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Exploration Markers
1373 markers matched your search criteria. The first 250 markers are listed. Next 1123
Argentina, Misiones Province, Iguazú National Park — Alvar Núñez Cabeza de VacaSalto Alvar Núñez — Parque Nacional Iguazú
A Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca. Homenaje de la Administración General de Parques Nacionales y Turismo a la memoria del descubridor de estas Cataratas, Don Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, quién tras de cruentas luchas con la naturaleza y lo ignoto, en su temerario viaje desde las selvas Brasileñas Atlánticas en busca de una vía al Rio de la Plata descubrió esta maravilla del mundo en el año 1541. (English translation) To Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca. A tribute from the . . . — Map (db m37605) HM
Argentina, Rio Negro, San Carlos de Bariloche — Republica ArgentinaAdministracion de Parques Nacionales
Republica Argentina Administracion de Parques Nacionales 1876 – 22 – Enero – 1976 1st Centenario del Izamiento del pabellon nacional en El Lago Nahuel Huapi por El Perito Doctor Francisco Pascasio Moreno English Translation: Argentina National Parks Administration 1876 - 22 - January - 1976 1st Centennial of Hoisting the National Flag at Lake Nahuel Huapi by the Expert Doctor Francisco Pascasio Moreno — Map (db m60367) HM
Australia, New South Wales, Boree — Sir Thomas Mitchell
From this vicinity Sir Thomas Mitchell's second expedition proceeded on April 7, 1835 to the Darling River, his third expedition on March 19, 1836 to Australia Felix (Western Victoria), and his fourth expedition on December 15, 1845 to Tropical Australia (Central Queensland). R.A.H.S. — Map (db m38374) HM
Australia, Victoria, Wedderburn — Major Mitchell Explorer
Major T.Mitchell Explorer Passed Here 7th July 1836 Erected by Shire of Korong 1930 — Map (db m53080) HM
Alberta, Lake Louise — Canadian Pacific Railway Stone Monument
Erected in honor of Sir James Hector K. C. M. C. Geologist and explorer to the Palliser Expedition of 1857 - 1860 by his friends in Canada, the United States & England. One of the earliest scientists to explore the Canadian Rocky Mountains. He discovered the Kicking Horse Pass through which the Canadian Pacific Railway now runs from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean. — Map (db m70443) HM
British Columbia (Alberni-Clayoquot Regional District), Port Alberni — Bicentennial of the Spanish Expeditions to the Northwest Coasts of America1771–1991
[Upper Marker]: Pedro de Alberni, Captain of the Catalan Volunteers and Commander of the Spanish Establishment at Santa Cruz de Nootka, 1790-1792. Offered by the Government of Spain on the occasion of the visit of the Spanish training ship “Juan Sebastian el Cano” to the province of British Columbia, April 1991. [Lower Marker]: Generalitat de Catalunya The Autonomous Government of Catalonia joins this bicentennial celebration in remembrance of . . . — Map (db m9155) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Sidney — Year of the Ocean
If the Oceans of the world perish, so shall we. This mural was painted in celebration of the "International Year of the Ocean", and is a brief glimpse into the story of ocean science on the west coast. A mere fraction of the story is depicted here. The mural is a dream of the Ocean, and like a dream it flows across a montage of images floating through space and time. Beginning in the distant past, with an Ancient Navigator lovingly holding our Ocean planet, it ends with a . . . — Map (db m75463) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Capt. James Cook, R.N.1728-1779
After two historic voyages of the South Pacific[,] Cook was cruising the waters of the Pacific Northwest on his third and final voyage, with his two ships, Resolution and Discovery[.] He was searching for the western exit to the legendary Northwest Passage. In March, 1778, they put into Nootka Sound for repairs and to trade with the native people. With him on the voyage were Mr. William Bligh as Master of the Resolution and Midshipman George Vancouver. This statue was commissioned by the . . . — Map (db m48546) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — European exploration in the Strait of Juan de FucaLes Européens explorent le Détroit de Juan de Fuca
Competition for sovereignty and trade drew Europeans to the Pacific Northwest coast in the 1780s. Although long known to First Nations people, the strait received its present name in 1787 when Charles Barkley identified it as the legendary transcontinental passage of Juan de Fuca, the Greek pilot who claimed to have ventured here in 1592. In 1792, Spanish and British expeditions entered the strait, circumnavigated Vancouver Island, and proved that this was not the Northwest Passage. Surveys . . . — Map (db m80552) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Figures and Medallions of the Library Wing of Parliament Building
[Medallions, top row] Milton – Sophocles – Shakespeare – Socrates – Dante – Homer [Statues, anti-clockwise from the top left] Colonel R.C. Moody 1813-1887 Commander of Royal Engineers in 1858, erected New Westminster as capital of B.C., planned the Cariboo Road. David Thompson 1770 – 1857 Greatest of fur trade explorers. In 1812 traversed Kootenay area, descended the Columbia from source to mouth. Sir Anthony Musgrave 1828 – . . . — Map (db m49045) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra1743 – 1794
Captain in the Spanish Royal Navy. Explorer of the West Coast of North America and Governor of the Spanish settlement at Nootka, Vancouver Island. In honor of their meeting and the ensuing friendly association, Captain George Vancouver named this land Quadra and Vancouver’s Island. In recognition of the historic friendship between Canada and Spain – His Majesty King Juan Carlos I of Spain Dedicated this monument on March 17, 1984 — Map (db m49036) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Vancouver Island Wallmap Mural
[Three 'markers' a part of this mural. They are entitled: Pemberton Family, Vancouver Island, and Fort Victoria.]

Pemberton Family J.D. Pemberton, engineer and surveyor for the H.B.C., arrived in 1851 by canoe in the last stages of his journey from England when this settlement numbered about 300. He built the first schoolhouse, was the first settler to cross the Island, and was the first Surveyor General of the colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia. As population swelled . . . — Map (db m48543) HM

British Columbia (Columbia-Shuswap Regional District), Field — Kicking Horse PassLe Col du Cheval-Qui-Rue
First recorded in the report of the Palliser expedition of 1857-60, this pass takes its name from an incident in which Dr. James Hector, surgeon in the expedition, was kicked by his horse while exploring in this vicinity. The pass was virtually unused until after 1881 when the Canadian Pacific Railway decided to adopt it as their new route through the Rockies, foregoing the earlier preference for the more northerly Yellowhead Pass. This decision altered the location of the line across western . . . — Map (db m74545) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Surrey — Historic McMillan ExpeditonPart of Surrey’s Heritage
A Trading Post on the Fraser In 1824, James McMillan of the Hudson’s Bay Company and a party of forty-seven passed this shore on an exploratory trip from Fort George (Astoria) at the mouth of the Columbia River to the Fraser River. They were sent to find a suitable site for a new fur trading depot. The expedition left Fort George on November 18, 1824 with three boats, travelled across the Puget Sound, continued up the coast, and entered this bay on December 12, 1824. After . . . — Map (db m61525) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 10, Newfoundland and Labrador (Labrad), Red Bay — Basque Whalers in the Strait of Belle IsleLes baleiners Basques dans la détroit de Belle Isle
English: In the 16th century, the Labrador side of the Strait of Belle Isle emerged as the world's largest producer of whale oil. At its peak, whaling on this coast attracted nearly 2000 Basques annually from Spain and France, and Red Bay became a major centre for seasonal hunting and processing. The whale oil and other products were sold in Europe for lighting and manufacturing. Archival evidence and remains of shore facilities and vessels found here make a significant contribution . . . — Map (db m79527) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 5 (Humber District)), Corner Brook — Captain James Cook, R.N.Le capitaine James Cook
English: From 1763 to 1767 Captain Cook. R.N directed a survey embracing the greater part of the coast of Newfoundland. The charting of this coastline was the first scientific, large scale, hydrographic survey to use precise triangulation to establish land outlines. It produced a collection of charts which remained standard for a century. The choice of Cook to carry out Pacific exploration was a result of his success in Newfoundland. Cook’s visit to this area on his ascent of the . . . — Map (db m79672) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 5 (Humber District)), Corner Brook — Cook comes to Canada
These five panels outline Captain James Cook’s experiences in Newfoundland. Cook comes to Canada Captain James Cook took his first voyage to Canada as a Master on the vessel ”Pembroke” in February 1785. The British forces were embroiled in the Seven Years War with the French. Cook arrived in Halifax, Nova Scotia and took part in the blockade of Louisburg (sic) which the French surrendered that July. It was here, that Cook had . . . — Map (db m79676) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 9 (North Peninsula)), St Lunaire-Griquet — L’Anse aux Meadows
English: Discovered in 1960, this is the first authenticated Norse site found in North America and could be Leif Ericsson's short-lived Vinland camp. Some time about AD 1000 Norse seafarers established a base here from which they explored southwards. The traces of bog iron found - the first known example of iron smelting in the new world - in conjunction with evidence of carpentry suggest that boat repair was an important activity. The distance from their homelands and conflict with . . . — Map (db m79611) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 9 (North Peninsula)), St Lunaire-Griquet — The End of a Quest: L’aboutissement d’une quêteFishing for the Past: À la recherche du passé
English: Following clues in the ancient Icelandic sagas, and the writings of Viking scholars and enthusiasts, Norwegian writer and explorer Helge Ingstad arrived at L’Anse aux Meadows in 1960. When he asked whether there were any unusual mounds or low turf wall nearby, community elder and fisherman George Decker led him to the site that local people called “the Old Indian Camp”. Here the long search for the Norse foothold in North America ended, and the painstaking . . . — Map (db m79650) HM
Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Sieur de Monts
To the illustrious memory of Lieut. Gen’l Timothé Pierre du Guast, Sieur de Monts, the pioneer of civilization in North America, who discovered and explored the adjacent river, A.D. 1604, and founded on its banks the first settlement of Europeans north of the Gulf of Mexico. The government of Canada reverently dedicates this monument within sight of that settlement, A.D, 1904. — Map (db m78443) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Captain / Capitaine James Cook(1728-1779)
English Before the voyages that brought him world fame as Captain Cook, this British Royal Navy officier complied navigational charts for the coasts of Quebec and Nova Scotia. While based in Halifax from 1758 to 1762, he learned triangulation and other valuable skills, which later enabled him to produce the first scientific, large-scale hydrographic survey of the dangerous coast of Newfoundland. His charts were to remain standard for a century. Cook’s masterful work prompted the . . . — Map (db m77953) HM
Nova Scotia (Lunenburg County), Lunenburg — Merligueche
English This site known as the Old French Cemetery, is one of the few links to the Town’s Mi’kmaq and Acadian past. Known by the Mi’kmaq as Merligueche meaning whitecaps which topped the waves in the harbour, the name continued to be used by the French in the 17th and 18th centuries. Before the arrival of the French, the Mi’kmaq likely hunted food, fished and harvested wild berries in the area. The 1604 explorations of the south coast of what is now Nova Scotia by French explorers . . . — Map (db m78260) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Louis Hennepin 1626 - c. 1705
{The west/city marker side, in English:} Born and educated in Belgium, Hennepin was ordained a Recollet (Franciscan) friar in France. He was an adventurer at heart and undertook priestly duties in several European countries before being sent to New France as a missionary in 1675. In 1679-80 he accompanied Cavelier de La Salle on his exploration of the Mississippi River. Back in France, Hennepin published a lively account of his travels, Description de la Louisiane (1683), . . . — Map (db m35487) HM
Ontario (Nipissing District), Whitney — Algonquin Provincial ParkLe Parc Provincial Algonquin
Established in 1893, Algonquin was the first provincial park in Canada and the forerunner of Ontario’s extensive park system. Many methods now used across Canada to administer multi-purpose parks and explain nature to the public were developed here. Algonquin also became a focus for discussion of seemingly conflicting objectives, such as wilderness protection versus recreation promotion; forest conservation versus logging activity. Its rugged lakeshores and wooded slopes have long attracted . . . — Map (db m59998) HM
Prince Edward Island (Queens County), Charlottetown — Survey of the Gulf and River St. LawrenceL’hydrographie du Golfe de du Fleuves Saint-Laurent
English: Between 1827 and 1856 the first complete hydrographic survey of the Gulf and River St. Lawrence was carried out by Captain Henry W. Bayfield and his assistants. From the time of Cartier, French and British navigators ad surveyed these waters and produced charts, but by the 1820s these waters and produced charts, but by the 1820s these had become inadequate to the changing needs of shipping. The charts and sailing directions produced from Bayfield's work were the authority for . . . — Map (db m80198) HM
Quebec, Lachine — Robert Cavelier de la Salle(1643 - 1687)
French Fonda Lachine, 1667 Rebatit le Fort Frontenac, 1675. Pionnier de la navigation sur les Grands Lacs. Ses explorations permirent à la France d'étendre son domaine jusqu'à l'embouchure du Mississippi

English Founded Lachine, 1667, rebuilt Fort Frontenac, 1675. Pioneer navigator on the Great Lakes. By his explorations he enabled France to extend its domain to the mouth of the Mississippi. — Map (db m77759) HM

Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Louis Jolliet1645-1700
English: Native of Quebec. With Marquette he discovered and explored the Mississippi, 1673. French: Natif de Québec. Avec Marquette il découvrit et explora le Mississippi, 1673. — Map (db m80798) HM
Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Louis Jolliet HouseMaison Louis Jolliet
English: This house was built in 1683 by architect Baillif for Louis Jolliet, discoverer of the Mississippi, who occupied it until his death in 1700. A subterranean passage led to the cul-de-sac cove. French: Construite en 1683 pour Louis Jolliet découvreur du Mississippi qui l’occupa jusqu’à sa mort en 1700. Cette maison fut restaurée en 1946. Une voûte souterraine s’ouvrait sur l’anse du cul-de-sac. — Map (db m80786) HM
Quebec (Gaspésie– Îles-de-la-Madeleine (region)), Gaspé — Jacque Cartier
English: In commemoration of the Four Hundredth Anniversary of the landing of Jaques Cartier at the entrance to this harbour on 24th July, 1534. French: Pour commémorer le quatre centième anniversaire de l’atterrissage de Jacque Carier á l’entrée de ce port le 24 juillet 1534. — Map (db m80666) HM
Quebec (Gaspésie– Îles-de-la-Madeleine (region)), Gaspé — Jacques Cartier at GaspeJacques Cartier à Gaspé
English: On 14 July 1534, the two ships commanded by Jacques Cartier of Saint-Malo sought shelter in Gaspé Bay, where they remained for eleven days. Here Cartier met and established friendly relations with a large fishing party of St. Lawrence Iroquois from Stadacona, today Québec City. On 24 July he erected a cross bearing the arms of François I on the shore of Gaspé Harbour, thus establishing a basis for French claims to this part of America. The next day Cartier set sail for France, . . . — Map (db m80667) HM
Quebec (La Cité Borough), Québec City — Champlain MonumentVieux-Québec
Samuel de Champlain: Born at Brovace in Saintonce about 1567. Served in the French Army as Marechal des Locis under Henri IV. Explored the West Indies from 1599 to 1601 and also Acadia from 1604 to 1607. Founded Québec in 1603. Discovered the region of the Great Lakes. Led several expeditions against the Iroquois from 1609 to 1615. Was successively Lieutenant Governor and Governor of New France. Died at Québec 24th December 1635. — Map (db m74547) HM
Quebec (Le Plateau-Mont-Royal Borough), Montréal — Hochelaga
Près d’ici état le site de la ville fortifiée ďHochelaga visitée par Jacques Cartier en 1535, abandonnée avant 1600 elle renfermait cinquante grandes maisons logeant chacune plusieurs familles vivant de la culture du sol et de la pêche. Near here was the site of the fortified town of Hochelaga visited by Jacques Cartier, in 1535, abandoned before 1600. It contained fifty large houses, each lodging several families who subsisted by cultivation and fishing. — Map (db m72726) HM
Quebec (Longueuil MRC), Boucherville — Jacques Marquette, S.J.
