|Austria, Tyrol, Innsbruck — "Ottoburg" Castle — “Ottoburg”|
Spätgotischer Wohnturm, seit 1476 urkundlich nachweisbar. Der spätere Kaiser Maximilian I. verlieh den “Turn” 1497 an den Fürsten Rudolf von Anhalt, nach dessen Tod (1515) nur noch bürgerliche Besitzer folgten. Vielleicht deshalb wurde das Haus seit 1565/68 “Eepurg”, “öd Burg” (= leere Burg) und 1628 “Öttburg” genannt. Von dieser Namensform ausgehend entstand am Ende des “aufgeklärten” 18. Jahrhunderts die Assoziation zu Herzog Otto . . . — Map (db m68147) HM|
|Austria, Tyrol, Innsbruck — The Old Town Armory/Barracks — Alte Stadtburg|
Gleichzeitig mit der Anlage der Innsbucker Altstadt um 1180/1204 als Stadtburg der Grafen von Andechs, Herzoge von Meranien errichtet und vom 15. bis 18. Jh. als “inneres” oder Stadt – Zeughaus bzw. ab 1780 als Kaserne verwendet, musste der Altbau um 1851/54 weitgehend dem bestehenden Kasernen-Neubau weichen, welcher seit 1986/88 als Verwaltungsgebäude etc. adaptiert worden ist.
Simultaneous with the construction of the Innsbruck . . . — Map (db m68180) HM|
|Austria, Tyrol, Innsbruck — The Pecking- or Women’s Gate — Das Picken- oder Frauentor|
|Das Picken- oder Frauentor
Errichtet um 1340 – Abgetragen 1779
Der Stadt Innsbruck gewidmet vom Innsbrucker Verschönerungsverein
The Pecking- or Women’s Gate
Built in 1340 – Demolished in 1779
Dedicated to the City of Innsbruck by the Innsbruck Beautification Society — Map (db m68181) HM|
|Austria, Tyrol, Innsbruck — The Tower of the Coat of Arms — Wappenturm|
|1490 im Auftrage des Kaisers Maximilian I, erbaut und vom Hofmaler Jörg Kölderer mit den Wappen der Habsburgischen Länder geschmückt. 1766 in die neue Hofburg eingebaut.
Der Stadt Innsbruck gewidmet vom Innsbrucker Verschönerungsverein.
Built in 1490 by order of the Emperor Maximilian I and decorated by the court painter Jörg Kölderer with the heraldry of Habsburg countries. In 1766 it was incorporated into the new Imperial Palace.
Dedicated to . . . — Map (db m68135) HM|
|Brazil, Rio de Janeiro — APA das Pontas de Copacabana e Arpoador — Environmental Protection Area of Copacabana and Arpoador Promontories|
|[The text on the right of the marker is in English]:
The Environmental Protection Area (APA) of Copacabana and Arpoador Promontories was created by Municipal Law No. 2.087/94 to protect its rocky coast and native plant life species. The APA has the Copacabana Fort and the “Girl from Ipanema” Park as its limits.
The Copacabana Fort had its construction finished in 1914 with a mission to protect Rio de Janeiro’s coast. Today the fort shelters . . . — Map (db m25894) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Colwood — Hatley Park|
|This superb example of an Edwardian park was laid out for James and Laura Dunsmuir in the early 20th century. At its centre stands a Tudor Revival mansion, whose picturesque design is enhanced by a rich array of decoration and fine craftsmanship. The grounds, featuring a variety of native and exotic vegetation, unfold from formal gardens to recreational spaces, farmlands and forests. Acquired by the Canadian armed forces in 1940, Hatley Park evolved to meet the needs of Royal Roads Military . . . — Map (db m72870) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Colwood — Victoria-Esquimalt Fortifications — Les Fortifications de Victoria-Esquimalt|
|From 1878 to 1956 coast artillery installations protected the city of Victoria and the naval base at Esquimalt. Temporary batteries were constructed in response to the Anglo-Russian crisis of 1878, and in the 1890s Canada negotiated with Great Britain for the building of a series of permanent defences to be manned by British troops. Canada took control of these fortifications in 1906 and, by the end of the Second World War, they had been rebuilt and greatly expanded. They were declared obsolete . . . — Map (db m72872) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — 90 mm Anti-Aircraft Gun — Canon Antiaérien de 90 mm|
During the 1950s this type of anti-aircraft gun was part of the Victoria-Esquimalt defences, although it was not used here at Fort Rodd Hill.
This American-made weapon had begun to replace the British-designed 3.7-inch gun as the Canadian Army’s heavy AA defence after the Second World War. It had a maximum vertical range of 30,000 feet and fired 22 rounds a minute.
——————————————— . . . — Map (db m75031) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Coast Defence Artillery Positions: 1878-1956 — Positions de l’artillerie côtière: 1878-1956|
| The harbours at Victoria and Esquimalt, and the adjacent coastline were defended by temporary gun emplacements from 1878. International crises during the latter part of the century led to an agreement between the Canadian and British governments to improve and expand these defences with permanent fortifications and modern guns. Fort Rodd Hill was one part of this new development and continued in service until 1956.
À partir . . . — Map (db m75210) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Finlayson Point|
|Named after Roderick Finlayson Chief – Factor Hudson’s Bay Company at Victoria 1844 – 1872.
Before the arrival of white men this was the sit of an ancient fortified Indian Village.
A battery of two 64 pound wrought iron rifled guns stood here 1878 – 1892 for protection against and expected Russian invasion. — Map (db m49244) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria|
|The mooring rings on the rocks below are the only surviving fragment of Fort Victoria built by the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1843. From 1846, when the Oregon boundary was drawn at the 49th parallel, this post served as grand depot and headquarters of the Company’s Pacific fur trade. Ships moored here to unload supplies for an extensive network of forts and to take on natural products for export, principally to Alaska, California and Hawaii. In 1849 the first Legislative Assembly of the Colony of . . . — Map (db m9195) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria — Founded 1843|
|The pavement design near this marks the location of the bastion that stood at the northeast corner of Fort Victoria. From here the stockade ran southward past the gateway at Fort Street, and westward toward the harbour. Each brick within the bastion design bears the name of a Hudson’s Bay Company employee or later resident of the area. Bricks around the outer rim of the octagon carry the names of some of the Indians who signed treaties giving the Hudson’s Bay Company ownership of the Fort . . . — Map (db m48509) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria|
|The pavement design near this plaque marks the location of the east gate of Fort Victoria, built in 1843. From here the wooden stockade stretched northward to the bastion and southward toward what is now Broughton Street. The plaques in the pavement are copied from the official seal of the City of Victoria (1862) and the Crown Colony of the Island of Vancouver and Its Dependencies (1849). The names of early city officials and of colonial legislators surround the respective plaques. The strip . . . — Map (db m48520) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria|
|Founded by the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1843, Fort Victoria became, after 1846, the head-quarters of the Company’s trade in British territory west of the Rocky Mountains. When the Colony of Vancouver Island was formed in 1849 Victoria was the capital, and in the fort the first Legislative Assembly met. The Gold Rush of 1858 led to the development of the City of Victoria. The early history of the city and the colony is closely intertwined with that of the fort. The last of the original buildings . . . — Map (db m48542) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria|
|was erected by Hudson’s Bay Company
Here Colony of Vancouver’s Island was inaugurated by Richard Blanshard 1850
Vancouver’s Island and British Columbia united 1866
Two years later Victoria became the capital of British Columbia — Map (db m48547) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Bastion|
|This tablet marks the site of the bastion which stood at the north east corner of Fort Victoria. The fort was erected by the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1843.
Erected by Miller, Court & Co. Ltd. For the British Columbia Historical Assn. A.D. 1928 — Map (db m48511) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Bastion Cannons — Bastion Square — Come see the history you never knew we had...|
|You are standing at the entrance to Bastion Square
Bastion Square is a legacy of Fort Victoria whose two log towers or “Bastions” were located near here.
The Hudson’s Bay Company, which remains as a store across the street, built the fort in 1843 including a surrounding log wall or “palisade”. The two bastions on opposite corners of the fort, held cannons at the top for defence [sic] and one also housed the fort’s jail. Looking closely at the sidewalk, you can see the . . . — Map (db m48519) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Birthplace of Victoria|
|We would like to take a moment to share with you the history that you are standing over, around and next to.
This harbour was originally the sole domain of the Lekwungen First Nation who plied its protected waters and fished in their dugout canoes. When James Douglas arrived here in 1843, he chose it as the site for a new Hudson’s Bay Company trading post, eventually called Fort Victoria. It wooden walls stood along the rocky shore overlooking this site (behind you along Wharf Street).|
At . . . — Map (db m48749) HM
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Guardhouse / Corps de garde|
This structure was designed to accommodate the guard when the battery was fully manned.
Consisting of three or four soldiers commanded by a non-commissioned officer, the guard provided sentries to control the gate and patrol the battery perimeter.
There was a small kitchen, a living room and a bedroom that could also be used to hold short-term prisoners. The bedroom extended beyond the defensible wall and served as a concrete blockhouse. Loopholes in the bedroom permitted soldiers . . . — Map (db m75775) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Signing Post|
|You are standing in Bastion Square. The Hudson’s Bay Company, whose legacy continues at the store on Government Street, established Fort Victoria here in 1843.
This area has always been an important public space. All visitors had to gain permission from a gatekeeper to enter Fort Victoria and they were required to provide letters of introduction to . . . — Map (db m49080) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Upper Battery / Batterie supérieure|
A coast artillery battery consists of one or more gun emplacements and supporting structures and equipment. Its role was defensive; to prevent attack by enemy warships through the use of artillery.
The layout of Upper Battery is typical of a coast defence battery of this period:
High ground and a commanding position...
+ a clear field of fire for the gun...
+ a secure magazine to safely store ammunition close to the gun...
+ a communication system to control gun . . . — Map (db m75248) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Upper, Lower, Belmont Batteries — Batteries supérieure, inférieure et Belmont|
These batteries were constructed at Fort Rodd Hill between 1895 and 1900, as part of the defences of Esquimalt Harbour.
Upper and Lower Batteries, with their three large 6 inch guns, were designed to counter bombard enemy warships. Belmont Battery was equipped to engage fast torpedo boats, with smaller quick firing guns.
Ces batteries furent construites au fort Rodd Hill entre 1895 et 1900 pour faire partie du système . . . — Map (db m75216) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Vancouver Island Wallmap Mural|
|[Three 'markers' a part of this mural. They are entitled: Pemberton Family, Vancouver Island, and Fort Victoria.]|
J.D. Pemberton, engineer and surveyor for the H.B.C., arrived in 1851 by canoe in the last stages of his journey from England when this settlement numbered about 300. He built the first schoolhouse, was the first settler to cross the Island, and was the first Surveyor General of the colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia. As population swelled . . . — Map (db m48543) HM
|British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), Fort St. James — Fort St. James|
Simon Fraser and John Stuart established Fort St. James among the Carrier Indians in 1806. Originally a North West Company post, it passed to the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1821. From the beginning an important centre of trade and cooperation with the Indians, it became, under the Hudson’s Bay Company, the chief trading post in north-central British Columbia and the administrative centre of the large and prosperous district of New Caledonia. Throughout its history Fort St. . . . — Map (db m42736) HM|
|British Columbia (National Capital Region), Victoria — Gun Emplacement / Emplacement du canon|
One 6-inch gun on a disappearing carriage was mounted in this emplacement. The wall and sunken emplacement helped to conceal and protect the gun and crew from enemy bombardment. The concrete apron and earth glacis extending away from the top of the wall was designed to deflect incoming shells.
Cet emplacement comprenait un canon de 6 pouces monté sur un affût à éclipse. Le mur et la fosse aidaient à dissimuler le canon et servaients à les protéger contre les bombardements ennemis. Le . . . — Map (db m76336) HM|
|New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Andrews — Blockhouse 101 — Introduction aux blockhaus|
|English on left
What kind of house?
A blockhouse is a modest fortified building with a distinctive overhanging upper level. In 18th- and 19th-century North America, both Britain and the United States built many blockhouses for defence purposes. They were usually constructed of local material such as wood and could be put up relatively quickly and cheaply. This blockhouse is one of three built in St. Andrews to defend the batteries of guns that protected the harbour and river, . . . — Map (db m77366) HM|
|New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Andrews — St. Andrews Blockhouse — Le Blockhaus de St. Andrews — (West Point Blockhouse)|
|This marker consists of two side-by-side plaques, one in English and the other in French. English:
The West Point Blockhouse and a battery were erected by the townspeople of St. Andrews at the outbreak of the War of 1812-14 in anticipation of a seaborne attack from the United States. Along with other defensive positions they were manned by local militia and British regulars throughout the War. Later the Blockhouse served as a barracks and as a storehouse. It is one of the few examples . . . — Map (db m77240) HM|
|New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Andrews — Two hundred years and counting — Jeune de deux cents ans|
|English on left
Against the odds
Many blockhouses were built in North America, but few have survived. Why is this one still here? Throughout the 19th century the St. Andrews Blockhouse was used for storage and occasionally as a barracks by the militia. In the 1860s, during a brief period of tension with the United States, it again became an important component of civic defenses, but its military role declined soon after.
Part of who we are
By the late 1800s, St. . . . — Map (db m77241) HM|
|New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Andrews — War of 1812: Defending St. Andrews — Guerre de 1812: La defense de St. Andrews|
|English on left
No hard feelings
Have a look across the St. Croix River to the land on the other side of Navy Island; that’s the United States you can see! When the War of 1812 broke out, the citizen of St. Andrews had little to fear from their neighbors in Maine. Not everyone in New England was in favor of the war: trade with Atlantic Canada was brisk and around here the main threat to security was from privateering, not invasion. Despite the conflict, resolutions were passed . . . — Map (db m77363) HM|
|New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Andrews — Wartime legacies — L’heritage de la guerre|
|English on left
St. Andrews’ citizens step up
In 1812, St. Andrews was a young town, founded not long before by Loyalists from New England fleeing the American Revolution. A modest fortification - Fort Tipperary - had been built in 1808 above the town. Citizens were concerned that the fort did not provide enough protection for the harbour and river from privateering raids. The town quickly built three batteries, which military engineers believed ineffective - and indeed possibly . . . — Map (db m77362) HM|
|New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Andrews — Welcome, Enjoy your visit! — Bienvenue, Bonne visite!|
|English on left
Welcome to St. Andrews Blockhouse National Historic Site, part of Parks Canada’s diverse and ever-growing system of national park, national historic sites and national marine conservation area.
Wartime building spree
The War of 1812 was fought between Great Britain and the United States from 1812 to 1815, mostly on battlefields in present-day Ontario, Quebec, and several American states. In Atlantic Canada, the war brought about increased economic prosperity . . . — Map (db m77361) HM|
|New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Fort Howe — Major Gilfrid Studholme — Indian Treaty of 1778/Le Traité Indien de 1778|
|Three markers are mounted on this monument Fort Howe
English Late in 1777 Major Gilfred Studholme hurriedly fortified this ridge overlooking the mouth of the Saint John River. Throughout the remainder of the American Revolutionary War the presence of Fort Howe, its guns and garrison, guarded the settlement at the river’s mount from attack by American Privateers, a minority of disaffected settlers, and the local Indians with whom a treaty was made here in 1778. Allowed . . . — Map (db m77537) HM|
|Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), Blackhead — World War II Battery — Batterie del a IIième Guerre mondaile — Fort Cape Spear / Le fort du cap Spear|
In 1940, the American and Canadian Joint Board of Defence decided to protect the approaches to St. John’s harbour by installing heavy artillery at Cape Spear. Gun emplacements, magazines, and shelters were constructed by 1941 as well as barracks, messhalls, canteens, and administration buildings. “A” troop of the 103rd Coast Defence Battery of Royal Canadian Artillery was stationed at Fort Cape Spear and a small detachment of Americans manned the anti-aircraft . . . — Map (db m79463) HM|
|Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), Placentia — (Fort Royal) — Outer Defences / Défenses avancées|
Built originally of logs and subsequently of drywall masonry, this small enclosure surrounded by a breastwork was intended to keep an enemy from taking possession of Gaillardia Mountain, which overlooked Fort Louis and the town. Embrasures in the walls enabled soldiers to fire at attacking enemy. In 1799, it boasted an armament of six cannons.
