Has been designated a
This site possesses national significance
In commemorating the history of the
United States of America
National Park Service
United States Department of the Interior
— Map (db m63672) HM|
|Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Desert Life — Saguaro National Park|
|The Sonoran Desert can be described as a “desert jungle” because more than 200 species of animals and 600 species of plants live here. Saguaros---with their branching arms and accordion-like pleats—dominate this scene. Intermixed with these cacti are other common plants such as teddy bear chollas, creosote bushes, and ocotillos. |
Notice how saguaros and these other plants have adapted to extreme heat and drought. The saguaro’s main stem and arms expand to hold water . . . — Map (db m83147) HM
|Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Seed to Sentinel — Saguaro National Park|
|Standing like desert sentinels, mature saguaros start life as tiny black seeds. These seeds usually germinate under nurse plants but only a few survive to become mature saguaros.|
Look for young saguaros growing low to the ground. Those that are about the size of your thumb may be several years old. In contrast, tall saguaros with many branching arms can be 175 or 200 years of age. Known as “ancient giants,” these cacti eventually die, decay, and drop woody, internal skeletons to . . . — Map (db m83146) HM
|Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — World of the Wash — Saguaro National Park|
|Below is the dry bed of an intermittent stream called a desert wash. For a short time, during desert thunderstorms, flash floods rush down the mountain slopes and through desert washes to nearby rivers.|
However, beneath the wash’s sandy surface, some moisture remains throughout the year. Non-succulent plants such as palo verde, ragweed, and ironwood thrive along the wash edges because of the underground water supply. Other small plants-ferns and mosses-cling to some shaded embankments.
. . . — Map (db m83148) HM
|Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — Lifeline / Prehistoric Produce|
Beaver Creek has always been a major focus of life in the Verde Valley. Prehistoric Sinagua farmers constructed Montezuma Castle and other structures near the creek. They dug ditches to carry creek water to irrigate the fields of corn, beans, squash, and cotton they cultivated on flat patches of creek-bottom land. They also hunted animals attracted by the creek, and gathered creekside plants.
Ever-sensitive to the moods of Beaver Creek – because their lives literally . . . — Map (db m40868) HM|
|Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — "Mud" Street and "Underground Eureka"|
Professor KALKLOSCH’s Guidebook, published in 1880, states: “The first street of the town was surveyed down the gulch below the spring. A broad avenue connects this street with the famous EUREKA BASIN SPRING. It being the first street it was named MAIN STREET. Owing to its low elevation and the law of gravitation, water would find a level in the street and as immense travel created an abundance of mud, the street was nicknamed “MUD,” a name without music or . . . — Map (db m79755) HM
|Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — 18 — Civil War Healing|
| The Eureka Springs area's reputation as a health resort has its origins in the Civil War. Late 19th-century accounts claim Dr. Alvah Jackson treated sick and wounded soldiers during the war. In early 1865, Maj. J. W. Cooper, who led Confederate troops in the Indian Territory, came to Carroll Co. with four comrades seeking Jackson's aid to recover form the effects of hard service. They holed up in the "rock house" near the area's abundant springs and recuperated. Cooper and his companions . . . — Map (db m59967) HM|
|Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Crescent Spring and Trail|
Crescent Spring was revered for its healing waters almost as much as the basin, the legendary Indian Healing Spring. Situated beside the Wagon Road on a hillside with a rocky outcropping described as "crescent" shaped, the spring was soon given that name, as was Crescent Hotel, the fine limestone structure built at its summit in 1886.
Street maps dated 1886 show a stone retaining wall and a circular enclosure of stone at the spring. Adjacent to it, twelve stair steps of dressed Beaver . . . — Map (db m80135) HM
|Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Grotto Spring|
The words "esto perpetua" emblazoned upon a stone above the entrance to Grotto Spring declare the prevailing belief that these healing waters would flow forth forever. Early townspeople discovered the spring under an overhanging rock ledge, a short distance from the well-known Dairy Spring.
Extensive street construction on "The Boulevard", as Spring Street was then called, began in 1890. This necessitated construction of an enclosure of limestone and ornamental stonework hand-worked by . . . — Map (db m80121) HM
|Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Harding Spring|
Named for J. Emmett Harding, a photographer who began the tradition of making photographs of people in front of the spring as souvenirs. He built a small dwelling near the spring in the summer of 1879.
In 1879, the spring was accessed by a narrow wagon track along a rocky ledge, leaving little room for gathering. Hand labor was required to move a great deal of earth to create a level area in front of the spring. A wide boardwalk and a wood stairway to the top of the cliff were built at . . . — Map (db m80151) HM
|Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Laundry Spring|
The site of this spring was outside the area included in the 1879 survey. Known as East Mountain, this area was crowded with wood structures by 1885. The spring, which flowed from a small cave lined with projections of onyx stone, was already recognized for the healing waters.
Water made a stream down over the rock ledges to the creek below. The overflow of Little Eureka Springs, Cave Springs and others joined this stream further up the ravine. The spring overflow was very accessible . . . — Map (db m80152) HM
|Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Mud Street to Main Street — North Main|
"It being the first street in town... it was named Main Street. But owing to its low elevation and the law of gravitation, the water would find a level in the street, and as the immense travel created an abundance of mud, the street was nicknamed 'Mud Street' a name without music or elegance." L.J. Kalklosch, The Healing Fountain, 1880
This long view shows North Main Street before the Great Fires when all the buildings were made of wood. Note the openness under the Grand . . . — Map (db m80153) HM
|Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Sweet Spring|
This spring derived its name from early townspeople who declared the water to have a pleasant, sweet taste. The spring was originally located in the deep ravine below the present site. A long wooden stairway led from the spring to the narrow wagon road then known as Rice Street, which is now called Spring Street. Sweet Spring was also referred to as Spout Spring.
Around 1885 workmen dug into the mountainside above the street to locate the stream of water in a more accessible location. . . . — Map (db m80115) HM
|Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Basin Bath House|
| Basin Bath House was established 1879 adjacent to Basin Spring by Dr. Alvah Jackson's son, Thomas. John S. Tibbs succeeded Jackson about 1880, operated bath house and Eureka Water Shipping Company. Building was destroyed by Great Fire of 1888, replaced with limestone and brick structure 1889. Skillful, authentic restoration after 1986 Fire preserved this historic structure. — Map (db m59969) HM|
|Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Basin Park Sycamore|
I stood here growing so many years,
I shared your laughter, I shared your tears.
My life was good, beginning to end,
and this is a wish I'd like to send.
Be happy and kind to all around,
and let not sorrow be ever found.
The spirit of me is in this park,
I watch over you in light and dark.
This little old bench is just a part.
I love you all with all my heart.
So please hold back your tears for me,
and just go out and plant a tree.
The Basin Park Sycamore
Bench . . . — Map (db m59971) HM|
|Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Civic Center — South Main|
| These two large limestone public buildings anchor this part of downtown Eureka Springs. They span the deep ravine cut by Leatherwood Creek which flows in a tunnel beneath all the buildings on this entire part of Main Street.
This view shows South Main Street toward Basin Park in the 1890s before the Auditorium was built. The large Southern Hotel is shown in the center. This very early lodging survived all the great fires in the 1880s and 1890s which destroyed most of the . . . — Map (db m59964) HM|
|Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Southern Hotel|
| The Southern was built in the year 1880 adjacent to Basin Spring and some 25 feet above it on the hillside. L.M. Rainey of Missouri, its original owner, sold the hotel to W. E. Beatty in 1886, at which time it was acclaimed to be one of the city's two finest hotels, the other being Perry House, situated on the opposite side of the spring.
Damaged in the Great Fire of 1890, The Southern was repaired and enlarged to one hundred rooms, gas lighted throughout, and boasting for a time an . . . — Map (db m59970) HM|
|Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Springs|
"It is sometimes called The Basin Springs, and is invariably the first resort for visitors. If there is any one in the city you desire to find, if no other way, go to the Basin Springs, seat yourself comfortable, and await his coming."
Prof. L.J. Kalklosch, The Healing Fountain, 1881.
[Inset photo captions read]
The earliest visitors to this place in the wilderness that would become Eureka Springs were here in desperate need of better health. Long known as a healing spring . . . — Map (db m63300) HM|
|Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Town that Water Built — North Main|
First by horseback, wagons or on foot, invalids from all over this region flocked to Eureka Springs in 1879 to seek cures from the miraculous healing springs. But soon there were easier ways to arrive - stagecoaches, then trains. This laid a base for an early "industrial park."
