|Brazil, Rio de Janeiro — APA das Pontas de Copacabana e Arpoador — Environmental Protection Area of Copacabana and Arpoador Promontories|
|[The text on the right of the marker is in English]:
The Environmental Protection Area (APA) of Copacabana and Arpoador Promontories was created by Municipal Law No. 2.087/94 to protect its rocky coast and native plant life species. The APA has the Copacabana Fort and the “Girl from Ipanema” Park as its limits.
The Copacabana Fort had its construction finished in 1914 with a mission to protect Rio de Janeiro’s coast. Today the fort shelters . . . — Map (db m25894) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Finlayson Point|
|Named after Roderick Finlayson Chief – Factor Hudson’s Bay Company at Victoria 1844 – 1872.
Before the arrival of white men this was the sit of an ancient fortified Indian Village.
A battery of two 64 pound wrought iron rifled guns stood here 1878 – 1892 for protection against and expected Russian invasion. — Map (db m49244) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria|
|The mooring rings on the rocks below are the only surviving fragment of Fort Victoria built by the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1843. From 1846, when the Oregon boundary was drawn at the 49th parallel, this post served as grand depot and headquarters of the Company’s Pacific fur trade. Ships moored here to unload supplies for an extensive network of forts and to take on natural products for export, principally to Alaska, California and Hawaii. In 1849 the first Legislative Assembly of the Colony of . . . — Map (db m9195) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria — Founded 1843|
|The pavement design near this marks the location of the bastion that stood at the northeast corner of Fort Victoria. From here the stockade ran southward past the gateway at Fort Street, and westward toward the harbour. Each brick within the bastion design bears the name of a Hudson’s Bay Company employee or later resident of the area. Bricks around the outer rim of the octagon carry the names of some of the Indians who signed treaties giving the Hudson’s Bay Company ownership of the Fort . . . — Map (db m48509) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria|
|The pavement design near this plaque marks the location of the east gate of Fort Victoria, built in 1843. From here the wooden stockade stretched northward to the bastion and southward toward what is now Broughton Street. The plaques in the pavement are copied from the official seal of the City of Victoria (1862) and the Crown Colony of the Island of Vancouver and Its Dependencies (1849). The names of early city officials and of colonial legislators surround the respective plaques. The strip . . . — Map (db m48520) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria|
|Founded by the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1843, Fort Victoria became, after 1846, the head-quarters of the Company’s trade in British territory west of the Rocky Mountains. When the Colony of Vancouver Island was formed in 1849 Victoria was the capital, and in the fort the first Legislative Assembly met. The Gold Rush of 1858 led to the development of the City of Victoria. The early history of the city and the colony is closely intertwined with that of the fort. The last of the original buildings . . . — Map (db m48542) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria|
|was erected by Hudson’s Bay Company
Here Colony of Vancouver’s Island was inaugurated by Richard Blanshard 1850
Vancouver’s Island and British Columbia united 1866
Two years later Victoria became the capital of British Columbia — Map (db m48547) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Bastion|
|This tablet marks the site of the bastion which stood at the north east corner of Fort Victoria. The fort was erected by the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1843.
Erected by Miller, Court & Co. Ltd. For the British Columbia Historical Assn. A.D. 1928 — Map (db m48511) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Bastion Cannons — Bastion Square — Come see the history you never knew we had...|
|You are standing at the entrance to Bastion Square
Bastion Square is a legacy of Fort Victoria whose two log towers or “Bastions” were located near here.
The Hudson’s Bay Company, which remains as a store across the street, built the fort in 1843 including a surrounding log wall or “palisade”. The two bastions on opposite corners of the fort, held cannons at the top for defence [sic] and one also housed the fort’s jail. Looking closely at the sidewalk, you can see the . . . — Map (db m48519) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Birthplace of Victoria|
|We would like to take a moment to share with you the history that you are standing over, around and next to.
This harbour was originally the sole domain of the Lekwungen First Nation who plied its protected waters and fished in their dugout canoes. When James Douglas arrived here in 1843, he chose it as the site for a new Hudson’s Bay Company trading post, eventually called Fort Victoria. It wooden walls stood along the rocky shore overlooking this site (behind you along Wharf Street).|
At . . . — Map (db m48749) HM
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Signing Post|
|You are standing in Bastion Square. The Hudson’s Bay Company, whose legacy continues at the store on Government Street, established Fort Victoria here in 1843.
This area has always been an important public space. All visitors had to gain permission from a gatekeeper to enter Fort Victoria and they were required to provide letters of introduction to . . . — Map (db m49080) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Vancouver Island Wallmap Mural|
|[Three 'markers' a part of this mural. They are entitled: Pemberton Family, Vancouver Island, and Fort Victoria.]|
J.D. Pemberton, engineer and surveyor for the H.B.C., arrived in 1851 by canoe in the last stages of his journey from England when this settlement numbered about 300. He built the first schoolhouse, was the first settler to cross the Island, and was the first Surveyor General of the colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia. As population swelled . . . — Map (db m48543) HM
|British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), Fort St. James — Fort St. James|
Simon Fraser and John Stuart established Fort St. James among the Carrier Indians in 1806. Originally a North West Company post, it passed to the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1821. From the beginning an important centre of trade and cooperation with the Indians, it became, under the Hudson’s Bay Company, the chief trading post in north-central British Columbia and the administrative centre of the large and prosperous district of New Caledonia. Throughout its history Fort St. . . . — Map (db m42736) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Duke of York's Martello Tower — York Redoubt|
|[English Text only shown] The Duke of York's Martello Tower was one of many small towers built for coastal defence throughout the British Empire. They were usually round, with stone walls too thick to be penetrated by cannon balls. This tower protected the seaward battery from attack by land. The tower was built in 1798 by Prince Edward, fourth son of King George III, while he was the military commander at Halifax. It was named for Edward's brother, the Duke of York. What happened to . . . — Map (db m44629) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — York Redoubt|
York Redoubt was the heart of the defences protecting the outer harbour approaches to Halifax. Begun in 1793, it was enlarged by the Duke of Kent who constructed a Martello tower here in 1798. The redoubt became an essential link in the communications system protecting the city against surprise attack. Its strategic importance was such that it was rebuilt in the 1860s and 1880s to mount more powerful guns. In the twentieth century York Redoubt became the tactical command . . . — Map (db m44479) HM|
|Ontario, Hamilton — Burlington Heights 1813 - 1814|
Here in June, 1813, General John Vincent assembled troops that made the successful night attack on the invaders at Stoney Creek. From this point of vantage, in December, 1813, the force which retook Fort George and carried Fort Niagara by assault, began its march. On these heights stood the strong point of reserve and depot of arms for the defence of the Niagara Peninsula and support of the navy on Lake Ontario.
Ici, en juin 1813, le . . . — Map (db m56725) HM|
|Ontario, Hamilton — Defensive Outwork|
|About this spot
was an outwork of
the first line of defense
1812 - 1815 — Map (db m56758) HM|
|Ontario, Hamilton — First Line of Defense|
|This Stone Marks
The Line of Earthworks
In First Line of Defense
1812 - 1815 — Map (db m56740) HM|
|Ontario, Hamilton — March to Stoney Creek|
|These ramparts were
erected by the British troops
during the War of 1812-15.
From this place on the night
of June 5th 1813,
700 men under the command
of Lieut. Colonel Harvey,
marched to Stoney Creek
where they surprised and routed
an American force of 3750 men
ridding the Niagara Peninsula
of the invaders. — Map (db m56756) HM|
|Ontario, Wexford — Welcome to the Site of The Battle of the Windmill|
[ On the Right - In English ]:
You are standing on a battlefield where men fought and died. This battle took place in November 1838, during the Canadian rebellions. One side fought to "liberate" Canada from British rule. The other side rallied to protect their homes or the established political order.
The lighthouse in front of you is a converted windmill around which the battle was fought.
Fort Wellington, a few kilometres to the west in Prescott, was a gathering . . . — Map (db m40068) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Fort Amherstburg (Fort Malden)|
|The post was begun by the Royal Canadian Volunteers in 1796 to replace Detroit and to maintain British influence among the western Indians. As the principal defense of the Detroit frontier in 1812, it was here that Isaac Brock gathered his forces for the attack on Detroit. The next year with supply lines cut and control of Lake Erie lost to the Americans, the British could not hold the fort, which they evacuated and burned. Partially rebuilt by the invading Americans, it was returned on 1 July . . . — Map (db m34353) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The Commissariat Office|
|The office for the Commissariat Department was built in 1831 near the government wharf and storehouse. Commissary officials purchased from local contractors the flour, beef, straw and firewood used by troops. They also managed Fort Malden's finances, including the soldiers' pay which was issued daily from this office. — Map (db m37356) HM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Fort Henry|
| The first Fort Henry was built during the War of 1812 to protect the British dockyards in Navy Bay. The present limestone citadel, constructed between 1832 and 1837, replaced the old fort as part of a larger plan for the defence of the recently completed Rideau Canal. Commissariat stores were built to join the advanced battery with the main fort in 1841-42. Fort Henry was garrisoned by British troops until 1871, when Canadian Gunnery Schools (forerunner of the Royal Canadian Artillery) took . . . — Map (db m39364) HM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Louis de Buade Comte de Frontenac et de Palluau — 1622-1698|
|One of the most influential and controversial figures in Canadian history, Frontenac was born at St-Germain-en-Laye, France. As a member of the noblesse d'epee he was able in 1672 to secure the appointment as Governor-General of New France. Devoted largely because of self-interest to promoting the colony's territorial expansion, Frontenac established a series of fortified fur-trading posts extending into the interior of North America, the first of which, Fort Frontenac, was constructed near . . . — Map (db m39978) HM|
|Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — The Market Battery|
|Stood on this site from 1848 to 1875. With Shoal Tower opposite it defended Kingston Harbour and the Rideau Canal. From 1875 this was a public park. In 1885 the Kingston and Pembroke railway station was built. — Map (db m39979) HM|
|Ontario (Middlesex County), London — The British Garrison in London|
|In one of several concentrations of British troops in Upper Canada various infantry and artillery units were stationed on a military reserve here during the mid-19th century. The garrison, which contributed significantly to the economic growth of London, was first established in 1839 to guard against border raids following the Rebellion of 1837. Although its troops were withdrawn in 1853 to serve in the Crimean War and military duties were assumed by pensioners, it was re-occupied by British . . . — Map (db m18918) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Chippawa — Fort Chippawa 1791|
|The fortifications which stood on this site were built in 1791 to protect the southern terminus of the Niagara portage road, and serve as a forwarding depot for government supplies. Known also as Fort Welland, the main structure consisted of a log blockhouse surrounded by a stockade. During the War of 1812 several bloody engagements were fought in this vicinity including the bitterly contested Battle of Chippawa, July 5, 1814, and possession of the fort frequently changed hands. A barracks, . . . — Map (db m49164) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Fort Erie — Fort Erie|
|Three fortifications occupied this site. The first (1764-1779) and second (c. 1783-1803), located at lower levels, were abandoned when ice and water inundated the works. The third Fort Erie, built between 1805 and 1808, was repaired in January 1814 but was captured by an invading American army in July of that same year. The Americans used it as a base for subsequent operations, retreated here after their defeat at Lundy's Lane, survived a siege by the British in August and September, and . . . — Map (db m48912) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Fort Erie — Fort Erie, Pro Patria Mori Cairn|
|[Text on the base of the Cairn];
Here are buried
150 British Officers and Men
Who fell in the attack on Fort Erie
On the 26th day of August, 1814, and three
of the defenders, men of the United States
Infantry, whose remains were discovered
during the restoration of Fort Erie,
1938 & 1939
[Text on first of 2 plaques mounted on the Cairn]:
In Memory of the
Officers and Seamen of
the Royal Navy, The Off-
icers, Non commissioned
Officers and . . . — Map (db m54139) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — A Fort Evolves — Fort Mississauga|
By 1813, the British were planning to build "a tower in small redoubt to command the entrance of the River...at Mississauga Point." Begun in the Spring of 1814, this tower rests on the remains of the first Capital of Upper Canada (today's Ontario). After the Americans burned the town of Newark in 1813, the British tore down the remaining brick walls and chimneys to provide a foundation. The tower was only two feet high in July when an American force under General . . . — Map (db m52200) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — A Strategic Location|
|A Strategic Location
You are standing at Mississauga Point where the Niagara River flows into Lake Ontario. Long ago the lakes and rivers were military supply and transportation routes and forts were built to protect them.