The low stone walls surrounding Fort Royal are called breastworks. Built as an outer . . . — Map (db m78970) HM|
|Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), Placentia — Castle Hill|
In 1693 the French began construction of Fort Royal to guard the harbour at Placentia. When it was completed in 1703, several batteries and outworks supported the main fortifications. The defences, however, were precariously maintained throughout the French régime. Never captured, Castle Hill was ceded to Great Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 and subsequently neglected in favor of other defences. The fort has fallen into ruins by the beginning of the 19th century. . . . — Map (db m78917) HM|
|Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), Placentia — Castle Hill|
National Historic Site of Canada
By 1600, France and England dominated the European migratory fisheries to Newfoundland. Small-scale English settlements began in 1610, and in 1662 France established the royal colony of Plaisance to secure its fisheries and check English expansion along the south coast.
For the first three decades of the colony’s existence, its defences received little attention. War between . . . — Map (db m78919) HM|
|Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), Placentia — Fort Frederick|
|A fort consisting of a semi-circular redoubt mounting twelve guns, a guard house, barracks and storehouse surrounded by a palisade was erected on this site in 1721 and was named after H.R.H. Prince Frederick, then Prince of Wales.
Although the military head quarters of Newfoundland from 1721 until 1746, the fort was poorly maintained from the beginning and by 1744 the redoubt had to be strength(en)ed by a timber and sod-work facing and the number of guns reduced to eight, bastions were then . . . — Map (db m78918) HM|
|Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), Placentia — Fort Royal (Plaisance) — le fort Royal|
Built in the Vauban style, Fort Royal was designed to protect against attackers with siege artillery and muskets. It contains three demi-bastions and one full bastion. The overlapping faces of the demi-bastions form a flank that eliminated places close to the walls where an attacker could hide from musket fire. The full bastion has two flanks. This provided additional protection along the fort’s most vulnerable face (the one containing the gate). A ditch was dug in front of . . . — Map (db m78935) HM|
|Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), Placentia — Port Royal and Castle Graves — Port Royal et Castle Graves|
Fort Royal, 1709
Following an English naval attack on Plaisance in 1692 the French decided to erect a hilltop fortification to defend the town’s seaward approach. Fort Royal was begun the next year and completed around 1703. At 100 metres above sea level, Fort Royal was too high to be hit by ship-mounted cannon, yet it could rain “plunging fire” down upon ships attempting to attack the town or Fort Louis. Within the walls of Fort Royal the French had a guard . . . — Map (db m79009) HM|
|Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), St. John's — Fever Hospital — L’hôpital des maladies contagieuses|
Two adjoining barracks were constructed on this site between 1837 and 1840. The two story complex stretched the length of the present parking lot. It was converted to stores in 1842 because of problems with smoke, cold and dampness.
From 1846 to 1859, part of the building was used as a prison. After 1870 it was used as a quarantine hospital and it became an important centre for the treatment of diphtheria, smallpox and tuberculosis following the destruction of St. George’s . . . — Map (db m78936) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Cemeteries — Les Cimetières|
Two cemeteries are located in this burial ground: the earlier Acadian parish cemetery and the later Church of England cemetery. The wooden markers once placed on most of the graves have long since decayed. The gravestones that remain represent only a small portion of the burials here.
Starting in the middle 1600s, the Roman Catholic parish of St. Jean Baptiste located its cemetery in this area. Acadians from the Port-Royal area, French soldiers and administrators along with . . . — Map (db m78605) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Charles Fort / Le fort Charles — Charles de Menou d’Aulnay — (ca. 1604-1650) / (v.1604-1650)|
|Two markers are located on these monument. Charles Fort / Le fort Charles English
A group of about 70 Scottish settlers began a colony here in 1629, eight years after King James I granted ‘Nova Scotia’ to Sir William Alexander. Led by Alexander’s son, the Scots built a small fort, the remains of which lie beneath Fort Anne. Despite many deaths during the first winter, the surviving colonists thrived on agriculture, fishing, and trade with the Mi’kmaq. Most returned to . . . — Map (db m78486) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Duvivier Attack — L’attaque de Duvivier|
In September 1744, French soldiers and Aboriginal warriors attacked this fort. The took advantage of the overcast and rainy weather to attack at night under cover of darkness, sometimes managing to slip onto the outer works of the fort. Night after night of harassment left the British fatigued, distracted and dispirited. The French commander, Captain Francois Du Pont Duvivier , would likely have taken the fort had his promised support arrived before the British reinforcements . . . — Map (db m78606) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Fort Anne, a Bastioned Fort — Le Fort Anne, fort à bastions|
Forts like this are called bastioned forts after one other principal pars - the bastion. The fort’s shape creates areas of crossfire which allow the land surrounding the fort to be moere easily defended. From the late 1600s to the 1800s, this type of fort was constructed at hundreds of locations throughout Europe and North America.
Les forts de ce type s’appellent des forts à bastions. Cet élément essentiel de leur conception, le bastion, permet de créer . . . — Map (db m78598) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — The Black Hole — Le cachot|
The French built this powder magazine into the earthworks of their new fort in 1702. Both the French and the British used it to store gunpowder. In the early 1800s, it was used briefly as a prison or “Black Hole.”
In the 1890s, local citizens who were concerned about the dilapidated state of Fort Anne won a grant from the Government of Canada to restore this magazine.
En 1702, les Français construisent cette poudrière dans les remblais du . . . — Map (db m78601) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — The Flag Bastion — Le bastion de l’étendard|
You are standing on the west bastion which, in the 1700s, was the principal bastion. This being the closest bastion to the river, a flag was flown here to show approaching vessels who controlled the stronghold.
Important ceremonies took place here. In 1726, the British Crown and chiefs of the Mi’kmaw, Maliseet and Abenaki nations ratified a treaty during a trilingual ceremony. Also in 1726, some Acadians of the Annapolis Royal area swore a conditional oath of allegiance to . . . — Map (db m78603) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Regional Municipality.), Louisbourg — Fortress of Louisbourg — La forteresse de Louisbourg|
In 1713, France decided to found Louisbourg to defend her colonial and maritime interests in North America. As capital of the colony of Isle Royale and guardian the Gulf of Saint. Lawrence, it became the most important French fishing and commercial center in North America. The fortress was besieged and captured by British forces in 1745 and again in 1758. Its fortifications were demolished in 1760. In 1928, Louisbourg was designated a National Historic Site. Its . . . — Map (db m79915) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Regional Municipality.), Louisbourg — Kennelly Point|
This point of land is named after Capt. D.J. Kennelly (ca. 1831-1907), who had a house near here during the late 19th century. An Irish-born industrialist who came to Cape Breton during the 1870s, Kennelly was captivated by Louisbourg and its colorful past. In 1903 he established the Louisbourg Memorial Fund, an international society dedicated to the preservation and commemoration of the historic site.
In 1906 he had legislation passed in the Nova Scotia legislature . . . — Map (db m79949) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Regional Municipality.), Louisbourg — The Siege Landing — Débarquement des assiégeants|
|English: In both sieges the attackers made their initial landings in this cove. In 1745 the French defended the cove with only a small detachment but in 1757 they built and garrisoned extensive fieldworks here. The following year 1,000 French withstood an amphibious assault by 3,300 British until several boatloads of troops landed to the left of these defences and forced a French retreat.
French: Lors des deux sièges, les attaquants débarquèrent en premier ici, dans . . . — Map (db m79939) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Duke of York's Martello Tower — York Redoubt|
|[English Text only shown] The Duke of York's Martello Tower was one of many small towers built for coastal defence throughout the British Empire. They were usually round, with stone walls too thick to be penetrated by cannon balls. This tower protected the seaward battery from attack by land. The tower was built in 1798 by Prince Edward, fourth son of King George III, while he was the military commander at Halifax. It was named for Edward's brother, the Duke of York. What happened to . . . — Map (db m44629) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Fort Needham Memorial Park — and the Halifax Explosion|
|This marker is composted exclusively pictures and their captions. There is a left side and a right side to the marker. Captions are presented left to right, then top to bottom. Click on the marker image to enlarge it.
• This view from Fort Needham was drawn and engraved by Lieutenant Colonel Edward Hick, a British officier stationed in Halifax with the 70th Regiment of Foot from 1778 to 1782. The fort consisted of wooden buildings, for the defence of the . . . — Map (db m77955) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Georges Island — L’Île-Georges|
The Island was first fortified when the British founded Halifax in 1749. During the period of the Acadian Deportation, 1755 to 1762, the island was sometimes a detention camp for Acadians prior to being shipped to other British colonies. During the 19th century Halifax became a major British naval base and Georges Island one of an inter-connected system of harbour defences. As military technology changed, the defences of Georges Island were updated.
The island remained an . . . — Map (db m77619) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Halifax Citadel — La Citadelle d’Halifax|
Built to defend against a land-based attack, the Halifax Citadel was the fourth in a series of forts to occupy this hill, The star-shaped fortress, completed in 1856, was the centerpiece of the extensive system of fortifications constructed by the British military from 1749 to protect this strategic port, which by the mid-19th century had become one of four principal naval stations in the British Empire. Garrisoned by the British until the Canadian military assumed control of . . . — Map (db m78258) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — The View from the Citadel / Le panorama vu de la citadelle — The Halifax Explosion / L’explosion d’Halifax — The Convoys / Les Convois|
|This marker is composed of five plaques on the same mounting. The marker stands on north wall of the Citadel overlooking Halifax Harbor. The markers are presented left to right.
The Halifax Explosion / L’explosion d’Halifax
From where you are standing, you can see Ground Zero for the Halifax Explosion, the largest man-made explosion prior to the first atomic bomb. On December 6, 1917, as the First World War raged around the globe, the Norwegian relief . . . — Map (db m78257) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — York Redoubt|
York Redoubt was the heart of the defences protecting the outer harbour approaches to Halifax. Begun in 1793, it was enlarged by the Duke of Kent who constructed a Martello tower here in 1798. The redoubt became an essential link in the communications system protecting the city against surprise attack. Its strategic importance was such that it was rebuilt in the 1860s and 1880s to mount more powerful guns. In the twentieth century York Redoubt became the tactical command . . . — Map (db m44479) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Lunenburg County), Lunenburg — Defence of Lunenburg — La défense de Lunenburg|
When the British settlement at Lunenburg was established in 1753, the Town plot was enclosed by pickets surrounding the east, north and west ends of the Town. The west end was fortified by four blockhouses placed at strategic intervals between the Front Harbour and the Back Harbour, and another on the east end on Blockhouse Hill. Each of these blockhouses formed a central “keep” of small heavily stockaded fortifications which were built to protect the new community . . . — Map (db m78328) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Richmond County), St. Peter's — One Place, Four Names — Quatre noms pour un même endroit|
St. Peter’s is one of Nova Scotia’s oldest settlements. The Portuguese were likely here in the 1500s, calling it San Pedro.
In 1650, the French established a post nearby under the name of Saint-Pierre, where they traded with the Mi’kmaq and fished for nearly twenty years.
The French returned to this harbor during the Louisbourg era (1713-1758), renaming the area Port Toulouse. Throughout most of that period there was a small garrison of soldiers and modest fortifications. . . . — Map (db m78728) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Victoria County), Englishtown — Sainte-Anné|
Settled, 1629, by Captain Charles Daniel, and site of an early Jesuit Mission. Selected, 1713, as a naval base and one of the principal places in Isle Royale, named Port Dauphin and strongly fortified. Its importance declined with the choice, 1719, of Louisbourg as the capital.
Fondeé en 1629 par le capitaine Charles Daniel, Sainte-Anné fut l’une des premières missions Jésuites. Base navale fortifiée sous le nom de Port-Dauphin (1713) et chef-lieu de . . . — Map (db m80005) HM|
|Ontario, Hamilton — Burlington Heights 1813 - 1814|
Here in June, 1813, General John Vincent assembled troops that made the successful night attack on the invaders at Stoney Creek. From this point of vantage, in December, 1813, the force which retook Fort George and carried Fort Niagara by assault, began its march. On these heights stood the strong point of reserve and depot of arms for the defence of the Niagara Peninsula and support of the navy on Lake Ontario.
Ici, en juin 1813, le . . . — Map (db m56725) HM|
|Ontario, Hamilton — Defensive Outwork|
|About this spot
was an outwork of
the first line of defense
1812 - 1815 — Map (db m56758) HM|
|Ontario, Hamilton — First Line of Defense|
|This Stone Marks
The Line of Earthworks
In First Line of Defense
1812 - 1815 — Map (db m56740) HM|
|Ontario, Hamilton — March to Stoney Creek|
|These ramparts were
erected by the British troops
during the War of 1812-15.
From this place on the night
of June 5th 1813,
700 men under the command
of Lieut. Colonel Harvey,
marched to Stoney Creek
where they surprised and routed
an American force of 3750 men
ridding the Niagara Peninsula
of the invaders. — Map (db m56756) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Chatham — Chatham Armoury — 100th Anniversary — 1905-2005|
| chatham Armoury
The Chatham Armoury was constructed in 1905 as a result of reform and expansion of the volunteer militia. The first unit to occupy the Armoury was the 24th Kent Regiment that was formed in 1901. It was the centre for local recruitment and training for the 186th Kent Overseas Battalion, CE.F. during the First World War, 1914-1918. In 1920 the Armoury became the home of the renamed Kent Regiment and, in 1936, the Kent Regiment, Machine Gun. During the Second . . . — Map (db m71382) HM|
|Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Chatham — Chatham Blockhouse — — 1794 —|
|On this site a blockhouse was constructed in 1794 by order of Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe. He planned to establish here a small naval arsenal which would form a link in the defences of Upper Canada's western frontier and also draw the Indian trade from Detroit. The post was garrisoned by a detachment of the Queen's Rangers, and two gunboats were built; but by 1797 it was abandoned. In 1798 the province's Administrator, Peter Russell, had the blockhouse moved to Sandwich to serve as the Western District's court-house and gaol. — Map (db m71313) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Boblo Island|
| Boblo Island
For many centuries the island you see in front of you was used for hunting and fishing by First Nations people. Called Île aux Bois Blancs by the French, Boblo Island's key location made it a site for blockhouses during the War of 1812 and the Upper Canada Rebellion. In 1837 a lighthouse was erected on the southern end; about sixty years later the island became the site of a popular amusement park that lasted for nearly a century.
The Detroit . . . — Map (db m71185) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Brick Officers' Guard Room|
| Brick Officers' Guard Room
and Staff Sergeant's Quarters
Poste de garde des officiers en
briques et quartiers du sergent
de l'etat-major (1839) — Map (db m71220) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Connection to Town|
| Connection to Town
Fort Malden (originally called Fort Amherstburg) was the anchor of the town, which grew to the south. In this view, you are looking past the parade grounds of the fort (now a park) down Dalhousie Street towards the location of the naval dockyard. Over the years, much of the economic activity of the town of Amherstburg was generated by the need to feed, supply and amuse several hundred soldiers and their families.