Bringing railroad service through the rugged mountains and across the White River was no easy feat. A passage was blasted out of a cliff near Beaver, north of town, a high trestle bridge erected over the . . . — Map (db m80211) HM
|Arkansas (Washington County), Fayetteville — Evolution of Fayetteville|
The earliest known inhabitants of the hardwood forest of the Ozarks migrated to Arkansas over 12 thousand years ago through the Great Bering Strait. For the next two thousand years Bluff Dwellers hunted the mountain plateaus before the Quapaws, Cherokee and Osage fished the bountiful lakes and streams and hunted the grassland prairies of the Arkansas highlands. Buffalo herds roamed this area.
It was not until 1819 that the first white man saw Fayetteville’s hilltop terrain. On March 2, . . . — Map (db m59882) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Berkeley — "Annie's Oak" — City of Berkeley Landmark — Designated in 1986|
|Here a venerable oak tree was saved by Annie Maybeck (1867-1956), wife of architect Bernard Maybeck. She is said to have "marched off to city hall" to protest the cutting of native trees during street paving early in the 20th Century. She and other influential women founded the Hillside Club to promote "building with nature". The Club proclaimed that "the few native trees that have survived centuries should be jealously preserved....bend the roads, divide the lots, place the houses to . . . — Map (db m18562) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Claremont Public Improvements — John Galen Howard, Architect — 1905|
|City of Berkeley Landmark
designated in 1984
Claremont, a 1905 subdivision, was originally part of the 125-acre Edson Adams ranch. Early advertisements for the tract enticed families to leave the noisy, crowded city behind and head for “sunshine and the hills.” University of California architect John Galen Howard designed the entrance gates and pillars, which are built of native stone quarried in north Berkeley. The plan of the district inspired by American landscape planner . . . — Map (db m54679) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Daley’s Scenic Park Street Improvenents — Bounded by Le Roy Avenue, La Loma Avenue, La Vereda Road and Hilgard Avenue — The Hillside Club and Town Engineers; 1909|
|City of Berkeley Landmarks
designated in 1983
In the late 1890s a group of concerned women formed the Hillside Club to “encourage artistic homes built of materials complementing the natural beauty of the Berkeley Hills.” The Club soon became a major influence in Berkeley and the Bay Area, spreading the concept of “building with nature” and the philosophy of the Arts and Craft movement.
One of the Hillside Club’s tenets was that streets in steep hillside locations . . . — Map (db m53886) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Hillside Club — John White, Architect, 1924 — Listed on the National Register of Historic Places|
|City of Berkeley Landmark
designated in 2004
The Hillside Club was founded in 1898 by Berkeley women intent on preserving the natural beauty of the hills. It soon became an influential cultural force. North Berkeley’s curved streets with old trees, exposed rocks, numerous parks, and walking paths are among the legacies of the Club’s work.
This building replace the original Bernard Maybeck clubhouse that was destroyed by the 1923 North Berkeley Fire. Maybeck’s brother-in-law, John White, . . . — Map (db m54186) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Indian Rock — Berkeley History|
|Outcroppings of weathered rock are a prominent feature of the Berkeley Hills, providing evidence of this area’s complex geological past. Composed of Northbrae rhyolite, Indian Rock is an ancient volcanic remnant. Native Ohlone communities gathered at these outcroppings. Here they ground acorns into meal with stone pestles, eventually wearing bowl-like depressions in the rock.
In the early 20th century the Mason-McDuffie Real Estate Company developed the surrounding Northbrae subdivision. . . . — Map (db m53852) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Jensen House — George Jensen, Builder — 1891|
|City of Berkeley Landmarks
designated in 1996
This is one of the earliest houses built in the north Berkeley hills. George Jensen came from Denmark and was a contractor in Los Angeles before moving to Berkeley. Members of the Jensen family lived in the house for nearly a century. In 1912, following the influence of Berkeley’s Hillside Club and its advocacy that homes should blend with nature, the Victorian-style house was clad in wooden shingles.
The Jensen House is one of only 50 . . . — Map (db m53887) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Berkeley — La Loma Steps — Circa 1910-1916|
|City of Berkeley Landmarks
designated in 1995
When the La Loma Park subdivision was created in 1900, the streets were laid out in harmony with the natural contours of the land as advocated by Berkeley’s Hillside Club. The rustic quality of the stone walls, brick paving pergola, and benches along the steps reflects the Club’s philosophy of building with nature. Adjacent property owners donated land to create this public pathway, one of many in the Berkeley hills. These new steps allowed easy . . . — Map (db m53884) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Live Oak Park — 1914 — Berkeley History|
|Live Oak Park was created in 1914 when the City of Berkeley purchased four acres from landowners R.S. Penniman and Michael O’Toole. Mr. Penniman’s brown shingle house served as the park clubhouse and also, from 1916-1936, as Berkeley’s North Branch Public Library. The Walnut Street bridge over Codornices Creek was constructed in 1915 and an aviary featuring “a nice assortment of rare birds” was added a few years later. Also built at about this time, the tennis courts and the park’s . . . — Map (db m54190) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Thousand Oaks Neighborhood and Urns — Circa 1909-1910 — Mark Daniels, Landscape Engineer|
In the early 1900s, the natural beauty of this undeveloped district, with dramatic rock outcroppings and ancient oaks made it a favorite destination for picnickers and hikers.
After a campaign to make the area a city park failed, real estate promoter John Hopkins Spring subdivided the land in 1909. He advertised: “We are touching this, nature’s masterpiece, with a reverent hand.” Landscape engineer Mark Daniels laid out building lots and winding roads . . . — Map (db m53848) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Oakland — Jefferson Square Park|
Oakland was shaped
by seven GREEN SQUARES
Downtown’s living rooms
now only five
Parks bring out the
Goodness of good people — Map (db m72832) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Oakland — 962 — Site of Blossom Rock Navigation Trees|
|Until at least 1851, redwood trees on this site were used as landmarks to avoid striking the treacherous submerged Blossom Rock in San Francisco Bay west of Yerba Buena Island. Although by 1855 the original stems had been logged, today's trees are sprouts from their stumps.
California Registered Historical Landmark No. 962
Plaque placed by the State Department of Parks and Recreation in cooperation with the East Bay Regional Park District, August 23, 1986. — Map (db m64485) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Oakland — The Creation of a Park|
|Joaquin Miller Park was formed in 1917 when the City of Oakland and its citizens – led by The California Writers Club – purchased 68 acres from the estate of Joaquin Miller, the noted 19th century “Poet of the Sierras” and environmentalist.
By 1929, when developers began building nearby, the Save the Redwoods League purchased and later gifted (to the City of Oakland) the adjacent groves, known as Sequoia Park. Members of the California Writers Club created the . . . — Map (db m71737) HM|
|California (Alameda County), San Leandro — Of Fins and Flippers — Lake Chabot Historical Walk|
|How do you climb the wall of a dam using fins? The dam blocked the natural migratory route of the steelhead trout, prohibiting them from swimming up San Leandro Creek to spawn in their natural habitat, what is now upper San Leandro Reservoir and tributary creeks. To sustain the fish population and stock the lake, Anthony Chabot constructed a fish hatchery in 1874 near the dam. The hatchery became the California State Fish and Game Hatchery 1878-1883. The hardiness of fish, like the land-locked . . . — Map (db m71713) HM|
|California (Alpine County), Markleeville — Reynolds Peak — Elevation 9300 Feet|
|Named in memory of
G. ELMER REYNOLDS
Conservationist and lover of nature — Map (db m11479) HM|
|California (Calaveras County), Angels Camp — The Monitor — California Hydraulic Mining|
| Hydraulic Mining was the largest and most destructive form of mining. Water, brought through flumes and ditches from high up in the mountains, was redirected into an ever-narrowing channel and out through a giant iron nozzle, called a "monitor." This high pressure stream of water was used to wash entire hillsides through enormous sluices to recover the placer gold.
By the early 1880s, it is estimated that 11 million ounces of gold had been recovered by hydraulic mining in . . . — Map (db m56649) HM|
|California (Del Norte County), Crescent City — The Metcalf Grove|
|This grove is given to the State of California for the preservation of these ancient trees by Mr. and Mrs. Jesse H. Metcalf of Rhode Island. — Map (db m1510) HM|
|California (Fresno County), Dunlap — Converse Basin Grove|
|One of the largest stands of Giant Sequoias, it contained some of the finest Big Trees. The grove was logged as a private land between 1897 and 1907, first by the Sanger Lumber Company and later by Hume-Bennett Lumber Company, which in 1909 developed Hume Lake for a mill. Converse Basin, two miles northeast of this monument, had its own mill and narrow gauge rail connection to the logging town of Millwood, from which lumber was sent to Sanger in the valley by flume. Although they never realized . . . — Map (db m52239) HM|
|California (Fresno County), Fresno — 916 — Forestiere Underground Gardens|
| Here, beneath the hot, arid surface of the San Joaquin Valley, Baldasare Forestiere (1879-1946) began in the early 1900's to sculpt a fantastic retreat. Excavating the hardpan by hand, he created a unique complex of underground rooms, passages and gardens which ramble throughout a ten-acre parcel. His work is being preserved as a living monument to a creative and individualistic spirit unbounded by conventionality.
