Created in 1818 by an act of
Alabama Territorial Legislature.
Autauga Indians lived on creek
from which the county takes its name.
Autaugas were members of the Alibamo tribe.
They sent many warriors to resist
Andrew Jackson's invasion in . . . — Map (db m27907) HM
Tribute dedicated to the memory of the soldiers who gave their lives in the defense of our country here at Fort Morgan.
Here lies the pride of seven flags entombed in our ancestor’s worth, who heard the thunder of the fray . . . — Map (db m4649) HM
"Damn the Torpedoes!" is a familiar battle cry, but there's more to the story! The Mobile Civil War Trail is your guide to military movements and the way of life on and around Mobile Bay in the closing two years of the Civil . . . — Map (db m87247) HM
After the surrender of Fort Gaines, U.S. General Gordon Granger prepared to besiege Fort Morgan. On August 9, 1864, he moved by transport to Navy Cove and debarked 2,000 men and his siege equipment at the Pilot Town wharf. By 2:00 p.m. he had . . . — Map (db m87246) HM
This smoothbore, muzzle-loading cannon was one of the
main coast defense weapons in the United States' arsenal when Fort Morgan was completed in 1834. With an eight pound charge of powder the gun could fire a 32 pound solid iron shot about one . . . — Map (db m87245) HM
6.4” (100 pounder) Parrott Rifle
Designed by Robert Parker Parrott at the outbreak of the Civil War, the Parrott Rifle became one of the most used rifled artillery pieces during the war. With shells that exploded on impact, rifled . . . — Map (db m69898) HM
Constructed between 1899 and 1900, the battery was named in honor of Major General Henry Dearborn, a Revolutionary War hero. The battery mounted eight 12” breech-loading mortars. Each mortar weighed 13 tons and was 11’ 9” long. The . . . — Map (db m69919) HM
Battery Schenck, named for First Lieutenant William Schenck who was killed in action during the Philippine Insurrection, was the second rapid fire battery constructed at Fort Morgan. Completed on June 4, 1900, the battery would sit without guns for . . . — Map (db m70058) HM
The first of two rapid fire gun batteries, Battery Thomas was named in honor of Captain Evan Thomas, 4th U.S. Artillery, who was killed in action with the Modoc Indians at Lava Beds, California in 1873.
In March 1898, as the nation moved . . . — Map (db m69826) HM
The Citadel, a large ten sided brick and wood structure, once dominated the Fort’s parade ground. Completed in 1825 as a defensive barracks, it was capable of housing 400 soldiers.
During the Union bombardment on August 22, 1864, the pine . . . — Map (db m68751) HM
At, or near, this site, the United States, after seizing this point of land from the Spanish in 1813, built Fort Bowyer, a structure of wood and sand.
A small garrison of men courageously fought to defend the fort against two British attacks, one . . . — Map (db m28692) HM
When Fort Morgan was modified between the 1890’s and early 1900’s, an allocation of $7,000.00 was made to build a “Peace” magazine. This building was the central storage area for the powder used by the fort’s guns. If war was expected, . . . — Map (db m69917) HM
Eager to attack Mobile Bay since 1862, U. S. Admiral David Farragut knew he could not capture control of the lower bay without the support of the army and without a flotilla of ironclad monitors to confront the Confederate ironclad CSS . . . — Map (db m68815) HM
The Citadel, a large ten sided brick and wood structure, once dominated the Fort’s parade ground. Capable of housing 400 soldiers, it served as a defensive barracks for the Fort’s garrison.
During the Union bombardment of Fort Morgan on August . . . — Map (db m92994) HM
To Wait and Watch
In late August 1864 the Federals controlled Mobile Bay but could not attack Mobile. Admiral Farragut could not reach the city even with his light draft vessels, because the channels in the upper Bay had been obstructed. . . . — Map (db m69909) HM
The U.S. Model 1918M1 155mm Gun, more commonly known as the “G.P.F.”, was a French heavy artillery piece manufactured in the U.S. for use by the U.S. Army during World War I. Due to the gun’s mobility and hitting power, it was used . . . — Map (db m69910) HM
During the Revolutionary War, France, Spain, Britain, and the United States were interested in the fate of this region. In March 1780, Spanish forces captured Mobile. They established a palisaded fort with trenches (one mile north of here) to . . . — Map (db m61451) HM
In 1813, people on the United State’s southwestern frontier were fearful. The Redstick faction of the Creek Indian Nation opposed growing American influence in the area and had voted for war. However, Creeks living in the Tensaw . . . — Map (db m66394) HM
Here in Creek Indian War 1813-14 took place most brutal massacre in American history.
Indians took fort with heavy loss, then killed all but about 36 of some 550 in the fort.
Creeks had been armed by British at Pensacola in this phase . . . — Map (db m86293) HM
Approximately one mile south-southwest of here stood Fort Browder, a small wooden fortification built in 1836 for protection in the last war with the Creek Indians and named for Isham Browder, a prominent . . . — Map (db m60895) HM
The Butler Massacre
On March 20, 1818, Capt. William Butler, Capt. James Saffold, William Gardener, Daniel Shaw and John Hinson left Fort Bibb to meet Col. Sam Dale. They were attacked near Pine Barren Creek by Savannah . . . — Map (db m83259) HM
Site of Fort Warren, built in 1816 by Colonel Richard Warren, who owned considerable land in this vicinity. This facility was used as a refuge for settlers who feared for their lives in the early days of the aftermath of the Creek Indian Wars of . . . — Map (db m47689) HM
By 6pm General James H. Wilson had moved the 4th U.S. Cavalry, down Summerfield Road through the outer works and had ordered Captain Robinson of the Chicago Board of Trade Battery to do the same. After the main assault most of the regiments of . . . — Map (db m81930) HM
Redoubt No. 15 located just to the west of Summerfield Road was defended by Colonel Pinson's 1st Mississippi Cavalry Regiment of Anderson's Brigade. Their 400 men held positions on the west side of the road and the rest of . . . — Map (db m81925) HM
The Lightening Brigade of the 2nd Division would spearhead the attack between Redoubts No. 13 - No. 16. Artillery covered all the approaches. At 5 p.m. General Long ordered the Second Division forward. "As Long's Second Division charged . . . — Map (db m83682) HM
The fort, consisting of a log house and large stockade, was built in 1838 by order of General Winfield Scott, commander of military forces responsible for the removal of Cherokee Indians.