The large stone fort across the river is Fort Niagara. The French built a fort here in 1687, and the present one was begun in 1720. In August 1759 the British captured the fort after a lengthy seige. Prideaux and Johnston streets in Niagara-on-the-Lake . . . — Map (db m52610) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — A Strategic Site|
|Fort Niagara was only 1200 metres from Fort
George, well within artillery range. In May, 1813, combined artillery fire from Fort Niagara, its detached batteries, and American warships at the river's mouth completely destroyed Fort George
and forced the British to abandon it to the
invading Americans. Only the powder magazine
survived. By the end of the war, the British had re-
occupied Fort George and captured Fort Niagara. — Map (db m53604) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort George — Ie Fort George|
|Constructed by order of Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe 1796-99, Fort George served as the headquarters for Major-General Brock in 1812. In May, 1813, it was bombarded and captured by the Americans who constructed fortifications of their own on the site. These in turn were retaken by the British in December 1813. In 1815 Fort George was described as "tumbling into ruins" and ordered abandoned. The present works are a reconstruction done in 1937-40, and represents the fort as it was in 1799-1813. . . . — Map (db m48743) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort Mississauga — Le Fort Mississauga|
|This tower and earthwork are all that survive of the barracks, guardroom, and cells of Fort Mississauga. Built between 1814 and 1816 to replace Fort George as the counterpoise to the American Fort Niagara immediately opposite, it was garrisoned until 1826. Repaired and rearmed following the Rebellion of 1837, it continued to be maintained until 1854 in response to border disputes with the United States. It was manned during the tense years of the American Civil War and the Fenian scare of 1866, . . . — Map (db m48745) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort Mississauga is a National Historic Site — an impotant part of Canada's story!|
|• Mississauga Point was the location of a Neutral First Nation fishing settlement by the 15th century.
• The area was under the control of the Seneca Nation during the late 17th century, and it became home to the Mississauga Nation by the 18th century.
• Fort Mississauga was begun during the War of 1812, and helped the British and Canadians defend the Niagara frontier against a powerful invading American army in 1814.
• It was completed after the War, and was a part of a defense . . . — Map (db m52236) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort Mississauga Trail — Sentier du fort Mississauga|
|Explore a part of our heritage - visit a fort almost 200 years old and discover part of the Lake Ontario shoreline.
Explorez un volet de notre patrimoine - visitez un fort qui a presque 200 ans d'histoire et decouvrez une partie du rivage du lac Ontario. — Map (db m48632) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort Niagara|
|Across the Niagara River is the imposing American stronghold, Fort Niagara. Originally built by the French, then occupied by the British, and finally by the Americans, this fort for nearly 150 years stood guard over the traditional supply route to the Upper Great Lakes. — Map (db m53630) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Niagara National Historic Sites|
|Brock's Monument and
This striking commemoration and final resting place of Major General Brock marks the site of the Battle of Queenston Heights. Visitors can climb the 235 stairs to take in spectacular views, or set off on a self-guided tour which covers every major scene of the historic battle
Navy Hall survives as the last building of what was once a large military complex and key supply depot for British forts on the Upper . . . — Map (db m54037) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Point Mississauga Lighthouse — Le Phare de Point Mississauga|
|The first lighthouse on the Great Lakes was built of stone at Point Mississauga in 1804 by John Symington, under orders from Lieutenant-Governor Peter Hunter. Demolished in 1814 to make room for this fort, its materials with debris from the ruined town of Niagara, were incorporated into this tower.
En 1804, John Symington, sur l'ordre du lieutenant-gouverneur Peter Hunter, construisit le premier phare des Grand lacs à Point Mississauga. Ce phare, qui était en pierre, fut démoli en 1814 . . . — Map (db m48746) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Six Pounder Field Gun|
|Field artillery was designed for mobility. Cannons mounted on carriages with large wheels could be moved quickly, even over rough terrain. This six pounder has a limber to carry ammunition and supplies and would be harnessed to a team of horses. Field guns like this were used by the Royal Artillery on battlefields around the world.
After the defeat of the British forces at the Battle of Fort George, field guns manned by the Royal Artillery and the local militia were critical in delaying . . . — Map (db m54000) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — The Fortified Mouth of the Niagara River|
|The St.Lawrence and Great Lakes system was the most efficient route to the interior of the continent of North America. Large waterways allowed for substantial sailing vessels to trade and maintain contact with Native allies from Montreal to the Mississippi with minimal portages and transhipment in smaller boats. The one great obstacle along the chain of waterways was Niagara Falls whose dramatic height required some control of the land to allow for a portage around the escarpment and the falls . . . — Map (db m53624) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Ubique|
Artillery was vitally important to the defense of Upper Canada. Due to a shortage of heavy cannons available in the province, there were only five garrison guns mounted inside Fort George in May of 1813.
Moving large cannons weighing several tons was a challenge. The easiest way to move guns was by water. Movement by land was slow and labour intensive and could expose the men moving them to enemy fire. Bad weather and poor roads could also make the . . . — Map (db m53989) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Welcome to Fort George|
|Built in 1796, Fort George was the scene of fierce engagements during the War of 1812. It was captured and destroyed then refortified by the Americans in 1813. It was re-taken by the British later that same year. The fort was abandoned in the 1820's, and only the original stone powder magazine survives today. Fort George was reconstructed between 1937-40.
Today we invite you to pass through the fort gates and re-live this exciting era in history. — Map (db m54038) HM|
|Czech Republic, Ústecký (Okres Litoměřice), Terezín — 3 — Garrison Church|
Kostel Vzkřišení Páně byl postaven v letech 1805-1810. Budovu s věží vysokou 56 m projektovali Ing. Heinrich Hetzinger a Julius D’Andreis. Takřka totožný se nachází v Pevnosti Josefov u Jaroměře.
The Church of the Resurrection of the Lord was built in 1805-1810. Ing. Heinrich Hatzinger and Julius D'Andreis designed the building with its 56 m tall tower. A nearly identical church . . . — Map (db m22500) HM|
|Czech Republic, Ústecký (Okres Litoměřice), Terezín — 15 — The Food Storeroom — Proviantní Sklad|
| In Czech:
Budova s jedním obdélníkovým nádvořím byla postavena v letech 1786 až 1789. V objektu se skladovala mouka, cukr, sůl, a pečivo. Spolu s Kavalírem č. II zde mohly být v připadě válečného konfliktu uskladněny zásoby potravin pro 70-ti tisícove vojsko na dobu 3,5 měsíce.
The Food Storeroom
This building, with one rectangular courtyard, was built between 1786 and 1789. Flour, sugar, . . . — Map (db m22626) HM|
|Estonia, Harjumaa MaakondTallinn — Toompea Loss — [Toompea Castle]|
| Aerial photo of the castle and surroundings
Text in Estonian : …
Text in English:
Toompea Castle is the seat of the Parliament of the Republic of Estonia – the Riigikogu
The castle complex is made up of several parts: the west wall and the Tall Hermann tower belongs to the medieval fortress of the Order of the Brothers of the Sword, the Government Administration building represents the Czarist era and is classic in style, and the building of the . . . — Map (db m57027) HM|
|Finland, Uusimaa Region (Helsinki), Suomenlinna — Kirkkopuisto — Kyrkparken - Church Park — [Suomenlinna Sea Fortress]|
| [Text in Finnish:] …
[Text in Swedish:] …
[Text in English:]
The crownwork (1) comprises the southern flank of an ambitious plan for a public square originally drawn up by Augustin Ehrensvard. The foundation stone was laid on June 8, 1775, by King Gustav III of Sweden. On its external side, the crownwork was designed to form an imposing greystone defensive wall, but its casemates and wings were used for naval shipyard workshops, a sail-making shop, storerooms . . . — Map (db m57779) HM|
|France, Aquitaine (Dordogne), Beynac-et-Cazenac — Chateau Feodal de Beynac — [Feudal castle of Beynac]|
|Forteresse du XIIe-XIIIe Siècles
Baronne du Perigord
La survie du patrimoine historique tient à deux facteurs: sa mise en valeur et sa restauration. Ce témoignage de notre civilisation et de notre histoire nous permet aussi de reconsitituer la passé au quotidien: c’est la tache la plus difficile à mettre en oeuvre. Elle s’avere pourtant indispensable si l’on veut que cet héritage culturel soit ressenti comme un élément de l’énvironnement naturel dans lequel nous vivons.
Rien n’est plus . . . — Map (db m60408) HM|
|France, Aquitaine (Gironde), Saint Emilion — La Porte Brunet — [The Brunet Gate] — Saint Emilion|
|Saint-Émilion “une de plus fortes places de la Guienne” un Moyen-Âge, fut défendue par un enceinte fortifiée edifiée de 1110 à 1224, comportant 1500 m de remparts (classés Monuments historique, le 12 julliet 1886) .Ces derniers crénelés et armés de mâchicolulis, longeaient les fossés sur un hauteur de 8 à 10 m et un épaisseur de 1,60 à 2 m. Six portes d’une épaisseur double de celle de la muraille et surmontées de larges tours, carrées permettaient d’accéder à la cité: porte . . . — Map (db m60536) HM|
|France, Aquitaine (Gironde), Saint Emilion — La Porte Saint Martin — [The Saint Martin Gate]|
|Construite au XIIème siècle en même temps que les remparts extérieurs et écroulée en 1844, cette porte ouvrait sur l’ancienne commune de la Juridiction St. Martin de Mazérat, rattachée à St. Emilion en 1790.
Elle tire son nom du chemin qu’elle commande et qui conduisait à l’Eglise romane de St. Martin de Mazéart.|
[English translation by Google Translate, with modifications:
The Saint Martin Gate
Built in the twelfth century at the same time as the outer walls and collapsed in . . . — Map (db m60519) HM
|France, Île-de-France (Paris), Paris — La Conciergerie|
|La Conciergerie tient son nom du concierge, à qui le roi confie les droits de justice sur la demeure royale et ses dépendances. Du palais capétien de Philippe le Bel subsistent de rares salles gothiques, témoins des fastes royaux du XIVe siècle. Les salles dites «revolutionaries» évoquent le régime de la Terreur avec, en partictulier, le cellule reconstituée des la reine Marie Antoinette.|
The Conciergerie, originally part of the former royal palace of the French kings, it takes . . . — Map (db m61578) HM
|France, Languedoc-Roussillon (Bouches-du-Rhône), Arles — Tour des Mourgues — Tower of the Nuns|
|Le mur d’enceinte médiéval de la cité reprend, à l’angle Sud-Est le tracé de rempart antique.
La Tour des Mourgues fut d’abord une grande tour cylindrique de 6 mètres de haut qui renforçait cette partie de la ville romaine.
Le mot provençal “Mourgues” signifie “nonne”. En effet au dessus de la tour se trouvait l’abbaye Saint-Césaire fondée au Vie siècle.