California Registered Historical Landmark No. 916
Plaque placed here...October 12, 1979. — Map (db m41003) HM|
|California (Humboldt County), Orick — Madison Grant Forest and Elk Refuge — Dedicated to the Memory of Madison Grant — 1865-1937|
|Conservationist, author, anthropologist, a founder of the Save-the-Redwoods League.
This area of 1600 acres, habitat of the last surviving herd in California of Roosevelt Elk is established as a memorial by
· De Forest Grant
· John D. Rockefeller, Jr.
· Archer M. Huntington
· New York Zoological Society
· Boone and Crockett Club
· National Audubon Society
· American Wildlife Foundation
· Save-the-Redwoods League
· California State Park Commission
1948 — Map (db m32569) HM
|California (Inyo County), Furnace Creek — Stephen Tyng Mather — July 4, 1867 - Jan. 22, 1930|
|He laid the foundation of the National Park Service, defining and establishing the policies under which its areas shall be developed and conserved unimpaired for future generations. There will never come an end to the good that he has done. — Map (db m71148) HM|
|California (Inyo County), Keeler — Owens Lake Dust Mitigation Program|
|Owens Lake was once over 300 feet deep and part of a large ancient freshwater lake. As the climate changed over centuries, the lake began to dry up leaving behind concentrated minerals and salts. By 1905, diversion of water by farmers in the Owens Valley, coupled with drought in the region, had shrunk the lake even further to approximately 60% of what it was in the mid 1800's. In 1913, the City of Los Angeles purchased most of the water rights in the Owens Valley and completed the first Los . . . — Map (db m72575) HM|
|California (Kern County), Tehachapi — Why Tehachapi Pass? / Pioneers of the Wind / Hike A Mile or Two - Thousand|
| First Panel:
Why Tehachapi Pass?
1) Close to Energy Users
The proximity of Tehachapi Pass to the Los Angeles Basin makes it an attractive location for wind power development, as it reduces the length, cost, and environmental impact of the required transmission lines. Power from numerous wind farms in the East Kern Wind Resource Area is conditioned at Southern California Edison’s Windhub substation and sent south on 500,000 Volt transmission lines of . . . — Map (db m63166)|
|California (Los Angeles County), Pearblossom — The Devil's Punchbowl — Department of Parks & Recreation — County of Los Angeles|
|The hills where you stand are a part of one the world's geological wonders, The San Andreas Rift -- A great fault and earthquake zone.
Because of the movements along this fault zone, the pink and tan colored punchbowl rocks seen below have been compresses and folded broken and faulted since they were deposited during miocene time about 13 million years ago.
Fossil remains of extinct animals discovered and collected in the surrounding punchbowl rocks include a . . . — Map (db m79148)|
|California (Los Angeles County), San Pedro — Santa Catalina Island|
|Located approximately 20 miles from the mainland, Santa Catalina Island rises 2000 feet above sea level, approximately 500 feet higher than the Palos Verdes Peninsula. The island is over 20 miles long, making it the longest of the eight California Channel Islands. People have inhabited Santa Catalina Island for at least 7,000 years. Archaeologists have found evidence of complex material cultures with strong maritime traditions. Prior to the Spanish discovery of the island on October 7, 1542, it . . . — Map (db m42129) HM|
|California (Marin County), Inverness — Point Reyes Light — Point Reyes National Seashore|
|Point Reyes Light has guided and cautioned mariners along this hazardous coast for over 100 years. Built by the U.S. Lighthouse Service in 1870, it came under management of the U.S. Coast Guard in 1939. Resident personnel operated the station until 1975 when the conversion to automated lights and electronic equipment was completed.
Weather permitting, you may visit the historic lighthouse via the stairway to your left. Be prepared for a steep return up more than 300 steps, Exhibits in the . . . — Map (db m63502) HM|
|California (Marin County), Inverness — The Rock Plants — Point Reyes National Seashore|
|The wife of a lighthouse keeper once planted a small garden nearby, but with no success. As soon as the carrots sprouted the wind blew them away. Few plants can face up to the ocean’s harsh influences.
On these fogbound, windblown rocks, things a plant needs to survive are in short supply — sun light, soil, and rain. Salt spray and winds can interfere with plant processes and cause excessive drying. Yet some species survive, like the ice plant pictured above and the red . . . — Map (db m63363) HM|
|California (Marin County), Iverness — Point Reyes Conglomerate — Point Reyes National Seashore|
|The intriguing rock exposure in front of you is part of a formation that caps the highest hills in this area. The Point Reyes Conglomerate is a formation consisting of a sandy matrix embedded with pebbles, cobblestones, and boulders. Geologists estimate that the formation may be over 50 million years old.
Here you can see layers intersecting at different angles (cross bedding), and rounded cavities caused by the erosion of poorly cemented materials. Notice also that in any one layer the . . . — Map (db m63377) HM|
|California (Marin County), Point Reyes Station — Sea Life in These Waters — Gulf of the Farallones & Cordell Band — National Marine Sanctuaries|
|Some of the world’s richest waters exist right off California’s coast. An explosion of life occurs here due to a combination of the sun’s energy, wind, ocean currents, and contours of the sea floor. Microscopic phytoplankton form the base of the food chain, which are fed upon by zooplankton and fishes, providing a feast for seabirds, seals, whales sharks and humans. Gulf of the Farallones and Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuaries protect this ocean wilderness through research, education, . . . — Map (db m63362) HM|
|California (Marin County), Point Reyes Station — Whalewatching|
| Southern Migration|
•Mexico to Artic feeding grounds
•Pass Point Reyes early March through early May.
California gray whales pass Point Reyes on their seasonal migrations, and often you can see them from this area. The best views are from high ground near the water where you can look down as well as out to sea.
In the spring whales stay close to shore. . . . — Map (db m63360) HM
|California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National — The Journey to Yosemite|
|Tourism in Yosemite began long before it became a national park. In the 1850s, daring visitors endured long days of rugged travel on foot and horseback. Indian trails led them to never-to-be-forgotten views of Yosemite.
Entrepreneurs were soon competing to establish hotels and stage roads to cater to Yosemite-bound travelers. A rail line up the Merced Canyon to El Portal served passengers from 1907 to 1945.
The Lure of Falling Water
Reports of fabulous waterfalls tempted . . . — Map (db m81942) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — A Seasonal Lake|
|Mirror Lake was once regarded by park scientists as a stream-fed lake slowly filling in to become a meadow. As hydrologists have developed a more complex understanding of the water's dynamics, they now theorize that the "lake" is a pool in a seasonal stream. Changes in the volume and speed of the stream's water cause sand to be deposited in and scoured from the pool in cycles.
The rockfall that created Mirror Lake altered the streamside habitat of Tenaya . . . — Map (db m81952)|
|California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — Bracken Fern and Baskets|
|Just above Mirror Lake, bracken ferns grow in large tracts. The root-like portion of the fern (rhizome) is favored for making the black designs in Southern Miwok and Mono Lake Paiute baskets. Because of the rich sandy sediments here, bracken fern rhizomes reach lengths of more than six feet, which made them a valuable item for the Miwok to trade to the Paiutes.
The End of an Era
The 1849 Gold Rush brought tragedy and irreversible changes to the local Indian people. Europeans . . . — Map (db m81953) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — Disappearing Waterfalls|
|At certain times of the year some of the Valley’s waterfalls disappear. Bridalveil keeps flowing even in late summer, when Yosemite Falls begins to dry up.
Above Yosemite Falls the terrain is largely bare granite; runoff is rapid. Bridalveil Creek’s green upper valley has more vegetation and deeper soil that absorb rain and snowmelt, slowing runoff to a relatively steady flow.
Recognizing that the vegetation above helps feed the falls, John Muir pushed for expansion of the park area . . . — Map (db m63589) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — El Capitan|
|El Capitan is famous for its massive bulk of largely unbroken rock and its sheer, vertical face soaring 3,000 feet into the air. This monolith is composed of a particularly durable granite, allowing it to withstand the pressures of glaciers and erosion.