Soldiers occupying the fort were commanded by Captain . . . — Map (db m28030) HM
At this site stood Fort Toulouse,
later Fort Jackson, named in honor of
Gen. Andrew Jackson
March 27, 1814,
defeated the Creek Indians in a
decisive battle at Horseshoe Bend.
Peter Forney Chapter D.A.R. . . . — Map (db m69705) HM
Fort Crawford was established in 1816 by elements of the 7th U.S. Infantry under orders from Major General Andrew Jackson. Purpose was to monitor Spanish activities in West Florida and curtail hostile Creek Indian activities.
Named after . . . — Map (db m84373) HM
The frontier village of Franklin was established here by Colonel Robert Irwin in 1814 on the site of the Indian town of Cheeska Talofa. It was the first colonial village in east Alabama. Fort Gaines, Georgia, was constructed in 1816 to protect the . . . — Map (db m71844) HM
The United States flag that flies at the base of this hill stands as a sentry over the site that was the home of Fort Willingham Armory from 1937-1979. The Armory was named after Dr. Henry J. Willingham, president of Florence State . . . — Map (db m83987) HM
Following the signing of the Creek Treaty in 1832, the early white settlers constructed a 16 by 30 foot hand hewn log fort for protection against a possible Indian uprising from Cussetaw Indian Village on Osanippa Creek just north of here. Walls of . . . — Map (db m71643) HM
Fort Henderson Built on this site in 1863 by federal forces occupying Athens. It was a five-sided earthen fort with some frame buildings and underground bomb-proofs. Abatis lined the fifteen-foot deep perimeter ditch, a small portion of which . . . — Map (db m41787) HM
This cistern is the last remnant of Trinity School located here 1865-1907. The cistern was used to store rainwater collected from the roof. No physical evidence remains of the Ross Hotel, the Chapman Quarters, and other buildings on this block, . . . — Map (db m72219) HM
On Sept. 25, 1864 Gen. N.B. Forrest's Confederate cavalry, with Morton's battery of 4 guns, attacked and captured the Union fort near here. The fort consisted of a square redoubt, rifle pits, two blockhouses, and some frame buildings. It protected a . . . — Map (db m60870) HM
Side A (North side) In the fall of 1806 a group of settlers led by William and James Sims, traveled from east Tennessee on flatboats down the Tennessee River and up the Elk River to this area. They landed near Buck Island and spread out . . . — Map (db m85454) HM
Fort Louis de la Louisiane
Founded 1702 by
Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville
Under orders of Louis XIV
First Capital of French Louisiana
Fort . . . — Map (db m70588) HM
The Confederates built Fort Powell on Tower Island, an oyster shell bank fifty feet north of Grant's Pass. The Pass provided an easy route from Mobile Bay to New Orleans through Mississippi Sound. C.S. Lieutenant Colonel James M. Williams, only . . . — Map (db m87239) HM
Once Farragut was in the Bay, capture of Fort Gaines and Powell would prevent his isolation there. So at 4:00 pm, August 3, 1864, 1,500 soldiers commanded by U.S. General Edward Canby (but under the operational direction of General Gordon . . . — Map (db m87219) HM
At 7:25 a.m., August 5, 1864, Admiral Farragut’s lead monitor Tecumseh steered into the torpedo field at the mouth of Mobile Bay. The admiral had ordered Commander Tunis Craven, the Tecumseh’s captain, to engage the ram . . . — Map (db m87234) HM
This anchor came from the U.S.S. Hartford, Admiral Farragut's flagship during the Civil War "Battle of Mobile Bay" in August of 1864. It was there that he uttered the now famous words, "Damn the Torpedoes—Full Speed Ahead!" — Map (db m87244) HM
To Wait and Watch
In late August 1864 the Federals controlled Mobile Bay but could not attack Mobile. Admiral Farragut could not reach the City even with his light draft vessels, because the channels in the upper Bay had been obstructed. . . . — Map (db m87243) HM
Manufactured at Tredegar Iron Works
This cannon was used by Alabama Confederate Forces in the
defense of Mobile during the War for Southern Independence
It was mounted at Ft. Powell, guarding . . . — Map (db m86727) HM
Ill. 76th Vol. Inf.
of our Heroes
Who Fell at
Fort Blakely, Ala.
April 9, 1865
2nd Brig. 2nd Div.
13th Army Corps.