Entries from an 1810 account . . . — Map (db m71192) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Fort Amherstburg (Fort Malden)|
|The post was begun by the Royal Canadian Volunteers in 1796 to replace Detroit and to maintain British influence among the western Indians. As the principal defense of the Detroit frontier in 1812, it was here that Isaac Brock gathered his forces for the attack on Detroit. The next year with supply lines cut and control of Lake Erie lost to the Americans, the British could not hold the fort, which they evacuated and burned. Partially rebuilt by the invading Americans, it was returned on 1 July . . . — Map (db m34353) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Fort Defences|
| Fort Defences
In front of you is a recreated piece of the fort's palisade, a vertical wall of sharpened logs. This wall surrounded the fort, linking the four diamond-shaped corner projections, called bastions. Around each bastion, the palisade ran in the bottom of a ditch that served as an additional defence against attacking soldiers.
The diamond shape of the bastions allowed cannons to fire on soldiers approaching adjacent areas of the palisade.
This . . . — Map (db m71173) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Fort Malden Points of Interest|
| Fort Malden Points of Interest • Fort Malden Points d'intérêt
(1) Visitor Centre
(2) Military Pensioner's Cottage
circa 1851 (Restoration)
Maison des pensionnés militaires
vers 1851 (bâtiment restauré)
1813 & 1838-1840 (Remnants)
1813 et 1838-1840 (vestiges)
(4) Brick Guardhouse
circa 1821 . . . — Map (db m71278) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Pensioner's Cottage|
| Pensioner's Cottage
This cottage was built in the early 1850s for a retired soldier and his family. About 85 of these homes were constructed just east of the Fort, and leased at a modest rate to veteran soldiers in return for light military duties. This one, belonging to Charles O'Connor, was moved here from its original location about 500 metres away.
For a growing family this cottage would have been very cramped, since it has only two rooms … a combined kitchen/sitting . . . — Map (db m71167) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Privy|
The foundations in front of you are from a communal privy (toilet) for enlisted men and their families that stood here in 1840. The women and children had a small room - the soldiers made do with an open structure offering no privacy (in contrast to the nearby officers' facility). In 1841 the British relocated the privy to another location, outside the fort's walls. In its place, they constructed a fenced urinal. In 1848, the sanitary facilities were improved, and the . . . — Map (db m71221) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Strategic Location|
| Strategic Location
A deepwater channel between here and Boblo Island brings ships close to shore, a fact dramatically illustrated when a north-bound lake freighter passes by. This was why Fort Amerstburg was originally located here - cannon on its walls would have no difficulty in hitting any ship sailing up or down the channel, allowing the fort to control this key waterway.
Two hundred years ago, all shipping had to pass within cannon shot of this fort. Today, . . . — Map (db m71191) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The Commissariat Office|
|The office for the Commissariat Department was built in 1831 near the government wharf and storehouse. Commissary officials purchased from local contractors the flour, beef, straw and firewood used by troops. They also managed Fort Malden's finances, including the soldiers' pay which was issued daily from this office. — Map (db m37356) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The Site Over Time|
| The Site Over Time
Today the site looks very different than it would have 170 years ago, when Fort Malden was at its height. Almost all the buildings from that period have been lost, and most of the ditch and wall that encircled the fort is gone. The large building in front of you (the museum) was built after the fort ceased to be a military post, and private homes still occupy part of the site.
If you had visited the site a hundred years ago, it would have . . . — Map (db m71174) HM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Commodore’s Residence, 1815 — La Résidence du Commodore, 1815|
On 19 March 1813 Sir James Yeo, a brave and audacious commander earlier in the Napoleonic War, was appointed Commodore and senior officier on the Lakes of Canada. Having never commanded a Squadron before, he was instructed by the Admiralty not to undertake operations without “the full concurrence and approbation” of Sir George Prevost, the Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief of British North America. Moreover, Yeo speedily
discovered that his instinct for . . . — Map (db m83570) HM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Fort Frederick|
With the outbreak of the War of 1812, a blockhouse was quickly constructed on Point Frederick complementary to and earlier one built on Point Henry. Both provided protection for the Kingston dockyard which was the pivotal point of the Provincial Marine on Lake Ontario. Defences were strengthened throughout the war, with signifiant log-and-earth fortifications added on both sides. Guns within the original Point Frederick earthwork installation were used on 10 November, 1812, . . . — Map (db m83613) HM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Fort Henry|
| The first Fort Henry was built during the War of 1812 to protect the British dockyards in Navy Bay. The present limestone citadel, constructed between 1832 and 1837, replaced the old fort as part of a larger plan for the defence of the recently completed Rideau Canal. Commissariat stores were built to join the advanced battery with the main fort in 1841-42. Fort Henry was garrisoned by British troops until 1871, when Canadian Gunnery Schools (forerunner of the Royal Canadian Artillery) took . . . — Map (db m39364) HM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Kingston Navy Yard|
|English: The Navy Yard established in 1789 as a trans-shipment point for the Great Lakes and as the Provincial Marine's Lake Ontario base was administered by the Admiralty after 1813. During the War of 1812 Commodore James Yeo, R. N., commanded a considerable squadron built in these yards, including the 112-gun ST. LAWRENCE. This base posed a constant threat to the Americans, who never felt strong enough to risk a direct attack. The Rush-Bagot agreement of 1817, which limited armaments . . . — Map (db m83568) HM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Louis de Buade Comte de Frontenac et de Palluau — 1622-1698|
|One of the most influential and controversial figures in Canadian history, Frontenac was born at St-Germain-en-Laye, France. As a member of the noblesse d'epee he was able in 1672 to secure the appointment as Governor-General of New France. Devoted largely because of self-interest to promoting the colony's territorial expansion, Frontenac established a series of fortified fur-trading posts extending into the interior of North America, the first of which, Fort Frontenac, was constructed near . . . — Map (db m39978) HM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Point Frederick|
|English: A strategic location for the defence of the Loyalist settlement at Cataraqui (Kingston), this point was reserved in 1788 and named after Sir Frederick Haldimand, Governor of Quebec (1778-86). In 1790-91 a guardhouse and storehouse were built. By 1792 a dockyard was in operation and during the War of 1812 this vital naval base was fortified. On November 10, 1812, the Fort Frederick battery took part in repulsing an American naval squadron under Commodore Isaac Chauncey. This . . . — Map (db m83571) HM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Point Frederick Artillery Battery — Batterie d’artillerie de la Pointe Frederick|
|In November 1812, guns of the original fort here were fired against American ships attacking Kingston. Perhaps this attack came as retaliation for the earlier Canadian one on Sackets (sic) Harbor, but more likely American commander Chauncey felt his squadron sufficiently strong to destroy Anglo-Canadian power on the lake and centered at Kingston. But that failed, giving the British Army the opportunity to build here a new, more powerful battery of 6 and 9 pounder guns with a 45-foot square . . . — Map (db m83615) HM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Point Frederick Buildings|
|English: This peninsula, headquarters of the Provincial Marine (c. 1790-1813), and of the Royal Navy (1813-1853), was the major British naval base on Lake Ontario during the War of 1812. Buildings surviving from this period include the Naval Hospital, the Guard House complex, and the Stone Frigate. On the southern part of the peninsula stands Fort Frederick, erected in 1812-13 but completely rebuilt in 1846. In 1875 the Point was chosen as the site of the Royal Military College of . . . — Map (db m83618) HM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — The Market Battery|
|Stood on this site from 1848 to 1875. With Shoal Tower opposite it defended Kingston Harbour and the Rideau Canal. From 1875 this was a public park. In 1885 the Kingston and Pembroke railway station was built. — Map (db m39979) HM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — The Stone Frigate|
Once part of a large and active naval dockyard, this substantial stone building was erected as a warehouse for naval stores. Although initially planned in 1816, it was not completed until four years later when the need for storage facilities to hold gear and rigging from British warships dismantled in compliance with the Rush-Bagot Agreement had become acute. After the Rebellion of 1837 the building briefly functioned as a barracks for the naval detachment charged with . . . — Map (db m83567) HM|
|Ontario (Leeds and Grenville Counties), Prescott — Fort Wellington|
|English: The first Fort Wellington was erected on this site during the War of 1812 to shelter British regular troops and Canadian militia defending the vital St. Lawrence River transportation route. In February 1813 those soldiers crossed the ice to capture Ogdensburg, N. Y. When rebellion threatened Upper Canada in 1838 the fort was in ruins. Construction had scarcely begun on the present fort in November 1838 when a band of Canadian rebels and American sympathizers attacked, they were . . . — Map (db m83365) HM|
|Ontario (Leeds and Grenville Counties), Prescott — Welcome to the Site of The Battle of the Windmill|
[ On the Right - In English ]:
You are standing on a battlefield where men fought and died. This battle took place in November 1838, during the Canadian rebellions. One side fought to "liberate" Canada from British rule. The other side rallied to protect their homes or the established political order.
The lighthouse in front of you is a converted windmill around which the battle was fought.
Fort Wellington, a few kilometres to the west in Prescott, was a gathering . . . — Map (db m83497) HM|
|Ontario (Middlesex County), London — The British Garrison in London|
|In one of several concentrations of British troops in Upper Canada various infantry and artillery units were stationed on a military reserve here during the mid-19th century. The garrison, which contributed significantly to the economic growth of London, was first established in 1839 to guard against border raids following the Rebellion of 1837. Although its troops were withdrawn in 1853 to serve in the Crimean War and military duties were assumed by pensioners, it was re-occupied by British . . . — Map (db m18918) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Fort Chippawa 1791|
|The fortifications which stood on this site were built in 1791 to protect the southern terminus of the Niagara portage road, and serve as a forwarding depot for government supplies. Known also as Fort Welland, the main structure consisted of a log blockhouse surrounded by a stockade. During the War of 1812 several bloody engagements were fought in this vicinity including the bitterly contested Battle of Chippawa, July 5, 1814, and possession of the fort frequently changed hands. A barracks, . . . — Map (db m49164) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Fort Erie — Fort Erie|
|Three fortifications occupied this site. The first (1764-1779) and second (c. 1783-1803), located at lower levels, were abandoned when ice and water inundated the works. The third Fort Erie, built between 1805 and 1808, was repaired in January 1814 but was captured by an invading American army in July of that same year. The Americans used it as a base for subsequent operations, retreated here after their defeat at Lundy's Lane, survived a siege by the British in August and September, and . . . — Map (db m48912) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Fort Erie — Fort Erie, Pro Patria Mori Cairn|
|[Text on the base of the Cairn];
Here are buried
150 British Officers and Men
Who fell in the attack on Fort Erie
On the 26th day of August, 1814, and three
of the defenders, men of the United States
Infantry, whose remains were discovered
during the restoration of Fort Erie,
1938 & 1939
[Text on first of 2 plaques mounted on the Cairn]:
In Memory of the
Officers and Seamen of
the Royal Navy, The Off-
icers, Non commissioned
Officers and . . . — Map (db m54139) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Thomas Baker McQuesten — K.C., M.L.A. — 1882 – 1945|
|Thomas Baker McQuesten was born in Hespeler, Ontario June 30, 1882. In 1934 he was appointed Minister of Highways and Public Works for the Province of Ontario and Chairman of the Niagara Parks Commission. He served in both positions for ten years.
During his term as chairman of the Niagara Parks Commission, he was instrumental in the building of Oakes Garden Theatre; The construction of the Niagara Parkway from Clifton Hill to the whirlpool; the Niagara Parks School of Horticulture; Mather . . . — Map (db m78489) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — A Fort Evolves — Fort Mississauga|
By 1813, the British were planning to build "a tower in small redoubt to command the entrance of the River...at Mississauga Point." Begun in the Spring of 1814, this tower rests on the remains of the first Capital of Upper Canada (today's Ontario). After the Americans burned the town of Newark in 1813, the British tore down the remaining brick walls and chimneys to provide a foundation. The tower was only two feet high in July when an American force under General . . . — Map (db m52200) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — A Strategic Location|
|A Strategic Location
You are standing at Mississauga Point where the Niagara River flows into Lake Ontario. Long ago the lakes and rivers were military supply and transportation routes and forts were built to protect them.
The large stone fort across the river is Fort Niagara. The French built a fort here in 1687, and the present one was begun in 1720. In August 1759 the British captured the fort after a lengthy seige. Prideaux and Johnston streets in Niagara-on-the-Lake . . . — Map (db m52610) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — A Strategic Site|
|Fort Niagara was only 1200 metres from Fort
George, well within artillery range. In May, 1813, combined artillery fire from Fort Niagara, its detached batteries, and American warships at the river's mouth completely destroyed Fort George
and forced the British to abandon it to the
invading Americans. Only the powder magazine
survived. By the end of the war, the British had re-
occupied Fort George and captured Fort Niagara. — Map (db m53604) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort George — Ie Fort George|
|Constructed by order of Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe 1796-99, Fort George served as the headquarters for Major-General Brock in 1812. In May, 1813, it was bombarded and captured by the Americans who constructed fortifications of their own on the site. These in turn were retaken by the British in December 1813. In 1815 Fort George was described as "tumbling into ruins" and ordered abandoned. The present works are a reconstruction done in 1937-40, and represents the fort as it was in 1799-1813. . . . — Map (db m48743) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort Mississauga — Le Fort Mississauga|
|This tower and earthwork are all that survive of the barracks, guardroom, and cells of Fort Mississauga. Built between 1814 and 1816 to replace Fort George as the counterpoise to the American Fort Niagara immediately opposite, it was garrisoned until 1826. Repaired and rearmed following the Rebellion of 1837, it continued to be maintained until 1854 in response to border disputes with the United States. It was manned during the tense years of the American Civil War and the Fenian scare of 1866, . . . — Map (db m48745) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort Mississauga is a National Historic Site — an impotant part of Canada's story!|
|• Mississauga Point was the location of a Neutral First Nation fishing settlement by the 15th century.
• The area was under the control of the Seneca Nation during the late 17th century, and it became home to the Mississauga Nation by the 18th century.
• Fort Mississauga was begun during the War of 1812, and helped the British and Canadians defend the Niagara frontier against a powerful invading American army in 1814.
• It was completed after the War, and was a part of a defense . . . — Map (db m52236) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort Mississauga Trail — Sentier du fort Mississauga|
|Explore a part of our heritage - visit a fort almost 200 years old and discover part of the Lake Ontario shoreline.
Explorez un volet de notre patrimoine - visitez un fort qui a presque 200 ans d'histoire et decouvrez une partie du rivage du lac Ontario. — Map (db m48632) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort Niagara|
|Across the Niagara River is the imposing American stronghold, Fort Niagara. Originally built by the French, then occupied by the British, and finally by the Americans, this fort for nearly 150 years stood guard over the traditional supply route to the Upper Great Lakes. — Map (db m53630) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Niagara National Historic Sites|
|Brock's Monument and
This striking commemoration and final resting place of Major General Brock marks the site of the Battle of Queenston Heights. Visitors can climb the 235 stairs to take in spectacular views, or set off on a self-guided tour which covers every major scene of the historic battle
Navy Hall survives as the last building of what was once a large military complex and key supply depot for British forts on the Upper . . . — Map (db m54037) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Point Mississauga Lighthouse — Le Phare de Point Mississauga|
|The first lighthouse on the Great Lakes was built of stone at Point Mississauga in 1804 by John Symington, under orders from Lieutenant-Governor Peter Hunter. Demolished in 1814 to make room for this fort, its materials with debris from the ruined town of Niagara, were incorporated into this tower.