(French text appears above English text) Né en France le 10 Juin, 1637. Découvrit le Missippi, avec Louis Jolliet, le 17 Juin 1673. Mourut dans l'Etat du Michigan le 18 mai 1675. Visita cette seigneurie en mai 1668. Born in France, 10th June, 1637. Discovered the Mississippi River with Louis Jolliet, 17th June, 1673. Died in Michigan, 18th May, 1675. Visited this seigniory, May, 1668. — Map (db m78180) HM
Quebec (Ville-Marie Borough), Montréal — Aux origines de Montréal / The origins of Montréal
C’est ici que le sieur de Maisonneuve fonda Montréal en mai 1642. Situé au confluent du Saint-Laurent et de l’ancienne petite rivière Saint-pierre, l’endroit était bien connu des Autochtones qui s’y rassemblaient depuis des siècles, de même que sur le site de l’actuelle place Royale. Dès leur arrivée, les Français construisirent le fort Ville-Marie. Vers 1688, le gouverneur de Montréal, Louis-Hector de Calliėre, obtint une partie du terrain et y érigea sa résidence, d’où le nom de pointe . . . — Map (db m78186) HM
Yukon Territory, Dawson City — Discovery ClaimConcession de la Découverte
[English:] The names Robert Henderson, Skookum Jim, Tagish Charlie and George Carmack are inextricably linked to the discovery of gold on Bonanza Creek. Henderson was first to systematically explore the gold bearing potential of the region, only to have the major find elude him. Then on 17 August 1896 Jim struck gold, and with his companions Charlie and Carmack staked the first claims. A few day later at Forty Mile, Carmack in his own name registered the Discovery Claim where this monument . . . — Map (db m44702) HM
Yukon Territory, Dawson City — Tribute to the Miner
Dedicated to the Klondike Gold Miners past, present and future in recognition of their contributions to Dawson City and the Klondike Region.

In 1896, gold was discovered on Rabbit Creek (later known as Bonanza Creek) by Skookum Jim, George Carmack and Dawson Charlie, on the advice of fellow prospector Robert Henderson.

This event sparked the Great Klondike Gold Rush of 1898, and Dawson City and the Yukon Territory were born.

Monument designed for the Klondyke Centennial Society by . . . — Map (db m49349) HM

Yukon Territory, Whitehorse — Copper Nugget
This immense slab of native copper weighs 2590 pounds or 1175 kilograms. In 1905, prospectors found the copper on the upper White River, 250 miles northwest of Whitehorse. This is the Yukon’s largest copper nugget, possibly a Canadian record. Six men ventured into the wilderness in April 1958 to fetch the trophy nugget. Using a Canadian Army caterpillar, the slab was hoisted 400 feet to the riverbank. Guided by dog teams, the group hauled their copper cargo through wilderness, around . . . — Map (db m42727) HM
France, Île-de-France (Paris), Paris — Jacques Cartierle 24 juillet 1534
De Saint Malo Aborde la terre du Canada et prend possession de la nouvelle France au nom de Francois 1er.

[English translation] The July 24, 1534 Jacques Cartier of Saint Malo Discovers the land of Canada and takes possession of New France in the name of France. — Map (db m60537) HM

France, Île-de-France (Paris), Paris — Samuel Champlainle 26 juin 1604
de Brouage en Saintonge Avec Pierre Dugua de Mons et ses Compagnons fondent en Acadie le premier éstablissement Français permanent au Canada et ensuite s’établira à Québec en 1608.

[English translation] The June 26, 1604 Samuel Champlain of Brouage en Saintonge With Pierre Du Gua de Monts and his companions founded in Acadia the first permanent French settlement in Canada and then drew plans for Quebec City in 1608. — Map (db m60538) HM

Ireland, Leinster (County Longford), Lanesborough — Lanesborough / Béal Átha Liag History 500 - 1900 AD
The Mouth of the Ford of Stones The ancient name of Lanesborough is Béal Átha Liag which means “Mouth of the Ford of Stones”. Situated at the northern tip of Lough Ree, or Loch Rí - meaning the “Lake of Kings” - Béal Átha Liag provided the first crossing point on the Shannon north of Athlone. From 1000 AD, the bridges across the Shannon have been of major military importance, being a main crossing point between the East and West of Ireland. 540 • . . . — Map (db m27424) HM
Ireland, Munster (County Kerry), Anascaul — Tom CreanAntarctic Explorer — 1877 - 1938
Expeditions to Antarctica Discovery, 1901-1904 Terra Nova, 1910-1013 Endurance, 1914-1917 In recognition of his invaluable contribution to these expeditions and of his many acts of selfless heroism on behalf of his companions The Tom Crean Memorial Garden Gardens Donated by the Crean Family. Sculptor Eamonn O'Doherty July 2003 Map (db m23045) HM
Philippines, Cebú Province, Cebu City — Antonio Pigafetta — 1496 - 1535
Patrician of Vicenza, Italy and Knight of Malta chronicler of the Magellan expedition that first circumnavigated the globe from 1519 to 1522. He fought in Mactan and was one of the 22 survivors who returned to Spain. This tribute was erected by the Philippine-Italian Association. — Map (db m64200) HM
Philippines, Cebú Province, Cebu City — The Cross of MagellanSanto Niño de Cebú — Sinulog
Panel 1: From time immemorial this spot has been set aside to commemorate the erection of a Cross in Cebu by the expedition of Magellan. When King Humabon of Cebu and his Queen, son and daughters, together with some 800 of their subjects were baptized by Father Pedro Valderrama. This hallowed site was improved in 1735 by Rev. Juan Albarran. Prior of San Agustin and in 1834 by Rt. Rev. Santos Gomez Maroñon, Bishop of Cebu. The image of the Santo Niño found by the expedition of Legaspi . . . — Map (db m65459) HM
Switzerland, Valais (Visp (District)), Zermatt — Edward Whymper
Edward Whymper, 1840 – 1911 Am 14. Juli 1865 unternahm er zusammen mit einer Seilschaft von Gefährten und Bergführern die erfolgreiche Erstbesteigung des Matterhorns von diesem Hotel aus. On July 14, 1865, he set forth from this hotel with his companions and guides and completed the first successful ascent of the Matterhorn. — Map (db m67991) HM
Switzerland, Valais (Visp (District)), Zermatt — First Ascent of the MatterhornErstbesteigung Matterhorn
Erstbesteigung Matterhorn über Hornligrat 13./14. Juli 1865 Edward Whymper Reverend Charles Hudson Lord Francis Douglas Douglas Robert Hadow Taugwalder Peter, Vater Taugwalder Peter, Sohn Michel Auguste Croz Erstbesteigung Matterhorn über Liongrat Jean – Antoine Carrel Jean – Baptiste Bisch German-English translation: First Ascent of the Matterhorn via Hornligrat 13-14. July 1865 Edward Whymper Reverend Charles . . . — Map (db m67985) HM
Switzerland, Valais (Visp (district)), Zermatt — Horace Benedict de Saussure
Im Jahre 1792 bestieg Horace Benedict de Saussure Schweizerischer Naturforscher von Genf (1740 – 1799) Das Klein-Matterhorn (3883 m. u. M.) Mit Führer Coutetaus Chamonix. Mit dieser Erstbesteigung begann in Zermatt das Zeitalter Des Alpinismus Sie machte unser Dorf zur Metropolis Alpina und zum Kurort von Weltruf Anlässlich des 200 Jahrestages und der Einsegnung des Parkes bei der Kapelle Winkelmatten gedenken Wir mit grosser Wertschätzung . . . — Map (db m67996) HM
Switzerland, Valais (Visp (District)), Zermatt — Peter Taugwalder
In diesem Hause wohnten Peter Taugwalder Vater und Sohn Die Edward Whymper am 13./14/ Juli 1863 Bei der Erstbesteigung des Matterhorn Begleitet haben Alpine Vereinigung Zermatt Centre Alpin 14. Juli 1955 German-English translation: This was the home of Peter Taugwalder Father and son They accompanied Edward Whymper, July13-14, 1863 on the first ascent of the Matterhorn Alpine Association Zermatt Alpin Center 14th July 1955 — Map (db m67984) HM
Turks and Caicos Islands, Grand Turk, Cockburn Town — U.S. Naval Facility— Grand Turk —
In 1954 the U.S. Navy established a hydrographic research station on this northern promontory of Grand Turk, overlooking the strategic passage from the Atlantic Ocean. Quonset huts were erected to accommodate eleven officers and one-hundred enlisted men. The large water catchment can be seen within the confines of the base Known officially as the U.S. Facility for Oceanographic Research, the base was established to improve knowledge of oceanographic and acoustic conditions. The U.S. had . . . — Map (db m40833) HM
U.S Virgin Islands, St Croix, Christiansted — Native American Village and Ceremonial SiteColumbus Landing Site — National Historic Landmark
This site marks the only point on the United States Territory where members of the crew of Christopher Columbus came ashore on his second voyage to the New World in November 1493. It also relates to the first recorded altercation between Europeans and the native people of the western hemisphere, at a point on the other side of the bay, known as “Cape of Arrows”. The site on which you stand was a Native American village and ceremonial site, and includes the site of the only known . . . — Map (db m60782) HM
United Kingdom, Kent, Walmer — Caesar’s Invasion of Britain
The first Roman invasion of Britain led by Julius Caesar landed near here LV BC. — Map (db m24553) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Shipquay Street
Living above the 'shop' Many banks and offices started life as 18th and 19th century family houses. The building at the corner of Shipquay Street and Bank Place was both home and place of business for the manager of the Belfast Bank. On 7th December 1888 there was much excitement when the manager's daughter gave birth to a son in one of the bedrooms. The son became the famous 20th century novelist Joyce Cary. Childhood holidays in Inishowen inspired his prize-winning 'House of . . . — Map (db m71140) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — St Columba
On this site of St Augustine's Church, St Columba built his Abbey circa 543AD, and departed from Derry down the River Foyle with his supporters to the Island of Iona in 563AD. — Map (db m70989) HM
Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — Indian Village Achuse
This Shell Banks Baptist Church rests near the location of the first Indian village in America visited by a white man. This was the Indian village of “Achuse” visited by Admiral Maldonado who was one of De Soto’s officers. He scouted the Florida and Alabama coast from Tampa Bay and entered the port of “Achuse” before De Soto started from Tampa Bay on the longest, strangest, boldest adventure in the history of the world. This was in 1539, 81 years before the Pilgrims . . . — Map (db m66295) HM
Alabama (Baldwin County), Magnolia Springs — The Springs
Old tales have it that early explorers and even pirate vessels obtained potable water from springs scattered throughout the community of Magnolia Springs. This park is located at the largest of dozens of springs in the area. In 1865 The Springs played a part in history by refreshing and restoring battle worn Federal troops traveling from the fallen Fort Morgan to Spanish Fort and Old Blakeley. While building a log and timber bridge over Magnolia River, many of the Yankee soldiers . . . — Map (db m68486) HM
Alabama (Choctaw County), Gilbertown — First Oil Well In Alabama
On January 2, 1944, the State of Alabama granted Hunt Oil Company a permit to drill the A.R. Jackson Well No. 1 at this location near Gilbertown. Hunt Oil Company was owned by the famous oil man, H.L. Hunt of Dallas, Texas. Drilling commenced on January 10, 1944, and was completed approximately one month later. The well struck oil at a depth of 2,580 feet in fractured Selma chalk. The discovery of this well led to the creation of the State Oil and Gas Board of Alabama in 1945, and to the . . . — Map (db m80351) HM
Alabama (Elmore County), Wetumpka — Bartram's Trail
William Bartram, America’s first native born artist-naturalist, passed through Elmore County during the Revolutionary era, making the first scientific notations of its flora, fauna and inhabitants. In 1776 the appointed botanist of Britain’s King George III described the area at Fort Toulouse as “one of the most eligible situations for a city in the world; a level plain between the conflux of two majestic rivers…" — Map (db m69431) HM
Alabama (Elmore County), Wetumpka — William Bartram1739 - 1823
William Bartram, the first native-born American artist-naturalist, of Philadelphia, visited this site on Christmas Day, 1776. This arboretum commerates the man, his visit to Fort Toulouse, and his travels through the southeastern colonies from 1773-1777. His search for specimens blazed an epochal new trail in nature appreciation and his observations and sketches obtained during his four year trip are priceless records of 18th century American natural history. Bartram studied and . . . — Map (db m69440) HM
Alabama (Houston County), Cottonwood — Southern Boundary of the United States1795-1819
On October 27, 1795, the United States concluded the Treaty of San Lorenzo with Spain, establishing 31 north latitude as the boundary between its southern territory and West Florida. Despite Spanish delays, commissions representing the two countries began the eastward survey at the Mississippi River. They passed this point in August 1799, and continued to the Chattahoochee River. They later abandoned the boundary survey east of the river due to persistent Indian attacks. The 381 mile survey . . . — Map (db m73359) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Smiths Station — Line 32° 28´ North Latitude
Northern Boundary of: British W. Florida 1764-83 Spanish W. Florida 1783-95 Mississippi Territory: 1798-1804 Washington County 1800-12 Clarke County 1812-15 Southern Boundary of: British Illinois 1764-83 United States 1783-95 Line fixed in 1764 by British king across present Alabama-Mississippi. France had ceded area to Britain in 1763. — Map (db m73532) HM
Alabama (Limestone County), Ardmore — Hernando De Soto in AlabamaDe Sota Trail
The Highway Route The Highway Route of the De Soto Trail is intended to follow the actual trail as closely as major highway permit. These highways are US 278 from the Georgia line to Piedmont, Ala; Ala. 21 to Winterboro; Ala.; Ala. 76 to Childersburg; U.S. 231 to Montgomery; U.S. 80 to Uniontown; Ala. 61 to Greensboro; Ala. 69 to Tuscaloosa; U.S. 82 to Mississippi. Hernando De Soto in Alabama Hernando de Soto brought his 700-man army to Alabama in the fall of 1540. This was . . . — Map (db m52446) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Armstrong • Collins • AldrinLaunched: July 16, 1969 • Landed: July 20, 1969 • Splashdown: July 24, 1969 — "That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind."