William T. Duke • Micajah S. Moore • William Crimes • George H. Hopkins • George . . . — Map (db m86870) WM
Since colonial rulers were unable to attract large numbers of settlers to Mobile, the Port City’s population remained small and never grew above 500. Because the majority of Mobile’s population was military personnel, the city was built around the . . . — Map (db m87207) HM
Spain, America's ally, declared war on Great Britain in June 1779. Bernardo de Galvez, governor of Spanish Louisiana at New Orleans, led the attack against the British along the lower Mississippi River and Gulf Coast. In February 1780, Galvez laid . . . — Map (db m86355) HM
Site three miles east. Border fort and port of entry into the United States while the 31st parallel was the southern border. Aaron Burr was held prisoner here after capture near McIntosh in 1807. — Map (db m70592) HM
In 1811, the Mount Vernon Cantonment, located on a hill about three miles west of the Mobile River, was laid out by Col. Thomas H. Cushing. The cantonment was on the site of a spring called Mount Vernon Springs. In 1814, the garrison at Mt. Vernon . . . — Map (db m85911) HM
Built by Gen. Ferdinand L. Claiborne as a base for his invasion of the Alabama country with U.S. Regulars, Lower Tombigbee Militia, and friendly Choctaws. Claiborne’s campaign culminated in the American victory over the Creeks at the Holy Ground. — Map (db m47641) HM
Piache, an Indian town visited by DeSoto in 1540 was near here.
DeLuna made a settlement here, Nanipacna in 1560.
Fort Claiborne was erected on the south bluff, in 1813.
LaFayette was entertained here, 1825.
. . . — Map (db m47639) HM
Decatur played a key role in the Federal defenses of the vital rail lines in North Alabama. These defenses were configured in a three-tiered system. First, a number of lightly armored gunboats, constructed on the Tennessee River and nicknamed . . . — Map (db m86476) HM
As Hood’s Army of Tennessee encircled Decatur, sharpshooters advanced upon the Union defenses. Colonel Doolittle’s men responded with heavy artillery and musket fire. During the early afternoon of October 27, the Confederates approached the Federal . . . — Map (db m28241) HM
Built during Creek War 1813 by Georgia Militia on main Indian trade route to Tombigbee River.
U.S. Troops stationed here until 1837. 1836 Lower Creeks corralled here for forced removal to the West. — Map (db m26069) HM
This military graveyard was established soon after Fort Mitchell was built by General John Floyd of the Georgia Militia. Located just south of the stockade, the cemetery was used between 1813 and 1840 during the fort's occupation by Georgia and . . . — Map (db m26122) HM
Approximately one mile due east of this marker, back down the Old Federal Road, called by frontiersmen and Indians the Three Notched Trail or the Three Chopped Way, stood Fort Mitchell, an early 19th century American fort that in 1836 was one of the . . . — Map (db m26100) HM
1736: First settlement by French at Ft. Tombecbee.
1830: U.S. got Choctaw Indian lands by Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek.
1832: County created by Act of State Legislature -- named for Gen. Thomas Sumter, "The Gamecock," South . . . — Map (db m92663) HM
Built in 1735 by British from Carolina in futile attempt to gain trade of the Creek Indians from the French, located at Fort Toulouse, 40 mi. S. Okfuskee was the largest town in Creek Confederacy. — Map (db m22232) HM
Commemorating the Founders
World War II Veterans
and their families
who bought Fort Wm. H. Seward in 1947
and pioneered their futures here.
Steve Homer • Ted and Mimi Gregg • Carl and Betty Heinmiller • Marty and . . . — Map (db m70803) HM WM
Established 1862 following the Battle of Apache Pass, largest conflict in Arizona Indian Wars. Massed Apaches under Cochise and Mangas Coloradas were routed by howitzers fired by California Volunteers attacked in the pass. Fort Bowie overlooked only . . . — Map (db m6994) HM
The Post Cemetery predated the establishment of Fort Bowie, when soldiers of the California Column were interred here in 1862. The area was unfenced until 1878, when a four-foot adobe wall was erected to protect the graves from desecration by post . . . — Map (db m68858) HM
Lt. John A. Rucker, 6th Cav. U.S.A. perished in proximity in flooded White River July 11, 1878 attempting to save life of Lt. Austin Henely
Also on this site 1884-1943 ranch headquarters of Gray - Hampe - Rak — Map (db m42057) HM
Camp Supply served as the base for two companies of Indian Scouts: Company C commanded by 2nd Lieutenant John A. Rucker, and Company D led by 1st Lieutenant Austin Henely. Each Company included between 32 and 40 Scouts who enlisted for 6 months at a . . . — Map (db m42080) HM
Situated on the southern route to the Pacific Ocean, it brought law and order to the Arizona Territory, protecting settlers, miners, travelers and immigrants. Its troops won the surrender of Geronimo. Generals Pershing and Wood served here.
As . . . — Map (db m27897) HM
Under the direction of General George Crook this trail was built in the early 1870's. Starting at Fort Whipple, it winds down to Fort Verde then eastward across the Mogollon Rim to Fort Apache covering 200 miles. It was used as a supply route by . . . — Map (db m67419) HM
Under the direction of General George Crook this trail was built in the early 1870's. Starting at Fort Whipple, it winds down to Fort Verde then eastward across the Mogollon Rim to Fort Apache covering 200 miles. It was used as a supply route by . . . — Map (db m67420) HM
This important military post protected central Arizona settlements from the Tonto Apaches during the Indian wars 1865-1886. Its function as a military post ended in 1890 and it became a reservation by executive order, September 15, 1909 as home of . . . — Map (db m27681) HM
An adobe-walled refuge against Apaches
Built by the Lehi Pioneers of March 6, 1877
First Mormon colonists in central or southern Ariz.
Daniel W. Jones
• Harriet E. Jones
• Daniel P.
• Wiley C.