A la fin du Moyen-Age (XIVe siècle), la structure romaine a été enveloppée par une chemise extérieure polygonale en . . . — Map (db m61526) HM|
|France, Languedoc-Roussillon (Hérault), Capestang — Le Château de l’archevêque — [Castle of the Archbishop]|
|La présence d’une demeure est attestée dès le XIIe siecle. Au VIIIe l’adjonction d’une courtline avec tours d’angle et les aménagements du logis avec arcs et mâchicoulis en front une forteresse. Sa fonction résidentielle s’affirme aux XIVe et XVe : peinture murale de sa vaste salle d’apparat, spendide planfond peint...
Les textes parient d’un palais. Le très riche et très puissant archevêque de Narbonne, seigneur du lieu, y effectue de frêquents sêjours avec ses baggage, se coffres, ses . . . — Map (db m60174) HM|
|France, Languedoc-Roussillon (Hérault), Capestang — Porte de Béziers — [The Bezier Gate]|
|L’enceinte du XIVème siècle, ponctuée de tours de diverses formes, disposait de cinq ports dont certaines avec « tour et maison attenante ».
En 1775, les portes dites de Carcassonne, de Saïsses et de Béziers sont remises en état : elles sont en bois de sapin « peint a l’huile d’une couleur brun-rouge » , chacune se compose de deux vantaux, une travers, un guichet au milieu, deux serrures de deux verrous.
[Translation by Google Translate (with modifications):
The Bezier Gate
The rampart of . . . — Map (db m60088) HM|
|France, Midi-Pyrénées (Tarn), Albi — Le palais de la Berbie — [Le Bishop's Palace]|
|Le nom du palais vient de l’occitan bisbia signifiant “évêche”, référence à sa fonction de résidence episcopale. Le bâtiment fut engé entre le XIIIe et le XIVe siècle et connut quelque modifications jusqu’au XVIIe siècle. Il forme avec la cathédrale un ensemble monumental de briques exceptionnal. Cette architecture militaire témoigne de la volonte de l’évêque d’affirmer sa puissance et son autorité en réponse à la dissidence cathare. Les nombreux contreforts hémicylindrique, les . . . — Map (db m60356) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria, Munich — "Lueg ins Land" Watchtower|
ob seiner Fernsicht
Erbaut vor 1374
Translated, the marker reads:
"Look to the Land"
so-called on account of its
Built before 1374
torn down in 1802. — Map (db m22539) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria (Landkreis Kitzingen), Iphofen — Einersheimer Gate — Einersheimer Tor|
| [Marker text in German:]
1422 erste Erwähnung
1525 Abwehr eines Bauernhaufens
1551 Ausbau zu einer massiven Wehranlage mit Verbindung des äusseren und inneren Tores durch den Steinmetz Caspar Rotenfelser. Steinkreuz im Innern zur Erinnerung an einen von den Schweden im 30-jährigen Krieg erstochenen Iphöfer.
[Marker text translated into English, more or less:]
1422 First mention
1525 Defense during the peasant uprising
1551 Expanded to a massive fortification . . . — Map (db m58206) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria (Landkreis Kitzingen), Iphofen — Mainbernheimer Gate — Mainbernheimer Tor|
[Marker text in German:]
Erste Erwähnung 1422.
Vorwerk und Haupttor.
[Marker text translated into English, more or less:]
First mentioned in 1422.
Fortified double-gate structure with gatekeeper's house, forward works, and main gate. — Map (db m58374) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria (Landkreis Kitzingen), Iphofen — The Owls' Tower — Eulenturm|
[Marker text in German:]
Bauzeit um 1500. Gefängnisturm für lebenlänglich Verurteilte, auch „Faulturm” genannt, weil die eingekerkerten nach ihrem Ableben nicht selten darin verfaulten. Zudem Pulverturm der Stadt und Wachturm: „So der türmer ein gerenn im Felde und sonst was feindschaft betrifft ersieht, soll er in die drummelte sto ßen und dies anzeigen”.
[Marker text translated into English, more or less:]
Built around 1500. A prison tower for those . . . — Map (db m58307) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria (Landkreis Schweinfurt), Gerolzhofen — Dingolshäuser Gate — Dingolshäuser Tor|
[Marker text in German:]
An dieser Stelle stand das Ost-Tor der äusseren Stadtmauer, das sogenannten Dingolshäuser Tor. Um 1470 unter Bischof Rudolf von Scherenberg errichtet. 1670 nach den Schwedenkrieg erneuert. 1882 wurde das Torhaus für den Bau einer breiteren Strasse abgebrochen.
Geschichte für alle
historischer Verein in Gerolzhofen, e.V.
Dr. Ottmar Wolf - Kulturstiftung
[Marker text translated into English, more or less:] At this location stood the East Gate . . . — Map (db m57950) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria (Landkreis Schweinfurt), Gerolzhofen — Spital Gate — Spitaltor|
| [Marker text in German:]
Das Torhaus mit einer Rundbogen Durchfahrt und einem seitlich in den inneren Stadtgraben vorspringenden Flankiersturm wurde von Bischof Rudolf von Scherenberg um 1472 als Verstärkung des inneren Tors gebaut. Von Bischof Julius Echter 1597 erweitert, fiel es 1871 der Spitzhacke zum Opfer.
Geschichte für alle -
historischer Verein in Gerolzhofen, e.V.
Dr. Ottmar Wolf – Kulturstiftung
[Marker text translated into English, more or less:] . . . — Map (db m57951) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria (Landkreis Schweinfurt), Gerolzhofen — The Beadle’s Tower — Bettelturm|
[Marker text in German:]
Hier stand der innere Torturm der südlichen Doppeltor-Anlage, im Volksmund Bettelturm genannt(Büttel = Gerechtsknecht). Erstmals 1340 erwähnt, wurde der Turm schon im 1756 wegen Steinfraß und morschem Fundament wieder abgebrochen.
Geschichte für alle - historischer Verein in Gerolzhofen, e.V.
Dr. Ottmar Wolf – Kulturstiftung
[Marker text translated into English, more or less:]
Here stood the inner gate tower, part of the double-tower . . . — Map (db m57956) HM|
|Ireland, Connacht (County Roscommon), Ballyconboy — 988:1272 — Cruachan / Cruachain (Rathmore)|
| Cruachan is traditionally said to be the inauguration place of the Kings of Connacht. There are a number of monuments spread over an area of about two square miles. These include a large mound, a number of differently-shaped enclosures and some ring-forts. One of these contains a standing stone alleged to mark the resting place of the last pagan king of Ireland.
De réir an tseanchais is ag Cruachain a dhéantaí Ríthe Chonnacht a ghairm. Tá roinnt séadchomharthaí scaipthe ar fud achar dhá . . . — Map (db m28192) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Fingal), Howth — The Ready Boat Pillar — Sculpted by Seán O'Dwyer|
| Seeing the meaning
When viewing a piece of sculpture one can see many different layers of meaning. The clues given here are only the first layer of meaning and are meant only as a gateway through which you can go on your way to see meanings of your own.
All local stories, myths and legends are preserved to carry a message. Howth has a wonderful past and from it certain themes emerge.... exploration, conflict, healing and preservation. I have depicted figures in the Ready Boat Pillar . . . — Map (db m25301) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Longford), Kenagh — fáilte go Kenagh|
| Brief History of Longford
Longford is a focal point of the northern midlands where the provinces of Leinster, Ulster and Connaught all converge. Longford, where history and literature, tradegy and triumph are all woven together, takes its name from the ancient stronghold of the O'Farrell family (Long Fort - Fort of the O'Farrells) who ruled from the 11th Century. Bordered to the west by the majestic River Shannon, Longford is a county of rolling plains and picturesque stretches of water. . . . — Map (db m27946) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Longford), Lanesborough — Lanesborough / Béal Átha Liag History 500 - 1900 AD|
| The Mouth of the Ford of Stones
The ancient name of Lanesborough is Béal Átha Liag which means “Mouth of the Ford of Stones”. Situated at the northern tip of Lough Ree, or Loch Rí - meaning the “Lake of Kings” - Béal Átha Liag provided the first crossing point on the Shannon north of Athlone. From 1000 AD, the bridges across the Shannon have been of major military importance, being a main crossing point between the East and West of Ireland.
540 • . . . — Map (db m27424) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Kells — Kells Round Tower — Kells Heritage Trail|
| This tower is located on the grounds of St Columba's church and was built in the 10th century as part of the early Christian monastery. Such towers were referred to as a cloigteach meaning bell tower. Modelled on early Italian belfries, they were used as lookout towers and as places of refuge during attack, particularly from Norse invaders.
The tower is ninety feet high from the original street level to the base of its roof and has six floors but no internal staircase. Access to the upper . . . — Map (db m26440) HM|
|Ireland, Munster (County Kerry), Fahan — Dunbeg Promontory Fort / An Dún Beag|
| Dunbeg Promontory Fort
This Promontory Fort consists of four fosses (ditches) and five mounds. Behind this we have the terraced dry-stone masonry rampart, originally straight but which became curved during later construction work. The entrance is roofed and flanked by two guardrooms. The inner part of the wall is the older, the outer portion being added later to strengthen it. Inside the Fort are the remains of a large Clochaun, internally square on plan. There is a water drain around . . . — Map (db m24780) HM|
|Israel, Central District, Rosh Ha'ayin — Tel Afeq - Antipatris|
|Archaeological excavations at Tel Afeq have exposed layers of occupation dating from the Chalcolithic period (the fourth millennium B.C.E.) until the 20th century C.E. Strategically situated on the "Afeq Pass", a bottleneck between the headwaters of the Yarqon Stream and the range of hills in the east, Afeq controlled the international route that ran from Egypt to the north. Already in the third millennium B.C.E. the city that stood here was encircled by a fortification wall. In the time of the . . . — Map (db m64309) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Acre — The Crusader Fortress of the Knights of the Hospital and the Ottoman-Turkish Citadel of Akko|
|On this site, in the 12th-13th century, towered the fortress of the Order of the Knights of the Hospital of Saint John (the "Hospitallers") who were based in Akko (Acre) until the Muslim conquest of the city in 1291. Over the ruins of the fortress, which was reconstructed by the Ottoman Turks in the 17th and 18th centuries, was built the Citadel and Palace of the Governors Akko. In the mid-19th century the Ottoman authorities added here a large prison.
Under the British Administration . . . — Map (db m65456) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — A Unique Continuity|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
The deep section dug by the University of Chicago Expedition (1925-1939) provides a unique glimpse into the nearly thirty settlements built one on top of the other at the site. Due to the unique continuity of its occupation from the Neolithic period through the Persian period - and the scope of its excavations, Tel Megiddo is considered the 'cradle' of biblical archaeology and the 'laboratory' of modern research methods.
[Text on the . . . — Map (db m64908) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — From Megiddo to Armageddon|
|The city of Megiddo played a prominent role in the history of the ancient Near East. Strategically located at the mouth of the Nahal Iron Pass, Megiddo controlled access to the road that linked Egypt with Mesopotamia and Anatolia - the most important trade and military route of that time. Megiddo is the only site in the Land of Israel mentioned in the records of all Near Eastern ancient powers and was one of the most fought-over cities in the region. The first fully-recorded battle in history, . . . — Map (db m64782) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — Tel Megiddo National Park — World Heritage Site — The Biblical Tels - Megiddo, Hazor, Beer Sheba|
|The biblical tels of Megiddo, Hazor and Beer Sheba were inscribed in 2005 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as World Heritage Sites with outstanding universal value. They are fitting representatives of the 200 biblical tels in Israel, which were flourishing cities in the past.These cities were established alongside ancient commercial roads and near prosperous agricultural areas, and were ruled by a central government. They made their mark on the . . . — Map (db m64811) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The City-Gate — (The Late Bronze Period)|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
The Late Bronze period (1550-1150 B.C.) is marked by Egyptian rule of Canaan. At that time, Megiddo was one of the country's major city-states and its king a loyal vassal of the Egyptian pharaoh. The city-gate and the elaborate palace located just inside the are the best-known remains of this period. The city-gate was apparently incorporated into the Middle Bronze (2000-1550 B.C.) fortifications that were still in use at the time.