Neil Armstrong, Apollo 11, commander, spoke his famous words as he stepped onto the surface of the Moon. On July 20, 1969, President John F. Kennedy's mandate that America go to the Moon was fulfilled - Apollo 11's lunar module Eagle touched down in the lunar Sea of Tranquility. As astronaut Michael Collins orbited in the command module Columbia, a television audience of unprecedented scope watches Neil Armstrong become the first human to set foot upon the Moon. During their . . . — Map (db m69706) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Cernan • Evans • SchmittLaunched: December 7, 1972 • Landed: December 11, 1972 • Splashdown: December 19, 1972 — "...America's challenge of today has forged man's destiny of tomorrow."
Commander Gene Cernan spoke these words as the last man to walk on the Moon. Apollo 17 was the final Apollo mission and the crowning achievement of the entire Apollo program. The mission set numerous Apollo programs records: the longest mission, the greatest amount of time on the Moon's surface, the largest lunar samples, and the longest period orbiting the Moon. The universally recognized “Blue Marble” photograph of Earth was taken during this flight. The mission was also the . . . — Map (db m69757) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Conrad • Gordon • BeanLaunched: November 14, 1969 • Landed: November 19, 1969 • Splashdown: November 24, 1969 — "I see the surveyor! I see the Surveyor!"
Command module pilot Richard Gordon assured Pet Conrad, lunar module commander, that his landing was right on target. Apollo 12 stands out as the first of the Moon flights to achieve a pinpoint landing. Despite a rocky start caused by pre-launch lighting strikes and swirling lunar dust that obscured the lunar surface, Apollo 12 landed within 600 feet of its target, the Surveyor III probe, which had reached the Moon 31 months earlier. Now the astronauts could return parts of the probe to . . . — Map (db m69707) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Lovell • Swigert • HaiseLaunched: April 11, 1970 • Splashdown: April 17, 1970 — "Okay Houston, Hey, We've got a problem here..."
Commander Jim Lovell's words initiated heroic efforts by crew and mission control to salvage a crippled spacecraft and return Apollo 13 safely to Earth. The Apollo 13 mission is the only Apollo flight remembered primarily for the effort to bring it home. On the second day of the flight, a power producing oxygen tank exploded, badly damaging the service module and forcing the Moon landing to be aborted. But with the spacecraft nearly dead, the cancellation quickly paled in importance to the . . . — Map (db m69742) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — McDivitt • Scott • Schweickart / Stafford • Young • CernanLaunched: March 3, 1969 • Splashdown: March 13,1969 — Launched: May 18, 1969 • Splashdown: May 26, 1969
"…We had to fly once more before we take the big step…" Apollo spacecraft program manager, George Low, explained why landing on the Moon would have to wait a little longer. Apollo missions 9 and 10 serves as vital dress rehearsals. Their successful flights answered many questions that had to be addressed before a moon landing could be attempted. Apollo 9 was the first mission to launch with all its lunar hardware aboard, including the lunar module and space suits with portable life . . . — Map (db m69692) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Saturn V
Used during the Apollo Lunar Landing Program of the 1960's and 1970's, the Saturn V rocket remains the largest, most powerful rocket ever built. This full scale mock up was completed in July 1999 to serve as the local point for the 30th anniversary celebration of the first manned lunar landing. The U.S. Space & Rocket Center dedicated this replica to the memory of Dr. Wernher von Braun and to the brave men and women who helped make the dreams of spaceflight a reality. The Apollo . . . — Map (db m69676) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Schirra • Eisele • Cunningham / Borman • Lovell • AndersLaunched: October 11, 1968 • Splashdown: October 22, 1968 — Launched: December 21, 1968 • Splashdown: December 27, 1968
"…A Merry Christmas and God bless all of you • All of you • On the good Earth." With these good wishes, the crew of Apoll 8 signed off their Christmas Eve telecast from orbit around the Moon. These successful flights came only months apart at the end of 1968. Together, they restored confidence in the Apollo program after the disastrous Apollo 1 fire. Apollo 7 is remembered for carrying the first three-man American crew into space. The mission was not designed to go to the . . . — Map (db m69680) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Scott • Worden • IrwinLaunched: July 26, 1971 • Landed: July 30, 1971 • Splashdown: August 7, 1971 — "It's really rolling hills, up and down we go, buckin' bronco!"
Lunar module Jim Irwin described his ride in the first lunar rover. The Apollo 15 mission is best remembered for introducing the electric Lunar Roving Vehicle, better known as the rover (which was developed at Huntsville's Marshall Space Flight Center). For this mission, the first of the longer, more scientific-focused missions, the rover allowed more extensive exploration of the lunar surface. Irwin and Commander Dave Scott spent three days on the Moon, worked on the surface 18½ . . . — Map (db m69745) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Shepard • Roosa • MitchellLaunched: January 31, 1971 • Landed: February 5, 1971 • Splashdown: February 9, 1971 — "...It's been a long way, but we're here."
Alan Shepard's first words on the Moon - ten years after he made history as the first American in space. Less than a year after the "successful failure" of Apollo 13, the mission of Apollo 14 accomplished much of what its predecessor had hoped to do. Thanks to a new piece of equipment, a two-wheeled push cart ("modular equipment transporter") for carrying tools and instruments, Shepard an Ed Mitchell were able to spend more time exploring the Moon's surface, venture farther from the lunar . . . — Map (db m69743) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Young • Mattingly • DukeLaunched: April 16, 1972 • Landed: April 20, 1972 • Splashdown: April 27, 1972 — "Look at the size of that rock!"
Lunar module pilot, Charlie Duke, exclaimed. The Apollo 16 astronauts may have qualified for the Guinness Book of World Records for pushing their lunar rover to eleven miles per hour - but that was not their most serious accomplishment. As the first Apollo mission to focus on the geology of the lunar highlands area, Duke and Commander John Young spent parts of three days collecting hundreds of samples of rock and soil, plus an important core sample from more than seven feet below . . . — Map (db m69754) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Le Moyne — Ellicott's StoneErected April 9th, 1799
Marks 1st Southern Boundary of the United States and the Mississippi Territory created in 1798 -----900 feet East----- Stone marked 31° North Latitude separating the U.S. & Spanish Florida. This line of demarcation ran from the Mississippi east, along the 31° parallel to the Chattahoochie River, thence down that river to the mouth of the Flint River, thence on a line to the headwaters of the St. Mary’s River, thence down that river to the Atlantic Ocean. Major Andrew . . . — Map (db m70589) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Monument to Powered Flight
In tribute to the perseverance and achievements of the Wright Brothers and the leadership and foresight of the Citizens of Montgomery, Alabama. Together they established the nation's first school of civil aviation in March, 1910, launching America on her journey to the stars. 18 September 1985 — Map (db m64567) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Site of Indian Town Tawasa1540-1814
This stone marks the site of the Indian town Tawasa Visited by De Soto September 5-13-1540 Also by Bienville 1715 — Map (db m72176) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama River: The Grand Avenue
Twelve miles above Montgomery the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers unite to form the Alabama which meanders over four hundred miles on its way to Mobile Bay. This river has played major role in region's history, being a thoroughfare for Native Americans, European explorers, and Americans who settled along its fertile shores and used it as a means of getting cotton to Mobile and world markets. Ferries served the population until the building of Tyler Goodwyn and Reese's Ferry bridges in the first . . . — Map (db m26591) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Struggle For Colonial Empire
Here on May 24, 1703, Alabama Indians ambushed the first French explorers from Mobile, killing three and wounding two critically. The Indians were armed and were used as pawns by British agents from Carolina in the European struggle for dominion over North America. — Map (db m67999) HM
Alabama (Saint Clair County), Pell City — None — A County Older Than The StateSt. Clair County
Created in 1818 by territorial legislature. Named for Revolutionary hero, Gen. St. Clair. First settlers from Tennessee, Georgia – veterans of Creek Indian War, 1813-14. Pell City established as industrial town in 1890 by George H. Pell of New York. Growth of population south of Backbone Mt. and difficulty of crossing mountain led to branch county seat here in 1902. County seat at Ashville since 1822. Old Indian trails thru this county used by: DeSoto’s Spanish conquistadors . . . — Map (db m49666) HM
Alabama (Talladega County), Childersburg — Coosa
Important Indian town for over 250 years and capital of Coosa province. Visited by DeSoto in 1540, and later by Spanish, French, British colonial explorers and traders. Early writers tell of abundant food crops, wild and cultivated, supporting a large population. — Map (db m57994) HM
Alabama (Talladega County), Childersburg — De Soto's Visit
Two miles north of this spot was the Indian town Cosa visited by De Soto July 16, 1540 This stone erected by the National Society of Colonial Dames of America in Alabama 1936 — Map (db m44230) HM
Alabama (Talladega County), Childersburg — History Of Childersburg
Childersburg traces its heritage to the Coosa Indian village located in the area. DeSoto, accompanied by 600 men, began his march across North America in June 1539. Traveling from Tampa Bay, Florida, northward through what became the Southeastern United States, DeSoto's expedition began searching for riches. Upon entering the area that would become Alabama, DeSoto and his men marched southward along the Tennessee River to Tali. From Tali, they marched to the banks of the Coosa River. In the . . . — Map (db m45137) HM
Alabama (Talladega County), Childersburg — The De Soto TrailAlabama De Soto Trail — Chief Coosa And His Dominion
1492 - Columbus visits Caribbean islands 1519 - Pineda visits Mobile area 1528 - Narváez reaches Mobile area 1540 - De Soto explores Alabama 1559 - De Luna retraces De Soto’s route in Alabama 1702 - French establish first permanent colony at Dauphin Island Today, after 450 years of searching, the exact route of Hernando de Soto through the southeastern United States remains the foremost historical mystery of the South. Despite the work of professional and amateur archaeologists . . . — Map (db m45496) HM
Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Captain James CookR.N., F.R.S. — Navigator, Explorer, Chartmaker, Scientist, Humanist / 1728 – 1779
James Cook was born in Yorkshire, England, on October 27, 1728. He was apprenticed to serve on sailing ships built in Whitby, near his birthplace, to carry coal along the English coast. At age 26, he joined the Royal Navy, took part in actions against France and, through his natural flair for mathematics and science, was promoted “King’s Surveyor” and given command of vessels performing survey work on the coast of Newfoundland. Chosen as commander to lead an expedition of discovery . . . — Map (db m72493) HM
Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Resolution Park 1776 / 1778
1776 Two events destined to change the history of the world took place the first week of July 1776. On the fourth day of July, the Representatives of the United States of America, in general congress assembled at Philadelphia, declared their independence from Great Britain, setting out upon a course of constitutional government which carry a new concept of personal and political freedom from the east of North America to the western shores of the continent. In the same July . . . — Map (db m69767) HM
Alaska (Fairbanks North Star Borough), Fairbanks — Alaska's Gold Rush Era
Gold discoveries brought Alaska and the Yukon to the attention of the world. A series of stampedes occurred over more than three decades. Drawn by dreams of gold, men and women from many places and all walks of life participated in an adventure that would change their lives. Only a few would become wealthy. Early Discoveries Prospectors made the first significant gold discovery in Alaska at Juneau in 1880. This discovery encouraged others to look throughout Alaska and the Yukon for . . . — Map (db m59836) HM