• Edwin . . . — Map (db m49930) HM
Western anchor of a military road across Northern Arizona. Near here in 1858 Beale's camel expedition was ferried across the Colorado River on the steamer General Jessup. The fort was abandoned at the start of the Civil War. Was activated again in . . . — Map (db m32207) HM
This camp, established March 25, 1871 by Company F, 12th Infantry commanded by Capt. Thomas Bryne, was located at a spring used by Indians for centuries. It was named for Navy Lt. Edward F Beale who established a wagon road along the 35th parallel. . . . — Map (db m29411) HM
Built of adobe bricks in 1876, this is the third oldest surviving building at Fort Apache. Originally the Adjutant's Office (administrative office) of the post, it also served variously as post headquarters, military Post Office, telegraph office, . . . — Map (db m36799) HM
The Club House was constructed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1930 to provide housing and kitchen facilities for unmarried teachers employed at the Theodore Roosevelt School. The building was later converted to a clubhouse for use by the school . . . — Map (db m36784) HM
These ruins represent the last surviving enlisted men's barracks, on the east end of Barracks Row. Much like Officer's Row defined the north side of the Parade Ground, Barracks Row made up the south side. This adobe barracks was one of two completed . . . — Map (db m36874) HM
Throughout the military history of Fort Apache, enlisted men were housed with their units to the south of Officers' Row. The first company quarters, completed in February 1871, were 18 by 20 foot log squad huts built in rows running north and south . . . — Map (db m36807) HM
The Boys' Dormitory was constructed in 1932. Located on the east end of the fort's Parade Ground, it is on the site of earlier military structures including a telegraph office. Sandstone was quarried for the building's construction from a site about . . . — Map (db m36875) HM
An 1891 fire, sparked by a defective chimney and fanned by high winds, destroyed five sets of wood frame officers' quarters that had been constructed in this area between 1883 and 1886.
Using sandstone quarried just east of the Fort, these two . . . — Map (db m36779) HM
A classic Victorian mansion, this building clearly represents some of the Army's architectural motivations. Recognizing the difficulties for officers and their families of being assigned to remote posts, the Army built homes such as this one to . . . — Map (db m36782) HM
Built in 1889 to replace a smaller adobe structure, the Commissary Storehouse served as the Fort's food storage and distribution point until its closure in 1922. A solid building, the storehouse includes a stone cellar that extends three-fourth of . . . — Map (db m36804) HM
This log cabin is the oldest surviving building at Fort Apache. The westernmost of a series of eight log cabins built in 1871 to form Officers' Row, this cabin was designated the Commanding Officer's Quarters. It was originally an 18 by 20 foot log . . . — Map (db m36778) HM
This stone guard house was built around 1891 to replace the earlier, bed-bug infested structure still standing about 300 feet to the west of this site. Placed near the original main entrance to the fort, this building provided housing for guards and . . . — Map (db m36805) HM
Constructed in 1888 in the architectural style of Fort Apache's Officers' Row, these residences housed junior officers or non-commissioned officers and their families.
Like other quarters on the east end of Officers' Row, these residences were . . . — Map (db m36800) HM
This frame officer's quarters in the only one of seven built between 1883 and 1886 to have survived without significant modifications. Like many of the post's residences, it was built around a large central hallway that runs the length of the house. . . . — Map (db m36794) HM
These three officers' quarters were constructed between 1883 and 1888 to house junior officers and their families. With clipped-corner porches and symmetrical front elevations, these quarters reflect the architectural style established by the . . . — Map (db m36796) HM
The first guardhouse at Fort Apache was built of logs and located on this site. In 1876, this stone building – the second oldest surviving structure on the post – was constructed to replace the original log structure. It was replaced as . . . — Map (db m36806) HM
This large open field between Officers' Row and the enlisted men's Barracks Row was used by the army for drill practice, training, and review. When called to action, troops would assemble here prior to departure. It also provided a prime location . . . — Map (db m36781) HM
This house was constructed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs around 1930 to house Theodore Roosevelt School teachers and families. It deviates in style, though not in size, from the typical Officers' Row quarters.
Initially the house had a flat . . . — Map (db m36803) HM
Camp Lowell was established at this location in 1866 by the U.S. Army in recognition of the strategic military importance of Tucson. The local populace was fearful of Apaches, and the camp provided military protection as well as bringing financial . . . — Map (db m83013) HM
Planted shortly after Fort Lowell was established in 1873. The trees were irrigated by acequias or open ditches with water diverted from Pantano Wash. The beautiful shade trees made Fort Lowell an oasis in an otherwise barren area. After the fort . . . — Map (db m26197) HM
The military post, established in 1862
near downtown Tucson, was moved to
this location in 1873. One of many
active forts on the Arizona frontier,
Lowell served also as a major supply
depot, influencing the economy and
social life of the . . . — Map (db m83031) HM
Largest of the early Arizona military installations
this was the supply base for military posts in southern Arizona during the long warfare against the Apaches. Built in 1873, it was Gen. Nelson A. Miles' headquarters in the final campaign against . . . — Map (db m83032) HM
The main gate of the presidio was located near what is now Alameda Street, just north of this spot. The gate was built from mesquite timbers and had a platform above, where a guard stood watch. In the late 1860's, the families of Milton Duffield, . . . — Map (db m83204) HM
For about 80 years, the adobe walls of the Tucson Presidio protected the residents of the area from attacks by Apache groups, who opposed Spanish and Mexican peoples and their native allies beginning in the 1600s. The Spanish military designated the . . . — Map (db m83211) HM
This marker locates the northwest corner of the adobe wall which surrounded the Royal Spanish Presidio San Agustín del Tucson. In 1776 the new outpost was garrisoned by seventy Spanish cavalry troopers and Indian scouts, transferred from Tubac under . . . — Map (db m83212) HM
Excavations beneath this lawn in 1998 located the west adobe wall of the Tucson Presidio and a portion of the presidio blacksmith shop. The tower at the southwest corner remains buried beneath the nearby city hall parking lot. Soldiers stood guard . . . — Map (db m83230) HM