Climbing the monolith
El Capitan was first scaled in 1958. Since then, climbers have explored nearly a hundred climbing routes. If you look closely, you may see climbers, like tiny specks, inching up the granite wall.
. . . — Map (db m81949) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — Glaciers at the Gate|
|Geologic processes that created Yosemite Valley include glaciation, erosion, rockfalls, and earthquakes. Most of these processes are still at work here, shaping and reshaping the land. Ancient glaciers have left dramatic geologic evidence virtually everywhere in Yosemite Valley.
Take it for Granite
Yosemite's awe-inspiring granite formation have made the park world famous. Samples of most of Yosemite's sixteen types of granite have been carried to this area by glaciers.
Several . . . — Map (db m81948) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — John Muir... The Woodcutter|
|In 1869, innkeeper James Hutchings hired a young wilderness explorer named John Muir to rebuild and operate his sawmill. Muir worked here for almost two years, milling trees blown down in a storm to build improvements at Hutchings’ Yosemite Valley hotel. During his Yosemite years, Muir became an outspoken proponent of America’s wild places.
Remains of the Millrace
This 1940 photograph (to the right) shows the channel that was dug to divert water from Yosemite Creek, possibly to . . . — Map (db m66101) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — Mirror Lake Resources|
|For centuries, the local Indians use the bracken fern found above Mirror Lake. In the 1800s, Euro-American entrepreneurs found new uses for the area's resources. Hotel owners marketed the magnificent scenery to an enthusiastic audience or travelers. The lakes ice and eventually its sand were harvested as well.
Ice and Sand
Yosemite's early hotel industry responded to increasing tourism by providing diverse services for guests. The harvesting of ice from Mirror Lake made it . . . — Map (db m81951) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — Natural Dam|
|Perhaps only three or four hundred years ago, an enormous rockfall dumped boulders across this canyon, damming Tenaya Creek. During spring and early summer, the stream backs up into the two pools on either side of the dam.
Tinkering with nature
Nineteenth-century tourists admired the reflection on the surface of the upper pool of Mirror Lake. To enlarge the pool and reflection, early entrepreneurs piled boulders onto the natural dam. Ironically, this helped the pool to fill with sand . . . — Map (db m81950) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — President Theodore Roosevelt & John Muir Meeting Site — Yosemite National Park|
|On this site President Theodore Roosevelt sat beside a campfire with John Muir on May 17, 1903 and talked forest good. Muir urged the President to work for preservation and priceless remnants of America’s wilderness. At this spot one of our country’s foremost conservatons received great inspiration. — Map (db m62853) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — Selling the Sublime|
|Mirror Lake's magnificent scenery was as much a commodity to be harvested as was the ice and sand. In the 1860s, entrepreneurs built a toll road to the lake, and here at the end of the carriage road, they opened an inn in 1870. Later the inn became a saloon, boats were available for hire, and a dance pavilion was built out over the water for the entertainment of guests.
Since the early days of Yosemite's preservation as a park, an understanding of wilderness . . . — Map (db m81962) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — The Story of Half Dome|
|Millions of years ago the granite block of Half Dome was larger, but there was never a matching half. Undercut by glaciers near the base, slabs of rock fell away from a broad vertical crack in the granite, leaving a sheer face. Remnants of the missing rock still project from Half Dome's rim.
There are more granite domes here than in any other place in the world. Massive granite domes form when large curved layers of rock "exfoliate" or slab off.
An Anwahneechee Tale of Half . . . — Map (db m81963) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — Visitors at Mirror Lake|
|The opening of Yosemite to tourism in the 1850s coincided with America's glorification of nature and fascination with the picturesque. Early accounts of Mirror Lake are full of such sentiments. Visitors today still express many of the same emotions when they encounter such natural splendor.
Naming the Land
From the earliest days here, Euro-Americans began to leave their mark on Yosemite. The kept a few of the Ahwahneechee place names but added new ones for many of the . . . — Map (db m81961) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — Waterfalls of Yosemite Valley|
|Nowhere else on earth are there so many spectacular waterfalls in such a concentrated area.
During the spring, torrents of water from melted snow thunder over Yosemite's precipices. By August, the "ephemeral" falls disappear; others, like the Cascades before you, dwindle to a mere trickle.
Spectacular, but Dangerous
Ahwahneechee legend warns of the danger of approaching too near a waterfall. The story of Po-ho-no (Bridalveil Fall) tells how an Indian woman fell into the creek . . . — Map (db m81943) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — 790 — Yosemite Valley — 1864-1964|
|On June 30, 1864 the United States granted the Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Big Tree Grove to the State of California to "be held for public use, resort and recreation...inalienable for all time." This act, signed by President Abraham Lincoln, was the first Federal authorization to preserve scenic and scientific values for public benefit. It was the basis for the later concept of state and National Park Systems. In 1906 the State of California returned the land, considered to the first . . . — Map (db m81941) HM|
|California (Mono County), Walker — The C-130 Crew — Lost During the Cannon Fire - June 17, 2002|
|In Loving and Grateful Memory of
The C-130 Crew
Steve Wass, Craig Labare and Mike Davis
Who gave their lives to save
our community on June 17, 2002 — Map (db m23036) HM|
|California (Monterey County), Carmel — Lone Cypress — Perched over the Pacific for Hundreds of Years|
|Even though Monterey cypress trees prefer this area's rugged bare granite headlands, the Lone Cypress is a testament to the hardiness of these trees. It has withstood Pacific storms and winds for roughly 250 years. Fences and cables now offer added protection in the hopes it will live to be 300.
Due to Samuel F.B. Morse, the preservation-minded founder of Pebble Beach, the Del Monte Forest now consists of nature trails and reserves, spectacular 17 Mile Drive, resorts and golf courses, and . . . — Map (db m8476) HM|
|California (Monterey County), Monterey — Ed Ricketts’s Backyard — Historic Cannery Row|
|You are looking at the backyard of Ed Ricketts’s lab, Pacific Biological Laboratories, where Ricketts lived and worked during the 1930 and 1940s. He collected and preserved tide pool plants and animals and sold them to schools around the world. What do you think that curious grid of concrete containers was used for? The containers held the larger animals Ricketts collected; sharks, ray and octopuses.|
Farther back at the ocean’s edge lie tide pools that recall Ricketts’s belief in the . . . — Map (db m55143) HM
|California (Monterey County), Monterey — Giant Kelp Beyond the Breakers — Historic Cannery Row|
|Off the coast and beyond the breaking waves, giant kelp provides a lush home for marine life. Holding fast to the rocky bottom, these huge plants grow upward then spread their green-gold fronds across the water, creating a dense canopy of growth – much like a forest on land. In the spreading fronds at the surface, you might see a sea otter mom tending a pup, a seabird snacking on tiny animals or a sea lion gliding gracefully by.|
Kelp forests have been important to humans for thousands . . . — Map (db m55161) HM
|California (Monterey County), Monterey — The Real “Docs” — Historic Cannery Row|
|Pictured at the right are scientists Frances Clark, W.I. Scofield, Richard Croker, M.J. Linar and J.B. Philips. Working out of Hopkins Marine Station, this group monitored the growing sardine industry by collecting samples from the canneries and keeping catch records of the local fishing fleet. Frances Clark was the first person to be awarded a doctorate in fish and game management. She ultimately headed all of the California Department of Fish and Game sardine programs.|
California . . . — Map (db m55140) HM
|California (Monterey County), Pacific Grove — Glass Bottom Boat — The Swan Boats of Pacific Grove|
| These boats were first introduced here at Lovers Point in the early 1890s. Launched from the narrow cove's wooden pier, the boats offered passengers a canopied window to the underwater flora and fauna around Lovers Point.
Nathaniel Roscoe "Dad" Sprague owned and operated a small fleet of these boats for more than 50 years. His son Russell took over the concession in 1948. Later, the boats operated under a variety of owners until the mid 1970s.
This replica boat was designed by Monterey . . . — Map (db m41574) HM|
|California (Nevada County), Norden — 17 — Summit Valley|
Summit Valley has been the scene of human activity for thousands of years because it is a natural crossing of the Sierra. Native Americans traveled the valley moving from winter to summer residences. They left grinding rocks and arrowheads in the valley and petroglyphs in many nearby locations.