[Text . . . — Map (db m64821) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The City-Gate — (The Iron II Period)|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
Megiddo became an Israelite city sometime between the 10th and 9th centuries B.C., and functioned as an administrative center for he fertile Jezreel Valley. Some time later, a massive wall (1) and a monumental city-gate (2-4) were built. According to one opinion, the gate dates to the reign of Solomon (10th c. B.C.). Other scholars postdate the gate to the reign of either Ahab (9th c.) or Jeroboam II (8th c. B.C.).
[Text across the . . . — Map (db m64882) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Northern Palace|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
The foundations of this palace, first investigated by Y. Yadin in 1960, are presently being excavated by 'The Megiddo Expedition'. The edifice was apparently laid out as a bit hilani (North Syrian palace) whose architecture included a monumental porticoed entrance and a large central ceremonial hall.
[Text across the Bottom of the Marker]:
"And he made the hall of pillars (...) there was a porch in front with . . . — Map (db m64898) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Northern Stables|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
Architectural complexes dating from the same period (9th or 8th c. B.C.) and of similar design were found near the northern and southern edges of the mound. Through the years they variously interpreted as stables, storehouses or marketplaces. Recent research seems to corroborate their identification as horse-stables.
[Text across the Bottom of the Marker]:
"I besieged and conquered Samaria. Led away as booty 27,290 . . . — Map (db m64889) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Southern Palace|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
An elaborate ashlar-built palace (1) stood near the southern edge of the mound. A monumental entrance (2) - the only visible remains still standing - led to the courtyard (3). Like the northern palace, this edifice may have been built along the lines of a North Syrian bit hilani. One interpretation dated its construction to King Solomon (10th c. B.C.), whereas another one postdates it to Ahab's reign (9th c. B.C.).
[Text across . . . — Map (db m65198) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Southern Stables|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
The southern stables' five units could accommodate 150 horses. As in the northern complex, each unit consists of a rectangular building divided into three sections by two rows of alternating pillars and troughs. It seems that the Northern Kingdom established a major horse-breeding and training center at Megiddo in the 8th c. B.C., and this was apparently one of the reasons for its prosperity. Assyrian records from the 9th and the 8th c. B.C. . . . — Map (db m65204) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Water System|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
The problem of supplying water to large cities, a serious issue even in times of peace, could become acute in times of siege. Megiddo's main water source was located at the foot of the mound, beyond the city's fortifications. In order to ensure access to the spring from within the city, a hidden gallery was built on the slope of the mound in the 10th or 9th c. B.C. This gallery was later blocked and replaced by an elaborate water system, which . . . — Map (db m65215) HM|
|Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — Jaffa Gate — Old City Jerusalem|
| [Text in Hebrew …]
[Text in English:] Jaffa Gate is the westernmost of the gates in the walls of Jerusalem. It is so named as the starting point of the road to Jaffa port. Its Arabic name, Bab al-Khalil, meaning “Hebron Gate,” indicates that the road to Hebron, the ancient city of the Patriarchs, also started there. An Arabic inscription in the gate structure commemorates its construction: “In the name of Allah, the merciful and the compassionate, our lord . . . — Map (db m44853) HM|
|Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — The Large Stone Structure — The Remains of King David's Palace? — מבנה האבן הגדול|
|"And Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar - trees, and carpenters, and masons; and they built David a house" (II Samuel 5: 11)
Excavations in progress at this site since May 2005 conducted by Eilat Mazar, have revealed the remains of a large building, known as the Large Stone Structure. Finds uncovered in relation to the structure indicate that it was built in the early 10th century BCE during the reign of King David. In Mazar's opinion the building can . . . — Map (db m64064) HM|
|Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — The Royal Quarter (Area G)|
|"...the city shall be rebuilt on its mound, and the fortress in its proper place" (Jeremiah 30:18)
The inhabitants of ancient Jerusalem once built their homes on this hillside. The earliest structure unearthed here was part of an enormous Stepped Stone Structure that supported King David's Palace or the Canaanite fortress that preceded it. In the early First Temple period, stately homes and an official archive were built upon the Stepped Stone Structure. . . . — Map (db m63928) HM|
|Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — The Crusader-Ottoman Building / Millstones|
|[Text at the top of the marker]: The Crusader-Ottoman Building
This was built in the 12th century CE and remained in use until the Ottoman period. The hall has typical pointed vaults and embrasures in the walls, with remains of another two perpendicular halls. These halls were part of the Tiberias fort that was the capital of the Crusader 'Galilee Principality', and was integrated into Daher el-Omar's fortifications in the 18th century CE.
[Text at the bottom of the . . . — Map (db m65331) HM|
|Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — The Southern Wall|
|The wall was erected by the Beduin Governor of the Tiberias Region, Daher El-Omer, in the 18th century on the basis of the ruins of an earlier wall built by the Crusaders.
The wall was destroyed in the 1837 earthquake and since then only partially rebuilt. In the beginning of the 20th century, new settlements were established for the first time, outside the walls. The remaining ruins were once again struck by the great flood of 1934. — Map (db m65326) HM|
|Israel, Northern District, Tsipori — The Citadel|
|The Citadel (perhaps a watch tower) was built during the crusader period on foundations from an earlier period. Some of the cornerstones are rubble-filled Roman sarcophagi.
In the 18th Century the building was renovated by Dahr El-Omar, the Bedouin ruler of the Galilee.
At the end of the Ottoman Period it was rebuilt for use as a schoolhouse and was renovated again during the British Mandate. — Map (db m65412) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — Bathing in Roman Style|
|"The fittings of the interior - apartments, colonnades and baths - were of manifold variety and sumptuous ..."
Beyond the human need for cleanliness, the bathhouse also had a social function. Bathing and the associated physical activities were an important element in Roman social and cultural life, to which Herod aspired. This was where the king and his guests met, bathed and exercised. The sophisticated bathing arrangements, which are reminiscent of a dry . . . — Map (db m64079) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — Columbarium Tower (dovecot)|
|Why did the king raise doves on the mountain?
There were three columbarium towers on Masada. The one in front of us was used as a dovecot in its ground floor, and as a watchtower in its upper story. In the walls of the dovecot are several hundred niches in which the doves roosted. They supplied meat for Masada's inhabitants and guests, and probably also fertilizer for agricultural crops. — Map (db m64068) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The "Casemate of the Scrolls"|
|A large and rare concentration of finds from the time of the revolt was found in a corner of the room of the wall in which we stand: inscribed sheets of papyrus, fragments of scrolls, silver shekel coins, textiles, sandals, and glass vessels and bone implements. Among the finds was the pay record of a Roman cavalryman in the Tenth Legion. The most interesting finds were the scroll fragments, some of which show that during the siege there were members of different sects on the mountain. The . . . — Map (db m64071) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The Breaching Point — נקודת הפריצה|
|Here the siege of Masada ended. The ramp that the Romans had built up to the summit of the mountain reached to below this point. At the top of the ramp rose the siege tower, and in it was the battering ram with which the Romans assaulted the casemate wall. However, the rebels had built a wall of earth and wood, against which the battering ram was ineffective:
"Observing this, Silva, thinking it easier to destroy this wall by fire, ordered his soldiers to hurl at it showers of burning . . . — Map (db m64069) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The Discovery Location of the "Lots"|
|"...then, having chosen by lot ten of their number to dispatch the rest... these, having unswervingly slaughtered all, ordained the same rule of the lot for one another, that he on whom it fell should slay first the nine nd then himself last of all."
Here several hundred inscribed pottery shards (ostraca) were found. Outstanding among them was a group consisting of names and nicknames, including the name "Ben Ya'ir." Yigael Yadin, the most distinguished of . . . — Map (db m64101) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The Rebel's Community Life|
|How to organize community life under siege?
Near the western entrance square were discovered large concentrations of inscribed pottery shards (ostraca) from the period of the revolt. They bear names, combinations of letters or single letters in Hebrew. These shards were apparently used as food-rationing coupons, as a substitute for money, or to register fighting units or the families that lived on the mountain. Both types demonstrate the community life of the rebels in Masada. It is probable . . . — Map (db m64077) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The Synagogue|
|"Long since, my brave men, we determined neither to serve the Romans nor any other save God ..."
The rebels' way of life on Masada required a building suitable for community meetings and Torah readings. This building, which became a synagogue during the revolt, was built in Herod's time, most likely as a stable.
The rebels changed its internal structure and even closed off a small room in the corner of the hall, which apparently served for storage of Torah . . . — Map (db m64076) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The Water Gate — שער המים|
|The path that climbed to Masada from the west via the cisterns terminated at this gate. Visitors to the mountain and the beasts of burden that carried water took this path to the summit of Masada. A channel starting at the gate carried to some of the cisterns on the mountain.
The stone paving of the gate was intended to prevent damage to the surface from the animals' hooves. — Map (db m64148) HM|
|Philippines, Cavite Province, Corregidor Island — Malinta Tunnel|
| Begun in 1922 and substantially completed in 1932, the tunnel complex consisted of east-west passage measuring 836 ft. long by 24 ft. wide 13 laterals on its north side and 11 laterals on the south side. Reinforced with concrete walls. Floor and overhead arches with blowers to furnish fresh air and a double-track electric car line along the main tunnel, Malinta provided bombproof shelter for the 1000 bed hospital, MacArthur’s USAFFE headquarters, shops and vast labyrinth storehouse during the . . . — Map (db m63648) HM WM|
|Philippines, Cebú Province, Cebu City — Fort San Pedro|
| The Fort of San Pedro, described in an official report of 1739, is triangular in shape and made of stone and mortar. The three bastions are La Concepcion, San Ignacio de Loyola, and San Miguel - Powder Magazine.
[Inscriptions in the stone above the fort’s main [west side] gateway:]
Fuerza de San Pedro, 1565
Sereformo, Año, 1833
[Coat of Arms of the Spanish monarch]
Note also, a statuette of the Santo . . . — Map (db m64435) HM|
|U.S Virgin Islands, St Croix, Christiansted — Fort Christiansvaern|
|This fort played a vital role in Christiansted’s international trade. Built at harbor’s edge to protect commercial shipping from pirates and privateers, the fort embodied colonists’ fears as well as economic strength. Here were quartered Danish troops whose primary duty was internal security…to safeguard the island against slave insurrections.|
Completed in 1749, the fort was named Christiansvaern (“Christian’s Defense”) in honor of King Christian VI of Denmark-Norway. This . . . — Map (db m60707) HM
|U.S Virgin Islands, St Croix, Frederiksted — Fort Frederik — National Historic Landmark|
|This site possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America — Map (db m60871) HM|
|Alabama (Autauga County), Prattville — A County Older Than the State, Autauga County|
|Created in 1818 by an act of
Alabama Territorial Legislature.
Autauga Indians lived on creek
from which the county takes its name.
Autaugas were members of the Alibamo tribe.
They sent many warriors to resist
Andrew Jackson's invasion in Creek War.
County was part of the territory ceded
by the Creeks in Treaty of Ft. Jackson, 1814.
Prattville county seat since 1868.
Earlier: Jackson's Mill, Washington, Kingston. — Map (db m27907) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Fort Morgan — The Pride of Seven Flags|
Tribute dedicated to the memory of the soldiers who gave their lives in the defense of our country here at Fort Morgan.