Dedicated to the enduring memory of the men and women who faithfully served in the military forces of the United States of America and in grateful acknowledgment of their contribution to this nation, which in time of peril, found in them its . . . — Map (db m28932) HM
A military camp established in Nogales, Arizona, in November of 1910, was for a generation an integral part of the economic and social life of the community. The post was renamed on December 14, 1915, for Private Little killed in action during the . . . — Map (db m81716) HM
Originally an Indian village, Tubac is the oldest European settlement in Arizona. It was established as the Royal Spanish Presidio San Ignacio de Tubac in 1752, after an uprising of Pima Indians. In 1775 Captain Juan Bautista de Anza led an . . . — Map (db m27119) HM
Here stood the original Spanish presidio or fort established as San Ignacio de Tubac after the Pima uprising of 1751. Captain Juan Bautista de Anza was in command in 1775, when he led his famous expedition to California to found San Francisco. The . . . — Map (db m68026) HM
The oldest settlement in the Verde Valley. Site of historic Fort Verde. The first settlers came into the valley in February, 1865, followed by the military in August, 1865. Original military and historic buildings still stand. — Map (db m40814) HM
The Mythology of a Western Fort
Fort Verde is typical of western forts built in the 1870's and 1880's but our vision of forts comes from movies. Log stockades with towers and John Wayne fearlessly firing his rifle at attacking Indians. The . . . — Map (db m40815) HM
A farming community of perhaps 200 people prospered here for more than three centuries. The Castle was home to 35 or so of these people. Archeologists suggest they may have fled what is today the Flagstaff area due to overpopulation around A.D. . . . — Map (db m40840) HM
Here’s another “castle” – this one called “A” by the archeologists who excavated it in the 1930s.
Like neighboring Montezuma Castle, Castle A was occupied by Sinagua farmers between A.D. 1200 and 1450. However, with . . . — Map (db m40863) HM
In 1859, steamboat entrepreneur George Alonzo Johnson built a riverside home for his bride, Estefana Alvarado. Now known as the Commanding Officer's Quarters, the home is believed to be Arizona's oldest Anglo-built adobe building. In the devastating . . . — Map (db m28999) HM
This adobe building was constructed in 1872 as an office for the Fort Yuma Quartermaster Depot. It replaced a room in a corner of the depot storehouses where, according to Captain J. G. C. Lee, Quartermaster, ". . .the noise of the arrivals and . . . — Map (db m29000) HM
A steam pump located at the edge of the river propelled muddy Colorado River water through pipes to an elevated holding tank constructed of local rock and mortar with a wood shingle roof to decrease evaporation. Sediment fell to the bottom of the . . . — Map (db m29001) HM
The blockhouse is a replica of a structure that was built on this site in the late 18th century. The building was a multiple use structure, but constructed originally for defense purposes. It was used as a trading post, as a residence, and as a . . . — Map (db m96645) HM
On Aug. 24, 1864, Confederate Gen. J.O. Shelby and his men, wearing captured Union uniforms, attacked a series of forts protecting hay-cutting operations between modern-day Carlisle and Hazen. Confederate artillery blasted the forts held by the 54th . . . — Map (db m96453) HM
In 1817, the first Fort Smith was built at Belle Point at the junction of the Poteau and Arkansas Rivers by Major William Bradford, for the mutual protection of the pioneers and Indians. He was in command until 1822. It was named in honor of . . . — Map (db m77874) HM
The building in front of you is very much as it appeared in the 1890s. First used as a military barracks, it was later converted for use as a courthouse and jail. Over time its appearance changed to accommodate the different needs of the people . . . — Map (db m82354) HM WM
When army engineers originally designed the second Fort Smith in 1838, they planned for it to withstand attack. A key feature in achieving this goal was a stone wall about twelve feet high and from two to three feet thick. This wall surrounded the . . . — Map (db m58434) HM
The “Castle,” Built in 1890–1894, is the most significant example of Romanesque Revival architecture in the Mother Lode. It was built to house the Preston School of Industry. Established by the State Legislature as a progressive . . . — Map (db m2046) HM
Approximately 2 miles north of this point, Fort Washintgon was built in the spring of 1850 by Wiley B Cassity (Cassady or Cassidy), Charls D. Gibbes, Major Lane and others. This fort, probably the first building erected in Fresno County, served as . . . — Map (db m28013) HM
The site of Fort Miller (1851-1866) lies about one mile north and that of the pioneer town of Millerton (1851-1874) about one and one-half miles northwest on the then Visalia - Stockton Road. Both sites are now covered by the waters of Millerton . . . — Map (db m47248) HM
Here on September 23, 1849, Liet. Cave J. Couts, Escourt Commander, International Boundary Commission, established Camp Salvation. From September till the first of December 1849, it served as a refugee center for distressed emigrants attempting to . . . — Map (db m50586) HM
In 1774, Spain opened an overland route from Sonora to California but it was closed by Yuma Indians in 1781. In 1822, Mexico attempted to reopen this route. Lt. Romualdo Pacheco and soldiers built an adobe fort at this site in 1825-26, the only . . . — Map (db m50589) HM
Near this spot,situated on the west bank of the Colorado river, about 45 miles of fort Yuma, Fort Gaston was established in 1859 by Captain Henry S. Burton, Company F 3rd Artillery. The Camp served as a supply post for the Hoffman . . . — Map (db m86209) HM
Originally called Camp Calhoun, the site was first used as a U.S. Military Post in 1849. A fire destroyed the original buildings. By 1855 the barracks had been rebuilt. Called Camp Yuma in 1852 it became Fort Yuma after reconstruction. Transferred . . . — Map (db m50585) HM
Jefferson Davis, “Father of National Highways,” as Secretary of War 1853-57 sponsored the importation of 33 camels for transporting military supplies to the west coast. The camel trail survey ran from San Antonio, Texas to Fort Tejon . . . — Map (db m32823) HM
This military post was established by the United States Army on June 24, 1854, to suppress stock rustling and for the protection of Indians in the San Joaquin Valley. As regimental headquarters of the First Dragoons, Fort Tejón was an important . . . — Map (db m81718) HM
Built in July 1854 by Isaac N. Roop. First called Roop's House, and used as stopping place by emigrant trains. It was the locale of the "sagebrush war" fought in 1863 between Plumas County and Lassen County citizens. — Map (db m10266) HM
On this site stood
Fort Moore built by the
Mormon Battalion during
the War with Mexico
This memorial honors the troops who helped to win the South West.