Alaska (Fairbanks North Star Borough), Fairbanks — Tanana Valley Gold
The gold deposit found in 1902 north of present-day Fairbanks proved to be the richest in Alaska. Prospector Felix Pedro and trader E.T. Barnette played key roles in the discovery and initial rush. A second strike made the following summer catapulted a temporary trading post into the largest city in the territory. A Prospector and Trader Meet Felix Pedro, an Italian immigrant, claimed he made a rich gold strike in 1898 in the Tanana Valley foothills. While trying to find it again in . . . — Map (db m59826) HM
Alaska (Juneau Borough), Juneau — Wagner Mine
In 1880 a local inhabitant, Chief Kowee, revealed to prospectors Joe Juneau and Richard Harris the presence of gold in what is now named Gold Creek in Silver Bow Basin. The city of Juneau was founded there that year. The strike sparked the Juneau gold rush which resulted in the development of many placer and lode mines including the largest gold mines in the world, in their time, the Treadwell complex of lode mines on Douglas Island (across a narrow sea channel from Juneau) and the AJ lode . . . — Map (db m70765) HM
Alaska (Sitka Borough), Sitka — 250th Anniversary of the Bering- Chirikov Expedition1741-1991
[Top rim]: К 250 летию экспедиции В. И. Беринга и А.И. Чирикова Commemorating the 250th Anniversary of the Bering-Chirikov Expedition (English version on left): May the wheel of change forever turn with peace, justice and opportunity (Russian . . . — Map (db m8448) HM
Alaska (Skagway Borough), Skagway — Skagway Centennial Statue1897
Skagway was originally spelled S-K-A-G-U-A, a Tlingit Indian word for “windy place.” The first people in the area were Tlingits from the Chilkoot and Chilkat villages in the Haines-Klukwan area. From a fish camp in nearby Dyea, they used the Chilloot Trail for trading with the First Nations people of the Yukon Territory. The windy Skagway valley was favored for hunting mountain goats and bear, but no one settled here until 1887. That June, Skookum Jim, a Tlingit from the . . . — Map (db m69128) HM
Arizona (Apache County), Lupton — One Days Ride to Zuni
In November of 1776 a party of Spanish explorers and Indian guides passed through this area on their way to the Zuni Mission in what is now New Mexico. Franciscan Fathers, Francisco Atanasio Dominquez and Silvestre Velez De Escalante, had embarked from Santa Fe with hopes of discovering an overland route to the presidio at Monterey. However, cold weather and rugged terrain forced them to turn south and return to Santa Fe. While they never succeeded in finding a shorter route to California, the . . . — Map (db m36577) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Bisbee — Discovery of Ore
.......On this site in the year of 1877, Sgt. Jack Dunn, with a detail of the Tenth U.S. Cavalry pursuing renegade Apaches, discovered rich out croppings of copper & silver ore. The discovery led to the staking of the first mining claim & the subsequent development of the great southwest mining industry. The Glory Hole on this mountainside was the first mine developed here & was also used by the early settlers as a stronghold & sanctuary when the camp was threatened by Indian attack. — Map (db m48561) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Hereford — The Coronado Expedition, 1540-42
[The first section of marker is in Spanish:] En el año 1539, recordando aún el anuncio de la conquista del imperio inca que occurrió en 1533, el virrey Antonio de Mendoza receloso pero con te a la vez, envoí a un sacerdote para comprobar los rumres sobre ricas ciudades no descubiertas. Casi diez años mas antes, un indio llamadó lejo informo de la existencia de siete ciudades tan grandes como la ciudad de Mexico, con talleres de platería en cada calle. Pero había que hacer un . . . — Map (db m28255) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Bright Angel Trail
Each year thousands of hikers enter Grand Canyon on the Bright Angel Trail. They follow a tradition - and a trail route - established by prehistoric people. For centuries humans have used this route for two key reasons: water and access. Water emerges from springs at Indian Garden, and erosion along the Bright Angel Fault creats a break in the cliffs, providing access to the springs. When prospectors arrived here in the late 1800s, Havasupai Indians were using the route. Prospectors . . . — Map (db m39563) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Mining on Horseshoe Mesa
In 1890 prospector Pete Berry staked the Last Chance copper claim 3,000 feet below you on Horseshoe Mesa. The Last Chance Mine began a 17-year flurry of activity here at Grandview Point. For a while the Last Chance Mine thrived. The ore was rich; it claimed a World's Fair prize in Chicago in 1893 for being over 70% pure copper. But the high cost of packing ore to the rim, then shipping it to be refined, doomed the operation. Berry and his partners sold the mine in 1901. The new owners . . . — Map (db m39662) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Marble Canyon — Dominguez y Escalante Expedition1776 - 1976 — Treacherous Descent
Text from: Historical Markers with The Arizona Department of Transportation right of way. Prepared by: Roadside Development Section April 1, 1997 Fatigued by a thirty mile ride, the padres picked their way down the rocky north slope of the Kaibab Plateau toward the light of Paiute campfires near what is now Coyote Spring, 15 miles north. The timid natives fled the approaching Spaniards. No white man had ever been in this region before. Coaxed to return, the Indians brought . . . — Map (db m39917) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Crossing of the FathersDominguez y Escalante Expedition 1776-1976
Within sight of this place the Franciscan priests Dominguez and Escalante and their ten companions experienced two of the most difficult challenges among many along the 1,800 miles of their epic journey from the Spanish presidio at Santa Fe, New Mexico to Utah Lake and return. The first white men to enter what is now "Lake Powell Country" the explorer-priests made an all but impossible ascent of the Paria River gorge via Dominguez Pass, then descended into Wahweap Basin and Padre Canyon . . . — Map (db m40324) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Emma Dean
A slightly larger, but reasonable replica of the 16 ft. pine rowboat in which Major John Wesley Powell first explored the canyons of the Colorado River in 1869. This craft was constructed by Walt Disney Productions and used in the river running sequences of "Ten Who Dared," a motion picture version of Powell's River Expedition — Map (db m40323) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — "The Peaks"
They dominate the horizon, rising 12,633 feet (3851 m) to Arizona's highest point. Visible for miles from all directions, they stand guard over a land which has long sustained people in spirit and natural resources. All of the region's Native peoples revere them. Spanish friars christened these peaks as San Francisco Mountain in 1629 to honor their St. Francis of Assisi. The first wave of Spanish explorers, surprised that such large mountains did not spawn lakes or streams, charted them the . . . — Map (db m41664) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — Geological Infant
Erupting less than 1,000 years ago, Sunset Crater is the youngest in an impressive field of volcanoes all around you. The 1,000-foot-high (305m) cinder cone we see today formed when basalt magma rose directly to the surface through a primary vent. Gas pressure produced a roaring fountain of lava estimated at 850 feet (260m) high. Pressure blasted the lava into pieces, which cooled in flight and piled into this cone-shaped hill. As gas pressure decreased, lava oozed several times from the . . . — Map (db m41665) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Time of Change
When a volcanic eruption occurred near what is now Flagstaff, Arizona, people lost homes and lands they had cultivated for at least 400 years. A major life events for locals, the eruption was also visible to large population centers across the Southwest. Many people knew something significant had happened. In the decades that followed, sparsely inhabited areas like Walnut Canyon and nearby Wupatki became densely settled. By 1150, clustered communities replaced scattered farming . . . — Map (db m61325) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — William Sherley Williams
Sculpture by B.R. Pettit "Old Bill" was born January 3, 1787 in North Carolina. He died March 24, 1849. In that 62 year life span he did a heap of living, most of it in the wilderness. In the late 1700's and early 1800's the mountain men were trappers. In the quest of fine furs, these master trappers shoved ever westward in the raw, new frontier, braving untamed Indians, Grisslies and worse - the cold relentless winters in the vast unexplored mountain wilderness. Their's was a . . . — Map (db m26456) HM
Arizona (Graham County), Safford — The Gila Valley
The Route of: Coronado in search of the Fabled Seven Cities of Cibola. 1540 ———— James O. Pattie and other famous trappers along the Gila River. 1825-26 ———— Gen. Stephen W. Kearny and Lt. W.H. Emory led by Kit Carson to California. 1846 ———— Apache Indian hunting grounds colonized by Mormon pioneers. 1879 — Map (db m48612) HM
Arizona (Greenlee County), Clifton — San Francisco River
In January of 1825, a trapper named James O. Pattie, ascended this river and with one companion in 14 days trapped 250 beavers. This was the first known penetration of Arizona by American citizens. — Map (db m36372) HM
Arizona (La Paz County), Quartzsite — The Last Camp of Hi JollyCamel Driver, Packer, Scout
Last Camp of Hi Jolly Born somewhere in Syria about 1828 Died at Quartzsite December 16, 1902 Came to this country February 10, 1856 Camel Driver - Packer Scout - Over Thirty Years a faithful aid to the US Government — Map (db m32201) HM
Arizona (Maricopa County), Sentinel — Oatman Massacre Site
Site of Oatman Massacre Feb. 18, 1851 — Map (db m72167) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Littlefield — 121 — The Old Spanish Trail1829 - 1848
The Old Spanish Trail, the main trade route between Santa Fe and Los Angeles, passed this way beginning in 1829. At the end of the Mexican-American War this portion of the route evolved into what was variously known as the Salt Lake Road, the Mormon Trail, the California Road, and eventually U.S. Hwy. 91. The original pack trail descended Utah Hill, passed through Beaver Dam, then followed the Virgin River toward Las Vegas. As wagon traffic increased in the 1850s the route veered westward near . . . — Map (db m78535) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Wikieup — Big Sandy Valley
First exploration probably by early Spanish explorers, Espejo in 1582 and Farfan in 1589. Explored later by Lt. Amiel W. Whipple in 1854. Important agriculture, mining, milling, and smelting area in our early days. The McCrackin Mine discovered by Jackson McCrackin and H. A. "Chloride Jack" Owen in 1874, lies 18 miles south. The Signal Mine was 12 miles south. Stamp mills were at Greenwood, 8 miles southwest and at Virginia City, 9 miles southwest. Cofer Hot Springs 3 miles east. — Map (db m68947) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Holbrook — Early Explorers
U.S. Army Lt. Amiel Whipple, surveying for a railroad route along the 35th Parallel about one mile south of here, passed down the broad sandy wash below in December 1853. Impressed with the deposits of petrified wood visible along the banks, Whipple named it Lithodendron (“stone tree”) Creek. Although American Indians have long used petrified wood for projectile points, knives, scrapers, and other tools, Whipple was one of the earliest explorers to report its presence in this . . . — Map (db m72924) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Sikul Himatk — Quijotoa
This is a Papago word meaning, mountain shaped like a carrying basket. Discovery of a pocket of gold and silver ore led to a fabulous boom development here in 1883. The desert has reclaimed the original site and its suburbs of Logan City, New Virginia, Brooklyn and Allen City. The mine was a complete failure—a tiny pocket of riches on the mountain. — Map (db m7002) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Eusebio Francisco Kino, S. J.1645-1711
Pioneer Jesuit missionary, Explorer of Northwestern New Spain, Cartographer, historian and mission builder. The other original casting, representing Arizona, is located in the capitol, Washington, D.C. Sculptor-Suzanne Silvercruys — Map (db m27077) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Padre-Eusebio-Francisco-Kino, S.J.