The first European Americans were excited to find Summit Valley after their months’ long journey from the East. Summit Valley was a perfect rest place after the hard Summit crossing. . . . — Map (db m81971) HM|
|California (Orange County), Fountain Valley — 13 — Joint Outfall System|
|Created in 1923 to serve sanitation needs of Western Orange County. Reorganized into Sanitation Districts in 1954. — Map (db m62272) HM|
|California (Orange County), Fountain Valley — 19 — Talbert Drainage District|
|Local landowners gave Sam Talbert the job of draining "Gospel Swamp." He built a river levee, and dredged huge ditches on the east side of all major roads that ran south to the ocean. — Map (db m59489) HM|
|California (Orange County), Fountain Valley — 10 — Talbert Home|
|Sam and Hattie Talbert came here in 1897. He built a river levee and huge ditches so that the land would drain to permit regular farming. — Map (db m59740) HM|
|California (Orange County), Orange — 37 — Submerged Dam|
|This pioneering water project, a model of efficiency and economy, was first built of clay in 1879. After flood damage, it was rebuilt with rock and concrete in 1892. Each dam reached down to bedrock, forcing ground water to the surface where it was diverted for irrigation and domestic uses. Both were built by the Serrano Water Association and the Carpenter Water Company in cooperation with the Jotham Bixby Company. — Map (db m50028) HM|
|California (Plumas County), Belden — Pacific Crest Trail|
|In the early 1930’s Clinton C. Clarke offered to the world his vision of a continuous trail stretching from Canada through 3 states to Mexico. “Along the summit divide of the mountain ranges traversing the best scenic areas and maintaining an absolute wilderness character.” The virtue of such a trail said Clarke, would be in helping to preserve wild areas and in encouraging people of “our too artificial civilization” to return to a simpler life and an appreciation of nature & the outdoors. — Map (db m66157) HM|
|California (Plumas County), Blairsden-Graeagle — Winter in the Sierra — A Struggle For Survival|
|Back in its hey-day Eureka Mills, high up on the mountainside, was a primarily a family town. Jamison City, down near the creek, was a place for single miners to live.
The mountainside took on quite a village appearance. There were two stores, a hotel with a saloon, two other saloons, a bootmaker’s shop, livery stable and a few dwellings. People would often ride the empty ore carts back up the mountain to the townsite. After completion of the Mohawk Mill in 1878, Johnsville became the . . . — Map (db m56452) HM|
|California (Plumas County), Quincy — Oakland Camp|
|Mr. J.B. Nash, often referred to as “The Father of Recreation” was Superintendent of the Oakland Recreation Dept. from 1917-1926. He recognized the value of people working and playing together in a camp setting & loved the outdoors. In 1921, he leased land from the National Forest Service & launched the camping program in Oakland. — Map (db m66158) HM|
|California (Riverside County), Temecula — The Great Oak|
|This is the place of the Great Oak or Wi’ia$ha (We-awsh-ah). The great oak is a member of the wi’ia$al or Coast Live Oak Family (Quercus Agrifolia). Estimates range anywhere from 500 to 2000 years old. The Great Oak continues to attract people to share its unique and endearing qualities, as it has done with its Luiseño friends for centuries. — Map (db m36210) HM|
|California (Sacramento County), Rancho Cordova — Vernal Pool Grassland — Mather Vernal Pools|
|When rain falls on a vernal pool grassland, some water sinks into the ground and the rest flows into streams or into depressions in the landscape. The water cannot move deeper into the ground in a vernal pool grassland because a hardpan blocks its path.
Hardplan is a layer of clay or minerals that water cannot pass through easily. Once the soils are saturated, rainwater perches on top of the hardpan. Only where there are depressions in the landscape can you see the perched water - as ponds . . . — Map (db m52708) HM|
|California (San Benito County), Pinnacles National Monument — Return to Condor Crags|
| The rocky spires of Condor Crags are seen rising above you, named by those who once saw California condors soaring over these lofty formations. In 2003, Pinnacles National Monument became part of a cooperative program to restore these endangered birds back to their wild, ancestral home. The program's goal is to reestablish a wild, self-sustaining population of condors.
The high rocks of Pinnacles National Monument were historically used as nest and roost sites for condors. As the recovery . . . — Map (db m41123) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Baker — Salt Creek — A Desert and Riperian and Wetland Area|
|Though they comprise less than 9 percent of the 270 million acres of public lands administered by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, riparian and wetland areas, such as Salt Creek, are considered the most productive resources found on public lands. The United States has lost more than half of its wetlands in the course of the last two centuries. While this decline has slowed in recent years, the conservation of wetlands in America remains a serious matter. Even at the current reduced rate of . . . — Map (db m72926) HM|
|California (San Diego County), Escondido — Daley Ranch|
|Livestock has always been the major land use at Daley Ranch. Besides cattle, for dairying and beef, the Daley's would raise horses. Some were specialty breeds, like the Hamiltonians used for pulling carts in a racing walk. When the automobile became commonplace, this use faded. The dairy was on the property from 1910 to 1925. In the 1920s one irrigation pond was constructed of concrete on the hill top. A series of ponds were built in the 1940s and 1950s to provide irrigation water. These were . . . — Map (db m79156) HM|
|California (San Diego County), San Diego — San Diego Bay|
|One of the world’s finest natural harbors plays host above and below the surface
Homeport to America’s Finest City
One of the most beautiful and exemplary natural harbors in the world, San Diego Bay is steeped in rich maritime heritage and continues to serve today as a bustling port of call. Home to the Navy’s Pacific fleet, a variety of sport fishing craft, thousands of pleasure boats, and an increasing number of commercial and cruise ships, San Diego Bay is a top destination for . . . — Map (db m73905) HM|
|California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary|
|Within the ocean swells, beyond the Golden Gate, is an underwater world of astoundingly rich and diverse marine life. Few regions on earth host the multitude of marine species found in the sanctuary’s open waters an estuaries, within its sea floor, and along its rocky shores and sandy beaches.
The 1,255 square mile Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary protects the region’s extraordinary resources. Past human impacts such as seal and whale hunting, egg harvesting, oil spills, . . . — Map (db m63424) HM|
|California (San Luis Obispo County), Cambria — 939 — Nitt Witt Ridge|
|Nitt Witt Ridge, one of California's remarkable Twentieth Century Folk Art Environments, is the creation of Arthur Harold Beal (Der Tinkerpaw or Capt. Nitt Witt), a Cambria Pines pioneer who sculpted the land using hand tools and indigenous materials, remarkable inventiveness, and self-taught skills. A blend of native materials and contemporary elements, impressive in its sheer mass and meticulous placement, it is a revealing memorial to art's unique cosmic humor and zest for life. — Map (db m50545) HM|
|California (San Luis Obispo County), San Simeon — Point Piedras Blancas, A Recent Colony — Thousands Strong and Growing…|
|Almost Lost Forever
In the late 1800s whalers discovered elephant seal blubber yielded extremely high quality oil. Hunted by the thousands for several decades, these animals were thought to be extinct until a small group was found on Guadalupe Island off the coast of Baja California. All northern elephant seals today are descended from that remnant population.
What a Comeback!
Elephant seals populated this beach only recently. In 1990, biologists spotted over a dozen animals for . . . — Map (db m81694) HM|
|California (Santa Barbara County), Goleta — Arroyo Hondo Fish Passage & Upstream Habitat Restoration — Another Conservation Project of The Land Trust of Santa Barbara County|
|Arroyo Hondo creek has the best habitat on the south coast of Santa Barbara County for the endangered Southern California Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This native fish spends part of its life in freshwater streams like this one, and part of its life in the ocean.
Miles of Steelhead habitat at Arroyo Hondo were cut off in 1949 during the construction of US 101. The culvert installed under the highway presented a barrier to upstream migration for spawning. During low flows, the . . . — Map (db m71951)|
|California (Santa Clara County), Alviso — Discover Alviso’s Rich History — Alviso Marina County Park|
|Alviso’s marina today starkly contrasts with its past as a bustling seaport. In the mid-19th century, Alviso was a transportation hub through which crops, goods and people circulated, fueling the economic growth of the South Bay. Port activity in Alviso eventually ceased under the strain of flooding and after the rise of railroads for commerce.
Alviso’s identity has shifted to its new role as a managed wetland. This South Bay area provides critical habitat for migratory birds and . . . — Map (db m24408) HM|
|California (Santa Clara County), Alviso — Salt Ponds — Past, Present, Future|
|Beginning with the Ohlone people, who harvested salt for local use and regional trade, small scale salt production on San Francisco Bay expanded into one of the largest industrial solar evaporation complexes in the world. Salt production transformed the South Bay landscape and contributed to the loss of more than 85 percent of the rich tidal marshes that once surrounded the Bay. However, salt ponds can be a natural part of San Francisco Bay.