The Flag of the United States was raised here on July 4th 1847
by United . . . — Map (db m81688) HM
1862 * Drum Barracks * 1868
Supply Depot, Department of
the Southwest, U.S. Army.
In memory of the historic past of this
building and the importance of its
association with early American
history . . . — Map (db m52631) HM
Built in 1911, this concrete barracks building could house 686 men. By WW II, Fort McDowell has quarters for about 4,500 soldiers, including fourteen additional wooden barracks that once stood between the baseball field and this 600-man barracks. . . . — Map (db m69276) HM
A great morale builder, Fort McDowell’s bowling alley opened in 1944, sporting six lanes. Fort McDowell’s bowling teams – the “Jail Birds,” “Brass Hats,” and the "McDowell Mermaids” competed against teams from . . . — Map (db m69299) HM
Battery Ledyard, built in 1899, was one of three Angel Island batteries installed to defend San Francisco Bay. Located at Point Knox, it was armed with two five-inch wire wound guns. Battery Ledyard was named for Lt. August C. Ledyard, 6th Infantry, . . . — Map (db m69251) HM
The Post Exchange, or PX, was built in 1910 to be a “one stop shopping place” for soldiers at Fort McDowell. Soldiers purchased clothing toiletries, and other supplies here. The PX also offered a restaurant, soda fountain, barbershop, . . . — Map (db m69279) HM
The Guard House served as headquarters for the Officers of the Guard and the Sergeant of the Guard, and as quarters for soldiers assigned to guard detail. Guard duty could last a day, a week, or longer. Guards patrolled their post for 24-hour . . . — Map (db m69278) HM
If you listen carefully, you can hear the crack of a bat and soldiers cheering as a Fort McDowell “Indian” rounds third base and heads for home – Cole Field. The ball park was home to the men’s baseball team, the . . . — Map (db m69275) HM
During WW I and WW II, Fort McDowell served as a Recruit Depot and later as an overseas Discharge and Replacement Depot. While some soldiers were stationed at Fort McDowell, others were here for only a week before being shipped overseas. During . . . — Map (db m69280) HM
In 1863, Civil War was raging in the East and the threat of Confederate ships sailing into San Francisco Bay was real. The United States Army responded by sending Company B of the 3rd Artillery to establish Camp Reynolds as an artillery post on . . . — Map (db m69250) HM
General John C. Fremont, 1813-1890. A noted military man, explorer, topographer, senator & businessman, Fremont was also a miner. He settled in Mariposa County living just outside Bear Valley. He operated the Josephine, Pine Tree & Princeton mines . . . — Map (db m5783) HM
Established in this vicinity June 11, 1857 by 1st Lieutenant Horatio Gate Gibson, 3rd Artillery, later Brigadier General, US Army. Named by Gibson in honor of his former company commander, Braxton Bragg, later General, C.S.A. Abandoned in October . . . — Map (db m10585) HM
For the two million servicemen and women who passed through Fort Ord, the entertainment center that once occupied this site provided welcome relief from rigorous military training. The Soldier’s Club, later renamed Stilwell Hall, featured a huge . . . — Map (db m68882) HM
From World War II until Fort Ord’s closure in 1994, there dunes echoed with the sound of small arms fire. Rifle and machine gun ranges here gave thousands of U.S. Army Infantrymen the marksmanship skills needed to serve their nation in times of both . . . — Map (db m68885) HM
On November 20, 1818, in the closing years of the Spanish Era, Capitan Hippolyte Bouchard entered Monterey Bay with two ships, flying the flag of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata, Argentina. The next day, one ship attacked the Spanish . . . — Map (db m66555) HM
Site of a Spanish fort constructed in 1792 to protect the port and presidio of Monterey from invaders. This is one of only three such forts constructed by the Spanish in California. — Map (db m63108) HM
This old Spanish fort began as eleven guns behind a crude parapet of logs overlooking the anchorage of Monterey Bay in 1972. The battery was strengthen and enlarged over the years and served as the principal fort in Monterey for both the Spanish and . . . — Map (db m63107) HM
Most of the wooden buildings on Presidio Hill below the Defense Language Institute complex were constructed from 1902 to 1906 by the 15th Infantry under the direction of Army Captain E.H. Plummer. The museum building was originally the post’s . . . — Map (db m63125) HM
Camp Young, named after Lt. Gen. S.B.M. Young, the 1st Army Chief of Staff, was established at this site in the Spring of 1942. It was one of twelve such camps built in the southwestern deserts to harden and train United States Troops for service to . . . — Map (db m78581) HM
The 5th Infantry Regiment, California Volunteers, was organized here on 8 October, 1861 and trained by Brevet Brigadier General George W. Bowie for duty in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas against the Confederate forces. Since this was the year of the . . . — Map (db m10825) HM
Captain John A. Sutter, after coming up the Sacramento River from Yerba Buena in August 1839, landed approximately two hundred feet north of here, at what was then the south bank of the American River. A short time thereafter . . . — Map (db m10522) HM
Founder of New Helvetia
The beginning of Sacramento
Builder of Sutter’s Fort
A man of vision and compassion
who deserves the respect
of Americans and Swiss — Map (db m11182) HM