Born Segno, Italy, 1645 – Educated at Jesuit Colleges Entered society of Jesus, 1665 – His petition to be sent upon a distant and dangerous mission granted, 1678 – Began missionary labors in Lower California, April 1, 1683 – Among Pimas, March 13, 1687 During 24 years in Pimeria Alta made 50 missionary and exploring expeditions inland - Founded missions – Established ranches – Introduced domestic animals and European plants into Arizona – Made . . . — Map (db m26394) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Sentinel Peak
Used as a lookout and for signal fires by the Indians prior to and since 1692 and later by early settlers — Map (db m38401) HM
Arizona (Pinal County), Picacho — Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail / Camp 21: El Aquituni
Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail While the American Revolution brewed on the Atlantic Coast, Spain expanded its New World empire to protect California against the British and Russians. In 1774, Juan Bautista de Anza, commander of the Royal Presidio of Tubac, successfully explored an overland route from Sonora, Mexico into Alta or Upper California. This route made possible the transport of livestock, goods, and people to sustain the new settlements. The viceroy . . . — Map (db m38928) HM
Arizona (Santa Cruz County), Lochiel — Fray Marcos De Niza
By this valley of San Rafael Fray Marcos De Niza Vice-Commissary of the Franciscan Order. and Delegate of the Viceroy in Mexico. Entered Arizona The first European, west of the Rockies. April 12, 1539. — Map (db m78426) HM
Arizona (Santa Cruz County), Nogales — Padre Eusebio Francisco Kino SJ
Founder of Missions Man of God Pioneer Explorer Astronomer Rancher Teacher Cartographer 1645-1711 — Map (db m27085) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Bumble Bee — Mining in Arizona
Mining was the lure that opened Arizona to Anglo-American settlement and, subsequently, led to its statehood. However, Arizona mining began with the Spanish discovery of the rich Planchas de Plata silver deposits just west of Nogales in 1736. In the century that followed, Spanish miners opened numerous mines around Tubac, Patagonia, Ajo and Arivaca. After the California gold rush subsided, many prospectors, hearing stories of Arizona's mineral wealth, turned hopeful eyes eastward. The . . . — Map (db m40777) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Prescott — Pauline WeaverTruly a Great Man
Pioneer • Prospector • Scout • Guide Pauline Weaver Truly a Great Man Born in Tennessee in 1800 Died at Camp Verde June 21, 1867 He was born, lived and died on the frontier of this country, always in the ever advancing westward move of civilization and was the first settler on the site of Prescott. He was descended from the best blood of the white man and the Native American and his greatest achievement was as peacemaker between the races, understanding as few ever did . . . — Map (db m33051) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Prescott — Prescott's Beginnings: The First Mining District in Yavapai County
The City of Prescott had its beginnings in the Spring of 1863 when a party of explorers and would-be gold miners led by the famed Joseph R. Walker arrived near the headwaters of the Hassayampa River. On May 10, 1863, at a location some six miles south-southeast of this Plaza, twenty-five members of the Walker Prospecting and Mining Company adopted "Laws and Resolutions" governing members of the first mining district in what would later become Yavapai County. The rules for the "Pioneer Mining . . . — Map (db m20623) HM
Arizona (Yuma County), Yuma — U.S. Army of the West — Mormon Battalion
Longest Sustained March in U.S. Military History, 1846-1847. Between 1846 and 1848, the United States and Mexico went to war. One of the major directives of the United States during this war was to secure its western border and to occupy California and the territory of New Mexico. The government asked for volunteers, and over 500 members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints answered the call. Their unit became known as the Mormon Battalion. The Mormon Battalion was . . . — Map (db m22686) HM
Arkansas (Jefferson County), Pine Bluff — Bayou Bartholomew
Beginning 10 miles northwest of Pine Bluff, this storied bayou flows 300 miles through 6 Arkansas counties and 2 Louisiana parishes before emptying into the Ouachita River in north Louisiana. Indian mounds dotted its banks. Immigrants travelled it by flatboat and settled in Jefferson County. While the origin of its name is uncertain, it was so known as early as 1786. Baron De Carondelet referred to it by name in a 1795 letter, and Don Carlos Trudeau, surveyor general of the Spanish Province of . . . — Map (db m30581) HM
Arkansas (Monroe County), Holly Grove — Beginning Point of the Louisiana Purchase Survey
This stone marks the base established Nov.10,1815 from which the lands of the Louisiana Purchase were surveyed by the United States Engineers. The first survey from this point was made to satisfy the claims of the soldiers of the war of 1812 with land boundries. — Map (db m6037) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — Hernando De Soto
1541-1931 June 18, 1541 Hernando De Soto Crossed the Mississippi River near Friar's Point to a Aquixo Indian Village South of Helena, Arkansas — Map (db m51917) HM
California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Don Pedro Fages Expedition
This marker designates the area where on March 27, 1772 a scientific team under the auspices of the Empire of Spain stopped on Strawberry Creek to include an observation of is now known as Golden Gate. According to Juan Crespi, diarist, the first sighting was marked at Mills College, Second at College of Arts and Crafts. Placed September 16, 1978 by District IV California State Society Daughters of the American Revolution — Map (db m42034) HM
California (Alameda County), Fremont — De Anza Expedition 1775 - 1776
Lt. Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza by decree of Carlos III of Spain led an expedition to this site – The mission being to colonize the San Francisco Bay Area. In the center of the marker is a circular motif, designed by Doris Birkland Beezley, of a rider superimposed upon a sun-like set of compass points, with the "De Anza Expedition 1775 1776" written above the rider. Map (db m26666) HM
California (Alameda County), Hayward — Juan Bautista de Anza Expedition Campsite #98
Lt. Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza by decree of Carlos III of Spain led an expedition to this site – The mission being to colonize the San Francisco Bay Area In the center of the marker is a circular motif, designed by Doris Birkland Beezley, of a rider superimposed upon a sun-like set of compass points, with the "De Anza Expedition 1775 1776" written above the rider. Monument Dedication: This monument was erected on this location where Lt. Colonel Juan Bautista de . . . — Map (db m28815) HM
California (Alameda County), Livermore — William M. Mendenhall 1823 – 1911 / DeAnza Expedition Campsite
[Located at the Livermore Civic Center is a two-sided monument. Side 1 is a marker dedicated to William M. Mendenhall, founder of the town of Livermore. Side 2 is a marker marking this site as a campsite of the Juan Bautista de Anza Expedition of 1975 -76] [Side 1:] William M. Mendenhall 1823 – 1911 Pioneer settler, a descendant of Quakers who emigrated from England with William Penn. He crossed the plains on horseback in 1845. Was a member of Fremont’s . . . — Map (db m19981) HM
California (Alameda County), Oakland — Anza Expedition of 1776La Expedición de Anza de 1776
This marker consists of two duplicate plaques, one in English and the other in Spanish. The Peralta Family Legacy Luis Maria Peralta was just 17 when he and his family set off for the Bay Area in September 1775m from the town of Tubac, Mexico (then in New Spain, now in Arizona near the Mexican border). His family joined other military families on an expedition sent north to strengthen Spain’s claim to Upper California, under the command of Juan Bautista de Anza. The group . . . — Map (db m71330) HM
California (Alameda County), Oakland — First Latitude Sighting of the Golden Gate27 March 1772
Capt. Don Pedro, Father Fray Juan Crespi, fourteen soldiers, and a Christian Indian, camped here and took a latitude sighting of the Golden Gate. Agalanes • John Rutledge • Ann Loucks • Mount Diablo • Berkeley Hills • Oakland Campanile • Peralta • Copa de Oro • Sierra • Edmund Randolph • Toison de Oro • Esperanza • Piedmont — Map (db m72138) HM
California (Alameda County), San Leandro — De Anza Expedition 1775 - 1776
Lt. Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza by decree of Carlos III of Spain led an expedition to this site – The mission being to colonize the San Francisco Bay Area. In the center of the marker is a circular motif, designed by Doris Birkland Beezley, of a rider superimposed upon a sun-like set of compass points, with the "De Anza Expedition 1775 1776" written above the rider. Map (db m26459) HM
California (Alpine County), Bear Valley — Old Emigrant Road
This Sierra Crossing used by Jedediah Smith 1821 - Major John Ebbetts 1850 - Snowshoe Thompson 1856-76 - Gold Seekers 1850's. Old road left Carson Pass Road in Hope Valley, crossed Border Ruffian Pass to Hermit Valley, Pacific Summit and through Bear Valley to Big Trees. Big Trees Carson Valley Turnpike Co. built toll road over Ebbetts Pass to Silver Mountain in 1860's. Harvey Blood collected tolls at this point from 1864-1910. — Map (db m10730) HM
California (Alpine County), Kirkwood — 315 — Kit Carson
On this spot, which marks the summit of the Kit Carson Pass stood what was known as the Kit Carson Tree on which the famous scout Kit Carson inscribed his name in 1844 when he guided the then Captain John C. Fremont, head of a government exploring expedition over the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Above is a replica of the original inscription cut from the tree in 1888 and now is in Sutter’s Fort, Sacramento. — Map (db m12032) HM
California (Alpine County), Kirkwood — Naming of Carson Pass
In February of 1844, John C. Fremont led a group of men over these mountains as they struggled to reach Sutter’s Fort. Little did they know that the pass, which lay 20 to 30 feet under the snow beneath them, would be a major route for the Gold Rush in just a few years. Kit Carson, for whom the pass eventually be named, was among the group. Payroll records show that he was hired as a hunter and Indian Fighter and that Thomas Fitzpatrick was the official guide for the expedition. On this . . . — Map (db m21278) HM
California (Alpine County), Kirkwood — Snowshoe Thom(p)son(John Tostensen) — A True Pioneer
“…there ought to be a shaft raised to Snow-Shoe Thompson: Not of marble; Not carved and not planted in the valley, but a rough shaft of basalt or of granite, massive and tall, with top ending roughly as if broken short, to represent a life which was strong and true to the last. And this should be upreared on the summit of the mountains over which the strong man wandered so many years, as an emblem of that life which was worn out apparently without an object…” Attributed to: Dan . . . — Map (db m12028) HM
California (Alpine County), Markleeville — Beautiful Hot Springs Valleydraws people now as it has for thousands of years
Summer after summer the Washoe Indian people visited the valley. Eventually their idyllic retreat was discovered. During the winter of 1844 Captain John Fremont may have seen this place during his crossing of the Sierra. Fremont’s diary of his crossing west over the Sierra has been interpreted by some historians with his route passing through Hot Springs Valley. Just ten years later John Hawkins, the first white settler in the valley, began his cattle ranch here. His ranch house was . . . — Map (db m11001) HM
California (Alpine County), Markleeville — 318 — Ebbetts PassHistorical Landmark
Named after Major John Ebbett and pointed out in 1853 to surveyor G.H. Goodard who referred to it as a “route of great promise – probably the best one for a transcontinental railway.” No emigrant train used this route but a stage road was completed here in 1864 to serve mining region of Silver City. — Map (db m11444) HM
California (Alpine County), Markleeville — Grover Hot Springs
Telltale signs of geologic activity surround Grover Hot Springs State Park. Bold granite peaks to the northwest are the work of immense mountain building forces. Old lava flows cover hundreds of square miles to the east, giving the Markleeville area its distinctly volcanic appearance. Ice Age glaciers carved this valley into the rugged form that visitors admire today. The hot-springs here are a by-product of similar processes – the interplay of rock and fire and ice. Water melted from . . . — Map (db m13239) HM
California (Amador County), Kit Carson — 338 — Tragedy SpringNo 338 — Erected 1967
This campsite on the Kit Carson Emigrant Trail was a resting place for California settlers. It was named by members of the Mormon Battalion enroute to Salt Lake Valley. Three of their men, serving as advance trail scouts, were murdered here by unknown persons June 27, 1848. Battalion friends, arriving a few days later, buried them in a common grave and carved their names (Henderson Cox, Ezra Allen, Daniel Browett) on a nearby tree, thus preserving the grave’s location. — Map (db m21273) HM
California (Calaveras County), West Point — 268 — West Point
Named by famous scout Kit Carson while searching for pass over Sierras. One emigrant road forked at Big Meadows, and north branch came directly to West Point. A thriving trading post prior to gold discovery. Bret Harte, famous author, lived here for a period — Map (db m44371) HM
California (Contra Costa County), Clayton — Clayton
Miwok Indians inhabited this valley at the base of Mt. Diablo when Spanish explorers came in the 1770’s. Scouts, trappers, prospectors and settlers followed. In 1857 Clayton was founded by Joel Clayton, a miner, farmer, and wagonmaster from England. Coal, copper and quicksilver mines developed nearby, creating a bustling downtown with stage service and a post office established in 1861. When mining declined, farming and ranching prospered, with orchards, vineyards, horses and cattle. . . . — Map (db m59954) HM
California (Contra Costa County), Martinez — 312 — John Muir Home
Ranch home of John Muir 1838- 1914, explorer, naturalist, author and foremost advocate of forest protection and of national parks. The John Muir Trail through the High Sierra, Muir Woods National Monument and Muir Glacier in Alaska are named for him. — Map (db m51132) HM
California (Contra Costa County), Rodeo — The De Anza Expedition in Rodeo
Lt. Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza by Decree of Carlo III of Spain led an expedition near this site — the mission being to colonize the San Francisco Bay Area In the center of the marker is a circular motif, designed by Doris Birkland Beezley, of a rider superimposed upon a sun-like set of compass points, with the "De Anza Expedition 1775 1776" written above the rider. Map (db m24728) HM
California (El Dorado County), El Dorado Hills — 699 — Mormon TavernOverland Pony Express Route - California
At this site on the old Clarksville-White Rock Emigrant Road was Mormon Tavern. Constructed in 1849, this popular stage stop was enlarged and operated by Franklin Winchell in 1851. It became a remount station of the Central Overland Pony Express and on April 4, 1860, pony rider Sam (Bill) Hamilton changed horses here on the first eastbound trip. — Map (db m12056) HM
California (Fresno County), Fresno — 28 — John Charles Fremont
Fremont passed within sight of this spot on April 7, 1844. He is coming from the San Joaquin River to the Kings River with his mountain men guides, Thomas "Broken Hand" Fitzpatrick, Kit Carson and Alex Godey. Fremont described a vast prairie with great bands of elk, wild horses and antelope. Wolves stalked young animals nearby. He returned in 1846 and took part in the Mexican War. In that war he was served by James D. Savage, later to become a trader friend of the Indians, commander of the . . . — Map (db m78355) HM
California (Imperial County), Calexico — 808 — Camp Salvation
Here on September 23, 1849, Liet. Cave J. Couts, Escourt Commander, International Boundary Commission, established Camp Salvation. From September till the first of December 1849, it served as a refugee center for distressed emigrants attempting to reach the gold fields over the Southern Emigrant Trail. — Map (db m50586) HM