Twenty-five square miles of former commercial . . . — Map (db m24444) HM|
|California (Santa Clara County), Alviso — Water Everywhere — Water Seeks Its Own Level|
|Water in Alviso is a complex issue that touches on the environment, economics, and life safety. Already susceptible to flooding, Alviso’s situation was worsened by regional development. Hard paving, which prevented water absorption into the ground, and increased groundwater pumping caused the water table to drop. As a result, the land subsided, and Alviso dropped 13 feet over the last 100 years. Situated below sea level, it became even more vulnerable to flooding.
More recently, Alviso . . . — Map (db m24414) HM|
|California (Santa Clara County), San Jose — 945 — First Honeybees in California|
|Here, on the 1,939-acre Rancho Potrero de Santa Clara, Christopher A. Shelton in early March 1853 introduced the honeybee to California. In Aspinwall, Panama, Shelton purchased 12 beehives from a New Yorker and transported them by rail, “Bongo” pack mule, and steamship to San Francisco. Only enough bees survived to fill one hive, but these quickly propagated, laying the foundation for California’s modern beekeeping industry. — Map (db m3627) HM|
|California (Santa Cruz County), Big Basin — 827 — The First State Park|
|A group of conservationists led by Andrew P. Hill camped at the base of Slippery Rock on May 15, 1900 and formed the Sempervirens Club to preserve the redwoods of Big Basin. Their efforts resulted in deeding 3,500 acres of primeval forest to the State on September 20, 1902 to mark the beginning of the California State Park System.
— Map (db m2350) HM|
|California (Santa Cruz County), Santa Cruz — The Plunge — Neptune’s Kingdom|
|Less than a year after fire destroyed the original Casino and Plunge, construction began on new buildings to include an indoor natatorium. The original ceiling arches can be seen today. The main pool measured 144 feet by 64 feet and featured a 40-foot slide. It was one of the largest heated, salt water swimming pools on the West coast. The pool’s two tanks, with a combined capacity of 408,000 gallons, were replenished daily from the Pacific Ocean. The chilly water was heated from a breathtaking . . . — Map (db m62792) HM|
|California (Santa Cruz County), Santa Cruz — The Santa Cruz Seaside Company|
|When the “new” Casino was built in 1907, the Boardwalk was owned by the Santa Cruz Beach Company. Local businesses experienced an economic downturn from 1912-1914, and the Beach Company went bankrupt. In 1915 the Santa Cruz Seaside Company was formed “to furnish entertainment and amusement for individuals and the public.”
100 years later, while times, attitudes, and tastes have changed, the Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk remains in harmony with the passage of time. The . . . — Map (db m64253) HM|
|California (Shasta County), Burney — Fountain Fire Vista Point|
| . . . — Map (db m13741) HM|
|California (Shasta County), Lassen Volcanic National Park — Stephen Tyng Mather — July 4, 1867 - Jan. 22, 1930|
|He laid the foundation of the National Park Service, defining and establishing the policies under which its areas shall be developed and conserved unimpaired for future generations. There will never come an end to the good that he has done. — Map (db m71149) HM|
|California (Shasta County), Mill Creek — Cinder Cone Volcano and the Fantastic Lava Beds|
|This basaltic andesite boulder was created about 350 years ago, during the formation of Cinder Cone Volcano. Cinder cones form when blobs of gas-charged lava explode from a volcano’s vent, then fall back to earth as cooled fragments of rock.
Cinder Cone volcano, in the park’s northeast corner, first erupted about 1650 AD. Ash deposits from its eruption are still found eight to ten miles away. Repeated basalt flows from Cinder Cone volcano, elevation 6,907 feet (2105 m) reached Butte Lake . . . — Map (db m63318) HM|
|California (Shasta County), Shingletown — People of the Land|
|The mountains of Lassen Volcanic National Park have been a sacred place of healing and strength to American Indians for more than a thousand years. The Atsugewi, Maidu, Yana, and Yahi tribes settled in the mountain foothills and spent their summers in camps in the high country. They fished, hunted, and gathered foods. They worshiped, raised children, and buried their loved ones here. Descendants of these tribes still live near the edges of the park today and still remain connected to the land. . . . — Map (db m63301) HM|
|California (Shasta County), Shingletown — Pluck and Carry|
|If we think of volcanoes as mountain builders, then glaciers are mountain remodelers. This lone rock pays tribute to the rearranging forces of glaciers. Glaciers carve, grind, and excavate mountains in ways that geologists easily recognize. This huge rock is called glacial erratic — a boulder out of context.
Notice the smooth surface of the rock at your feet. This rock was worn by the friction of a glacier that moved over it about 18,000 years ago. The lone boulder, which is of a . . . — Map (db m63310) HM|
|California (Shasta County), Whiskeytown — A Matter of Balance — Wiskeytown National Recreation Area|
|Whiskeytown Lake is part of a system of dams, reservoirs, canals, and power plants that make up the Central Valley Project (CVP). Created to control floods, supply water, and generate power, the CVP serves millions of Californians from Redding to Bakersfield - but not without a price.
By the 1990s, California’s Central Valley had lost more than 90% of its river and streamside forests and wetlands. Salmon spawning grounds had shrunk from 6,000 stream miles to less than 300. Past . . . — Map (db m63353) HM|
|California (Shasta County), Whiskeytown — The Glory Hole — Whiskeytown National Recreation Area|
|Whiskeytown Dam is protected from flooding by the circular structure located a short distance from shore. Named the Glory Hole because it resembles the trumpet-shaped morning glory flower, this structure allows overflow lake waters to drain. Water cresting the rim of the Glory Hole is funneled under the dam, empting into Clear Creek below.
Caution - for your safety, do not go near the Glory Hole.
The Glory Hole is a functional feature of Whiskeytown Dam and is not designed for . . . — Map (db m63357) HM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Tulelake — A Volcanic Classroom|
|Preserved for its caves and volcanic features since 1925, Lava Beds serves as an outdoor school for professional and amateur geologists alike. While the monument covers only ten percent of the surface area of the massive Medicine Lake shield volcano — the largest in the Cascades Range — it contains excellent examples of the many formations volcanic eruptions can leave behind. Here you can explore dozens of lava tube caves, hike to the top of a cinder cone, peer into a hollow spatter . . . — Map (db m63272) HM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Tulelake — Beds of Lava|
|Imagine watching hot lava flowing toward you at this spot over twelve thousand years ago. Like treads rolling on a tank, the clinker, cooling front of the flow fell off and was run over by the hot molten core. The Devils Homestead flow, which erupted from Fleener Chimneys more that a mile south of here, provides an excellent example of rough a’a lava. More fluid pahoehoe lava leaves behind a smooth, ropy surface. The wide variety of eruptions here at Lava Beds and the abundant . . . — Map (db m63258) HM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Tulelake — Raptors - Birds of Prey|
|This steep cliff of nestholes and crevices overlooks the Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge and Lava Beds National Monument — fruitful hunting ranges for hawks, falcons, owls, and other birds of prey.
A favorable environment here is supporting a large number of raptors. In recent years, sixteen species have been identified in this area, among them the red-tailed hawk, prairie falcon and barn owl.
Raptors help to control rodent populations that might otherwise threaten crops. . . . — Map (db m63657) HM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Tulelake — River of Rocks - The Devils Homestead Lava Flow|
|At some time within the last several thousand years, an eruption of magna from the bottom of the earth crust sent a broad stream of hot liquid rock across this land. The flow started to your right, 3.2 kilometers (2 miles) south of here at the site of a spatter cone formation known as a Field of Chimneys. When the eruption stopped, the lava cooled and hardened into its present form, but how did it look like a river of rocks?
Pahoehoe lava began flowing downhill toward Tule Lake to . . . — Map (db m63253) HM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Tulelake — Spatter Cones|
|The “chimneys” before you built up as hot gasses propelled globs of lava high into the air like lumpy oatmeal boiling over a pot. This lava quickly formed dramatic, hollow spatter cones as it fell back to the ground. Later, less explosive lava flowed out, creating the massive Devils Homestead flow. If you are traveling from the north, you have driven along its entire 3.5 mile (5.6 km) length to the source. The magna that formed both features came up through a long fissure in the . . . — Map (db m63284) HM|
|California (Stanislaus County), La Grange — Tuolumne Gold Dredge|
|Behind this monument rests the historic Tuolumne Gold Dredge which started operation at Patricksville, just east of this location, on June 15, 1938. A Walter Johnson No. 52 Model, it floated on a self-created pond of water. It was larger than a football field, weighed over 2500 tons, and cost $543,148 to construct. The dredge used electricity to drive 120 4000 lb. buckets 70 ft. deep to recover gold. It ceased operation in July 1951. The total amount of gold recovered is unknown. — Map (db m7323) HM|
|California (Tulare County), Lodgepole Village — For the Good of the Giants|
|Try to imagine yourself standing here in the 1950’s. You would have been surrounded by cars. Engine noise and exhaust would have overridden your impressions of the giant trees. Almost 100 cabins and motel units would have faced you from across the road.