The Native Sons and Native Daughters of the Golden West planted it on July 19, 1939. and dedicated it September 9, 1948, on the occasion of the celebration of Admission Day and the Centenary of the founding of the modern City of Sacramento. — Map (db m11886) HM
In 1860 the U.S. Army established an outpost at Soda Springs to protect government supplies from Indians. Later, miners processed the adjacent lake minerals. In 1906 the Tonopah & Tidewater railroad arrived. From 1944 to 1974 Dr. Curtis H. Springer . . . — Map (db m78587) HM
1776 - 1830: Early Explorers
1776 - As the Revolutionary War broke out, California was still a province of Spain, and the Spanish government decided to help feed a hungry Mexico by farming the . . . — Map (db m83575) HM
This is the site of an adobe fortification erected about 1856-57 by the "Independent" faction in a dispute with the Mormons over a land title. The fort was maintained for about a year. This also is the site of the Indian village of Jumuba, and . . . — Map (db m51027) HM
Pah-Ute Creek, which runs year around, attracted many Indian tribes, who used several Indian trails through this area. The first white man to visit Pah-Ute Creek was Fr. Francisco Garces in May of 1776. It was given it's name by Lt. A.W. Whipple . . . — Map (db m78577) HM
Camp Cady was located on the Mojave Road which connected Los Angeles to Albuquerque. Non-Indian travel on this and the nearby Salt Lake Road was beset by Paiutes, Mohaves, and Chemehuevis defending their homeland. To protect both roads, Camp Cady . . . — Map (db m50718) HM
To the United States Soldiers of Camp Rock Spring --- who guarded the U.S. Mail
No glory there, nor much chance for military fame, but true patriots and heroes were they, to submit to such privations--yet these are the nurseries of the army, . . . — Map (db m78592) HM
As many as eighteen enlisted men of Company "D," 9th U.S. Infantry once served duty here within the now crumbling walls of "Fort Pah-Ute." Although never established as an official fort, "Pah-Ute Creek," as it was commonly called, did house a small . . . — Map (db m51274) HM
On this site in 1839 was built the first house in San Bernardino. The home of Jose del Carmen Lugo one of the grantees of the Rancho San Bernardino.
Also on this site in 1851 a stockade of logs was built as a protection against Indians. In it . . . — Map (db m51014) HM
First established October 18, 1861, on Warner's Ranch at "Fork of the Trail to San Diego", to guard the communications between California and Arizona. Moved to this site by Major Edwin A. Rigg, First California Volunteers, about November 23, 1861. . . . — Map (db m51092) HM
An outpost of Spain's far flung empire at its greatest extent, this fort was completed before 1800 from plans drawn by Alberto de Córdoba in 1795. Its major action came under Corporal José Velásquez on March 22, 1803, in the "Battle of San Diego . . . — Map (db m81234) HM
President Millard Fillmore's executive order of 1852 created a U. S. Preserve on Point Loma. From 1870 to 1873 the coast artillery corpsmen evicted whalers from the site in order to begin the military installation. In 1899 it was named for William . . . — Map (db m81222) HM
Fortified briefly by Carlos Carrillo in 1838. This site became Fort Dupont (July –November 1846) after American forces took Old Town during the Mexican War. Retaken and held briefly by the Californios, it fell once more to the Americans, who . . . — Map (db m81720) HM
An army supply depot for Southern California was established on this site in 1850. Designated New San Diego Post, it was garrisoned by troops from December 2, 1858 to May, 1866. Reoccupied December 1869. Name changed to San Diego Barracks April 5, . . . — Map (db m51094) HM
Soldiers, sailors, Indians, and Franciscan missionaries from New Spain occupied the land at Presidio Hill on May 17, 1769 as a military outpost. Two months later, Fr. Junípero Serra established the first San Diego Mission on Presidio Hill. . . . — Map (db m11134) HM
The first ship to enter San Francisco Bay, the San Carlos (Captain Ayala), dropped anchor off this point August 5, 1775. Lieutenant-Colonel Don Juan Bautista de Anza planted the cross on Cantil Blanco (White Cliff) March 28, 1776. The first . . . — Map (db m10742) HM
In response to the 1906 earthquake and fire, and recognizing the critical role of Fort Mason as a naval operations center, Congress appropriated funds to construct the tree piers in use today. Built on land reclaimed from a tidal cove, Fort Mason . . . — Map (db m70027) HM
The Panama Pacific International Exposition, 635 acres of grand imagination, proclaimed to the world that San Francisco was fully recovered from the 1906 earthquake. Exhibition-filled palaces were built on filled marshlands between Fort Mason and . . . — Map (db m70001) HM
First fortified by the Spanish in 1797, this bluff above the bay was re-armed by the U.S. Army in 1864. The post remained active through the Civil War, western Indians Wars, and conflicts abroad, beginning with the Spanish-American War in 1898. . . . — Map (db m70025) HM
Fort Point is considered one of the finest examples of military architecture in the United States and is San Francisco’s only major building constructed before the Civil War which has remained basically unchanged since it was completed and . . . — Map (db m10677) HM
This trail witnessed the passing of Spanish soldiers, Franciscan missionaries and American soldiers of two centuries. It is perhaps the oldest travel corridor in San Francisco.