En 1804, John Symington, sur l'ordre du lieutenant-gouverneur Peter Hunter, construisit le premier phare des Grand lacs à Point Mississauga. Ce phare, qui était en pierre, fut démoli en 1814 . . . — Map (db m48746) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Six Pounder Field Gun|
|Field artillery was designed for mobility. Cannons mounted on carriages with large wheels could be moved quickly, even over rough terrain. This six pounder has a limber to carry ammunition and supplies and would be harnessed to a team of horses. Field guns like this were used by the Royal Artillery on battlefields around the world.
After the defeat of the British forces at the Battle of Fort George, field guns manned by the Royal Artillery and the local militia were critical in delaying . . . — Map (db m54000) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — The Fortified Mouth of the Niagara River|
|The St.Lawrence and Great Lakes system was the most efficient route to the interior of the continent of North America. Large waterways allowed for substantial sailing vessels to trade and maintain contact with Native allies from Montreal to the Mississippi with minimal portages and transhipment in smaller boats. The one great obstacle along the chain of waterways was Niagara Falls whose dramatic height required some control of the land to allow for a portage around the escarpment and the falls . . . — Map (db m53624) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Ubique|
Artillery was vitally important to the defense of Upper Canada. Due to a shortage of heavy cannons available in the province, there were only five garrison guns mounted inside Fort George in May of 1813.
Moving large cannons weighing several tons was a challenge. The easiest way to move guns was by water. Movement by land was slow and labour intensive and could expose the men moving them to enemy fire. Bad weather and poor roads could also make the . . . — Map (db m53989) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Welcome to Fort George|
|Built in 1796, Fort George was the scene of fierce engagements during the War of 1812. It was captured and destroyed then refortified by the Americans in 1813. It was re-taken by the British later that same year. The fort was abandoned in the 1820's, and only the original stone powder magazine survives today. Fort George was reconstructed between 1937-40.
Today we invite you to pass through the fort gates and re-live this exciting era in history. — Map (db m54038) HM|
|Ontario (Toronto, Municipality of Metropolitan), Toronto — No. 2 (Centre) Blockhouse — 1813|
|The first structures built at Fort York during the War of 1812 where blockhouses to house the soldiers. Thick, square-timbered walls (covered with ‘weather boards’) offered protection from bullets, exploding shells and small-calibre artillery. Loopholes and windows allowed defenders to fire back at attackers. When the fort’s earthworks were completed in 1814, soldiers could retreat into the blockhouses if the exterior walls were overrun. During the Rebellion of 1837, this building gained a . . . — Map (db m83745) HM|
|Ontario (Toronto, Municipality of Metropolitan), Toronto — The Battle of York 1813 — La Bataille de York de 1813|
Loyal residents of York (Toronto) were encouraged by early British victories in the War of 1812, but in 1813, they experienced first-hand the hardships of war. On the morning of April 27th, an American fleet appeared offshore and began to send 1,700 soldiers ashore two kilometres west of here. At first only a small force of Ojibwa warriors was in position to resist the landing. After fierce skirmishing the invaders advanced, overcoming defensive stands by outnumbered British . . . — Map (db m83668) HM|
|Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Artillery Park: The Barracks Sector — Parc de l’Artillerie: Le secteur de casernement|
Artillery Park opens its doors to you! Closed to civilians for 250 years, it served as a barrack for French and English troops before welcoming Canada’s first-ever munitions factory. Come and experience the atmosphere of this historic site and admire the city’s oldest barracks!
Artillery Park is located in a strategic position on Québec’s promontory. As you visit the site, you will be able to appreciate the quality of the fortifications built by the French in the 18th . . . — Map (db m81400) HM|
|Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Fortifications de / of Québec — Gaspard-J. Chaussegros de Léry — National Historic Civil Engineering Site|
| Fortifications de / of Québec
Quebec city’s defensive system is a remarkable feat of engineering. But during the colonial period, it represents the work of a succession of engineers.
Le système défensif de Québec illustre une oeuvre d’ingénierie remarquable. Élaboré pendant la période coloniale, il traduit les apports successifs de plusieurs ingénieurs.
Gaspard-J. Chaussegros de Léry
A tribute to this . . . — Map (db m80845) HM|
|Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — La Batterie Royale|
Sous le règne de Louis VIV, en l’année 1691, Frontenac, gouverneur général de la Nouvelle-France fait construire en ce lieu appelé Pointe-aux-Roches un plate-forme qui doit recevoir une batterie de canons nécessaire à la défense de Québec.
En 1763, ne servant plus à des fins militaires, la batterie est transformée en débarcadère. Au XIXᵉ siècle avec l’expansion du port et de la basse-ville, elle disparaît peu à peu sous les constructions et les remblayages . . . — Map (db m81531) HM|
|Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Martello Towers / Tours Martello — Martello Tower 2 / Tour Martello 2|
In the early 19th century, the British feared that the Americans, after gaining their independence (1776), would attempt to annex Upper and Lower Canada. In response to this threat, Gother Mann, as commanding officier of the Royal Engineers in Canada (1785-1804), urged the building of towers at Quebec to prevent an invader from approaching the existing fortifications.
Ralph Bruyères, Mann’s successor, began construction of four towers in the summer of 1808. James Craig, . . . — Map (db m80880) HM|
|Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Martello Towers in Quebec / Tours Martello de Québec — Martello Tower 1 / Tour Martello 1|
In the early 19th century, the British were afraid that the Americans, having won their independence in 1776, would try to annex Upper and Lower Canada. In the face of this threat, Gother Mann, Canada’s chief engineer (1785-1804), recommended a new defensive system for Quebec City that involved, among other things, occupying the Heights of Abraham. In view of the urgency of the situation, the colony’s governor, James Craig, authorized part of the work without waiting for . . . — Map (db m80886) HM|
|Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Protecting the Upper Town — Protéger la haute-ville|
The promontory on which Québec is perched offered a natural defense against attackers. But its west flank, which gave way to open countryside, was vulnerable. Enormous sums of money would be spent to protect this side of the town.
In 1690, Governor Frontenac hastily put up a front line of defence to protect the western flank from William Phip’s British soldiers who sailed from Boston. This defense work was replaced by 1693, by a more elaborate fortification designed to . . . — Map (db m81436) HM|
|Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Québec Martello Towers — Les tours Martello de Québec|
Four Martello towers (three of which remains) were an integral part of the defences of Québec, the key to the control of the continental interior of North America. Works had been proposed in the Plains of Abraham since the early 1790s, but only after the Anglo-American crisis of 1807 did Governor Sir James Craig order construction of the towers. Built between 1808 and 1812, they were intended to prevent an attacker drawing close enough to lay siege to the walls of Québec. . . . — Map (db m80891) HM|
|Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — Stone Wind Mill — Moulin à vent en pierre|
On this height, called Mont Carmel, there stood in 1690 a stone wind-mill whereon was mounted a battery of three guns, and which served for a redoubt during the siege of Quebec by Phips. It was called “Le Cavalier du Moulin.”
Sur cette éminence, appelée le Mont-Carmel, il y avait en 1690 un moulin à vent en pierre, où, l’on monta une batterie de trois canons, et qui servit de redoute durant le siège de Québec par Phips. On l’appela le “Cavalier du Moulin.” — Map (db m81325) HM|
|Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — The Artillery Park — Le park de l’Artillerie|
The Artillery Park National Site of Canada commemorates 250 years of military activity in the heart of Québec’s fortifications. You can visit these buildings.
Ⓐ The Arsenal Foundry, where you can examine a model of the city of Québec created in 1808.
Ⓑ The Gun Carriage Warehouse, constructed in 1815.
Ⓒ The Dauphine Redoubt and is magnificent Officier’ Mess.
Ⓓ The Officier’s Quarters and the warm décor of the 1830’.
Ⓔ The New . . . — Map (db m81396) HM|
|Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — The Grande Allée Drill Hall — Le manège de la Grande Allée|
The Grande-Allée Drill Hall is an impressive example of a drill hall that retains its original parade square. Designed by Eugène-Étienne Taché, a Quebec public servant and architect, the stone building was completed in 1887, with an addition in 1913. The steeply pitched gable roof, conical towers and fanciful decorative details of the drill hall make it an early example of the French-inspired Chateau style. The use of the style here is unique among Canadian drill halls of this . . . — Map (db m80754) HM|
|Quebec (Capitale-Nationale (region)), Québec — The Québec Citadel — La Citadelle de Québec|
In 1820 Lieutenant-Colonel Elias Walker Durnford of the Royal Engineers took charge of the construction of the Québec Citadel, which completed the city's defensive works begun during the French régime. Set on the heights of Cap-aux-Diamants, the Citadel dominated the town, harbour and the surrounding countryside. The ramparts were completed in 1831, and the major buildings within the walls about 1850. The walls also contain Frontenac's 1693 redoubt and a 1750 powder magazine. . . . — Map (db m80822) HM|
|Quebec (Haut-Richelieu MRC), Saint-Jean — Fort Saint-Jean|
L'état de guerre avec les Iroquois incita les Français à bâtir un fort à Saint-Jean en 1666. Un nouveau fort fut érigé en 1748 afin de protéger la colonie française contre les expéditions militaires britanniques qui remontaient la rivière Richelieu. En 1775, deux redoutes furent construites pour défendre contre l'invasion américaine la colonie passée aux mains des Anglais. La même année, le fort soutint un siège de 45 jours dirigé par le général américain Montgomery. A la suite du . . . — Map (db m77015) HM|
|Quebec (La-Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM), Chambly — Fort Chambly|
Chambly — A.D. 1665.
Courage et Loyaute
Sous le regne de Louis XIV,
Roi de France et de Navarre,
Le Marquis de Vaudreuh,
Gouverneur général de la Nouvelle France
Ce Fort fut érige en 1771
Incendié en 1776.
Restauré par Guy Carleton en 1777.
Abandonné en 1817
Il fut réparé en 1882 et 1888;
Sous le regne de Victoria,
Reine de la Grande Bretagne.
Le Marquis de Lorne
Gouverneur Général du Canada
Théodore . . . — Map (db m82025) HM|
|Quebec (La-Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM), Sainte-Angèle-de-Monnoir — Fort Sainte-Thérèse — Le fort Sainte-Thérèse — The Wooden Fort Era / Au temps des forts de bois|
In 1665, not far from here on the shores of the Richelieu, the soldiers of the Carignan-Salieres regiment built a wooden stockade to protect the new colony and bring the war to Iroquois territory, southwest of Lake Champlain. The construction was completed on October 15, the day of celebration for Saint-Thérèse.
The fort was abandoned two years later when peace was made with the Iroquois, and then rebuilt in 1747. It was burned down by American Rangers on June 16, 1760, . . . — Map (db m82033) HM|
|Quebec (La-Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM), Sainte-Angèle-de-Monnoir — Fort Ste. Therese|
Built in 1665, on the point south east beyond the canal, by M. de Salieres. One of the forts constructed on the Richelieu by the Carignan Regiment for defence against the Iroquois, starting point of the expedition of 1666. In June, 1760, Major Robert Rogers burned the fortified post.
Bâti en 1665, sur la pointe sud-est, de l'autre côté du canal, par M. de Salières. L'un des forts construit sur le Richelieu, par le régiment de Carignan, pour arrêter les . . . — Map (db m82032) HM|
|Quebec (Le Haut-Richelieu RCM), Lacolle — 15 — Blockhaus de la Rivière-Lacolle — Lacolle Mills Blockhouse|
Built prior to the War of 1812, the Lacolle Blockhouse is one of the last military defense works of of its kind still standing in Canada. After the American invasion of 1775 and 1776, the British authorities wished to exert better control over access to the Saint Lawrence River via the Richelieu River. In 1778, the Royal Engineers began building a defence network of forts, redoubts and blockhouses such as the one on the Lacolle River. Lacolle became an important outpost . . . — Map (db m82069) HM|
|Quebec (Le Haut-Richelieu RCM), Lacolle — Blockhaus de la Rivière-Lacolle — The Lacolle River Blockhouse|
The Lacolle River Blockhouse
Back in the XVIII Century …
In Canada, blockhouses first appeared in Acadia around 1750, at the time of the British conquest. The Lacolle River blockhouse, built in 1781, was part of the colony’s defence network, and served as an outpost for British soldiers on missions in the Upper-Richelieu region. It was abandoned after a peace treaty was signed on December 24, 1814, by the United States and Great Britain, and today is the only . . . — Map (db m82728) HM|
|Quebec (Le Haut-Richelieu RCM), Saint-Paul-de-l'Île-aux-Noix — Fort Lennox — Le Fort Lennox|
Fort Lennox was the third fortification built on Isle-aux-Noix as a barrier to invasion along the Richelieu River from the south. The island was first fortified by the French in 1759 but the British captured it the next year. In 1775 the Americans occupied the island as a base for their attack on Canada. After they retreated the British erected a new fort to deter further American invasion. During the War of 1812 it protected an important naval base. Later this fort was razed . . . — Map (db m82065) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — A canal excavated in the rock — Un canal creusé dans le roc|
|English: The point at Coteau-du-Lac is formed by superimposed layers of dolomite (rock containing lime and magnesium). The British military used various excavation techniques to build a canal at this spot.
In general, they removed the rock layer by layer by driving iron wedges in between the strata with sledgehammers. In the case of large, un-cracked surfaces, they drilled holes and then partially filled the with gunpowder which was ignited to blast the rock. We also presume that . . . — Map (db m83819) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — A canal that must be preserved — Un canal à protéger|
|English: The Canadian Parks service has a mission to preserve certain sites that bear witness to the history of our country and to the accomplishments of our ancestors. Of exceptional historic and archaeological importance, the Coteau-du-Lac National Historic Park is an example of the kind of site that must be protected. Its structural features and other remains are unique and non-renewable.
Abandoned in the middle of the 19th century, the canal at Coteau-du-Lac was excavated by . . . — Map (db m83817) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — A dry canal — Un canal à sec|
Located at the confluence of the Delisle and St. Lawrence rivers, the point of land at Coteau-du-Lac was originally surrounded by water.
However, with the construction of hydroelectric dams and the St. Lawrence Seaway, the water level of the St. Lawrence has been lowered by 2.5 m. As a result, water no longer surrounds the point or enters the canal.
The basin at the entrance to the canal right in front of you looks very different from the way it did when boats from . . . — Map (db m83794) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — A strategic site / Un lieu stratégique|
During the American Revolution, Governor Haldimand decided to establish a supply centre at Coteau-du-Lac, since it was well situated on the line of communication between Montréal and the Great Lakes. As early as 1779, blockhouses, palisaded works and abattis protected the installations from possible raid or surprise attack by a small force.
The War of 1812 changed Coteau-du-Lac’s defensive role considerably. Now that the American border was only a few kilometres away, the . . . — Map (db m83771) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — A supply centre / Un poste de ravitaillement|
Even before the canal was constructed, Coteau-du-Lac was used as a supply centre for goods being shipped to the Great Lakes posts. In 1779, two storehouses were built on the site: one was reserved for general merchandise, while the other was designed for liquid merchandise, such as rum.
The supply system developed at this time made it possible to gain several days in the spring, when provisions were needed by the more distant posts, which generally ran out of stock by . . . — Map (db m83770) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — A very busy canal — Un canal très fréquenté|
Although the Coteau-du-Lac canal was built primarily to accelerate the transport of troops and military supplies to the forts around the Great Lakes, it was also used for commercial purposes.