California (Imperial County), El Centro — 1008 — Yuha Well
Known as Santa Rosa De Las Lajas (Flat Rocks), this site was used on March 8, 1774 by the Anza exploring expedition, opening the land route from Sonora, Mexico, to Alta California. On December 11 to 15, 1775 the three divisions of Anza's colonizing expedition used this first good watering spot beyond the Colorado River on the way from Sonora to San Francisco. — Map (db m62074) HM
California (Imperial County), Ocotillo — De Anza Overlook
Juan Bautista De Anza led two groups of Spanish explorers and settlers across this portion of the Colorado Desert from Northern Mexico to San Francisco Bay. During each tortuous passage, the Spanish camped below here in Yuha Wash. The passage in 1774, which explored and pioneered the first overland route into upper California, consisted of only a small group of soldiers and two missionaries, Father Garces and Diaz. A second trip in 1775 brought settlers to the coast of California. Spain felt . . . — Map (db m50683) HM
California (Imperial County), Ocotillo — Yuha Well(Santa Rosa de Las Lajas)
Used by the Kamias Indians who showed it to Anza's scouts on March 8, 1774. The second Anza Expedition passed here on December 11, 1775. Later an important water source on the trail from Yuma to San Diego. — Map (db m50363) HM
California (Imperial County), Winterhaven — 568 — Hernando De Alarcon Expedition - 1540
Alarcon's mission was to provide supplies for Francisco Coronado's expedition in search of the fabled Seven Cities of Cibola. The Spaniards led by Hernando De Alarcon ascended the Colorado River by boat from the Gulf of California past this point, thereby becoming the first non-Indians to sight Alta California on September 5, 1540. California registered Historical Landmark No. 568 — Map (db m29027) HM
California (Imperial County), Winterhaven — Picacho
As Avi-Milikit of Quechen legends; Picacho noted Spanish arrival in 1640, lured Sonora miners after 1852, brought steamboats to its mining and milling port until 1910. Her mines were never worked to extinction, but Picacho became a squatter haven. In the 1960's, California made it a recreation area to preserve its rugged beauty forever. — Map (db m51576) HM
California (Imperial County), Winterhaven — 845 — Plank Road1914 - 1927
This unique plank road seven miles long was the only mens early motorists had for crossing the treacherous Imperial Sand Dunes. The eight by twelve foot sections were moved with a team of horses whenever the shifting sands covered portions of the road. Double sections were placed at intervals to permit vehicles to pass. — Map (db m50682) HM
California (Imperial County), Winterhaven — 921 — Site of Mission San PedroY San Pablo De Bicuner
To protect the Anza Trail where it forded the Colorado River, the Spanish founded a pueblo and mission nearby on January 7, 1781. Threatened with the loss of their land, the Quechans (Yumas) attacked this strategic settlement on July 17, 1781. The Quechan victory closed this crossing and seriously crippled future communications between Upper California and Mexico. California Register Historical Landmark No. 921 — Map (db m29057) HM
California (Inyo County), Furnace Creek — 442 — Death Valley 49ers Gateway
Through this natural gateway the Death Valley Forty-niners. More than one hundred emigrants from the middle west seeking a shortcut to gold fields of central California, entered Death Valley in December,1849. All suffered from thirst and starvation. Two contingents went southwest from here, the others proceeded northward seeking an escape from region. — Map (db m31911) HM
California (Inyo County), Lone Pine — Ballarat3 1/2 Miles
Now a ghost town, Ballarat served nearby mining camps from 1897 to 1917. They produced nearly a million in gold. The jail & a few adobe ruins remain. Seldom Seen Slim, it's last resident, was buried in Boothill in 1968. It had a school but no church. Post Office Spring 1/4 mi south is where the Brier Party, some Jay Hawkers and other 49ers came in their escape from Death Valley in Jan 1850. On Sunday morn at 3am, March 22, 1908, a car in the Worlds Longest Race, a Thomas Flyer, . . . — Map (db m50875) HM
California (Kern County), Arvin — 371 — Francisco Garces O.F.M
Padre Garcés, first recorded non-Indian to visit this locality, came in April of 1776, seeking a new route from Mexico to California. His epic journey covered more than two thousand miles of uncharted wilderness, opening trails that later became highways and railroads. — Map (db m11932) HM
California (Kern County), Bakersfield — 277 — Francisco Garces1738 – 1781 — Spanish Franciscan
Padre Garces seeking a new route between Sonora, Mexico and Monterey crossed Rio de San Felipe (Kern River May 7, 1776) at Rancheria San Miguel now Bakersfield. First recorded white man in this locality, he brought Christianity to the Indian and on Rio Colorado his brave life was crowned with martyrdom. “Greater love hath no man than this – That a man lay down his life for his friends.” — Map (db m34769) HM
California (Kern County), Bakersfield — 732 — Home of Elisha Stevens
Near this spot stood the last home of Elisha Stevens, noted American pathfinder and scout. Born in Georgia April 5, 1804, he learned blacksmithing during his youth. Drifting west he became a trapper on the Upper Missouri for more than two decades. In 1844 he led the 50-member Murphy-Townsend wagon train safely from Council Bluffs to Sutter’s Fort. During the Mexican War he served as an ordnance mechanic under Commodore Stockton. For a time he lived in Santa Clara County, then settled here on a . . . — Map (db m50252) HM
California (Kern County), Bakersfield — 690 — Last Home of Alexis Godey
Near this site stood the home of Alexis Godey, frontiersman and scout, who lived here from 1883 until his death on January 19, 1889. Born in St. Louis, Missouri in 1818, he acted as guide for John C. Frémont's expedition through the Kern area in 1843-44, and was honored for his services at the Battle of San Pasqual in 1846. Moving here in 1883, Godey died January 19, 1889. — Map (db m51676) HM
California (Kern County), Bakersfield — 278 — Rio de San FelipeCalifornia Historical Landmark
One mile north of here on May 1, 1776, Francisco Garces of the Franciscan Order, crossed Kern River in his search for a shorter route from Sonora, Mexico to Monterey, California. He was the first known explorer to describe this river, which he named Rio de San Felipe. Dedicated May 1, 1938 Bakersfield Parlor No.42 N.S.G.W., El Tejon Parlor No.239 N.D.G.W., Kern County Historical Society, Kern County Chamber of Commerce Department of Natural Resources Reg. No.278 State of . . . — Map (db m24984) HM
California (Kern County), California City — 129 — The Randsburg - Mojave Road
The Randsburg Mojave Road was built by Rice & Shippee of Mojave to speed stage transportation from the Southern Pacific railroad station at Mojave, to the rich gold mines in the Randsburg area; service commenced on November 22, 1898. The stage left Mojave at 9 o’clock and arrived at Randsburg at 2 o’clock, just five hours after leaving Mojave. This new route was only 36 miles, versus the 54-mile (and eight hour) route through Garlock. The cost of a one-way ticket was three dollars. The . . . — Map (db m78529) HM
California (Kern County), Lake Isabella — 742 — Campsite of Edward Kern
Near this spot at the confluence of the north and south forks of the Kern River the Theodore Talbot Party of Captain John C. Fremont’s third expedition to the West camped for several weeks during December 1845 and January 1846. The river was named by Fremont in honor of Edward M. Kern, Topographer for the expedition. Kern County was established in 1866 and derived its name from that of the river. California Registered Historical Landmark No.742 — Map (db m25092) HM
California (Kern County), Lebec — 283 — Don Pedro Fages
In 1772, Don Pedro Fages, leaving the first written record of explorations in the south San Joaquin Valley, passed this site, traveling from San Diego to San Luis Obispo via Cajón Pass, Mojave Desert, Hughes Lake, Antelope Valley, Tejón Pass, Cañada de los Uvas (Grapevine Canyon), and Buena Vista Lake. Dedicated October 9, 1938 Bakersfield Parlor No.42 N.S.G.W. El Tejon Parlor No.39, N.D.G.W. Kern County Historical Society Kern County Chamber of Commerce Department of . . . — Map (db m20132) HM
California (Kern County), Lebec — 129 — Fort Tejon
This military post was established by the United States Army on June 24, 1854, to suppress stock rustling and for the protection of Indians in the San Joaquin Valley. As regimental headquarters of the First Dragoons, Fort Tejón was an important military, social, and political center. Camels for transportation were introduced here in 1858. The fort was abandoned September 11, 1864. — Map (db m2605) HM
California (Kern County), Mettler — 291 — Fages-Zalvidea TrailsCalifornia Historical Landmark
In 1772, Don Pedro Fages, first recorded non-Indian to visit the southern San Joaquin Valley, crossed this spot on his way from San Diego to San Luis Obispo. Near this point crossed Father José María de Zalvidea in 1806, while accompanying the Ruiz expedition in search of mission sites. — Map (db m54266) HM
California (Kern County), Rosamond — 130 — Willow SpringsCalifornia Historical Landmark
Visited by Padre Garces (1776) while following Old Horse Thief Trace later known as Joe Walker Trail. Fremont stopped here (1844). The famished Jayhawk Party (1850) found water here while struggling from Death Valley to Los Angeles. Still later was station on Los Angeles – Havilah and Inyo Stage Lines. Dedicated April 1, 1951 — Map (db m50248) HM
California (Kern County), Tehachapi — 97 — Oak Creek PassCalifornia Historical Landmark
Father Francisco Garces used the Oak Creek Pass in 1776 to return to the Mojave after exploring the San Joaquin Valley, as did Fremont in 1844-45. Until the building of the railroad through the Tehachapi Pass in 1876, Oak Creek Pass was the only route used through the Tehachapi Mountains. — Map (db m50250) HM
California (Lassen County), Susanville — Burial of Peter Lassen
“In November 1859 – almost half a year after Lassen’s death, another party with Joe Kitts, Antone Storff, and John Tutt, began a new trip back to Black Rock. The men were going to bring the remains of Peter Lassen’s body back to Susanville and Honey Lake Valley. Lassen was buried outside Susanville, with Masonic honors, on November 27, 1859. He was buried under the big tree, where he had camped his first night in the valley – and where he had wanted, that his last resting . . . — Map (db m14233) HM
California (Lassen County), Susanville — Lassen’s Bosquejo Rancho
“When Lassen returned to Sutter’s Fort he was still haunted by memories of the beautiful scenery in the North Valley. He decided to apply for land and settle there. There were no settlements at all in this region, so there would be room enough for Peter Lassen. Soon after Lassen sent his application for a grant to the Governor of California, General Manuel Micheltorena. The application was filed on October 11, 1843. Peter Lassen applied for: ‘A vacant place on the River Sacramento, which . . . — Map (db m14226) HM
California (Lassen County), Susanville — Migration of Peter Lassen
“We do not know the exact date on which Peter Lassen arrived in America. Let us suppose that he landed in the early spring of 1831. Most reports say that Lassen arrived in Boston, Massachusetts. Also his passport had Boston written as the destination. Besides, this town was at that time one of the most important immigrant gateways. “In Boston, Lassen got his first impression of his newly adopted country, America. He must of felt confused by hearing all the different tongues: . . . — Map (db m31741) HM
California (Lassen County), Susanville — Peter Lassen Grave
In memory of Peter Lassen the pioneer who was killed by the Indians April 26, 1859 Aged 66 years — Map (db m10261) HM
California (Lassen County), Susanville — Peter Lassen In California
“In Camponit Peter Lassen and his party had been waiting for the winter to be over. Instead of crossing the mountain ranges on their way south, he and six other persons decided to go by ship from Fort Vancouver. A small steamship, “Lausanne,” from a New York shipping company had landed at Fort Vancouver. On its way back, it should make a stop-over in Yerba Buena – which today is San Francisco. Peter Lassen and his party had the opportunity to be on this boat. Lassen had . . . — Map (db m31740) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — Father Junipero Serra 1713-1784
Upper marker - English Born on the island of Majorca, off the coast of Spain, Father Serra was ordained in Palma where he taught for fifteen years before being sent to Mexico as a missionary in 1749. In 1769 he became Padre Presidente of the Franciscan missions in Baja California. That same year he accompanied Gaspar de Portola on a colonization expedition to San Diego where he founded the first of the nine missions he established in Alta California. Despite an injured leg and . . . — Map (db m54556) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — 655 — Portola Trail
Spanish colonization of California began in 1769 with the expedition of Don Gaspar de Portolá from Mexico. With Captain Don Fernando Rivera v Moncada, Lieutenant Don Pedro Fages, Sgt. José Francisco Ortega, and Fathers Juan Crespí and Francisco Gómez, he and his party camped near this spot on August 2, 1769, en route to Monterey. — Map (db m59292) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — 522 — Tongva Sacred Springs
Home of the Gabrielino Tongva People — Map (db m74387) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Malibu — Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo
On October 10, 1542 Famed Spanish Explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo Discovered a large Chumash Indian Village close to the sea at which he first claimed possession of Alta California lands for the King of Spain. He was greeted by the Indians who went to his ships in many swift canoes which inspired Cabrillo to name the village, "The Pueblo De Las Canoes" - The Town of the Canoes. Some historians believe the large Chumash Indian Village located here at Malibu Lagoon was indeed . . . — Map (db m74707) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Pasadena — Benjamin Davis WilsonDon Benito
To the memory of Benjamin Davis Wilson Don Benito 1811 – 1878 Pioneer trapper and settler who came to California in 1841 and in 1864 blazed the trail up this mountain which bears his name — Map (db m57271) HM
California (Los Angeles County), San Gabriel — 1776 Overland Immigration Expedition
In January of 1776, San Gabriel Mission was host to trailblazer Colonel Juan Bautista De Anza and over 200 colonists and soldiers, enroute from Sonora, Mexico, to become the first residents of San Francisco. This was the first overland immigration into Uper Alta California. Father Font, Diarist, said of San Gabriel, "On our arrival, they killed 4 sheep, whose meat was good. I do not remember having eaten mutton more fat and tender, also chicken. All of us loved San Gariel Mission, its fat . . . — Map (db m67294) HM
California (Los Angeles County), San Gabriel — Lt. Colonel Juan Bautista De Anza
Lt. Colonel Juan Bautista De Anza by decree of Carlos III of Spain. Led an expedition to this site the mission being to colonize the San Francisco Bay Area. De Anza Expedition 1775 - 1776 — Map (db m67293) HM
California (Los Angeles County), San Pedro — Santa Catalina Island
Located approximately 20 miles from the mainland, Santa Catalina Island rises 2000 feet above sea level, approximately 500 feet higher than the Palos Verdes Peninsula. The island is over 20 miles long, making it the longest of the eight California Channel Islands. People have inhabited Santa Catalina Island for at least 7,000 years. Archaeologists have found evidence of complex material cultures with strong maritime traditions. Prior to the Spanish discovery of the island on October 7, 1542, it . . . — Map (db m42129) HM
California (Marin County), Point Reyes Station — Nova Albion
On June 17, 1579, Captain Francis Drake sailed his ship, Golden Hinde, into the Gulf of the Farallones and the bay that now bears his name. He sighted these white cliffs and named the land Nova Albion. During his 36 day encampment in California, Drake repaired his ship, established contact with local Indians, explored inland, took on supplies and water, and claimed the region for Queen Elizabeth I. The Golden Hinde set sail on July 25 and ventured into the unknown Pacific. Reaching . . . — Map (db m73707) HM