Here lies the pride of seven flags entombed in our ancestor’s worth, who heard the thunder of the fray break o’er the field beneath knew the watchword of the day was “Victory or Death.”
Dates of battles and some events relative to Fort Morgan.
1711 – Battle, France – England
1719 – Battle, . . . — Map (db m4649) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — Fort Bowyer War of 1812|
|At, or near, this site, the United States, after seizing this point of land from the Spanish in 1813, built Fort Bowyer, a structure of wood and sand.
A small garrison of men courageously fought to defend the fort against two British attacks, one in September, 1814, again in February, 1815. — Map (db m28692) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Spanish Fort — Revolutionary War Battlefield and Burial Ground at Spanish Fort (1780-1781)|
|During the Revolutionary War, France, Spain, Britain, and the United States were interested in the fate of this region. In March 1780, Spanish forces captured Mobile. They established a palisaded fort with trenches (one mile north of here) to protect nearby Frenchtown, also known as The Village from British forces based in Pensacola. Early on the foggy Sunday morning of 7 January 1781, the British, under Col. von Hanxleden, attacked with about 200 German, Swiss, English, loyalist American . . . — Map (db m61451) HM|
|Alabama (Clarke County), Whatley — Fort Sinquefield|
Kimbell - James Massacre
Creek War 1812-13
Erected by Clarke County School Children 1931
Lest we forget Hayden and his dogs. — Map (db m47701) HM|
|Alabama (Conecuh County), Pine Orchard — Old Federal Road — Fort Warren|
|Site of Fort Warren, built in 1816 by Colonel Richard Warren, who owned considerable land in this vicinity. This facility was used as a refuge for settlers who feared for their lives in the early days of the aftermath of the Creek Indian Wars of 1812-1814. — Map (db m47689) HM|
|Alabama (DeKalb County), Fort Payne — Fort Payne’s Fort|
|The fort, consisting of a log house and large stockade, was built in 1838 by order of General Winfield Scott, commander of military forces responsible for the removal of Cherokee Indians.
Soldiers occupying the fort were commanded by Captain John C. Payne, for whom the fort was named.
Indians in the DeKalb County area who refused to move westward voluntarily were gathered and held in the stockade pending their forceful removal to the Indian territory.
Chimney still standing on . . . — Map (db m28030) HM|
|Alabama (Limestone County), Athens — Fort Henderson / Trinity School - 1865-1970|
| Fort Henderson Built on this site in 1863 by federal forces occupying Athens. It was a five-sided earthen fort with some frame buildings and underground bomb-proofs. Abatis lined the fifteen-foot deep perimeter ditch, a small portion of which is still visible. On September 24, 1864 after a brief fight and a clever ruse orchestrated by Confederate General Nathan B. Forrest, the fort and its 900 man garrison of mostly the 110th U.S. colored infantry were surrendered. After moving the . . . — Map (db m41787) HM|
|Alabama (Limestone County), Elkmont — Battle of Sulphur Creek Trestle|
|On Sept. 25, 1864 Gen. N.B. Forrest's Confederate cavalry, with Morton's battery of 4 guns, attacked and captured the Union fort near here. The fort consisted of a square redoubt, rifle pits, two blockhouses, and some frame buildings. It protected a large railroad trestle about a mile E. of here. After a demand for surrender was refused by Col. Lathrop, the Union commander, the Confederates attacked, supported by 800 rounds of artillery fire. Over 200 Union officers and men, including Col. . . . — Map (db m60870) HM|
|Alabama (Limestone County), Elkmont — Sims Settlement|
| Side A (North side) In the fall of 1806 a group of settlers led by William and James Sims, traveled from east Tennessee on flatboats down the Tennessee River and up the Elk River to this area. They landed near Buck Island and spread out into the surrounding countryside, seeking homesites in what they thought was "government" land that would soon be for sale to settlers. The area they settled, covering several square miles, from Elk River to New Garden became known as "Sims Settlement." . . . — Map (db m64252) HM|
|Alabama (Monroe County), Perdue Hill — Fort Claiborne — Creek Indian War 1813-1814|
|Built by Gen. Ferdinand L. Claiborne as a base for his invasion of the Alabama country with U.S. Regulars, Lower Tombigbee Militia, and friendly Choctaws. Claiborne’s campaign culminated in the American victory over the Creeks at the Holy Ground. — Map (db m47641) HM|
|Alabama (Monroe County), Perdue Hill — Piache|
| Piache, an Indian town visited by DeSoto in 1540 was near here.
DeLuna made a settlement here, Nanipacna in 1560.
Fort Claiborne was erected on the south bluff, in 1813.
LaFayette was entertained here, 1825.
Erected by the Alabama Society of Colonial Dames.
March 1939 — Map (db m47639) HM|
|Alabama (Morgan County), Decatur — 2 — “A Hard Nut To Crack” - Federal Defenses at Decatur — “A Hard Nut To Crack” — The Battle For Decatur|
|Decatur played a key role in the Federal defenses of the vital rail lines in North Alabama. These defenses were configured in a three-tiered system. First, a number of lightly armored gunboats, constructed on the Tennessee River and nicknamed “tinclads,” patrolled the river to intercept Confederate raiders attempting to cross. These gunboats regularly visited Decatur to obtain fuel, supplies and ammunition. The second component of the defensive line was garrisons stationed at . . . — Map (db m28237) HM|
|Alabama (Morgan County), Decatur — 4 — “An Affair Most Important to Us” - The Federal Right, October 27-28, 1864 — “A Hard Nut To Crack” — The Battle For Decatur|
|As Hood’s Army of Tennessee encircled Decatur, sharpshooters advanced upon the Union defenses. Colonel Doolittle’s men responded with heavy artillery and musket fire. During the early afternoon of October 27, the Confederates approached the Federal breastworks (to your front). At 2:00 p.m. Lieutenant Alexander Wilson of the 73rd Indiana Infantry organized 50 men from his regiment to attack these skirmishers. Wilson encountered “stubborn resistance,” but by nightfall the Federal . . . — Map (db m28241) HM|
|Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Fort Mitchell — <----- 5 miles -----|
|Built during Creek War 1813 by Georgia Militia on main Indian trade route to Tombigbee River.
U.S. Troops stationed here until 1837. 1836 Lower Creeks corralled here for forced removal to the West. — Map (db m26069) HM|
|Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Fort Mitchell Military Cemetery|
|This military graveyard was established soon after Fort Mitchell was built by General John Floyd of the Georgia Militia. Located just south of the stockade, the cemetery was used between 1813 and 1840 during the fort's occupation by Georgia and United States soldiers. The first burial was that of John Ward, an interpreter on the staff of General Floyd. Ward died of pneumonia in November 1813. A line of approximately 25 soldiers' graves is located adjacent to the site of the fort's dispensary. A . . . — Map (db m26122) HM|
|Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — The Creek Trail of Tears|
|Approximately one mile due east of this marker, back down the Old Federal Road, called by frontiersmen and Indians the Three Notched Trail or the Three Chopped Way, stood Fort Mitchell, an early 19th century American fort that in 1836 was one of the principal gathering places for the forced removal of the Creek Indians from their homes on the Chattahoochee River to the West. Weakened by starvation, defrauded of their lands and swindled out of most of their possessions, thousands of Creeks, . . . — Map (db m26100) HM|
|Alabama (Saint Clair County), Ohatchee — Fort Strother|
|Creek Indian War Headquarters of Gen. Andrew Jackson 1813 - 1814 Erected By St. Clair County — Map (db m28144) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Jacksons Gap — Fort Okfuskee — ←— 6 mi. west —«|
|Built in 1735 by British from Carolina in futile attempt to gain trade of the Creek Indians from the French, located at Fort Toulouse, 40 miles south. Okfuskee was the largest town in Creek Confederacy. — Map (db m22232) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bowie — 086-352 — Old Fort Bowie — Guardian of Apache Pass|
|Established 1862 following the battle of Apache Pass, largest conflict in Arizona Indian Wars. Massed Apaches under Cochise and Mancas Coloradas were routed by howitzers fired by California volunteers attacked in the pass. Fort Bowie overlooked only spring for miles. — Map (db m6994) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Elfrida — Camp John A. Rucker A Military Outpost — Stood on This Site 1878 - 1880|
|Lt. John A. Rucker, 6th Cav. U.S.A. perished in poximity in flooded White River July 11, 1878 attempting to save life of Lt. Austin Henely
Also on this site 1884-1943 ranch headquarters of Gray - Hampe - Rak — Map (db m42057) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Elfrida — Camp Rucker and the Indian Scouts|
|Camp Supply served as the base for two companies of Indian Scouts: Company C commanded by 2nd Lieutenant John A. Rucker, and Company D led by 1st Lieutenant Austin Henely. Each Company included between 32 and 40 Scouts who enlisted for 6 months at a time. During the first few months of the Camp’s operation the nighttime chanting and singing of Henely’s Scouts resulted in complaints by enlisted soldiers. An order to relocate the Indian Scouts at least ¾ mile from Camp was subsequently issued. . . . — Map (db m42080) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Huachuca City — Fort Huachuca — (1877)|
|Situated on the southern route to the Pacific Ocean, it brought law and order to the Arizona Territory, protecting settlers, miners, travelers and immigrants. Its troops won the surrender of Geronimo. Generals Pershing and Wood served here.
As the Army's electronic proving ground Huachuca alone of all our military posts remains on active status. — Map (db m27897) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — Fort Huachuca|
Landmark — Map (db m28232) HM|
|Arizona (Maricopa County), Fort McDowell — Camp Reno|
|From 1866 to 1868 this outpost of Ft. McDowell served as a departure point for military expeditions against the Tonto and Pinal Apache Indians. — Map (db m27679) HM|
|Arizona (Maricopa County), Fort McDowell — Fort McDowell|
|This important military post protected central Arizona settlements from the Tonto Apaches during the Indian wars 1865-1886. Its function as a military post ended in 1890 and it became a reservation by executive order, September 15, 1909 as home of the Mohave-Apache and Yavapai-Apaches. It was the home and burial place of Dr. Carlos Montezuma, a Mohave Apache Indian. Scouting parties from Fort McDowell regularly patrolled the Tonto Basin area beyond Four Peaks. — Map (db m27681) HM|
|Arizona (Maricopa County), Mesa — Site of Old Fort Utah|
|An adobe-walled refuge against Apaches
Built by the Lehi Pioneers of March 6, 1877
First Mormon colonists in central or southern Ariz.
Daniel W. Jones
• Harriet E. Jones
• Daniel P.
• Wiley C.
• Edwin W.
• Eleanor A.
• Wesley L.
• Lorenzo E.
• Frank C.
• Almina E.
• John D. Brady
• Philemon C. Merrill
• Cyrena Merrill
• Melissa J.
• David E.
• Lot S.
• Morgan H.
• Peter H.
• Thomas S. Merrill
[Left Center Column]: . . . — Map (db m49930) HM|
|Arizona (Mohave County), Bullhead City — Old Fort Mohave|
|Western anchor of a military road across Northern Arizona. Near here in 1858 Beale's camel expedition was ferried across the Colorado River on the steamer General Jessup. The fort was abandoned at the start of the Civil War. Was activated again in 1863, and then in 1880 assigned to civilian use of the Fort Mohave Indian Reservation. — Map (db m32207) HM|
|Arizona (Mohave County), Kingman — Camp Beale Springs Arizona|
|This camp, established March 25, 1871 by Company F, 12th Infantry commanded by Capt. Thomas Bryne, was located at a spring used by Indians for centuries. It was named for Navy Lt. Edward F Beale who established a wagon road along the 35th parallel.
In 1865 William Hardy created a stop on his toll road from Prescott to Hardyville. It was an Army outpost during the Hualapai War of 1866-1870.