Traffic through the canal, which was opened to navigation in 1781, did not reach its peak until after the War of 1812, when shipping on the St. Lawrence River was in full swing. Boats heading toward the Great Lakes carried food, spirits, farming implements, hardware, clothing, tools . . . — Map (db m83798) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — Adapting the canal to new needs — Un canal qui évolue|
The settlement of Loyalists in Upper Canada after the American Revolution led to a substantial increase in trade between Upper and Lower Canada in the early 19th century. Since merchandise was transported mainly by water, the British were obliged to use increasingly larger “batteaux” to cope with the volume of goods forwarded. They even resorted to a type of vessel called the “Durham boat”, which was employed in the United States and whose dimensions . . . — Map (db m83799) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-lac — Coteau-du-lac|
From 1778 until the mid-19th century Coteau-du-Lac was the site of a British military post which defended the passage and facilitated the transportation of supplies along the St. Lawrence. It was of strategic importance to the defence of Canada during the American Revolution and during the War of 1812 when its fortifications were added to strengthen its position. In addition to the supply depot and fort, one of the earliest locks in North America was constructed here in . . . — Map (db m82178) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — Destination: Great Lakes / Destination: Les Grands Lacs — Coteau-du-Lac: Supply Post / Coteau-du-Lac: Centre de ravitaillement|
During the American War of Independence, Frederick Haldimand, Governor of the Province of Quebec, had a supply post built at Coteau-du-Lac, given the site’s strategic location between Montreal and the Great Lakes. As early as 1779, blockhouse, palisades and abatis protected the canal and the post from a possible surprise attack by the American “rebels.”
Explore the remains of the two storehouses built on the site in 1779-1780:
— the North storehouse . . . — Map (db m83768) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — North blockhouse / Le blockhaus nord — Temporary officers’ quarters - North storehouse / Le logement temporaire des officiers - L’entrepôt|
These masonry features are the remains of the north blockhouse built by the British army during the American Revolution (1775-1783). Erected to protect the canal, this building was also used as a barracks and as a storehouse for food and munitions. It was destroyed sometime after 1779, then rebuilt during the War of 1812. The new blockhouse had the same trapezoidal shape as the old one but was oriented in a different direction. Plans from the 1850s no longer show a blockhouse . . . — Map (db m83769) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — The “rigolet” canal — Le canal rigolet|
|English: Since the “batteau” was difficult to portage, the French has to find another means of getting this heavy boat past the rapids. As a result, they constructed a “rigolet” canal at Coteau-du-Lac in the 18th century.
A “rigolet” canal was simply a dike consisting of rocks piled up to form a line parallel to the shore, at about a dozen feet from it. This shallow navigable channel offered boats protection from the violent currents of the nearby . . . — Map (db m83846) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — The construction of the canal — La construction du canal|
The construction of the canal at Coteau-du-Lac began in the summer of 1779.
William Twiss, Commanding Royal Engineer of the British army, was in charge of the project. Most of the labourers who worked on the canal were soldiers of the King’s Royal Regiment of New York, a colonial regiment made up of Loyalists.
The soldiers dug the canal in the rock using fairly primitive tools and techniques. Gunpowder was used for blasting. The British army probably brought over . . . — Map (db m83820) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — The Durham boat — Le bateau Durham|
Of American origin, the Durham boat was introduced into Canada in around 1810. Since it was a flat-bottomed, shallow-draught vessel, it could be used in rapids, and shoal without running aground. It was equipped with an oar that served as a rudder. Even though it did not have a keel or a centreboard, it could still be handled with ease on the turbulent waterways of North America. The Durham boat was propelled downstream by oars and upstream by poles. It could also be navigated . . . — Map (db m83796) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — The first lock canal in North America — La premier canal à écluses en Amérique du Nord|
Captain William Twiss, Commanding Royal Engineer of the British army, initiated and supervised the construction of the Coteau-du-Lac canal.
This canal was intended to reduce the amount of time it took for “batteaux” to pass the most treacherous rapids on the St. Lawrence above Montréal. It constituted the third solution, as it were, to the navigation problems posed by the rapids at Coteau-du-Lac. For thousands of years, Amerindians had portaged around these . . . — Map (db m83822) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — The War of 1812 - 1814 — La guerre de 1812 - 1814|
With the development of lighter artillery, the art of warfare underwent important changes in the second half of the 18th century and early 19th century. Sudden, rapid manoeuvers (sic) began to replace the slow and stationary siege. Many new light infantry and artillery corps were created at this time and an increasing number of militia corps were called up; these measures resulted in greater mobility for the armed forces.
The strategy and tactics developed during the . . . — Map (db m83767) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — What is a lock canal? — Qu’est-ce qu’un canal à écluses?|
|English: A canal is an artificial waterway designed to improve navigation on a river or other watercourse.
A lock is a water-filled chamber with gates and sluices which allows vessels to travel between bodies of water that are located at different levels.
When a vessel passes through a lock canal, it’s almost as though it were going up or down stairs.
Originally, the canal at Coteau-du-Lac had three locks. However, only two locks remained after major repair work was done in . . . — Map (db m83818) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — Why a canal at Coteau-du-Lac? — Pourquoi un canal à Coteau-du-lac?|
|English: Plans to launch an invasion of Canada during the Revolutionary War (1775-1783) brought to light a major weakness in the country’s system of defence.
At the time, the St. Lawrence River was the only line of supply for the military posts around the Great Lakes. To reach these posts, which defended Canada’s western border, the British as to bypass several stretches of rapids located upstream from Montréal. The need to transport troops and merchandise around these obstacles by . . . — Map (db m83823) HM|
|Quebec (Vaudreuil-Soulanges RCM), Coteau-du-Lac — Worth Defending! / Mission: Parry Any Land-based Movements — Une place à défendre! / Mission: Empêcher les mouvements terrestres|
|This marker has material on both sides
Coteau-du-Lac: A Strategic Site
The War of 1812 changed Coteau-du-Lac’s defensive role. It was no longer simply a supply post. With the American border just a few kilometres away, their were fears that the enemy might bypass Kingston and attack Montreal directly, cutting the military forces in Upper and Lower Canada off from each other. Defensive works were built on either side . . . — Map (db m83792) HM|
|Quebec (Ville-Marie Borough), Montréal — Aux origines de Montréal / The origins of Montréal|
|C’est ici que le sieur de Maisonneuve fonda Montréal en mai 1642. Situé au confluent du Saint-Laurent et de l’ancienne petite rivière Saint-pierre, l’endroit était bien connu des Autochtones qui s’y rassemblaient depuis des siècles, de même que sur le site de l’actuelle place Royale. Dès leur arrivée, les Français construisirent le fort Ville-Marie. Vers 1688, le gouverneur de Montréal, Louis-Hector de Calliėre, obtint une partie du terrain et y érigea sa résidence, d’où le nom de pointe . . . — Map (db m78186) HM|
|Czech Republic, Ústecký (Okres Litoměřice), Terezín — 3 — Garrison Church|
Kostel Vzkřišení Páně byl postaven v letech 1805-1810. Budovu s věží vysokou 56 m projektovali Ing. Heinrich Hetzinger a Julius D’Andreis. Takřka totožný se nachází v Pevnosti Josefov u Jaroměře.
The Church of the Resurrection of the Lord was built in 1805-1810. Ing. Heinrich Hatzinger and Julius D'Andreis designed the building with its 56 m tall tower. A nearly identical church . . . — Map (db m22500) HM|
|Czech Republic, Ústecký (Okres Litoměřice), Terezín — 15 — The Food Storeroom — Proviantní Sklad|
| In Czech:
Budova s jedním obdélníkovým nádvořím byla postavena v letech 1786 až 1789. V objektu se skladovala mouka, cukr, sůl, a pečivo. Spolu s Kavalírem č. II zde mohly být v připadě válečného konfliktu uskladněny zásoby potravin pro 70-ti tisícove vojsko na dobu 3,5 měsíce.
The Food Storeroom
This building, with one rectangular courtyard, was built between 1786 and 1789. Flour, sugar, . . . — Map (db m22626) HM|
|Estonia, Harjumaa MaakondTallinn — Toompea Loss — [Toompea Castle]|
| Aerial photo of the castle and surroundings
Text in Estonian : …
Text in English:
Toompea Castle is the seat of the Parliament of the Republic of Estonia – the Riigikogu
The castle complex is made up of several parts: the west wall and the Tall Hermann tower belongs to the medieval fortress of the Order of the Brothers of the Sword, the Government Administration building represents the Czarist era and is classic in style, and the building of the . . . — Map (db m57027) HM|
|Finland, Uusimaa Region (Helsinki), Suomenlinna — Kirkkopuisto — Kyrkparken - Church Park — [Suomenlinna Sea Fortress]|
| [Text in Finnish:] …
[Text in Swedish:] …
[Text in English:]
The crownwork (1) comprises the southern flank of an ambitious plan for a public square originally drawn up by Augustin Ehrensvard. The foundation stone was laid on June 8, 1775, by King Gustav III of Sweden. On its external side, the crownwork was designed to form an imposing greystone defensive wall, but its casemates and wings were used for naval shipyard workshops, a sail-making shop, storerooms . . . — Map (db m57779) HM|
|France, Aquitaine (Dordogne), Beynac-et-Cazenac — Chateau Feodal de Beynac — [Feudal castle of Beynac]|
|Forteresse du XIIe-XIIIe Siècles
Baronne du Perigord
La survie du patrimoine historique tient à deux facteurs: sa mise en valeur et sa restauration. Ce témoignage de notre civilisation et de notre histoire nous permet aussi de reconsitituer la passé au quotidien: c’est la tache la plus difficile à mettre en oeuvre. Elle s’avere pourtant indispensable si l’on veut que cet héritage culturel soit ressenti comme un élément de l’énvironnement naturel dans lequel nous vivons.
Rien n’est plus . . . — Map (db m60408) HM|
|France, Aquitaine (Gironde), Saint Emilion — La Porte Brunet — [The Brunet Gate] — Saint Emilion|
|Saint-Émilion “une de plus fortes places de la Guienne” un Moyen-Âge, fut défendue par un enceinte fortifiée edifiée de 1110 à 1224, comportant 1500 m de remparts (classés Monuments historique, le 12 julliet 1886) .Ces derniers crénelés et armés de mâchicolulis, longeaient les fossés sur un hauteur de 8 à 10 m et un épaisseur de 1,60 à 2 m. Six portes d’une épaisseur double de celle de la muraille et surmontées de larges tours, carrées permettaient d’accéder à la cité: porte . . . — Map (db m60536) HM|
|France, Aquitaine (Gironde), Saint Emilion — La Porte Saint Martin — [The Saint Martin Gate]|
|Construite au XIIème siècle en même temps que les remparts extérieurs et écroulée en 1844, cette porte ouvrait sur l’ancienne commune de la Juridiction St. Martin de Mazérat, rattachée à St. Emilion en 1790.
Elle tire son nom du chemin qu’elle commande et qui conduisait à l’Eglise romane de St. Martin de Mazéart.|
[English translation by Google Translate, with modifications:
The Saint Martin Gate
Built in the twelfth century at the same time as the outer walls and collapsed in . . . — Map (db m60519) HM
|France, Île-de-France (Paris), Paris — La Conciergerie|
|La Conciergerie tient son nom du concierge, à qui le roi confie les droits de justice sur la demeure royale et ses dépendances. Du palais capétien de Philippe le Bel subsistent de rares salles gothiques, témoins des fastes royaux du XIVe siècle. Les salles dites «revolutionaries» évoquent le régime de la Terreur avec, en partictulier, le cellule reconstituée des la reine Marie Antoinette.|
The Conciergerie, originally part of the former royal palace of the French kings, it takes . . . — Map (db m61578) HM
|France, Languedoc-Roussillon (Bouches-du-Rhône), Arles — Tour des Mourgues — Tower of the Nuns|
|Le mur d’enceinte médiéval de la cité reprend, à l’angle Sud-Est le tracé de rempart antique.
La Tour des Mourgues fut d’abord une grande tour cylindrique de 6 mètres de haut qui renforçait cette partie de la ville romaine.
Le mot provençal “Mourgues” signifie “nonne”. En effet au dessus de la tour se trouvait l’abbaye Saint-Césaire fondée au Vie siècle.
A la fin du Moyen-Age (XIVe siècle), la structure romaine a été enveloppée par une chemise extérieure polygonale en . . . — Map (db m61526) HM|
|France, Languedoc-Roussillon (Hérault), Capestang — Le Château de l’archevêque — [Castle of the Archbishop]|
|La présence d’une demeure est attestée dès le XIIe siecle. Au VIIIe l’adjonction d’une courtline avec tours d’angle et les aménagements du logis avec arcs et mâchicoulis en front une forteresse. Sa fonction résidentielle s’affirme aux XIVe et XVe : peinture murale de sa vaste salle d’apparat, spendide planfond peint...
Les textes parient d’un palais. Le très riche et très puissant archevêque de Narbonne, seigneur du lieu, y effectue de frêquents sêjours avec ses baggage, se coffres, ses . . . — Map (db m60174) HM|
|France, Languedoc-Roussillon (Hérault), Capestang — Porte de Béziers — [The Bezier Gate]|
|L’enceinte du XIVème siècle, ponctuée de tours de diverses formes, disposait de cinq ports dont certaines avec « tour et maison attenante ».
En 1775, les portes dites de Carcassonne, de Saïsses et de Béziers sont remises en état : elles sont en bois de sapin « peint a l’huile d’une couleur brun-rouge » , chacune se compose de deux vantaux, une travers, un guichet au milieu, deux serrures de deux verrous.
[Translation by Google Translate (with modifications):
The Bezier Gate
The rampart of . . . — Map (db m60088) HM|
|France, Midi-Pyrénées (Tarn), Albi — Le palais de la Berbie — [Le Bishop's Palace]|
|Le nom du palais vient de l’occitan bisbia signifiant “évêche”, référence à sa fonction de résidence episcopale. Le bâtiment fut engé entre le XIIIe et le XIVe siècle et connut quelque modifications jusqu’au XVIIe siècle. Il forme avec la cathédrale un ensemble monumental de briques exceptionnal. Cette architecture militaire témoigne de la volonte de l’évêque d’affirmer sa puissance et son autorité en réponse à la dissidence cathare. Les nombreux contreforts hémicylindrique, les . . . — Map (db m60356) HM|
|Germany, Baden-Württemberg (Tübingen District), Bebenhausen — Abtsküche / Abbot's Kitchen|
Anstelle der abgetragenen Krankenkapelle 1507 errichteter ebenerdiger Bau.
1885 durch Aufstockung dem Neuen Bau angepaßt und als Appartement für König Karl eingerichtet, später bis 1946 Wohnung von Königin Charlotte.
1915/17 Erdgeschoß durch Eugen Wörner zum Grünen Saal umgebaut.
Instead of the ablated hospital chapel, erected in 1507 at ground level construction.
1885 adapted to the New Construction above and set up as an . . . — Map (db m77515) HM|
|Germany, Baden-Württemberg (Tübingen District), Bebenhausen — Gewürz- und Kräutergarten / Spice and Herb Garden|
1987 in Anlehnung an klösterliche Heilkräutergärten des Mittelalters, die von den Mönchen bearbeitet wurden, mit Staudengewächsen, ein- und zweijährigen Pflanzen und Gehölzen angelegt, die in erster Linie zu Heilzwecken genutzt wurden und im 13./14. Jahrhundert bereits bekannt waren.
Das Nebeneinander von Kräutern und Blumen spiegelt die Verwobenheit medizinisch-naturwissenschaftlicher, kultisch-magischer und ästhetischer Vorstellungen. Heilwert, Duft und Schönheit einer Pflanze waren . . . — Map (db m77522) HM|
|Germany, Baden-Württemberg (Tübingen District), Bebenhausen — Heuhaus / Hay Barn|
Erbaut 1774 als Scheune und Stallung der Prälatur, später königlicher Marstall.