California (Marin County), Point Reyes Station — Portus Novae Albionus
Two plaques on the same monument make up this marker. This cove is believed by many scholars to be the site of Sir Francis Drake’s California Harbor, where he careened the Golden Hinde to repair a leak received at sea and replenished his ship from 17 June to 25 July 1579. He made camp ashore, and from the surrounding hills the local Indians observed the Englishmen and descended to establish friendly contact. When his work was nearly completed, he made a journey “up the . . . — Map (db m73706) HM
California (Marin County), Tiburon — CHL 529 — Angel Island
In 1775, the packet San Carlos, first known Spanish ship to enter San Francisco Bay, anchored in this cove while her commander, Lieut. Juan Manuel de Ayala, directed the first survey of the bay. Ayala named this island Isla de los Angeles. The island has been a Mexican rancho, U.S. Military post, bay defense site and both a quarantine and immigration station. California Registered Historical Landmark No. 529 Plaque placed by the State Department of Parks and Recreation in . . . — Map (db m69207) HM
California (Marin County), Tiburon — Ayala Cove
Lieut. Juan de Ayala of the Royal Spanish Navy sailed through the Golden Gate on Aug. 5, 1775. He commanded the packet-boat San Carlos, which was the first known ship in the waters of San Francisco Bay. On the 13th day of August, Ayala anchored this vessel in the cove of an island he named ‘Isla de los Angeles’, or Angel Island and from here directed the first survey of the bay. In commemoration of these events this cove is hereby dedicated as Ayala Cove on the 6th day of September, 1969. — Map (db m69206) HM
California (Merced County), Los Banos — Guglielmo Marconi1874 - 1937
Who giving voice to silence benefitted the world irradiating a new glorious light upon Italy I Figli D'Italia of Los Banos Devoted to their great country of adoption but unforgetful of their mother country, in perpetual memory of their admiration and great love Dedicated Dec. 19, 1937 Done by G. B. Ghilotti, Modesto Cal. — Map (db m41187) HM
California (Mono County), Bridgeport — Fremont’s Trail 1844
On January 27th, a cold winter day in 1844, Captain John C. Fremont and his guide Kit Carson, led as small band of half-starved men west past this point. They were in search of the fabled Buena Ventura River, which they believed would give them easy passage through the high range to the west and on to the fort of John Sutter. A short way northwest of here, they were forced to abandon their howitzer because of the deep snow, as their tired men could no longer pull the 1500 pound gun and caisson. . . . — Map (db m49887) HM
California (Mono County), Lee Vining — Lee Vining
The name of this community honors LeRoy Vining. In 1852 Lt. Tredwell Moore and soldiers of the 2nd Infantry pursued Indians of Chief Tenaya’s tribe from Yosemite across the Sierra via Bloody Canyon. They took back mineral samples and a prospecting party was organized. In this group were the Vinings, Lee & Dick, who established a camp at what is now Lee Vining Creek. — Map (db m49967) HM
California (Mono County), Mammoth Lakes — Owens Valley
extended from Bishop south for 100 miles. The valley was inhabited by Indians for many years. Joseph Walker in 1833 was the first white man to discover the valley. In 1845 John C. Fremont named the valley, a river and a lake, after Richard Owens, an army captain in his expedition to this area. — Map (db m50058) HM
California (Monterey County), Bradley — De Anza Trek Reinactment
5-6 March 1976 The mochila was passed between the San Luis Obispo and Monterey County contingents at this site on this date commemorating The United States Bicentennial — Map (db m64426) HM
California (Monterey County), Carmel — Portola Crespi Cross
On December 10, 1769, the Portola Crespi Expedition from Mexico erected a cross on this hill to signal its long-overdue supply ship San Jose. A message at the cross stated that they were suffering great privation and were returning to San Diego. The San Jose had been lost at sea. — Map (db m68862) HM
California (Monterey County), Gonzales — The Mustard Seed TrailOne Voice Murals Project
The legend of “the mustard seed trail” is rooted in the Portola expedition which travelled through the Ohlone tribal lands with a wagon containing sacks of mustard seeds. These seeds were spread behind them as they travelled north in the winter, marking a trail for their return in the spring by a blooming yellow pathway. Supervising Muralist: Trudy Karl • Asst. Muralist: Eliazar De La Cruz • Youth Muralists: Angelica Delgado, Azuzena Rayo, Claudia Picaso, Gerardo Camerena, Jose . . . — Map (db m64255) HM
California (Monterey County), Jolon — De Anza Expedition 1775 - 1776(Mission San Antonio de Padua)
Lt. Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza by decree of Carlos III of Spain led an expedition to this site – The mission being to colonize the San Francisco Bay Area. In the center of the marker is a circular motif, designed by Doris Birkland Beezley, of a rider superimposed upon a sun-like set of compass points, with the "De Anza Expedition 1775 1776" written above the rider. Map (db m61384) HM
California (Monterey County), King City — De Anza Expedition 1775-1776
Lt. Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza by decree of Carlos III of Spain led an expedition near this site – the mission being to colonize the San Francisco Bay Area. — Map (db m64415) HM
California (Monterey County), King City — 232 — Mission San Antonio de Padua23 Miles
Founded by Father Junipero Serra July 14, 1774. Most picturesque setting. First mass was celebrated in presence of one Indian. Later congregation grew to a thousand neophytes. Famous for its fine horses and expert vaqueros. — Map (db m63651) HM
California (Monterey County), Monterey — 400th Anniversary of the Naming of Monterey Bay by Gen. Sebastián Vizcaíno16 December 1602 – 16 December 2002
This date marks the 400th anniversary of the naming of Monterey Bay by Gen. Sebastián Vizcaíno, commissioned by Don Gaspár Zúñiga y Acevedo, Count of Monte Rey. Near this place, called Acasta and Hummukul by the Ohlone/Constanoan Esselen Nation, Fr. Andrés de la Ascensión, Fr. Antonio de las Ascensióón and Fr. Tomás de Aquino, three Discalced Carmelite friars on the Vizcaíno expedition, celebrated the first Mass in Northern California. — Map (db m68622) HM
California (Monterey County), Monterey — Captain Don Gaspar de Portola
Captain Don Gaspar de Portola Of the army of King Carlos III of Spain. First governor of California, 1768-1770. With Father Junipero Serra founded Monterey on June 3, 1770. Donated by H. M. King Juan Carlos of Spain to the City of Monterey on the Bicentennial of the United States of America. Fausto Blazquez – Sculptor, Rededicated by H. M. King Juan Carlos I of Spain October 3, 1987 — Map (db m63525) HM
California (Monterey County), Monterey — De Anza Expedition
Lt. Colonel Juan Bautista De Anza, decree of Carlos II of Spain, lead an expedition to this site – the mission being to colonize the San Francisco Bay Area. In the center of the marker is a circular motif, designed by Doris Birkland Beezley, of a rider superimposed upon a sun-like set of compass points, with the "De Anza Expedition 1775 1776" written above the rider. Map (db m63230) HM
California (Monterey County), Monterey — Don Caspar de Portolá
On June 3, 1770 near this spot Don Caspar de Portolá Soldier Explorer Patriot of Spain Founded the Presidio and settlement of Monterey — Map (db m63073) HM
California (Monterey County), Monterey — Juan Bautista de Anza1734 – 1788
A native of Mexico de Anza left Tubac, Culiagan October 23, 1775 with a party of 240 together with horses, mules and beeves. Arrived Monterey March 10, 1776 with loss but one person. Journey of 1600 miles made under conditions of drought, snow and rain. Acknowledged to be earliest, most intrepid explorer and colonizer on North American continent. — Map (db m63566) HM
California (Monterey County), Monterey — Junipero Oak
At Monterey, June 3rd 1770 the ceremony of taking possession of California for Spain was enacted by Father Junipero Serra under the shade of this tree. — Map (db m63259) HM
California (Monterey County), Monterey — Monterey Harbor
□ Look out upon these waters. □ Their recorded history began when Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo sighted the "Bay of Pines" on Nov. 17, 1542. □ Sebastian Viscaino was first to touch land Dec. 16, 1602. He claimed the land for Spain and named the Harbor for the Viceroy of Mexico, the Count of Monterey. □ June 3, 1770 is Monterey's birthday. On that day Gaspar de Portola, the soldier, and Padre Junipero Serra, Father of California Missions, joined from land and . . . — Map (db m30347) HM
California (Monterey County), Pajaro — The Portolá Expedition
Here came the first men with Portola and Fr. Crespi, October 9, 1769. This river they called Rio del Pajaro — Map (db m63257) HM
California (Monterey County), Seaside — Portola-Crespi Monument
In the winter of 1769, the Spanish expedition in search of Monterey Bay, under the command of Don Gaspar de Portola and Father Juan Crespi, erected a cross on or near this site and left the following message: “The land expedition is returning to San Diego for lack of provisions today, December 9, 1769.” This monument was dedicated December 9, 1969, by the Citizens of Monterey in honor of our 200th birthday. — Map (db m68863) HM
California (Monterey County), Soledad — The De Anza Expedition in Soledad
Lt. Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza by Decree of Carlo III of Spain led an expedition near this site — the mission being to colonize the San Francisco Bay Area In the center of the marker is a circular motif, designed by Doris Birkland Beezley, of a rider superimposed upon a sun-like set of compass points, with the "De Anza Expedition 1775 1776" written above the rider. Map (db m27188) HM
California (Napa County), Napa — James Clyman--Trapper and Explorer
James Clyman - Trapper and Explorer. Prominent in opening the Far West. He was with Jedediah Smith in 1824 at South Pass. Prepared the way for the pre-Gold Rush pioneers. Settled in Napa County in 1848. — Map (db m54549) HM
California (Nevada County), Truckee — Chief Truckee
The legendary Paiute leader; friend and guide; breveted a “Captain” by John C. Fremont; gave his name to this valley, river and town: died near Payton, Nevada, in 1860. — Map (db m60320) HM
California (Nevada County), Truckee — Donner Camp Site
On October 28, 1846 the six covered wagons brought west by George and Jacob Donner and their families halted here for repairs. By March of 1847 one half of the party of 22 adults and children had died of starvation and cold. They came west seeking a new life and found misery and death. — Map (db m60507) HM
California (Nevada County), Truckee — Donner PassWho Passed This Way
For thousands of years, people have crossed the Sierra Nevada near this place called Donner Pass. Traveling by foot, wagon, train or automobile, the journey has always been challenging. By Foot Long before it’s “discovery” by Euro-Americans, this 7,000 foot pass was used as a travel corridor by Native Americans. The Washoe Indians trekked through the area, from their Great Basin home enroute to the foothills of California, to gather acorns and to trade. They . . . — Map (db m23571) HM
California (Nevada County), Truckee — First Wagons Across the Sierras
The Stephens – Townsend – Murphy Party, with guidance from old Caleb Greenwood and Chief Truckee, brought their wagons up the Truckee River bed and on Nov. 25, 1844 191 days out of Council Bluffs, Iowa passed this point and crossed the mighty Sierra summit directly to the west, blazing the famous California Emigrant Trail for all who followed. — Map (db m60305) HM
California (Orange County), Brea — Don Gaspor Portola
Don Gaspor Portola with 60 men camped here July 31, 1769 on his first exploring route from San Diego to Monterey. — Map (db m76454) HM
California (Orange County), Orange — 204 — Old Santa Ana
Portola camped on bank of Santa Ana River in 1769. Jose Antonio Yorba, member of expedition, later returned to Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana. El Camino Real crossed river in this vicinity. Place was designated Santa Ana by travelers, and known by that name until present town of Santa Ana was founded. — Map (db m50302) HM
California (Plumas County), Beckwourth — James P. Beckwourth
This monument dedicated to the memory of James P. Beckwourth Born in Virginia, the son of a Southern planter and a negro slave, Beckwourth was a trapper, scout and mountain man. He explored the west with Jim Bridger, Kit Carson and Peter Lassen. James discovered the Beckwourth Pass and explored the Feather River to Marysville. He built this cabin in 1852 — Map (db m56409) HM
California (Plumas County), Beckwourth — Sierra Valley History
This marker is made up of four panels. They are presented left to right. Agriculture in Sierra Valley A few years after James Beckwourth settled on what he called the War Horse Ranch just west of here in 1852, more ranches and farms were established throughout the Sierra Valley. By the following decade, these ranches were supplying significant amounts of beef and dairy products to the mines of Plumas and Sierra counties, as well as the Comstock Lode in Nevada. After the valley . . . — Map (db m66179) HM
California (Riverside County), Palm Springs — RIV-003 — Whitewater
Site of Cahuilla Indian Village of Wanapiapa, home of the Wanakik Lineage. Visited by Jose Romero Expedition exploring overland route from Sonora to California 1823. Eastern boudary of Rancho San Gorgonio. Adobe south of highway served as Stage Station for Bradshaw and other stage lines. 1862-77. — Map (db m52744) HM
California (Riverside County), Riverside — 787 — De Anza Crossing of the Santa Ana River1775 and 1776
On January 1, 1776, the first party of colonists to come overland to the Pacific Coast crossed the Santa Ana River south of this marker and camped between here and the river. Recruited in the presidios of Sonora, Mexico, and led by Lt. Col. Juan Bautista de Anza, who had established the trail a year earlier, this humble and heroic band of 242 men, women and children continued north and founded San Francisco. Thus was set a boundary to Russian expansion from the north. Three precarious missions . . . — Map (db m50995) HM
California (Sacramento County), Franklin — 657 — Alexander Hamilton Willard
Born, Charlestown, N.H. Aug. 24, 1778; Died Franklin, Mar. 6, 1865 Last surviving member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. He kept a journal and gave valuable service as a gunsmith. — Map (db m10520) HM
California (Sacramento County), Gold River — 746 — The Coloma Road
Alder Springs, South of this point, marks the Old Coloma Road, running between Sutter’s Fort and Culluh-mah (Coloma). Established in 1847, this road was used by James W. Marshall in January 1848 to bring the first gold from Sutter’s Mill to the Fort. Later, travelled by thousands to and from the diggings, it became the route of California’s first stageline, established in 1849 by James F. Birch — Map (db m11901) HM
California (Sacramento County), Sacramento — El Camino Real Bell
This commemorative bell celebrates a combined century of service by the California Federation of Women’s Clubs and California State Automobile Association including the establishment of bell markers along the historical El Camino Real. — Map (db m14819) HM
California (Sacramento County), Sacramento — Father Junipero Serra1713 – 1784
Dedicated to the Memory of Father Junipero Serra 1713 - 1784 the first Franciscan missionary to whom California owes an everlasting tribute – he brought civilization to our land and in deed and character he deserves a foremost place in the history of our state — Map (db m14817) HM
California (Sacramento County), Sacramento — John Sutter Landing
On the south bank of the American River near this spot General John A. Sutter landed August 12, 1839 and founded New Helvetia which is now Sacramento City. Also on this river in the mill race at Coloma fifty miles east of here on January 24, 1848 gold was discovered by James W. Marshall an employee of General Sutter. This monument is erected to commemorate these important historical events — Map (db m14925) HM