The location became a temporary reservation for Hualapai Indians from 1871 to 1874. The spring . . . — Map (db m29411) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — Adjutant's Office (117)|
|Built of adobe bricks in 1876, this is the third oldest surviving building at Fort Apache. Originally the Adjutant's Office (administrative office) of the post, it also served variously as post headquarters, military Post Office, telegraph office, and post library. During the military period, the main entrance was located on the west side facing the parade ground.
Rehabilitated in 2001, it continues to serve Fort Apache and surrounding communities as the U.S. Post Office. — Map (db m36799) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — B.I.A. Club House (105)|
|The Club House was constructed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1930 to provide housing and kitchen facilities for unmarried teachers employed at the Theodore Roosevelt School. The building was later converted to a clubhouse for use by the school staff, and then into office space.
Note the unusual placement of the window in the center of the chimney on the front of the house. — Map (db m36784) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — Barracks (115)|
|These ruins represent the last surviving enlisted men's barracks, on the east end of Barracks Row. Much like Officer's Row defined the north side of the Parade Ground, Barracks Row made up the south side. This adobe barracks was one of two completed in 1889, the last of seven barracks buildings that made up the row.
Designed to house a troop of cavalry or company of infantry (each normally consisting of about 40 men), each of the barracks included a 125 by 25 foot squad room in front, . . . — Map (db m36874) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — Barracks Row|
|Throughout the military history of Fort Apache, enlisted men were housed with their units to the south of Officers' Row. The first company quarters, completed in February 1871, were 18 by 20 foot log squad huts built in rows running north and south across the area that would become the Parade Ground. The first two rows of eight huts each faced each other on the east end of the Parade Ground and housed a troop of cavalry in each row. A third row of five huts was added 300 feet to the west of the . . . — Map (db m36807) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — Boys' Dormitory (116)|
|The Boys' Dormitory was constructed in 1932. Located on the east end of the fort's Parade Ground, it is on the site of earlier military structures including a telegraph office. Sandstone was quarried for the building's construction from a site about a half mile east of the post; a German stonecutter was commissioned to supervise the work.
The dormitory has twenty six student rooms, and may have housed as many as four hundred boys during the height of the school's attendance. — Map (db m36875) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — Captain's Quarters (102 and 103)|
|An 1891 fire, sparked by a defective chimney and fanned by high winds, destroyed five sets of wood frame officers' quarters that had been constructed in this area between 1883 and 1886.
Using sandstone quarried just east of the Fort, these two matched stone buildings were constructed in 1892 to replace the five that burned.
After the creation of the Theodore Roosevelt Indian Boarding School, building 102 was used as the Home Economics classroom for a time, and both buildings served as . . . — Map (db m36779) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — Commanding Officers' Quarters (104)|
|A classic Victorian mansion, this building clearly represents some of the Army's architectural motivations. Recognizing the difficulties for officers and their families of being assigned to remote posts, the Army built homes such as this one to provide a measure of urbanity. The placement of this imposing structure at the center of Officers' Row, with the status of residents decreasing proportionally with distance from the center, mirrors the social and organizational stratification of a . . . — Map (db m36782) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — Commissary Storehouse (113)|
|Built in 1889 to replace a smaller adobe structure, the Commissary Storehouse served as the Fort's food storage and distribution point until its closure in 1922. A solid building, the storehouse includes a stone cellar that extends three-fourth of the length of the building.
Originally planned as a stone structure, less expensive adobe was used after a wooden quartermaster's storehouse burned in 1888 and had to be economically replaced at the same time the Commissary Storehouse was . . . — Map (db m36804) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — First Commanding Officer's Quarters (101)|
|This log cabin is the oldest surviving building at Fort Apache. The westernmost of a series of eight log cabins built in 1871 to form Officers' Row, this cabin was designated the Commanding Officer's Quarters. It was originally an 18 by 20 foot log pen with a canvas floor. A second pen, attached by an enclosed, ten-foot wide dogtrot was added later. Further additions include a log extension on the northwest side and wood frame additions constructed after the installation of a steam-powered . . . — Map (db m36778) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — Guard House (114)|
|This stone guard house was built around 1891 to replace the earlier, bed-bug infested structure still standing about 300 feet to the west of this site. Placed near the original main entrance to the fort, this building provided housing for guards and two metal holding cells.
During the Theodore Roosevelt School era, the Bureau of Indian Affairs converted this building into a power station and ice plant, complete with electric generator inside and fuel oil tank and water cooling tower out back. — Map (db m36805) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — Non-Commissioned Officers' Quarters (110 & 111)|
|Constructed in 1888 in the architectural style of Fort Apache's Officers' Row, these residences housed junior officers or non-commissioned officers and their families.
Like other quarters on the east end of Officers' Row, these residences were refurbished by the Bureau of Indian Affairs in the 1930's to house school staff. — Map (db m36800) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — Officer's Quarters (106)|
|This frame officer's quarters in the only one of seven built between 1883 and 1886 to have survived without significant modifications. Like many of the post's residences, it was built around a large central hallway that runs the length of the house. This hallway aided circulation during the summer months and also allowed for flexibility in the residence's use: it could be used as a dormitory for bachelor officers, divided to house two officers with small families, or occupied exclusively by the . . . — Map (db m36794) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — Officers' Quarters (107, 108, 109)|
|These three officers' quarters were constructed between 1883 and 1888 to house junior officers and their families. With clipped-corner porches and symmetrical front elevations, these quarters reflect the architectural style established by the military for Officers' Row. The westernmost of the quarters (building 107) is sided in a vertical board and batten siding, which was common in other early frame buildings including several other officers' quarters in this area. It is the only surviving . . . — Map (db m36796) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — Old Guard House (115A)|
|The first guardhouse at Fort Apache was built of logs and located on this site. In 1876, this stone building – the second oldest surviving structure on the post – was constructed to replace the original log structure. It was replaced as the guardhouse around 1890 to make way for the construction of barracks along the south side of the Parade Ground.
The wood frame portion of this building was added later by the Bureau of Indian Affairs when this building served as a bath house . . . — Map (db m36806) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — Parade Ground|
|This large open field between Officers' Row and the enlisted men's Barracks Row was used by the army for drill practice, training, and review. When called to action, troops would assemble here prior to departure. It also provided a prime location for baseball games and other athletic competitions held between different units stationed at the fort.
Reduced somewhat by the construction of the girls' dormitory, the Parade Ground continued this latter service as it became the athletic field for the Theodore Roosevelt School. — Map (db m36781) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — T.R. School Teachers' Quarters (112)|
|This house was constructed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs around 1930 to house Theodore Roosevelt School teachers and families. It deviates in style, though not in size, from the typical Officers' Row quarters.
Initially the house had a flat roof (note the drainage scuppers still in place on the west end of the house). Trusses were added later to support the pitched roof. — Map (db m36803) HM|
|Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Camp Lowell 1866-1873|
|Camp Lowell was established at this location in 1866 by the U.S. Army in recognition of the strategic military importance of Tucson. The local populace was fearful of Apaches, and the camp provided military protection as well as bringing financial benefits to the residents of Tucson. The two principal purposes of this military installation were to supply other army outposts south of the Gila River and to protect the citizens of the southern Arizona territory.
Camp Lowell consisted . . . — Map (db m38989) HM|
|Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Cottonwood Lane|
|Planted shortly after Fort Lowell was established in 1873. The trees were irrigated by acequias or open ditches with water diverted from Pantano Wash. The beautiful shade trees made Fort Lowell an oasis in an otherwise barren area. After the fort was abandoned in 1891 the trees died and were cut up for firewood. Now they have been replanted as they originally were in the heyday of Fort Lowell.
Presented by The Conservation Dept.
Tucson Womens Club
Mrs. H.M. Merritt, President 1964-65 — Map (db m26197) HM|
|Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Fort Lowell|
|The military post, established in 1862
near downtown Tucson, was moved to
this location in 1873. One of many
active forts on the Arizona frontier,
Lowell served also as a major supply
depot, influencing the economy and
social life of the community. At its
peak in the 1880's, three companies of
infantry and two troops of cavalry -
more than 250 officers and soldiers
- were stationed here. The need for
Fort Lowell steadily declined after
Geronimo's surrender in 1886 and,
despite . . . — Map (db m26191) HM|
|Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Fort Lowell|
|Largest of the early Arizona military installations
this was the supply base for military posts in southern Arizona during the long warfare against the Apaches. Built in 1873, it was Gen. Nelson A. Miles' headquarter in the final campaign against Geronimo, and was abandoned in 1891. — Map (db m26198) HM|
|Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Main Gate|
|The main gate of the presidio was located near what is now Alameda Street, just north of this spot. The gate was built from mesquite timbers and had a platform above, where a guard stood watch. In the late 1860's, the families of Milton Duffield, Hiram Stevens, and Edward Nye Fish lived in the Sonoran row houses that still stand along Main Street, north of Alameda Street. — Map (db m51488) HM|
|Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Presidio San Agustín del Tucson|
|For about 80 years, the adobe walls of the Tucson Presidio protected the residents of the area from attacks by Apache groups, who opposed Spanish and Mexican peoples and their native allies beginning in the 1600s. The Spanish military designated the site in 1775 on the location of a prehistoric native village site. The fort housed 100 soldiers at its height, and 300 civilians lived in the area, with several hundred O'odham and Aravaipa Apache allies in the vicinity. The main gate for the fort . . . — Map (db m55221) HM|
|Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Presidio Wall|
|This marker locates the northwest corner of the adobe wall which surrounded the Royal Spanish Presidio San Agustin del Tucson, In 1776 the new outpost was garrisoned by seventy Spanish cavalry troopers and Indian scouts, transferred from Tubac under the command of Lt. Col. Juan Bautista de Anza. The first fort, a crude wooden palisade, was replaced by adobe walls begun about 1778 and completed in 1783. For 80 years presidial soldiers provided protection for San Xavier mission and for settlers who farmed the Santa Cruz valley. — Map (db m26466) HM|
|Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Southwest Corner of the Presidio|
|Excavations beneath this lawn in 1998 located the west adobe wall of the Tucson Presidio and a portion of the presidio blacksmith shop. The tower at the southwest corner remains buried beneath the nearby city hall parking lot. Soldiers stood guard here, watching over the field on the Santa Cruz River floodplain below. The soldiers accompanied women as they washed clothes in an irrigation acequia (canal) and men as they tended crops and herds, located a short distance from the main gate. . . . — Map (db m51490) HM|
|Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Tucson Old Walled City|
by the Spanish Government
as a Presidio.
Became part of U.S. after
Gadsden Purchase 1853 — Map (db m26399) HM|
|Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Veterans Memorial — Fort Lowell Park|
|Dedicated to the enduring memory of the men and women who faithfully served in the military forces of the United States of America and in grateful acknowledgment of their contribution to this nation, which in time of peril, found in them its protectors. — Map (db m28932) HM|
|Arizona (Santa Cruz County), Nogales — Camp Stephen D. Little|
|A military camp established in Nogales, Arizona, in November of 1910, was for a generation an integral part of the economic and social life of the community. The post was renamed on December 14, 1915, for Private Little killed in action during the border troubles which climaxed with the taking of Nogales, Sonora, by revolutionists. After reaching a peak strength of 12,000 in 1916, forces were gradually reduced after World War I to less than 1,000 men. The post was abandoned May 5, 1933 — Map (db m39082) HM|
|Arizona (Santa Cruz County), Tubac — Tubac|
|Originally an Indian village, Tubac is the oldest European settlement in Arizona. It was established as the Royal Spanish Presidio San Ignacio De Tubac in 1752, after an uprising of Pima Indians. In 1775 Captain Juan Bautista De Anza led an expedition of 240 colonists from here to California and founded the city of San Francisco. In the 1850's, under C. D. Poston, Tubac was headquarters for a silver mining venture. In 1859 Arizona's first newspaper, The Weekly Arizonian, was published in . . . — Map (db m27119) HM|
|Arizona (Yavapai County), Camp Verde — Camp Verde|
| The oldest settlement in the Verde Valley. Site of historic Fort Verde. The first settlers came into the valley in February, 1865, followed by the military in August, 1865. Original military and historical buildings still stand. — Map (db m40814) HM|
|Arizona (Yavapai County), Camp Verde — Fort Verde State Historic Park — The West As It Really Was!|
| The Mythology of a Western Fort
Fort Verde is typical of western forts built in the 1870's and 1880's but our vision of forts comes from movies. Log stockades with towers and John Wayne fearlessly firing his rifle at attacking Indians. The reality is different. In truth, the Indians were sophisticated fighters who knew they would be outnumbered and outgunned and rarely attacked forts.