Built in 1774 as a barn and stables of the Prelature, later royal stables. — Map (db m77514) HM|
|Germany, Baden-Württemberg (Tübingen District), Bebenhausen — Klosterküche / Monastery Kitchen|
Mehrfach veränderter, bis ins 13. Jahrhundert zurückreichender Bau. Von der großen Herdstelle nur noch der mächtige Rauchfang erhalten.
Multiple modifications, reaching back to the 13th century building, from the large hearth to the powerful chimney. — Map (db m77538) HM|
|Germany, Baden-Württemberg (Tübingen District), Bebenhausen — Neuer Bau / New Construction|
Gäste- oder Herrenhaus zur Beherbergung hochrangiger Gäste 1532 unter Abt Johann von Fridingen erbaut (Bauinschrift) an der Stelle des alten Krankenhauses (Infirmarie, Erdgeschoß in den Neubau einbezogen). Im Untergeschoß großer Klosterkeller.
1868-70 Einrichtung von Privatgemächern für das württembergische Königspaar Karl und Olga.
Guest or manor house for lodging distinguished guests built in 1532 under Abbot John of Fridingen . . . — Map (db m77513) HM|
|Germany, Baden-Württemberg (Tübingen District), Bebenhausen — Sommerrefektorium / Summer Refectory|
Um 1335 unter Abt Konrad von Lustnau über romanischem Vorgängerbau als zweischiffiger Speisesaal der Mönche mit drei Achteckstützen und Sterngewölbe erbaut.
1410 Dachreiter auf dem Südgiebel als Glockentürmchen. Raumfassung mit Glasfenstern, Gewölbemalereien, Vertäfelung und Fliesenboden im 19. Jahrhundert in Anlehnung an vorhandene Reste erneuert.
Built around 1335 under Abbot Conrad of Lustnau on a two-aisled Romanesque . . . — Map (db m77517) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria, Munich — "Lueg ins Land" Watchtower|
ob seiner Fernsicht
Erbaut vor 1374
Translated, the marker reads:
"Look to the Land"
so-called on account of its
Built before 1374
torn down in 1802. — Map (db m22539) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria (Kreis Kitzingen), Iphofen — Tithe Tower — Zentturm|
|Mit Pesttor, durch das einst die am "schwarzen Tod" Verstorbenen zum nahen Friedhof gekarrt wurden. Toranlage aus dem 14. Jh. für das Gräbenviertel mit dem ehemaligen Königshof. Behausung des Zentbüttels. Im 19. Jh. Armenhaus, heute im Privatbesitz.
Marker text transcribed into English:
Part of the Plague Gate, through which victims of the Black Death were carted to the nearby cemetery. Dating from the 14th century, this was the entryway for the town's moated quarter and district . . . — Map (db m78420) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria (Kreis Schweinfurt), Gerolzhofen — Owl's Tower — Eulenturm|
| Zunächst nur dreiseitig gemauerter Scbalenturm mit Bretterverschlag erbaut um 1350. Genutzt als Auslug und Kerker der benachbarten Vogtei. Der ursprüngliche Name war Feulturm (Faulturm), letztmalig 1830 als Gefängnis genutzt, dann Vereinsheim.
Geschichte für alle - historischer Verein in Gerolzhofen, e.V.
Dr. Ottmar Wolf – Kulturstiftung
Initially, this was only three sided brick shell tower with wooden shed, built around 1350. Used as a lookout . . . — Map (db m77658) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria (Kreis Schweinfurt), Gerolzhofen — Prison Tower — Weißer Turm|
|Der Auslug und Gefängnisturm (Weiße = Strafe) wurde um 1350 an der Ostseite der Stadtmauer errichtet und um 1550 um das vorkragende Obergeschoss erhöht. In 1803 wird das rund 20 Meter hohe Bauwerk letztmals als Kerker benutzt.
Geschichte für alle
historischer Verein in Gerolzhofen, e.V.
Dr. Ottmar Wolf - Kulturstiftung
Marker text translated into English:
This lookout tower and prison (Weiße = punishment) was built around 1350 on the east side of the city walls, . . . — Map (db m77793) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria (Kreis Schweinfurt), Gerolzhofen — The Watchmen's Tower — Türmersturm|
|Hier stand der Türmersturm als inneres Tor der nördlichen Doppel-Toranlage. Das Tor wurde 1340 erstmals erwähnt, 1511 unter Bischof Lorenz von Bibra wurde das Tor zu einem Turm erhöht. Wohnort des Gerolzhöfer Turmers. Im Februar 1878 abgebrochen.
Geschichte für alle
historischer Verein in Gerolzhofen, e.V.
Dr. Ottmar Wolf - Kulturstiftung
Marker text translated into English:
Here stood the watchman's tower as the inner gate of the northern double-gated entryway. The gate . . . — Map (db m77751) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria (Landkreis Kitzingen), Iphofen — Einersheimer Gate — Einersheimer Tor|
| [Marker text in German:]
1422 erste Erwähnung
1525 Abwehr eines Bauernhaufens
1551 Ausbau zu einer massiven Wehranlage mit Verbindung des äusseren und inneren Tores durch den Steinmetz Caspar Rotenfelser. Steinkreuz im Innern zur Erinnerung an einen von den Schweden im 30-jährigen Krieg erstochenen Iphöfer.
[Marker text translated into English, more or less:]
1422 First mention
1525 Defense during the peasant uprising
1551 Expanded to a massive fortification . . . — Map (db m58206) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria (Landkreis Kitzingen), Iphofen — Mainbernheimer Gate — Mainbernheimer Tor|
[Marker text in German:]
Erste Erwähnung 1422.
Vorwerk und Haupttor.
[Marker text translated into English, more or less:]
First mentioned in 1422.
Fortified double-gate structure with gatekeeper's house, forward works, and main gate. — Map (db m58374) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria (Landkreis Kitzingen), Iphofen — The Owls' Tower — Eulenturm|
[Marker text in German:]
Bauzeit um 1500. Gefängnisturm für lebenlänglich Verurteilte, auch „Faulturm” genannt, weil die eingekerkerten nach ihrem Ableben nicht selten darin verfaulten. Zudem Pulverturm der Stadt und Wachturm: „So der türmer ein gerenn im Felde und sonst was feindschaft betrifft ersieht, soll er in die drummelte sto ßen und dies anzeigen”.
[Marker text translated into English, more or less:]
Built around 1500. A prison tower for those . . . — Map (db m58307) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria (Landkreis Schweinfurt), Gerolzhofen — Dingolshäuser Gate — Dingolshäuser Tor|
[Marker text in German:]
An dieser Stelle stand das Ost-Tor der äusseren Stadtmauer, das sogenannten Dingolshäuser Tor. Um 1470 unter Bischof Rudolf von Scherenberg errichtet. 1670 nach den Schwedenkrieg erneuert. 1882 wurde das Torhaus für den Bau einer breiteren Strasse abgebrochen.
Geschichte für alle
historischer Verein in Gerolzhofen, e.V.
Dr. Ottmar Wolf - Kulturstiftung
[Marker text translated into English, more or less:] At this location stood the East Gate . . . — Map (db m57950) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria (Landkreis Schweinfurt), Gerolzhofen — Spital Gate — Spitaltor|
| [Marker text in German:]
Das Torhaus mit einer Rundbogen Durchfahrt und einem seitlich in den inneren Stadtgraben vorspringenden Flankiersturm wurde von Bischof Rudolf von Scherenberg um 1472 als Verstärkung des inneren Tors gebaut. Von Bischof Julius Echter 1597 erweitert, fiel es 1871 der Spitzhacke zum Opfer.
Geschichte für alle -
historischer Verein in Gerolzhofen, e.V.
Dr. Ottmar Wolf – Kulturstiftung
[Marker text translated into English, more or less:] . . . — Map (db m57951) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria (Landkreis Schweinfurt), Gerolzhofen — The Beadle’s Tower — Bettelturm|
[Marker text in German:]
Hier stand der innere Torturm der südlichen Doppeltor-Anlage, im Volksmund Bettelturm genannt(Büttel = Gerechtsknecht). Erstmals 1340 erwähnt, wurde der Turm schon im 1756 wegen Steinfraß und morschem Fundament wieder abgebrochen.
Geschichte für alle - historischer Verein in Gerolzhofen, e.V.
Dr. Ottmar Wolf – Kulturstiftung
[Marker text translated into English, more or less:]
Here stood the inner gate tower, part of the double-tower . . . — Map (db m57956) HM|
|Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Mansfeld-Südharz District), Allstedt — Castle & Chateau Allstedt — Burg & Schloss Allstedt|
The impressive facility was built primarily in the period from the 15th-18th centuries. It was built instead of the former imperial palace Allstedt that nearly all early German rulers used as a temporary residence and governmental center from 935-1200. The significant main castle was extensively renovated in 1975 and expanded as a museum. In addition to exhibitions on the work of Thomas Müntzer and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in Allstedt, there is cast Harz iron art and historically designed . . . — Map (db m73041) HM|
|Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Mansfeld-Südharz District), Allstedt — Castle and Chateau Allstedt — Burg und Schloss Allstedt|
The Romanesque Road is one of the most popular touristic routes in Germany. It is in the shape of a figure Eight and runs through all of Saxony-Anhalt with Magdeburg being the place where the two halves meet. 65 stations with 80 buildings in the typical round-arch architecture of the Romanesque period are waiting to be admired.
Castle and Palace Allstedt
As a Frankish imperial castle founded in the 8th century it was one of the most frequented palaces in Saxony during the reign . . . — Map (db m73776) HM|
|Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Mansfeld-Südharz District), Allstedt — Castle Fountains / Burgbrunnen|
In the literature on Allstedt, so far the only mention of a well located in the main castle comes from a speech at the end of the 18th century by Duke Carl August.
In 1980/81 this well was discovered in the northwest portion of the patio and then exposed.
An inspection by cavers found that the well shaft is unlikely to have ever had a continuous inflow of water.
A fountain is already attested in 1504/05.
But as incoming water was bad [intermittent?], by the early 16th century a . . . — Map (db m73078) HM|
|Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Mansfeld-Südharz District), Allstedt — North Wing / Ground Floor — Nordflügel / Erdgeschoß|
The outer walls of the trench and the courtyard are probably from the 15th century, likewise is the pointed arch doorway.
The oldest part is a tower-like building in the northeast corner. It is completely covered today and the only visible remnants are in the basement and ground floor (13th-14th centuries).
The medieval structural fabric remains to the height of the upper floor.
Cellar fixtures date from the mid-16th century, as the stonemasons' marks at the door of the cellar . . . — Map (db m73057) HM|
|Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Mansfeld-Südharz District), Lutherstadt Eisleben — City Seat of the Counts of Mansfeld-Hinterort — Stadtsitz der Grafen von Mansfeld-Hinterort|
Built in 1500 by Count Albrecht IV, 1570-1616 seat of the Superintendent Office and the Office of the Upper Eisleben, in 1609 abandoned as City Palace, from 1671 to 1992 the seat of important administrative institutions of the Mansfeld mining and smelting industry (Markt 56-58)
1500 unter Graf Albrecht IV. erbaut, 1570-1616 Sitz des Oberaufseheramtes und des Oberamtes Eisleben, 1609 als Stadtschloß aufgegeben, 1671 . . . — Map (db m70242) HM|
|Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Wittenberg District), Lutherstadt Wittenberg — The Castle Gate, also called Coswig Gate — Das Schlosstor, auch Coswiger Tor genannt|
When Martin Luther came to Wittenberg in 1508 he saw three mighty gates around the heavily fortified town. At this place was the Castle Gate in 1508. In front of this gate was the Castle suburb. In 1805, Alexander I., Emperor of Russia, was in Wittenberg. He was welcomed here by the chamber knight and chief forester von Erdmannsdorf as well as by the Prince of Dessau-Anhalt (Father Franz). Delegations of the Council of Wittenberg and of the university were also welcomed by the Emperor. In . . . — Map (db m69888) HM|
|Germany, Thuringia (Wartburgkreis), Eisenach — Knight's Bath • Ritterbad • Le bain des chevaliers|
The main castle building and other surviving structures were restored between 1838 and 1891. Parts of the castle that had been lost, for example the keep and the heated hall building, were reconstructed in their historical form. The final undertaking was the neo-Romanesque Knight's Bath designed by Wartburg architect Hugo von Ritgen (1811-1889).
After the eastern custom of bathing was introduced to western and central Europe by the Crusaders, a bath became a . . . — Map (db m83921) HM
|Germany, Thuringia (Wartburgkreis), Eisenach — Südturm • South Tower • La Tour Sud|
Substantial fortications must have always been in place on Wartburg Castle’s vulnerable south side, so it is reasonable to assume that the early 14th century tower replaced an even earlier structure. This three-storey tower, which is approx.. 20 metres tall, was once used as a dungeon.
Fritz Erbe, the Anabaptist – prisoner from 1540 to 1548
Fritz Erbe, a farmer in the village of Herda near Eisenach, was arrested in 1533. He had refused to have his newborn . . . — Map (db m83981) HM
|Greece, Central Macedonia Region (Regional unit of Thessaloniki), Thessaloniki — White Tower — Λευκος Πυργος|
|The White Tower, which came to be the symbol of Thessaloniki by coincidence, was built in the late 15th century on the site of an older Byzantine tower, where the eastern wall and the sea wall met.
The White Tower is 33.9 meters high and comprises a ground floor and six storeys with a turret at the top. Up until the early 20th century, the Tower was surrounded by a low octagonal wall, which was probably built in 1535/36; three of the corners were reinforced with smaller towers.
The . . . — Map (db m84701) HM|
|Ireland, Connacht (County Roscommon), Ballyconboy — 988:1272 — Cruachan / Cruachain (Rathmore)|
| Cruachan is traditionally said to be the inauguration place of the Kings of Connacht. There are a number of monuments spread over an area of about two square miles. These include a large mound, a number of differently-shaped enclosures and some ring-forts. One of these contains a standing stone alleged to mark the resting place of the last pagan king of Ireland.
De réir an tseanchais is ag Cruachain a dhéantaí Ríthe Chonnacht a ghairm. Tá roinnt séadchomharthaí scaipthe ar fud achar dhá . . . — Map (db m28192) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Fingal), Howth — The Ready Boat Pillar — Sculpted by Seán O'Dwyer|
| Seeing the meaning
When viewing a piece of sculpture one can see many different layers of meaning. The clues given here are only the first layer of meaning and are meant only as a gateway through which you can go on your way to see meanings of your own.
All local stories, myths and legends are preserved to carry a message. Howth has a wonderful past and from it certain themes emerge.... exploration, conflict, healing and preservation. I have depicted figures in the Ready Boat Pillar . . . — Map (db m25301) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Longford), Kenagh — fáilte go Kenagh|
| Brief History of Longford
Longford is a focal point of the northern midlands where the provinces of Leinster, Ulster and Connaught all converge. Longford, where history and literature, tradegy and triumph are all woven together, takes its name from the ancient stronghold of the O'Farrell family (Long Fort - Fort of the O'Farrells) who ruled from the 11th Century. Bordered to the west by the majestic River Shannon, Longford is a county of rolling plains and picturesque stretches of water. . . . — Map (db m27946) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Longford), Lanesborough — Lanesborough / Béal Átha Liag History 500 - 1900 AD|
| The Mouth of the Ford of Stones
The ancient name of Lanesborough is Béal Átha Liag which means “Mouth of the Ford of Stones”. Situated at the northern tip of Lough Ree, or Loch Rí - meaning the “Lake of Kings” - Béal Átha Liag provided the first crossing point on the Shannon north of Athlone. From 1000 AD, the bridges across the Shannon have been of major military importance, being a main crossing point between the East and West of Ireland.