Development in the Giant Forest began long ago. As early as the 1890’s people began building here. Campgrounds, hotels, shops, a post office, park headquarters, parking lots, a gas station, and a sewage treatment plant all stood on the roots . . . — Map (db m44311) HM|
|California (Tulare County), Lodgepole Village — Stephen Tyng Mather — July 4, 1867 Jan: 22, 1930|
|He laid the foundation of the National Park Service defining and establishing the policies under which its areas shall be developed and conserved unimpaired for future generations. There will never come to an end to the good that he has done. — Map (db m52661) HM|
|California (Tulare County), Lodgepole Village, Sequoia National Park — Cattle Cabin|
|This cabin was built by cattlemen who had acquired much of the Giant Forest land for grazing purposes prior to the establishment of Sequoia National Park in 1890. After the park’s establishment, the land was leased to men who supplied meat and milk to visitors and to the soldiers who guarded the park from 1891 through 1913. Circle Meadow, adjacent to the cabin, was the site of the slaughtering corral. By 1917 the last private holdings in Giant Forest had been purchased and deeded back to the government. — Map (db m44338) HM|
|California (Tulare County), Three Rivers — Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Parks|
|United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization
Program on Man and the Biosphere
By decision of the Bureau of the International Coordinating Council of the Program on Man and the Biosphere, duly authorized to that effect by the council
Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Parks
is recognized as part of the International Network of Biosphere Reserves. This network of protected samples of the world’s major ecosystem types is devoted to conservation of nature and . . . — Map (db m2978) HM|
|California (Tuolumne County), Pinecrest — Jewels of the High Country|
|Fred Leighton first entered this emigrant wilderness basin in 1895 to tend cattle with his uncle Alvah Shaw. Thanks to his vision to build check dams, first one in 1920, on the stream flows in the area. The water was reserved for fish propagation and to pool for wildlife during drought periods. Fred Leighton and others built a total of 18 check dams before the “1964 Wilderness Act”
Yellow Hammer (1920), Red Can, Leighton Big Emigrant, Lower Buck, Emigrant Meadow, Bigelow, Bear, Y . . . — Map (db m49886) HM|
|California (Tuolumne County), Sonora — Bonanza Mine — King of the Pocket Mines|
|Discovered 1851, by Chileans, they took out a substantial amount of free gold.
Early 1870's acquired by James Divoll, Charles Clark, and Joseph Bray, sinking a shaft 1500 ft. in 1877. Big strike came in 1879, 990 lbs. of gold was removed in one week, valued over $300,000.
The mine yielded fortunes to Alonzo Colby, Edward Kiel, Albert Johnson, J.B. Harriman, and David R. Oliver, "All of Sonora".
No true record of the yield, but it ran into the millions. — Map (db m7565) HM|
|California (Yolo County), West Sacramento — Hydraulic Mining — West Sacramento River Walk|
|Hydraulic gold mining was introduced in the 1850’s. Men with hoses blasted hillsides with powerful jets of water, which reduced the hills to mounds of gravel 20 times faster than with pick and shovel. Massive quantities of gravel and silt from hydraulic mining washed into the river channel, filling the streambed and contributing to flooding in the valley.
The U.S. Bureau of Mines, estimated that $81 million in gold was removed from California mines in 1852. Between 1848 and 1855, . . . — Map (db m15713) HM|
|Colorado (Alamosa County), Mosca — "Totally Unique and Unexpected" — Park Visitor|
|Welcome to the high elevation desert that is Great Sand Dunes! Does this landscape strike you as amazing, bizarre or totally out of place. If so, you’re not alone. For many, the unexpected combination of massive dunes surrounded by alpine peaks and a desert valley inspires awe and curiosity.
The 30 square mile dunefield before you is the most impressive part of an enormous deposit of sand stretching west, south, and north. The San Juan Mountains on the far western horizon contributed most . . . — Map (db m71050) HM|
|Colorado (Alamosa County), Mosca — A Landmark for People|
“We can see the Dunes and the Crestone Needles from all over our ranch. When we are lost, that’s what we navigate by.”
Whether traveling on foot, by horseback, Model A, or the latest-model car, the dunes and mountains behind them were—and still are—used as landmarks by travelers in and around the San Luis Valley. The oldest evidence of humans in the area dates back to about 11,000 years ago. Perhaps echoing your own . . . — Map (db m71051) HM|
|Colorado (Alamosa County), Mosca — Sangre de Cristo Ecosystem — Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve|
|Different Life Zones Exist in the Mountains
Imagine climbing the mountain in front of you. You might notice it gets cooler as you ascend. As the temperature drops, moisture in the air condenses, precipitation increases, and creates different life zones.
The Alpine Life Zone
Only low shrubs and a few hardy plants can survive this cold, windy climate.
The Subalpine Life Zone
These dense, moist forests consist of spruce and subalpine fir trees.
The Montane Life . . . — Map (db m71056) HM|
|Colorado (Alamosa County), Mosca — Stepping into Wilderness — Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve|
|You are about to step into the Great Sand Dunes Wilderness. Its mood changes with the seasons, from the spacious solitude of winter, to spring and summer fun and play. Whatever the season of your visit, this unexpected wilderness offers opportunities to enjoy, explore, learn and recreate in one of our nation’s unspoiled wonders.
Great Sand Dunes is part of the National Wilderness Preservation System, which includes lands set aside to protect their unique natural conditions. Great Sand Dunes . . . — Map (db m71057) HM|
|Colorado (Alamosa County), Mosca — The Mountain Barrier|
|Mountains and passes were important in the formation
of the sand dunes.
You are looking at the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Prevailing southwesterly winds carrying sand across the San Luis Valley were blocked by the mountains.
As the winds rose to sweep through the passes, sand was dropped.
Some storms come from the northeast and reverse the wind flow through the passes, blowing sand back toward the Dune field. — Map (db m71055) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — A Look From The Top|
You are at 13,380 feet, 4,078 meters
Feeling Spacey? In the United States you can not get much closer to outer space than this! Are you dizzy and short of breath? No wonder, you are 2.5 miles (4 kilometers) above sea level! There is 40% less oxygen here as down below. Beware, thinner atmosphere accelerated sun burning.|
Alpine: Above the Forest. You have reached the harshest environment on Pikes Peak. From the ? do not grow here? There are some hard hips from can not endure. The . . . — Map (db m45815) HM
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Forests Without Fire|
|Without fires, forests grow dense with trees that compete for nutrients, sunlight and space. Competition and stress leave forests susceptible to disease, insects and fire. Many plants on the forest floor die competing for nutrients adding to the fallen trees and the buildup of burnable “fuels”.|
The United States Forest Service performs “prescribed fires to clean up the forest floor and create habitat for wildlife. Small fires are like nature’s broom, sweeping up the . . . — Map (db m45935) HM
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Pick a Climate|
|As you drive up Pikes Peak, you’ll feel it get colder. You’ll also notice that the plants change. See if you can pick out four different life zones on the way to and from the summit.
A life zone is a plant and animal community that exists at a certain elevational range. The Life Zones of Pikes Peak. Going up 1000 feet in elevation is like traveling 600 miles to the north. Alpine, 11,500 ft. and above. Subalpine, 9,500-11,000 feet. Montane, 8,000-9,500 feet. Foothills, 6,000-8,000 feet. . . . — Map (db m45929) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Take a Closer Look...Foothills Life Zone|
|The foothills of Colorado’s eastern slope form the dramatic meeting place of the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains. In this transition area between the prairie and the mountains, grasslands intermix with scrublands of mountain mahogany and scrub oak. These foothill shrubs eventually give way to the evergreen forests of higher elevations. Orange paintbrush, white yucca and blue penstamon add color to this landscape in spring and summer.|
Many different animals thrive in this region. Noisy . . . — Map (db m45925) HM
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Play in the Wind|
|Windy Saddle Park is named for the nearly constant wind currents that can be felt blowing through the foothills. Winds traveling across the plains are forced upward when they hit the Rocky Mountains, and as the air rises, it has enough force to lift objects into the sky.|
Many large birds use these currents to conserve energy. Being lifted into the sky by this wind, called a thermal, is much easier than flapping wings that can span eight feet from tip to tip. Using thermals saves energy and . . . — Map (db m46157) HM
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Water Carves Canyons|
|Flowing water is the reason you see a canyon in front of you. As the Rocky Mountains lifted, water was forced to flow to either the east or the west, creating creeks and rivers. Clear Creek has been eroding this canyon for hundreds of thousands of years, cutting the floor ever lower. The walls of the canyon grow wider as steep hillsides tumble into the creek, where they are washed away by water.|
Caption A canyon starts as a shallow stream that cuts through the bedrock for thousands of . . . — Map (db m46156) HM
|Colorado (Mineral County), South Fork — Continental Divide Trail|
|Adventure! Hiking the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail offers you an enormous challenge.