Building materials were a concern. Many forts were located in barren, treeless areas and building . . . — Map (db m40815) HM|
|Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — The Community|
| A farming community of perhaps 200 people prospered here for more than three centuries. The Castle was home to 35 or so of these people. Archeologists suggest they may have fled what is today the Flagstaff area due to overpopulation around A.D. 1100. Their name, “Sinagua,” is a variation of the Spanish “sin agua,” which means “without water.”
The excavation of mounds of broken pottery, worn-out tools, animal bones, and other trash at the base of the cliff . . . — Map (db m40840) HM|
|Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — The People Next Door|
| Here’s another “castle” – this one called “A” by the archeologists who excavated it in the 1930s.
Like neighboring Montezuma Castle, Castle A was occupied by Sinagua farmers between A.D. 1200 and 1450. However, with 45 rooms and an estimated occupancy of 100, it was much larger. It’s not nearly as well preserved, because sometime before the Sinaguas’ mysterious disappearance in the late 1400s a fire destroyed almost all interior features. All you can see today . . . — Map (db m40863) HM|
|Arizona (Yuma County), Yuma — Commanding Officer's Quarters & Kitchen|
|In 1859, steamboat entrepreneur George Alonzo Johnson built a riverside home for his bride, Estefana Alvarado. Now known as the Commanding Officer's Quarters, the home is believed to be Arizona's oldest Anglo-built adobe building. In the devastating Colorado River flood of 1862, this building and the nearby Hooper residence, now the detached kitchen, were unharmed because they were built on high ground. Quartermaster personnel used the buildings from the mid-1860's until the military abandoned . . . — Map (db m28999) HM|
|Arizona (Yuma County), Yuma — Office of the U. S. Army Depot Quartermaster|
|This adobe building was constructed in 1872 as an office for the Fort Yuma Quartermaster Depot. It replaced a room in a corner of the depot storehouses where, according to Captain J. G. C. Lee, Quartermaster, ". . .the noise of the arrivals and departures of boats. . . the piling and unpiling of boxes, hammering, nailing. . .the car, heavily laden being rolled in and out, and the heavy tramp of the labourers going to and fro. . . " had become intolerable.
While not formally designated as . . . — Map (db m29000) HM|
|Arizona (Yuma County), Yuma — Quartermaster Depot Water Reservoir|
|A steam pump located at the edge of the river propelled muddy Colorado River water through pipes to an elevated holding tank constructed of local rock and mortar with a wood shingle roof to decrease evaporation. Sediment fell to the bottom of the tank then gravity flow forced the cleared water through pipes to Quartermaster buildings and other houses in the area. Periodically, a soldier was sent into the tank to clean out the accumulated silt, hoisting it up and out in buckets.
The . . . — Map (db m29001) HM|
|Arkansas (Sebastian County), Fort Smith — The Bastion That Never Was|
|When army engineers originally designed the second Fort Smith in 1838, they planned for it to withstand attack. A key feature in achieving this goal was a stone wall about twelve feet high and from two to three feet thick. This wall surrounded the buildings of the second fort. At the five corners of the wall the army intended to construct bastions, two-story fortified firing positions for cannons. Construction on this bastion began in March of 1839; by 1842 the foundation of the structure was . . . — Map (db m58434) HM|
|California (Amador County), Ione — 867 — Preston Castle|
|The “Castle,” Built in 1890–1894, is the most significant example of Romanesque Revival architecture in the Mother Lode. It was built to house the Preston School of Industry. Established by the State Legislature as a progressive action toward rehabilitating, rather than simply imprisoning, juvenile offenders. Doors of the 120 room “castle” closed in 1960 after new facilities were completed.
California Registered Historical Landmark No. 867
Plaque placed . . . — Map (db m2046) HM|
|California (Fresno County), Fresno — 3 — Fort Washington|
|Approximately 2 miles north of this point, Fort Washintgon was built in the spring of 1850 by Wiley B Cassity (Cassady or Cassidy), Charls D. Gibbes, Major Lane and others. This fort, probably the first building erected in Fresno County, served as protection for miners and travelers during the Indian uprisings of 1850-51. Cassity and Gibbes operated a ferry across the San Joaquin River northeast of the fort. Cassity was slain by the Indians on Feb. 25, 1851. The fort was destroyed by flood, . . . — Map (db m28013) HM|
|California (Fresno County), Friant — Erected to the Memory of the Pioneers of the Millerton Area Whose Remains Rest Here — Winchell Cove Cemetery|
|The site of Fort Miller (1851-1866) lies about one mile north and that of the pioneer town of Millerton (1851-1874) about one and one-half miles northwest on the then Visalia - Stockton Road. Both sites are now covered by the waters of Millerton Lake.
The first courthouse of Fresno County was constructed in 1887 in the town of Millerton and the first public school in Fresno County was opened in the hospital building at Fort Miller in 1860.
The granite blocks forming this monument were part of the old courthouse. — Map (db m47248) HM|
|California (Imperial County), Calexico — 808 — Camp Salvation|
|Here on September 23, 1849, Liet. Cave J. Couts, Escourt Commander, International Boundary Commission, established Camp Salvation. From September till the first of December 1849, it served as a refugee center for distressed emigrants attempting to reach the gold fields over the Southern Emigrant Trail. — Map (db m50586) HM|
|California (Imperial County), Imperial — 944 — Site of Fort Romualdo Pacheco — (1825 - 1826)|
|In 1774, Spain opened an overland route from Sonora to California but it was closed by Yuma Indians in 1781. In 1822, Mexico attempted to reopen this route. Lt. Romualdo Pacheco and soldiers built an adobe fort at this site in 1825-26, the only Mexican fort in Alta California. On April 26, 1826, Kumeyaay Indians attacked the fort, killing three soldiers and wounding three others. Pacheco abandoned the fort, removing soldiers to San Diego. — Map (db m50589) HM|
|California (Imperial County), Winterhaven — 806 — Fort Yuma|
|Originally called Camp Calhoun, the site was first used as a U.S. Military Post in 1849. A fire destroyed the original buildings. By 1855 the barracks had been rebuilt. Called Camp Yuma in 1852 it became Fort Yuma after reconstruction. Transferred to the Department of the Interior and thre Quechan Indian Tribe in 1884, it became a boarding school operated by the Catholic Church until 1900. — Map (db m50585) HM|
|California (Kern County), Lebec — Camel Trail Terminus — Fort Tejon|
|Jefferson Davis, “Father of National Highways,” as Secretary of War 1853-57 sponsored the importation of 33 camels for transporting military supplies to the west coast. The camel trail survey ran from San Antonio, Texas to Fort Tejon which marks the western terminus, part of the Jefferson Davis Highway.
The army camel corps arrived at this fort in November, 1857, with Lt. Edward F. Beale in command.
United Daughters of the Confederacy
May 11, 1956 — Map (db m32823) HM|
|California (Kern County), Lebec — 129 — Fort Tejon|
|This military post was established by the United States Army on June 24, 1854, to suppress stock rustling and for the protection of Indians in the San Joaquin Valley. As regimental headquarters of the First Dragoons, Fort Tejón was an important military, social, and political center. Camels for transportation were introduced here in 1858. The fort was abandoned September 11, 1864. — Map (db m2605) HM|
|California (Kern County), Lebec — Peter Lebec|
|Although little is known about Peter Lebec, it is believed that he was killed by a grizzly bear, and buried under this tree. His epitaph was originally carved into the tree. — Map (db m11092) HM|
|California (Lassen County), Susanville — 76 — Roop's Fort|
|Built in July 1854 by Isaac N. Roop. First called Roop's House, and used as stopping place by emigrant trains. It was the locale of the "sagebrush war" fought in 1863 between Plumas County and Lassen County citizens. — Map (db m10266) HM|
|California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — Fort Moore — Pioneer Memorial and Park|
|On this site stood
Fort Moore built by the
Morman Battalion during
the War with Mexico
This memorial honors the troops who helped to win the South West.
The Flag of the United States was raised here on July 4th 1847
by United States Troops at the First Independence Celebration in Los Angeles.
The United States 1st Dragons who fought at San Pasqual.
The New York Volunteers who came by sea.
The Mormon Battalion which made one of the . . . — Map (db m52461) HM|
|California (Los Angeles County), Wilmington — 21 — Officers' Quarters, Drum Barracks, 1862-1868 — "Drum Barracks, Civil War Period"|
| Panel 1:
1862 * Drum Barracks * 1868
Supply Depot, Department of
the Southwest, U.S. Army.
In memory of the historic past of this
building and the importance of its
association with early American
history in California.
Rudecinda Parlor No. 230, N.D.G.W.