540 • . . . — Map (db m27424) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Kells — Kells Round Tower — Kells Heritage Trail|
| This tower is located on the grounds of St Columba's church and was built in the 10th century as part of the early Christian monastery. Such towers were referred to as a cloigteach meaning bell tower. Modelled on early Italian belfries, they were used as lookout towers and as places of refuge during attack, particularly from Norse invaders.
The tower is ninety feet high from the original street level to the base of its roof and has six floors but no internal staircase. Access to the upper . . . — Map (db m26440) HM|
|Ireland, Munster (County Kerry), Fahan — Dunbeg Promontory Fort / An Dún Beag|
| Dunbeg Promontory Fort
This Promontory Fort consists of four fosses (ditches) and five mounds. Behind this we have the terraced dry-stone masonry rampart, originally straight but which became curved during later construction work. The entrance is roofed and flanked by two guardrooms. The inner part of the wall is the older, the outer portion being added later to strengthen it. Inside the Fort are the remains of a large Clochaun, internally square on plan. There is a water drain around . . . — Map (db m24780) HM|
|Ireland, Ulster (County Donegal), Burt — Grianan Ailligh / Grianán Ailigh|
This large stone-walled fort, located on a hilltop commanding views over Loughs Foyle and Swilly and counties Donegal, Derry and Tyrone, was the royal citadel of the northern Uí Néill from the 5th to the 12th century. It was probably built some time around the birth of Christ. Its builders may have been attracted to this hilltop site by the presence here of a sacred monument - a prehistoric burial mound or tumulus, possibly from the Neolithich period (about 3000 BC).
A lintelled . . . — Map (db m71458) HM|
|Ireland, Ulster (County Donegal), Donegal Town — Donegal Castle|
Built in 1474 by Hugh O'Donnell. Destroyed in 1595 by Red Hugh O'Donnell to prevent seizure by the British. Rebuilt circa 1614 by Sir Basil Brook.
[Top view drawing showing evolution of the castle in] 15th century, 17th century, Modern — Map (db m71569) HM|
|Ireland, Ulster (County Donegal), Donegal Town — 6 — Donegal Castle / Caisleán Dhún na nGall|
Donegal Castle was built by Red Hugh O'Donnell, the young 'Eagle of the North', in the late 15th Century beside the River Eske. During the Plantation of Ulster that followed 'The Flight of the Earls' in 1607, the Castle, historic home of the O'Donnell's, was granted to Captain Basil Brooke who came to Ireland with the English Army in 1598 and fought in Munster. It is generally accepted that Red Hugh O'Donnell, who was proclaimed "The O'Donnell' in 1592, burned the castle to prevent it . . . — Map (db m71570) HM|
|Ireland, Ulster (County Donegal), Slieve League — Signal Towers / Túir Comharthaíochta — Walking Through Donegal — Ag Siúl Tríd Dhún na nGall|
Signal Towers can be found all around the coast of Ireland and date from the period around 1800. They were built as an early warning system to guard against invasion by France during the reign of Napoleon Bonaparte. Located on headlands, which had good views of the surrounding sea, they were in sight of similar installations to allow signaling between them. The tower visible here at Carrigan Head was built around 1805.
Tá Túir Comharthaíochta le fail thart ar chósta uile na h-Éireann . . . — Map (db m71669) HM|
|Ireland, Ulster (County Monaghan), Clones — Round Tower / Cloigtheach Chluain Eois — Clones - Historic Town / Cluain Eois, Baile Scairiúil|
One of the earliest examples of a round Tower. Probably built in the 10th century. The base shows evidence of attempts to destroy by burning.
The Tower lost its conical cap between 1591 and 1741. Four top windows face the cardinal points. Old Irish name "Cloig Teach" meaning Bell House refers to original use.
Present height of Tower approx. 70ft. Circumference 50ft. Wall Thickness 3ft.-6in. Height of door 5ft.-4.5in. Originally 5 floors carried on offsets & joists. Single window . . . — Map (db m73266) HM|
|Israel, Central District, Rosh Ha'ayin — Tel Afeq - Antipatris|
|Archaeological excavations at Tel Afeq have exposed layers of occupation dating from the Chalcolithic period (the fourth millennium B.C.E.) until the 20th century C.E. Strategically situated on the "Afeq Pass", a bottleneck between the headwaters of the Yarqon Stream and the range of hills in the east, Afeq controlled the international route that ran from Egypt to the north. Already in the third millennium B.C.E. the city that stood here was encircled by a fortification wall. In the time of the . . . — Map (db m64309) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Acre — The Crusader Fortress of the Knights of the Hospital and the Ottoman-Turkish Citadel of Akko|
|On this site, in the 12th-13th century, towered the fortress of the Order of the Knights of the Hospital of Saint John (the "Hospitallers") who were based in Akko (Acre) until the Muslim conquest of the city in 1291. Over the ruins of the fortress, which was reconstructed by the Ottoman Turks in the 17th and 18th centuries, was built the Citadel and Palace of the Governors Akko. In the mid-19th century the Ottoman authorities added here a large prison.
Under the British Administration . . . — Map (db m65456) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — A Unique Continuity|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
The deep section dug by the University of Chicago Expedition (1925-1939) provides a unique glimpse into the nearly thirty settlements built one on top of the other at the site. Due to the unique continuity of its occupation from the Neolithic period through the Persian period - and the scope of its excavations, Tel Megiddo is considered the 'cradle' of biblical archaeology and the 'laboratory' of modern research methods.
[Text on the . . . — Map (db m64908) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — From Megiddo to Armageddon|
|The city of Megiddo played a prominent role in the history of the ancient Near East. Strategically located at the mouth of the Nahal Iron Pass, Megiddo controlled access to the road that linked Egypt with Mesopotamia and Anatolia - the most important trade and military route of that time. Megiddo is the only site in the Land of Israel mentioned in the records of all Near Eastern ancient powers and was one of the most fought-over cities in the region. The first fully-recorded battle in history, . . . — Map (db m64782) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — Tel Megiddo National Park — World Heritage Site — The Biblical Tels - Megiddo, Hazor, Beer Sheba|
|The biblical tels of Megiddo, Hazor and Beer Sheba were inscribed in 2005 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as World Heritage Sites with outstanding universal value. They are fitting representatives of the 200 biblical tels in Israel, which were flourishing cities in the past.These cities were established alongside ancient commercial roads and near prosperous agricultural areas, and were ruled by a central government. They made their mark on the . . . — Map (db m64811) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The City-Gate — (The Late Bronze Period)|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
The Late Bronze period (1550-1150 B.C.) is marked by Egyptian rule of Canaan. At that time, Megiddo was one of the country's major city-states and its king a loyal vassal of the Egyptian pharaoh. The city-gate and the elaborate palace located just inside the are the best-known remains of this period. The city-gate was apparently incorporated into the Middle Bronze (2000-1550 B.C.) fortifications that were still in use at the time.
[Text . . . — Map (db m64821) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The City-Gate — (The Iron II Period)|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
Megiddo became an Israelite city sometime between the 10th and 9th centuries B.C., and functioned as an administrative center for he fertile Jezreel Valley. Some time later, a massive wall (1) and a monumental city-gate (2-4) were built. According to one opinion, the gate dates to the reign of Solomon (10th c. B.C.). Other scholars postdate the gate to the reign of either Ahab (9th c.) or Jeroboam II (8th c. B.C.).
[Text across the . . . — Map (db m64882) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Northern Palace|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
The foundations of this palace, first investigated by Y. Yadin in 1960, are presently being excavated by 'The Megiddo Expedition'. The edifice was apparently laid out as a bit hilani (North Syrian palace) whose architecture included a monumental porticoed entrance and a large central ceremonial hall.
[Text across the Bottom of the Marker]:
"And he made the hall of pillars (...) there was a porch in front with . . . — Map (db m64898) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Northern Stables|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
Architectural complexes dating from the same period (9th or 8th c. B.C.) and of similar design were found near the northern and southern edges of the mound. Through the years they variously interpreted as stables, storehouses or marketplaces. Recent research seems to corroborate their identification as horse-stables.
[Text across the Bottom of the Marker]:
"I besieged and conquered Samaria. Led away as booty 27,290 . . . — Map (db m64889) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Southern Palace|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
An elaborate ashlar-built palace (1) stood near the southern edge of the mound. A monumental entrance (2) - the only visible remains still standing - led to the courtyard (3). Like the northern palace, this edifice may have been built along the lines of a North Syrian bit hilani. One interpretation dated its construction to King Solomon (10th c. B.C.), whereas another one postdates it to Ahab's reign (9th c. B.C.).
[Text across . . . — Map (db m65198) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Southern Stables|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
The southern stables' five units could accommodate 150 horses. As in the northern complex, each unit consists of a rectangular building divided into three sections by two rows of alternating pillars and troughs. It seems that the Northern Kingdom established a major horse-breeding and training center at Megiddo in the 8th c. B.C., and this was apparently one of the reasons for its prosperity. Assyrian records from the 9th and the 8th c. B.C. . . . — Map (db m65204) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Water System|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
The problem of supplying water to large cities, a serious issue even in times of peace, could become acute in times of siege. Megiddo's main water source was located at the foot of the mound, beyond the city's fortifications. In order to ensure access to the spring from within the city, a hidden gallery was built on the slope of the mound in the 10th or 9th c. B.C. This gallery was later blocked and replaced by an elaborate water system, which . . . — Map (db m65215) HM|
|Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — Jaffa Gate — Old City Jerusalem|
| [Text in Hebrew …]
[Text in English:] Jaffa Gate is the westernmost of the gates in the walls of Jerusalem. It is so named as the starting point of the road to Jaffa port. Its Arabic name, Bab al-Khalil, meaning “Hebron Gate,” indicates that the road to Hebron, the ancient city of the Patriarchs, also started there. An Arabic inscription in the gate structure commemorates its construction: “In the name of Allah, the merciful and the compassionate, our lord . . . — Map (db m44853) HM|
|Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — The Large Stone Structure — The Remains of King David's Palace? — מבנה האבן הגדול|
|"And Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar - trees, and carpenters, and masons; and they built David a house" (II Samuel 5: 11)
Excavations in progress at this site since May 2005 conducted by Eilat Mazar, have revealed the remains of a large building, known as the Large Stone Structure. Finds uncovered in relation to the structure indicate that it was built in the early 10th century BCE during the reign of King David. In Mazar's opinion the building can . . . — Map (db m64064) HM|
|Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — The Royal Quarter (Area G)|
|"...the city shall be rebuilt on its mound, and the fortress in its proper place" (Jeremiah 30:18)
The inhabitants of ancient Jerusalem once built their homes on this hillside. The earliest structure unearthed here was part of an enormous Stepped Stone Structure that supported King David's Palace or the Canaanite fortress that preceded it. In the early First Temple period, stately homes and an official archive were built upon the Stepped Stone Structure. . . . — Map (db m63928) HM|
|Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — The Crusader-Ottoman Building / Millstones|
|[Text at the top of the marker]: The Crusader-Ottoman Building
This was built in the 12th century CE and remained in use until the Ottoman period. The hall has typical pointed vaults and embrasures in the walls, with remains of another two perpendicular halls. These halls were part of the Tiberias fort that was the capital of the Crusader 'Galilee Principality', and was integrated into Daher el-Omar's fortifications in the 18th century CE.
[Text at the bottom of the . . . — Map (db m65331) HM|
|Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — The Southern Wall|
|The wall was erected by the Beduin Governor of the Tiberias Region, Daher El-Omer, in the 18th century on the basis of the ruins of an earlier wall built by the Crusaders.
The wall was destroyed in the 1837 earthquake and since then only partially rebuilt. In the beginning of the 20th century, new settlements were established for the first time, outside the walls. The remaining ruins were once again struck by the great flood of 1934. — Map (db m65326) HM|
|Israel, Northern District, Tsipori — The Citadel|
|The Citadel (perhaps a watch tower) was built during the crusader period on foundations from an earlier period. Some of the cornerstones are rubble-filled Roman sarcophagi.
In the 18th Century the building was renovated by Dahr El-Omar, the Bedouin ruler of the Galilee.
At the end of the Ottoman Period it was rebuilt for use as a schoolhouse and was renovated again during the British Mandate. — Map (db m65412) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — Bathing in Roman Style|
|"The fittings of the interior - apartments, colonnades and baths - were of manifold variety and sumptuous ..."
Beyond the human need for cleanliness, the bathhouse also had a social function. Bathing and the associated physical activities were an important element in Roman social and cultural life, to which Herod aspired. This was where the king and his guests met, bathed and exercised. The sophisticated bathing arrangements, which are reminiscent of a dry . . . — Map (db m64079) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — Columbarium Tower (dovecot)|
|Why did the king raise doves on the mountain?
There were three columbarium towers on Masada. The one in front of us was used as a dovecot in its ground floor, and as a watchtower in its upper story. In the walls of the dovecot are several hundred niches in which the doves roosted. They supplied meat for Masada's inhabitants and guests, and probably also fertilizer for agricultural crops. — Map (db m64068) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The "Casemate of the Scrolls"|
|A large and rare concentration of finds from the time of the revolt was found in a corner of the room of the wall in which we stand: inscribed sheets of papyrus, fragments of scrolls, silver shekel coins, textiles, sandals, and glass vessels and bone implements. Among the finds was the pay record of a Roman cavalryman in the Tenth Legion. The most interesting finds were the scroll fragments, some of which show that during the siege there were members of different sects on the mountain. The . . . — Map (db m64071) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The Breaching Point — נקודת הפריצה|
|Here the siege of Masada ended. The ramp that the Romans had built up to the summit of the mountain reached to below this point. At the top of the ramp rose the siege tower, and in it was the battering ram with which the Romans assaulted the casemate wall. However, the rebels had built a wall of earth and wood, against which the battering ram was ineffective:
"Observing this, Silva, thinking it easier to destroy this wall by fire, ordered his soldiers to hurl at it showers of burning . . . — Map (db m64069) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The Discovery Location of the "Lots"|
|"...then, having chosen by lot ten of their number to dispatch the rest... these, having unswervingly slaughtered all, ordained the same rule of the lot for one another, that he on whom it fell should slay first the nine nd then himself last of all."
Here several hundred inscribed pottery shards (ostraca) were found. Outstanding among them was a group consisting of names and nicknames, including the name "Ben Ya'ir." Yigael Yadin, the most distinguished of . . . — Map (db m64101) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The Rebel's Community Life|
|How to organize community life under siege?
Near the western entrance square were discovered large concentrations of inscribed pottery shards (ostraca) from the period of the revolt. They bear names, combinations of letters or single letters in Hebrew. These shards were apparently used as food-rationing coupons, as a substitute for money, or to register fighting units or the families that lived on the mountain. Both types demonstrate the community life of the rebels in Masada. It is probable . . . — Map (db m64077) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The Synagogue|
|"Long since, my brave men, we determined neither to serve the Romans nor any other save God ..."
The rebels' way of life on Masada required a building suitable for community meetings and Torah readings. This building, which became a synagogue during the revolt, was built in Herod's time, most likely as a stable.
The rebels changed its internal structure and even closed off a small room in the corner of the hall, which apparently served for storage of Torah . . . — Map (db m64076) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The Water Gate — שער המים|
|The path that climbed to Masada from the west via the cisterns terminated at this gate. Visitors to the mountain and the beasts of burden that carried water took this path to the summit of Masada. A channel starting at the gate carried to some of the cisterns on the mountain.