Beginning at Mexico’s border in southern New Mexico, the country’s longest National Scenic Trail wanders through Colorado, Wyoming, and Idaho, ending in northern Montana at Canada’s border.
The trails follows the Continental Divide at various point about a fifth of the way. It may require six months or longer to completed planned expeditions in bad weather and deep snow.
The . . . — Map (db m71661) HM|
|Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde National Park — A Monument to Time|
|The rocks that house Mesa Verde's cliff dwellings have their own stories to tell.
During the late Cretasceous period (about 90 million years ago) much of North America, including southwest Colorado and the present Rocky Mountains, was covered by a shallow inland sea.
Thousands of feet of marine and shoreline sediments were deposited and now form the rocks of Mesa Verde: shale, sandstone, coal, and siltstone.
Uplift and Erosion
Within the last 65 million . . . — Map (db m71530)|
|Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde National Park — Natural Seep Springs|
|As you travel about Mesa Verde look for seep springs — ready sources of fresh water for the Ancestral Puebloans.
Where is the Water?
Moisture, in the form of rainfall or snowmelt, percolates through porous sandstone layers until it reaches a dense, impermeable layer of shale. Prevented from percolating farther downward, the water is forced to the rock surface resulting in a seep spring in the canyon wall.
Throughout Mesa Verde, seep springs can be found at the base of the . . . — Map (db m71531)|
|Colorado (Morgan County), Fort Morgan — Watching River Wildlife|
|Take a few moments on this spot to explore the South Platte River and the riparian woodland that runs beside it. You'll discover that this ribbon of life is a great place for wildlife watching.|
Where the South Platte flows through prairie, farm, and ranch, riparian areas provide habitat for a great diversity of wildlife. The river, sandbars and adjacent woodlands offer food, water, shelter, nesting and denning sites, and a migration pathway.
Half of Colorado's wildlife species use riparian . . . — Map (db m47316) HM
|Colorado (Sedgwick County), Julesburg — 223 — Colorado's Wildlife Story|
|From the eastern prairie to the Rocky Mountains and the western plateau country beyond, Colorado enjoys a rich abundance of wildlife. Protecting this heritage has been a challenge, and Colorado's success is due to the efforts and cooperation of people like you.|
Early settlers described the West as a vast land filled with wildlife. But by the late 1800s, population growth, uncontrolled hunting and fishing, and changes in land use had taken their toll.
I desire to say a word in favor of . . . — Map (db m47323) HM
|Colorado (Sedgwick County), Julesburg — 223 — Last Days of the Buffalo|
|For thousands of years, these grasslands have supported tens of millions of buffalo, from the giant species of ancient times to the smaller version of today. As North America's largest land animal, buffalo dominated life on the Great Plains. In 1851, Cheyenne chief Yellow Wolf reported to an Indian agent the staggering news that from the foothills of the mountains to the forks of the Platte, the great herds had largely vanished. In fact, starvation stalked the Cheyenne villages. Twenty years . . . — Map (db m47319) HM|
|Colorado (Sedgwick County), Julesburg — Prairie Home Companions|
|The semi-arid plains are home to hundreds of wildlife species. but even species specialty adapted for life on the prairie need water to survive. The South Platte River and nearby State Wildlife Areas provide excellent habitat for a variety of wild creatures.|
Visitors on the Watchable Wildlife Trail may be rewarded with views of many animals including deer, raccoons, coyotes, muskrats, foxes, bald eagles, herons or the elusive mountain lion.
During spring and fall migrations, many birds stop . . . — Map (db m47373) HM
|Colorado (Summit County), Breckenridge — Riverwalk - Blue River Restoration|
This valley once held beaver ponds, wet meadows, shrub thickets and open grasslands. Fires started by Native Americans supported herds of mountain bison and favored growth of grasses and wildflowers on the valley floor.
Archeological evidence from Vail Pass indicates the presence of Paleo-Indians dating back at least 6,800 years. Bands of Utes, the descendants of these early Americans, lived and hunted in this valley. They set fires to reduce tree cover on the . . . — Map (db m58592) HM|
|Colorado (Teller County), Colorado Springs — Don’t kill them with kindness — Feeding wild animals on the mountain does more harm than good.|
|You can help the Peak’s wild animals by not feeding them. “Can one chip hurt?” you may wonder. Yes it can, when multiplied by 2,000 visitors per summer day. Then when the summer’s over, the animals are without their junk food fix.|
Even “healthy” foods like grapes, can cause problems. A squirrel may store your handout with its winter food supply. If the grape turns moldy, it could ruin the animal’s caches of food.
Finally, for you own safety, it’s best not to . . . — Map (db m45844) HM
|Connecticut (Fairfield County), Shelton — Constitution Oak|
| This Is A
Presented To Riverview Park –1902 – By
Senator Sturges Whitlock
Delegate To The Constitutional Convention
This Marker Placed – 1934 – By
Of Shelton — Map (db m28318) HM|
|Connecticut (Hartford County), Hartford — Scion of the Charter Oak|
|Scion of the Charter Oak
Planted 19 October 1871 by
First Company Governor's Foot Guard
White Oak (Quercus atba L)
In the earliest days the great oak served both as a council tree and agricultural guide for Native Americans. The annual spring planting of corn would not begin until the great tree's leaves were the size of a mouse's ear thus ensuring proper soil temperature and germination. The venerable oak was considered both sacred and sagacious.
Connecticut received its charter from . . . — Map (db m64924) HM|
|Connecticut (Hartford County), Hartford — Theodore Wirth|
Superintendent Hartford Parks
1896 - 1905
Elizabeth Park Rose Garden
To whom this rose bed is dedicated
and for whom it will be maintained
as long as the park is here and people
love roses . . . forever
Conrad L. Wirth 1992 — Map (db m44111) HM|
|Connecticut (Hartford County), New Britain — 100 Birthday of Freedom Tree|
|This Tree Was
Stanley Post No. 11
July 4, 1879
The 100 Birth Day
Of Freedom Of
The U.S. of A. — Map (db m41388) HM|
|Connecticut (Hartford County), New Britain — City of New Britain Sesquicentennial Anniversary|
|City of New Britain Sesquicentennial Anniversary
1850 – 2000
Tree Planting Legacy Project
Mayor Lucian J. Pawlak • Honarary Chair
Thomas G. Ronalter • Sesquicentennial Chair
Aime Brochu • Common Council Majority Leader
Geoffrey G. Bray • Legacy Project Chair
Robert McGlone • Parks & Recreation Department
Dr. Bruce Fletcher • Committee Member
Fifteen American Birch trees were planted as part of New Britain's
150th Anniversary as a town. Fourteen of the trees are planted . . . — Map (db m41309) HM|
|Connecticut (Hartford County), New Britain — Original Design of Walnut Hill Park|
|Original Design of Walnut Hill Park
By Olmstead Vaux & Co. Landscape Architects – 1870
On July 18, 1867 Frederick T. Stanley sent the following letter to Frederick Law Olmstead
A Public park is proposed to be laid out in our village on a very beautiful hill comprising some 36 acres now belonging to a company of individuals, who (purchased) it in 1856 for the purpose of locating the reservoir for the water works, ultimately to appropriate it for Public Grounds. A . . . — Map (db m41374) HM|
|Connecticut (Hartford County), Southington — Constitution Oak|
|This Is A Constitution Oak
Presented To The
Hon. M. H. Holcomb
A Delegate To The Constitutional Convention
In Hartford 1902
Hannah Woodruff Chapter D.A.R.
1929 — Map (db m33713) HM|
|Connecticut (Hartford County), Wethersfield — Connecticut Constitution Oak|
Stephen F. Willard
Delegate from the town of
Wethersfield in the
Constitutional Convention held in Hartford 1902
Connecticut Senators and
Representatives in Congress — Map (db m46061) HM|
|Connecticut (Hartford County), Wethersfield — Wethersfield Elm|
The Wethersfield Elm
Largest Of Its Kind — Map (db m46121) HM|