California (Sacramento County), Walnut Grove — Sacramento River Exploration
The Spanish Missionaries’ quest for mission sites led to their exploration of the river. However, no missions were ever built in this region. The first known sighting was in 1774 by Fray Juan Crespi and Pedro Fages. By 1808, Gabriel Moraga gave the river its present name. In 1811, Padre Abella traversed the channels and sloughs to reach the Sacramento River. Luis Arguello led the last Spanish exploration of this river in 1817. New Helvetia Chapter #5 E Clampus Vitus NGH Jesse Salinas March 3, 2007 — Map (db m25880) HM
California (San Benito County), San Juan Bautista — De Anza Expedition 1775 – 1776
Lt. Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza by decree of Carlos III of Spain led and expedition near this site – The mission being to colonize the San Francisco Bay Area. — Map (db m15366) HM
California (San Benito County), San Juan Bautista — 181 — Fremont Peak– 11 Mile Marker -
In March 1846, Jose Castro, Mexican Military Commander, ordered John C. Fremont from the country, and with Kit Carson and 60 men he moved to top of peak. Built entrenchments, raised flag and awaited attack. Bear Flag Incident and Mexican War followed. State Historical Monument Historical Landmark No.181 Department of Public Works, Division of Highways Map (db m15321) HM
California (San Benito County), San Juan Bautista — Fremont Peak
Fremont Peak was called Gavilan Peak in early Spanish times, Gavilan in English meaning Hawk. In 1846 Capt. John Charles Fremont, brevet captain of topographical engineers of the United States Army, was conducting a survey and exploring expedition in Oregon and California. His presence with an armed force in the settled area was objected to by Prefect Manuel Castro and General Jose Castro and the California authorities. He was ordered to leave. Instead Fremont prepared to resist this request. . . . — Map (db m62680) HM
California (San Benito County), San Juan Bautista — Fremont Peak Memorial
The American flag was first raised on California soil March 4, 1846 on this spot by General John C. Fremont — Map (db m62681) HM
California (San Benito County), San Juan Bautista — 181 — John Charles Fremont1813 – 1890
John Charles Fremont was a naturalist, explorer, scientist and Captain with the U.S. Topographical Engineers on his third expedition to the West when he camped on this mountain. His assignment was to survey, map, chart trails and find the shortest route between the East and the West for the U.S. Government. Besides his military activities in California, Fremont is remembered for giving San Francisco’s “Golden Gate” its name; he was the military Governor of California for 50 days; . . . — Map (db m57986) HM
California (San Benito County), San Juan Bautista — 195 — Mission San Juan Bautista
Founded June 24, 1797 by Father Laseun 15th of the 21 Missions largest and only church with 3 aisles. Dedicated in 1812 Monastery wing consisted of 36 rooms This Mission has never been abandoned. It is now the parish church of San Juan Bautista. — Map (db m15353) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Baker — 622 — Harry Wade Exit Route
Some 100 wagons found themselves in Salt Lake City too late to cross the Sierra Nevada. They banded together under the name of Sand Walking Co. and started for the gold fields in California over the old Spanish Trail. After being in Death Valley with the ill-fated 1849 caravan, Harry Wade found this exit route for his ox-drawn wagon, thereby saving his life and those of his wife and children. At this point the Wade party came upon the known Spanish trail to Cajon Pass. Lower . . . — Map (db m54761) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — Amiel Weeks Whipple1817-1863
His Expedition for a transcontinental railroad, crossed the Colorado River on Feb. 27, 1854 and 3 weeks later reached Los Angeles, receiving aid from the Mojave Indians. The Atcheson, Topeka, & Santa Fe Railroad followed Whipple’s trail for much of the way from Albuquerque to California. The scientific reports are considered a “glorious chapter” in the history of American science. — Map (db m50577) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — Father Garces1738-1781
In early 1776, he set out northward from Yuma Villages on the Colorado River on a journey that took him across the Mojave Desert to the Mission of San Gabriel. He was a master of finding guides who would escort him through their own lands. — Map (db m50562) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — General Steven Watts Kearny1794-1848
He was “the Father of the US Calvary” and President Polk named him “Commander of the Army of the West”. In 1848 he went from Santa Fe, NM on to CA with 100 men on an arduous trip across our desert and on to a battle at San Pascual in a fight for independence from Mexico. — Map (db m50576) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — Jedediah Smith1798-1831
In 1826 he led a party of 17 men through the territory of the Mojave Indians, then west across our Great desert. During the trek, the heat became so intense that it forced him and his men to bury themselves in the sand to keep cool. They were the first Americans to enter California overland from the east. — Map (db m50571) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — John Charles Fremont1813-1890
Called “Pathfinder”, he was known as the west’s greatest adventurer, noted for bravery and his meticulously recorded notes on vegetation and geography. On his 3rd expedition across California in 1845 he, along with Kit Carson, led the California pioneers to rebel against Mexico to gain independence. — Map (db m50572) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — Kit Carson1809 - 1868
At 19, he was hired for an expedition to California. They traveled south of the Grand Canyon, crossed the Colorado, then followed the dry bed of the Mojave River and crossed the mountains at Cajon Pass to arrive at San Gabriel Mission in early 1830. In the 1840’s he guided Fremont several times across the high desert. — Map (db m50573) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — Mojave Runners
The Mojave Indian Runners helped get messages and information to far flung villages. They could run up to 100 miles a day barefoot and only donned sandals on very rocky or spiney [sic] areas. A group of them met Capt. John Fremont in 1844 near where Hinkley is now. These six Mojave told Fremont they had once lived in the area and raised vegetables. Because of these Indians, Fremont named the river and surrounding desert “Mohahve”. The later use of “Mojave” was a . . . — Map (db m50542) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — The Mormon Trail
The Southern Route of the Mormon Trail followed paths explored by Father Garces and Jedediah Smith. In 1848, Mormon Battalion Captain Jefferson Hunt trailed cattle to Utah on this trail. The Daniel Davis family, also of the Mormon Battalion, followed in a covered wagon – the first American family to travel the route. In 1851, a wagon train of Mormon pioneers settled San Bernardino Valley. They established farms, ranches, stage stops, mining and freighting interests and started a pony . . . — Map (db m50580) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Big Bear City — 2 — Holcomb Valley
Named for William Francis "Bill" Holcomb Pioneer Prospector who, in this valley discovered Southern California's richest gold field - May 5, 1860 — Map (db m50610) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Daggett — 98 — Forks of the Road
Three miles north lies the Mojave River and the site of Forks of the Road. This was the junction of two major travel routes: The Old Spanish or Salt Lake Trail and The Ancient Mojave River Trail. In the 1830s and 1840s the Old Spanish Trail saw regular trade caravans from Santa Fe, bound for Los Angeles via Cajon Pass. The founding of Salt Lake City in 1847 and Mormon San Bernardino in 1851 brought renewed traffic, as did limited numbers of 49ers during the Gold Rush. The Mohave River Trail was . . . — Map (db m78556) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Devore — 573 — Sycamore Grove
This campsite on both the Mojave Trail over the mountains and the Cajon Pass Route was probably first seen by Spanish and American traverlers in the 1770's and was noted by them in 1806, 1849 and 1850. Michael White, grantee in 1843 of the Muscupiabe Rancho lived near by. The Mormon colony camped in 1851 on either side of this little pass for about four months while Amasa Lyman, Charles Rich, Jefferson Hunt, David Seely and Andrew Lytle negotiated the purchase of the San Bernardino Rancho from the Lugo family. — Map (db m70606) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Fort Irwin — Deep Space Station - 14Commemorating 40 Years of Service to the Deep Space Network — 1966 - 2006
As a communication platform: Supporting space exploration beginning with the Mariner 4 mission to Mars, and through the years providing a vital link to NASA's robot explorers across the solar system, including Voyager, Mars Exploration Rovers, Casini and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. As a radio/radar telescope: Studying the nearest asteroids and planets to the distant quasars and objects in the universe. "From the Desert to the Stars...Exploring our Solar System and Beyond" Map (db m50371) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Hesperia — 1 — Las Flores Ranch / Mojave Trail
[This is a four sided monument with four different markers:] Side A: Las Flores Ranch Near this spot on March 25, 1866, Edwin Parrish, Nephi Bemis and Pratt Whiteside, young cowboys employed on this ranch, were ambushed, killed and mutiliated by Piute Indians, who then burned several ranch buildings and fled down the Mojave River to the rocky narrows below Victorville. Side B: At or near this place was once located a Vanyume Indian village called . . . — Map (db m50609) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Mount Baldy-Wrightwood — 146 — Blue Cut
Cajon Pass, separating the San Bernardino and San Gabriel ranges, has long been an important natural gateway. It is traversed by Indian trails, emigrant routes, railroads, and a superhighway. Early in the nineteenth century it became the southern end of the Old Spanish or Salt Lake (Mormon) Trail. In the 1840s it was the scene of massive horse-stealing raids led by Indians and renegade mountain men, in which as many as 3000 head at one time were driven eastward. The Mormon pioneers who founded . . . — Map (db m78515) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Needles — 781 — National Old Trails
This bridge marks the site where the National Old Trails Highway later Highway 66 crossed the Colorado River. It links the Mojave Indian lands visited by Father Garces in 1776. Near this location the American Explorer, Jedediah Smith and his band of Rocky Mountain men crossed the river in 1826 and opened the Pioneer Trail into Southern California. — Map (db m50647) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Newberry Springs — 145 — Historic Mojave River Road
The River Bluff Ranch is on the north bank of the Mojave River near the historic locations of Calico Ghost Town, Newberry Springs, Yermo, and abandoned relics of U.S. Army outpost Camp Cady. To the east are the Mojave Road, the Old Spanish Trail, and the Salt Lake Trail (Mormon Road) that all converge near Daggett. The Mojave River has been described as “upside-down” and “backwards” because water generally flows below ground and inland from Silverwood Lake (near . . . — Map (db m73477) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Newberry-Baker — 963 — Mojave Road
Long ago, Mohave Indians used a network of pathways to cross the Mojave Desert. In 1826, American trapper Jedediah Smith used their paths and became the first non-Indian to reach the California coast overland from mid-America. The paths were worked into a military wagon road in 1859. This "Mojave Road" remained a major link between Los Angeles and points East until a railway crossed the desert in 1883. — Map (db m50687) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Newberry-Baker — Pozos de San Juan de Dios
On March 8, 1776, Fr. Francis Garces, OFM, on his most famous journey of over 2,000 miles from Mission San Xavier Del Bac, Tucson, Arizona, to Mission San Gabriel, California, rested here and named these waterholes "St. John of God Springs", (Marl Springs), and on the return journey passed through here, May 22, same year. — Map (db m56915) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Newberry-Baker — 40 — The Mojave Road
Long ago Mohave Indians used a network of pathways to cross the Mojave Desert to reach the Pacific Coast from their homes along the Colorado River. In 1776, the Spanish Missionary Francisco Garces became the first non-Indian to trek these trans-desert routes. In 1826 Jedediah Smith trod these trails to become the first white man to reach the California Coast overland from mid-America. The route became a military wagon road in 1859 when Fort Mojave on the Colorado River was established. This . . . — Map (db m78586) HM
California (San Bernardino County), San Bernardino — To Jedediah SmithPathfinder of the Southern Sierras
Born at Brambridge in Northern N.Y. January 6, 1799 he discovered south pass of the Rocky Mts. the great gateway through which passed nearly all subsequent migration west and northwest from the Atlantic to the Pacific. He was the first American to enter California by the overland route through Cajon Pass in November 1826. Jedediah Smith stands peerless among the pathfinders of California's epic past. — Map (db m79016) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Victorville — 150 — Lane's Crossing
Since ancient times, indigenous peoples have used the many networks of trails in the East Mojave Desert for both seasonal migration and to carry on trade with coastal Indians. Most of these trails converged at narrow passes and safe river crossings. Such was the case here at what has become known as the Lower Narrows, or Lane's Crossing. The Serrano-Vanyume village of Tobiabit was located here. The Mojave River flowed almost all year, providing weary travelers with much needed water and rest. . . . — Map (db m73550) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Victorville — Mojave River Crossing
From pre historic times thru the 1800s, here was the main crossing of the old Indian Mojave Trail. Padre Garces (1776), Jedediah Smith (1826-27), Kit Carson (1840s) crossed here. Westward immigrants, Mormons, Army camels and Mule trains (1850s) also passed this spot. Once known as Lane's Crossing (1857), Wells Fargo and Pony Express had stations here. Early Victorville called this, the Turner Ranch (1883). — Map (db m73472) HM
California (San Diego County), Anza-Borrego Desert State Park — 673 — San Gregorio
Somewhere in this narrow valley, perhaps on this very spot, the Anza Expeditions of 1774 and 1775 made their camps. Water for the 240 people and over 800 head of stock on the 1775 march was obtained from a series of wells, deeper than the height of a man, dug into the sandy bottom of the wash. — Map (db m51575) HM
California (San Diego County), Anza-Borrego Desert State Park — 634 — The Anza Trail
This route was opened by Captain Juan Bautista De Anza and Father Francisco Garces in 1774. Anza's expedition of 1775, a group of 240 soldiers and settlers being led from Sonora to found San Francisco, encamped near this place El Vado (The Ford), for three days and two nights, December 20-22, 1776. — Map (db m51586) HM
California (San Diego County), Borrego Springs — 785 — Santa Catarina
This spring area was named by Captain Juan Bautista De Anza when his Overland Exploration party camped here on March 14, 1774. During the opening of the Anza Trail from Sonora into Alta California. Anza's colonizing expedition of 1775, consisting of 240 persons and over 800 head of livestock, camped here the night of December 23. — Map (db m50365) HM
California (San Diego County), Carlsbad — Agua Hedionda Lagoon
Why is it endangered? The lagoon before you, Agua Hedionda, is one of the few remaining coastal wetlands along the Southern California coastline. All of the lagoons are threatened by the pressures of development, agriculture, and industry. Timeline Imprints of the past 8,000 BC Traces of the earliest people inhabiting the area are left behind. 1769 AD The Spanish expedition of Don Gaspar de Portola arrives along the shores of Agua Hedionda . . . — Map (db m71190) HM
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