The stone paving of the gate was intended to prevent damage to the surface from the animals' hooves. — Map (db m64148) HM|
|Italy, Lazio (Rome Province), Rome — Domus Augustana. Upper Peristyle / Peristilio Superiore|
Domus Augustana. Upper Peristyle
The ground floor of the “private” sector of the palace was arranged around a porticoed courtyard with coloured marble columns, identical to that in the “public” sector; at the centre was a large pool within which a small temple was built at a later period, accessed from a small bridge on arches. At the sides of the peristyle were various living and banqueting rooms, some of which still bear traces of their fine coloured marble . . . — Map (db m84197) HM
|Italy, Lazio (Rome Province), Rome — Domus Flavia, so-called Lararium / Cd. Larario|
Domus Flavia. So-called, Lararium
The smaller room next to the so-called Audience Chamber is known as the Lararium because when it was discovered it had a podium at the back – accessible from two small staircases and clad in coloured marbles – interpreted as an altar for the domestic cult of the emperor’s Lares. The room’s function remains uncertain. Behind it is a chamber with two flights of stairs leading out of it: one up to the upper floor of the palace and the . . . — Map (db m84111) HM
|Italy, Lazio (Rome Province), Rome — Domus Flavia. Peristyle / Peristilio|
Domus Flavia. Peristyle
At the centre of the "public" sector of the palace was a porticoed courtyard (peristyle) with columns in pink marble and capitals in white marble. At its sides were living and dining rooms, some of which have the typical recess in the walls where couches (triclinia) were placed. There was a pool in the courtyard with an octagonal island that may have hosted a sculptural fountain surrounded by a maze of channels. We know that Domitian enjoyed strolling . . . — Map (db m84247) HM
|Italy, Lazio (Rome Province), Rome — Domus Flavia. So-called Basilica / Cd. Basilica|
Domus Flavia. So-called Basilica
The so-called Basilica takes its name from the architecture of its interior, typical of basilicas: it was divided into three halls by coloured marble columns with an apse at the end closed by a balustrade. Traces of the marble veneer survive on the walls and part of the floor made of large slabs of coloured marble was preserved until the 19th century. A modern staircase leads to a room beneath, covered by the palace, known as the "Hall of Isis" and . . . — Map (db m84255) HM
|Italy, Lazio (Rome Province), Rome — Domus Flavia. So-called. Audience Chamber — Domus Flavia. Cd. Aula Regia|
Domus Flavia. So-called. Audience Chamber
The largest room, probably reserved for audiences with the emperor, is traditionally known as the Audience Chamber. It was of exceptional size (1280 sq m.) and had a complex architectural decoration of which many features survive. Eight niches for colossal statues opened into the walls: two were recovered intact in 1724, a Hercules and a Bacchus in green basalt, whilst only the head of a Jupiter was found. The niches were inside bays and framed . . . — Map (db m84249) HM
|Italy, Lazio (Rome Province), Rome — House of the Griffins / Casa Dei Grifi|
House of the Griffins
A steep staircase, part of which is ancient, leads from the back of the so-called Lararium to the underground floor of a house dating to the 2nd-1st century BC. Though partly destroyed by the foundations of the palace above, it gives some idea of the type of aristocratic residence which stood on the Palatine in the Republican period. The house had two storeys: on the ground floor a few remains of the atrium with its pool in peperino and coloured mosaics survive; . . . — Map (db m84245) HM
|Italy, Lazio (Rome Province), Rome — Imperial Palace|
The imperial palace stands on the summit of the Palatine and extends to its slopes, occupying much of the hill. It was built by the architect Rabirius on the orders of Domitian (AD 81-96) and inaugurated in AD 92; it was the official residence of all later emperors. The palace was divided into three sectors: an official or “public” area (the so-called Domus Flavia), a sector hosting private apartments (the so-called Domus Augustana) and a large garden in the . . . — Map (db m84136) HM
|Italy, Lazio (Rome Province), Rome — Neronian Cryptoporticus / Criptoportico Neroniano|
The Cryptoporticus is one of the most distinctive monuments of the Palatine. It is an underground corridor, 130 metres in length, illuminated by basement windows. It connects the south side of the Domus Tiberiana to the so-called House of Livia. This covered passageway served to link the different parts of the imperial Palace in the Julio-Claudian period. Originally the vault was covered with fine white stucco, depicting cupids within decorative frames. Only a . . . — Map (db m84256) HM
|Italy, Lazio (Rome Province), Rome — Neronian Foundations / Fondazioni Neroniane|
The concrete foundations that run from the Forum around the corner towards the Palatine, alongside the Arch of Titus, probably pertain to the enormous portico that, according to the ancient sources, Nero had constructed as the vestibule of his Domus Aurea. It extended for a length of c. 300 metres from the Forum to the area of the Temple of Venus and Roma, and enclosed the colossal statue of Nero, 120 ft. (c. 35 metres) high, that rose in the location where the . . . — Map (db m84161) HM
|Italy, Lazio (Rome Province), Rome — Neronian Foundations / Fondazioni Neroniane|
The concrete foundations that run from the Forum around the corner towards the Palatine, alongside the Arch of Titus, probably pertain to the enormous portico that, according to the ancient sources, Nero had constructed as the vestibule of his Domus Aurea. It extended for a length of c. 300 metres from the Forum to the area of the Temple of Venus and Roma, and enclosed the colossal statue of Nero, 120 ft. (c. 35 metres) high, that rose in the location where the . . . — Map (db m84324) HM
|Italy, Lazio (Rome Province), Rome — North Facade of the Domus Tiberiana — Fronte Nord Della Domus Tiberiana|
North Facade of the Domus Tiberiana
The high multi-storey arcades that look out over the Roman Forum were constructed by the emperor Hadrian in order to extend the facade of the Domus Tiberiana to the Via Nova in an architecturally splendid manner. Tiberius's palace was the first of the imperial residences on the Palatine to have a unified plan; although the remains of this residence on the slope of the hill are imposing, these made up just the support platform for Hadrian's later . . . — Map (db m84294) HM
|Italy, Lazio (Rome Province), Rome — Nymphaeum and Adjoining Cisterns / Ninfeo e Annesse Cisterne|
Nymphaeum and Adjoining Cisterns
The short northern side of the "Stadium" - above some service rooms - ended in a square room with niches decorated with statues and fountains fed by a complex system of water pipes. Some large cisterns in the underground area to the rear, already known in the Renaissance and drawn by Pirro Ligorio, ensured a water supply to the Flavian palace. A branch of the Claudian aqueduct (Aqua Claudia), which ran from the Caelian Hill to this part of the . . . — Map (db m84163) HM
|Italy, Lazio (Rome Province), Rome — Regia|
Located near the temple of Vesta, the Regia is believed to have been built by king Numa Pompilius as the place where the kings of Rome exercised their political and religious power. The plan resembles that of archaic houses and its royal nature is attested by the rich architectural terracottas found here. Excavations have identified five different construction phases dating to between the 7th and 6th century BC when the building took on its definitive appearance. Consisting of three rooms . . . — Map (db m84370) HM
|Italy, Lazio (Rome Province), Rome — The Octagonal Fountain of the Domus Flavia — La Fontana Ottagona Della Domus Flavia|
The Octagonal Fountain of the Domus Flavia
The great peristyle of the Domus Flavia – the public part of the structure – had at its centre an octagonal fountain taking the form of a labyrinth, a very ancient motif.
The Gardens of the Augustan period were limited for the most part by the small spaces available within peristyles and also well-documented in detail by surviving paintings. In contrast, the broader green spaces that lay within the imperial palaces were . . . — Map (db m84251) HM
|Italy, Lazio (Rome Province), Rome — The Palatine "Stadium" / "Stadio" Palatino|
The Palatine "Stadium"
This area provides a view from above of the “Stadium”, an important sector of the Flavian Palace which is never given this name in the ancient sources. In fact it was a garden, more specifically a hippodromus, the word with which it was described by late authors. Hippodromes, originally areas where horses were exercised, came to be, in Rome, elongated rectangular spaces with paths and flower-beds. Deriving from the Greek gymnasiums, these were . . . — Map (db m84195) HM
|Italy, Lazio (Rome Province), Rome — The 'Stadium' / Lo 'Stadio'|
The so-called Stadium, another important area of the Flavian Palace, was in fact a huge rectangular garden area with a hemicycle at one end.
The Garden was enclosed by a portico and its perimeter was marked out by a track running around it, with smaller paths and flower beds branching out from this track. The perimeter track (gestatio) was intended as a promenade route for people on foot, in a litter or even a carriage, something attested by the writers Martial . . . — Map (db m84166) HM
|Italy, Lazio (Rome Province), Rome — The Upper Peristyle of the Domus Augustana — Il Peristilio Superiore Della Domus Augustana|
The Upper Peristyle of the Domus Augustana
Set within the great rectangular basin, with its complex articulated edges, was a miniature temple on a podium. This could be accessed by means of a small bridge supported on small arches, probably added at a later period.
The function of this little structure is not entirely clear. Almost certainly it was a shrine of some kind, but there are other theories that it was a small place of retreat for the emperor, or some kind of water . . . — Map (db m84198) HM
|Philippines, Cavite Province, Corregidor Island — Malinta Tunnel|
| Begun in 1922 and substantially completed in 1932, the tunnel complex consisted of east-west passage measuring 836 ft. long by 24 ft. wide 13 laterals on its north side and 11 laterals on the south side. Reinforced with concrete walls. Floor and overhead arches with blowers to furnish fresh air and a double-track electric car line along the main tunnel, Malinta provided bombproof shelter for the 1000 bed hospital, MacArthur’s USAFFE headquarters, shops and vast labyrinth storehouse during the . . . — Map (db m63648) HM WM|
|Philippines, Cebú Province, Cebu City — Fort San Pedro|
| The Fort of San Pedro, described in an official report of 1739, is triangular in shape and made of stone and mortar. The three bastions are La Concepcion, San Ignacio de Loyola, and San Miguel - Powder Magazine.
[Inscriptions in the stone above the fort’s main [west side] gateway:]
Fuerza de San Pedro, 1565
Sereformo, Año, 1833
[Coat of Arms of the Spanish monarch]
Note also, a statuette of the Santo . . . — Map (db m64435) HM|
|Saint Lucia, Castries — 27th Inniskilling Regiment|
|27th Inniskilling Regt
On the 24th May 1796 the 27th Regt stormed and captured Morne Fortune. As a mark of the Regiment’s gallant conduct Sir Ralph Abercrombie ordered the French garrison to lay down their arms to the 27th Regt and directed that the King’s Colour of the 27th Regt be hoisted at the fort for 1 hour prior to hoisting the Union flag.
Unveiled by Captain C.H. Knox-Little, R.N. of H.M.S. “Danae” on 31∙8∙32 — Map (db m82926) WM|
|Saint Lucia, Castries — Inniskilling Fusiliers: 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot|
|In 1688 the inhabitants of Enniskillen in Co Fermanagh, Ireland took up arms in defense of their town against the threat of occupation by the forces of James II. The troops so raised, The Inniskillingers, Foot and Dragoons, made repeated expeditions into the surrounding district to seek out and destroy the enemy. So successful was this force it was incorporated into the army of William III, in which the Foot became “The Inniskilling Regiment”.
In 1751 the system of numbering . . . — Map (db m82930) HM WM|
|Saint Lucia, Gros Islet, Pigeon Island — C.O.'s Quarters|
| C.O.’s Quarters 1782, rebuilt 1824
These quarters were never used by Admiral Rodney; he preferred to stay on his flagship “in comfort”.
Traces of a kitchen garden were found above to the left, behind the water tank, and two patios in a B-shape were discovered when the road was built. The quarters used part of the same water catchment system coming from the barracks above. The tower structure is a twentieth-century addition, used by Josset Legh as a wind generator. — Map (db m82716) HM WM|
|Saint Lucia, Gros Islet, Pigeon Island — Fort Rodney|
|Fort Rodney 1778
Pigeon Island, only some 40 kilometres (25 miles) south of the French base at Fort Royal, Martinique, had long been recognized by the British Admiral Rodney as an important observation and defensive site. In 1780 he wrote ”…this is the post the Governor of Martinique had set his eye on and if possessed by the enemy would deprive us of the best anchorage place in these islands and from which Martinique is always attackable…”
Fort Rodney was built in 1778 . . . — Map (db m82693) HM WM|
|Saint Lucia, Gros Islet, Pigeon Island — Gunslide|
Looking down the canyon you can see the deep bay where Admiral Rodney’s ships anchored during the years 1778-1782. The ships were able to lie at anchor in the deep water close to the island, and seamen where employed in hauling cannon and heavy equipment up this gunslide.
A line was run up from the top of the mast to the top of the gunslide on land. The cannon were winched up using anchor winches, and large spars served as triposds to help hoist the heavy guns and carriages up . . . — Map (db m82694) HM|
|Saint Lucia, Gros Islet, Pigeon Island — Lime Kiln|
| Lime Kiln
The most intensive period of British occupation on Pigeon Island was from 1779 to 1783. The lime kiln was one of the first structures built.
Lime was used as a binding agent for all masonry work. White lime was made from coral and shell which was piled up and set on fire. The lime turned to powder and mixed with the ash. The mixture was then pulled out with a hoe, and mixed with sand, water, egg and straw to form the binding agent.
The original steps . . . — Map (db m82695) HM WM|
|Saint Lucia, Gros Islet, Pigeon Island — Musket Redoubt|
Musket Redoubt 1782
This outpost to Fort Rodney was built in 1782 to protect the ridge top from surprise attack from sea. The soldiers could be hidden in the sunken area and they could stand on the platform and look down on both sides of the glacis or slopes.
Directly above is Signal Peak, and below is the whole of Rodney Bay. Morne Pimant is to the south, and on a clear day you can see Martinique, 40 kilometers (25 miles) to the north. — Map (db m82691) HM WM|
|Saint Lucia, Gros Islet, Pigeon Island — Officers' Kitchen|
|1778, rebuilt 1824 Although the heyday of Pigeon Island as a British base in the Caribbean was in the late eighteenth century during the Rodney period, the garrison continued to be manned until 1861.
Built originally in 1778, this kitchen consisted of four or five rooms and was rebuilt in 1824 after being damaged in the hurricane of 1817. The original eighteenth-century stone coursing remains, and the old fireplaces can be seen in the rooms. — Map (db m82875) HM|
|Saint Lucia, Gros Islet, Pigeon Island — Officers' Quarters and Mess|
| Officers’ Quarters and Mess 1824
Pigeon Island National Landmark Interpretation Centre 1993
The only existing structural elements from the original Officers’ Quarters and Mess, built in 1824, are the foundation walls and arches below the main floor level, and three structural walls on the main level, two to the east and one to the west of the Interpretation Centre.
The present-day building incorporates these structures and is based on the original plans. The hall which houses the . . . — Map (db m82719) HM WM|
|Saint Lucia, Gros Islet, Pigeon Island — Ridge Battery|
The heaviest gun on Pigeon Island was sited here. It was a 32-pounder which could be turned from north to south to cover the St. Lucia Channel and Gros Islet Bay. The gun was used effectively in 1781 to repel the French invasion of Gros Islet.
Look for Martinique to the north, visible on clear days. — Map (db m82692) HM|
|Saint Lucia, Gros Islet, Pigeon Island — Soldiers' Quarters|
Soldiers’ Barracks 1808, rebuilt 1824
The colonial struggle between Britain and France and her allies continued into the 1800s, although fighting was interrupted by short-lived treaties and peace settlements. British troops were still sent to garrison the far-flung outposts in the West Indies.
These barracks were built to hold 60 men. The two sets, built side by side, were damaged in the hurricane of 1817 and rebuilt in 1824. A kitchen between the two completed the complex.
To the . . . — Map (db m82717) HM WM|