In 1776 this path connected the Spanish Presidio with the mission, . . . — Map (db m72484) HM
In the years between the Civil War (1861-1864(sic)) and the Spanish-American War (1898), the health of the army improved drastically. The new concern for soldiers’ well-being, the emphasis on sanitation, which became realizable in the new . . . — Map (db m72483) HM
The building to the right was a band barracks, Music kept the Army marchers in step, rallied troops in battle, enhanced ceremonies and solemnized burials. Each day at the Presidio began at 6 a.m. with the boom of a cannon and a bugle sounding a . . . — Map (db m72482) HM
First the Spanish and then the American military used this bluff to guard the harbor against hostile invasion. As the 19th century came to a close, Fort Mason’s mission shifted from keeping enemy ships out of the bay to sending U.S. military ships . . . — Map (db m70000) HM
Army’s primary depot for Pacific operation
First garrisoned by U.S. Army troops during the Civil War, Fort Mason later played a key role in the emergence of the United States as an international power. Throughout the 1800s, the young . . . — Map (db m70018) HM
Critical Logistics Center for the Army’s Pacific Operations.
From its start in 1902 as an army hospital, built to accommodate twelve patients, this building went on to become the U. S. Army’s headquarters for troop and supply transport to . . . — Map (db m63580) HM WM
This presidio was established under orders of King Carlos III, April 19-21, 1782, by Governor Felipe De Neve, Padre Junipero Serra and Lieutenant Jose Francisco Ortega, to provide the benefits of government for the inhabitants of the Santa Barbara . . . — Map (db m50557) HM
In Commemoration of
Captain Dick and Richard Pugh
The 1850's saw tension and turmoil between the early settlers and the native peoples of the Fall River Valley.
Richard Pugh, a native of Wales, was chosen by Lt. George Crook to be his . . . — Map (db m10287) HM
In Commemoration of
Established July 1, 1857 by Lieut' George Crook and Command for the protection of the immigrants and settlers. Later occupied by Capt John W Gardner and Capt McGregor.
The boundaries of this fort were . . . — Map (db m57825) HM
On this ground there was established on Oct. 16, 1852 a military post by Companies A and B First United States Dragoons. From April 23 1853 until June 28 1858, the date of its abandonment, this fort was garrisoned by Company E 4th US Infantry. . . . — Map (db m62845) HM
Founded 1812 by Russians from Sitka. When Russians withdrew to Alaska, 1841, Captain Sutter bought the improvements and supplies. Acquired by State in 1906 and remaining buildings restored - Greek Orthodox Chapel, Commandants Quarters and Stockade. . . . — Map (db m68792) HM
This chapel was a part of the settlement founded by the Russians in 1812 and known as Fort Ross. The fort was in the form of a quadrangle, about 300 feet square, inclosed by a redwood wall, with two blockhouses at opposite corners. Fort Ross . . . — Map (db m92911) HM
The key to the defense of early frontier forts was the blockhouse. It was from the blockhouse that an attacker could be put under a deadly barrage. In the event that the stockade wall was breached, the defenders could retire to the blockhouse for a . . . — Map (db m85610) HM
Sandy Beach Cover lies below the fort. The principal port of the settlement was 19 miles to the south at Port Rumiantsev (Bodega Bay), where there was a deep-water anchorage and a warehouse. Russian Navy and Russian-American Company ships frequently . . . — Map (db m16362) HM
George Washington Call (1829-1907) and his Chilean wife, Mercedes Leiva (1850-1933), bought 2,500 acres including Fort Ross in 1873. While maintaining a house in San Francisco, the family developed a dairy ranch and expanded the transport of local . . . — Map (db m16357) HM
Native Alaskans, brought to Fort Ross by the Russian-American Company to hunt sea mammals and provide a work force for the colon, established a village on the marine terrace in front of the fort. The neighborhood also included the dwellings of . . . — Map (db m16361) HM
Across the gulch to the east, a large Russian Orthodox cross marks the site of the settlement's cemetery. In 1990 the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, and California State Parks conducted an archaeological investigation of the historic Russian . . . — Map (db m85607) HM
Most of the inhabitants of Settlement Ross resided outside the fort; only Russian-American Company officials and visitors lived inside. Everyone in the vicinity of Fort Ross worked for the company. Lower-ranking Russian and Creole employees . . . — Map (db m85614) HM
[ Inscribed on the monument: ]
To the Memory of the Pioneers who were buried here between the years
1844 – 1856
By the Grand Parlor
Native Sons of the
[ . . . — Map (db m40633) HM
This memorial is the
property of the State of Colorado
United States military outpost
to protect settlers from
hostile Indians. Named for
Brig. Gen. John Garland
Commander of . . . — Map (db m22731) HM
Top of the Marker:
The Soldier’s Life
Fort Garland housed infantry and cavalry units. During the 1870’s the famed Buffalo Soldiers—African-American cavalrymen—were also posted here. For all soldiers—and their . . . — Map (db m71032) HM WM
This marks the site of the
Old Fort and Stockade
Pioneers of Colorado City
used in defense against
the Indians in 1864 and 1868
Constructed of logs
set on end
Old . . . — Map (db m96054) HM
Originated on the site of a U.S. Cavalry post established in 1880 at Hesperus. From 1891 until 1956 the old fort was operated as an Indian school, a vocational high school and a junior college.
The first president of the college was Charles . . . — Map (db m22765) HM
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