placed this tablet October 2, 1927
Civil War Period
[Seal of the City of Los Angeles]
Historic Cultural Monument No. 21
by the . . . — Map (db m52631) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Bear Valley — 5999 — Fremont’s Fort|
|General John C. Fremont, 1813-1890. A noted military man, explorer, topographer, senator & businessman, Fremont was also a miner. He settled in Mariposa County living just outside Bear Valley. He operated the Josephine, Pine Tree & Princeton mines and other claims. In 1858 he returned from his travels to operate his mines and found many had been “jumped.” In taking them back a feud developed with several groups, one being the “Hornitas League” which tried to seize one . . . — Map (db m5783) HM|
|California (Mendocino County), Fort Bragg — 615 — Fort Bragg|
|Established in this vicinity June 11, 1857 by 1st Lieutenant Horatio Gate Gibson, 3rd Artillery, later Brigadier General, US Army. Named by Gibson in honor of his former company commander, Braxton Bragg, later General, C.S.A. Abandoned in October 1864. — Map (db m10585) HM|
|California (Mendocino County), Fort Bragg — Fort Building|
|The last remaining structure and once the original quartermaster’s storehouse and commissary of Fort Bragg Military Post 1857-1864, then located near Laurel and Redwood Avenues. — Map (db m10586) HM|
|California (Monterey County), Monterey — 6 — Bouchard Monument|
|On November 20, 1818, in the closing years of the Spanish Era, Capitan Hippolyte Bouchard entered Monterey Bay with two ships, flying the flag of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata, Argentina. The next day, one ship attacked the Spanish fort from the bay and the other sailed toward Pacific Grove where it anchored and dispatched a land force to take the fort from the rear. The Spanish fled, and Monterey lay under the Argentine flag while the privateers reprovisioned their ships and . . . — Map (db m63075) HM|
|California (Monterey County), Monterey — El Castillo de Monterey|
|Site of a Spanish fort constructed in 1792 to protect the port and presidio of Monterey from invaders. This is one of only three such forts constructed by the Spanish in California. — Map (db m63108) HM|
|California (Monterey County), Monterey — 7 — El Castillo Site|
|This old Spanish fort began as eleven guns behind a crude parapet of logs overlooking the anchorage of Monterey Bay in 1972. The battery was strengthen and enlarged over the years and served as the principal fort in Monterey for both the Spanish and the Mexicans. It was later replaced by the larger fort farther up the hill at the beginning of the American Era in 1848. The El Castillo site was excavated by archeologists in 1967 and re-covered with earth to protect it. — Map (db m63107) HM|
|California (Monterey County), Monterey — Fort Mervine|
|First American fort in California. Built in 1846-47. Named in honor of Navy Captain William Mervine who directed the raising of the American flag over the Custom House in 1846. — Map (db m63123) HM|
|California (Monterey County), Monterey — 5 — Presidio of Monterey Museum|
|Most of the wooden buildings on Presidio Hill below the Defense Language Institute complex were constructed from 1902 to 1906 by the 15th Infantry under the direction of Army Captain E.H. Plummer. The museum building was originally the post’s magazine for the storage of ammunition and was constructed of corrugated metal. A plaster facade was added when the museum moved into this structure in 1967. This remodelling (sic) added a quality of colonial Monterey architecture to the building. The . . . — Map (db m63125) HM|
|California (Monterey County), Monterey — Spanish Presidio|
|Approximate location of the West wall of the Presidio of Monterey which was established in 1770 to protect the Spanish settlers. — Map (db m63229) HM|
|California (Riverside County), Chuckwalla — 49 — Young Divisional Camp — Camp Young Headquarters Desert Training Center — California-Arizona Maneuver Area|
|Camp Young, named after Lt. Gen. S.B.M. Young, the 1st Army Chief of Staff, was established at this site in the Spring of 1942. It was one of twelve such camps built in the southwestern deserts to harden and train United States Troops for service to the battlefields of World War II. It was selected by Gen. George S. Patton Jr., as the administrative headquarters for the Desert Training Center, a simulated theater of operations that included portions of California, Arizona and Nevada. The other . . . — Map (db m50689) HM|
|California (Sacramento County), Sacramento — 666 — Camp Union Sutterville|
|The 5th Infantry Regiment, California Volunteers, was organized here on 8 October, 1861 and trained by Brevet Brigadier General George W. Bowie for duty in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas against the Confederate forces. Since this was the year of the great flood, the troops aided the flood-stricken capital. Company F, (Sacramento Rangers), 2nd Cavalry Regiment, California Volunteers, was organized in Sacramento August 29, 1861 and later served here. This company furnished a large number of officers for other units of the California Volunteers. — Map (db m10825) HM|
|California (Sacramento County), Sacramento — 591 — Captain John A. Sutter's Landing|
Captain John A. Sutter, after coming up the Sacramento River from Yerba Buena in August 1839, landed approximately two hundred feet north of here, at what was then the south bank of the American River. A short time thereafter he moved to the site where he established a permanent camp, and later built his fort. Sutter and his men where the first settlers within the present city limits of Sacramento.
In commemoration of the
landing of John . . . — Map (db m10522) HM|
|California (Sacramento County), Sacramento — General John A. Sutter — February 15, 1808 – June 18, 1880|
Founder of New Helvetia
The beginning of Sacramento
Builder of Sutter’s Fort
A man of vision and compassion
who deserves the respect
of Americans and Swiss — Map (db m11182) HM|
|California (Sacramento County), Sacramento — Sutter's Fort — This Tree Came From Kandern, Baden, Germany — The Birthplace of General John A Sutter|
|The Native Sons and Native Daughters of the Golden West planted it on July 19, 1939. and dedicated it September 9, 1948, on the occasion of the celebration of Admission Day and the Centenary of the founding of the modern City of Sacramento. — Map (db m11886) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Baker — 29 — Soda Springs - Zzyzx Mineral Springs|
|In 1860 the U.S. Army established an outpost at Soda Springs to protect government supplies from Indians. Later, miners processed the adjacent lake minerals. In 1906 the Tonopah & Tidewater railroad arrived. From 1944 to 1974 Dr. Curtis H. Springer operated a health resort at the outpost site, which he renamed Zzyzx Mineral Springs. — Map (db m50779) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Baker — The Desert Studies Center|
| [Panel #1]
1776 - 1830: Early Explorers
1776 - As the Revolutionary War broke out, California was still a province of Spain, and the Spanish government decided to help feed a hungry Mexico by farming the fertile valleys around Monterey and San Francisco bays. While Juan Bautista de Anza explored a possible trade route south of here, Father Francisco Garces followed the Colorado River northward. He eventually met Mojave tribesmen who led him west, across . . . — Map (db m51480) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Colton — 617 — Fort Benson|
|This is the site of an adobe fortification erected about 1856-57 by the "Independent" faction in a dispute with the Mormons over a land title. The fort was maintained for about a year. This also is the site of the Indian village of Jumuba, and Jedediah Smith camped here in January 1827. — Map (db m51027) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Goffs — 57 — Pah-Ute Creek — Fort Pah-Ute — Mojave Road|
|Pah-Ute Creek, which runs year around, attracted many Indian tribes, who used several Indian trails through this area. The first white man to visit Pah-Ute Creek was Fr. Francisco Garces in May of 1776. It was given it's name by Lt. A.W. Whipple during his Pacific Railroad Expedition of 1854.
The War Department ordered, in 1857, that the Mojave Indian Trail be used as a wagon road from the Colorado River to the Pacific Ocean. It became known as the Mojave Road.
Fort Pah-Ute was . . . — Map (db m50703) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Newberry Springs — 963-1 — Camp Cady (1860-1871)|
|Camp Cady was located on the Mojave Road which connected Los Angeles to Albuquerque. Non-Indian travel on this and the nearby Salt Lake Road was beset by Paiutes, Mohaves, and Chemehuevis defending their homeland. To protect both roads, Camp Cady was esablished by U.S. Dragoons in 1860. The main building was a stout mud redoubt. Improved camp structures were built 1/2 mile west in 1868. After peace was achieved, the military withdrew in 1871. This protection provided by Camp Cady enabled . . . — Map (db m50718) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Newberry-Baker — 16 — Camp Rock Spring|
|To the United States Soldiers of Camp Rock Spring --- who guarded the U.S. Mail
No glory there, nor much chance for military fame, but true patriots and heroes were they, to submit to such privations--yet these are the nurseries of the army, and from such hard schools we graduated a Grant and Sherman, Sheridan and Thomas. General James. F. Rusling USA — Map (db m50637) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Newberry-Baker — Fort Pah-Ute — (1867-68)|
|As many as eighteen enlisted men of Company "D," 9th U.S. Infantry once served duty here within the now crumbling walls of "Fort Pah-Ute." Although never established as an official fort, "Pah-Ute Creek," as it was commonly called, did house a small number of army troops from November 17, 1867 to May 3, 1868.
During the 1860's, a chain of five military "redoubts," including "Fort Pah-Ute," were established approximately "a day's ride apart," spanning the Mohave Desert from "Camp Cady" near . . . — Map (db m51274) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), San Bernardino — 44 — Site of Mormon Stockade|
|On this site in 1839 was built the first house in San Bernardino. The home of Jose del Carmen Lugo one of the grantees of the Rancho San Bernardino.
Also on this site in 1851 a stockade of logs was built as a protection against Indians. In it more than a hundred pioneer families lived for over a year. — Map (db m51014) HM|
|California (San Diego County), Oak Grove — 482 — Camp Wright — 1861 - 1866|
|First established October 18, 1861, on Warner's Ranch at "Fork of the Trail to San Diego", to guard the communications between California and Arizona. Moved to this site by Major Edwin A. Rigg, First California Volunteers, about November 23, 1861. Named for Brigadier General George Wright, United States Army, who commanded the Pacific Department and California District from 1861 to 1865. Abandoned December, 1866. — Map (db m51092) HM|
|California (San Diego County), San Diego — 54 — Fort Stockton|
|Fortified briefly by Carlos Carrillo in 1838. This site became Fort Dupont (July –November 1846) after American forces took Old Town during the Mexican War. Retaken and held briefly by the Californios, it fell once more to the Americans, who renamed it Fort Stockton and used it as campaign headquarters for ending the Californio Revolt in early 1847. The Morman Battalion stayed here later that year. The post was abandoned on September 25, 1848. — Map (db m11784) HM|
|California (San Diego County), San Diego — 523 — San Diego Barracks — 1850 - 1921|
|An army supply depot for Southern California was established on this site in 1850. Designated New San Diego Post, it was garrisoned by troops from December 2, 1858 to May, 1866. Reoccupied December 1869. Name changed to San Diego Barracks April 5, 1879. Abandoned December 15, 1921. Acquired by City of San Diego July 13, 1938. — Map (db m51094) HM|
|California (San Diego County), San Diego — 59 — San Diego Presidio Site|
|Soldiers, sailors, Indians, and Franciscan missionaries from New Spain occupied the land at Presidio Hill on May 17, 1769 as a military outpost. Two months later, Fr. Junípero Serra established the first San Diego Mission on Presidio Hill. Officially proclaimed a Spanish Presidio on January 1, 1774, the fortress was later occupied by a succession of Mexican forces. The Presidio was abandoned in 1837 after San Diego became a pueblo. — Map (db m11134) HM|
|California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — 82 — Castillo de San Joaquin|
|The first ship to enter San Francisco Bay, the San Carlos (Captain Ayala), dropped anchor off this point August 5, 1775. Lieutenant-Colonel Don Juan Bautista de Anza planted the cross on Cantil Blanco (White Cliff) March 28, 1776. The first fortification, Castillo de San Joaquín, was completed December 8, 1794 by José Joaquín de Arrillaga, sixth Governor of California. In 1853 United States Army engineers cut down the cliff and built Fort Point, renamed Fort Winfield Scott in 1882. This . . . — Map (db m10742) HM|
|California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Fort Point|
|Fort Point is considered one of the finest examples of military architecture in the United States and is San Francisco’s only major building constructed before the Civil War which has remained basically unchanged since it was completed and garrisoned in February 1861. Two months later the firing on Fort Sumter, South Carolina, marked the beginning of the Civil War, but the bombardment also clearly demonstrated that brick and granite fortresses could not withstand the devastating power of the . . . — Map (db m10677) HM|
|California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — San Francisco Port of Embarkation (1932-1962) — Headquarters|
| Critical Logistics Center for the Army’s Pacific Operations.
From its start in 1902 as an army hospital, built to accommodate twelve patients, this building went on to become the U. S. Army’s headquarters for troop and supply transport to the Pacific.
By 1906, most of Fort Mason’s sick soldiers were sent to the Presidio’s larger facility and much of the hospital here was used for temporary barracks, storage, and other non-critical functions. Then in 1912 the army established a . . . — Map (db m63580) HM WM|
|California (Santa Barbara County), Santa Barbara — 636 — Site of Royal Spanish Presidio|
|This presidio was established under orders of King Carlos III, April 19-21, 1782, by Governor Felipe De Neve, Padre Junipero Serra and Lieutenant Jose Francisco Ortega, to provide the benefits of government for the inhabitants of the Santa Barbara Channel region of California. — Map (db m50557) HM|
|California (Shasta County), Anderson — Fort Reading|
|Located 80 rods north.
Established May 26, 1852
by Co, E 2nd Infantry U.S.A.
Evacuated June 1867.
U.S. Army April 6, 1934
Sponsored by Shasta Historical Society — Map (db m10296) HM|
|California (Shasta County), Fall River Mills — Captain Dick and Richard Pugh|
|In Commemoration of
Captain Dick and Richard Pugh
The 1850's saw tension and turmoil between the early settlers and the native peoples of the Fall River Valley.
Richard Pugh, a native of Wales, was chosen by Lt. George Crook to be his guide when he and his company were sent to Fall River Valley in 1857. In October 1857 Lt. Crook was transferred to the Klamath Area in Northern California. He asked his guide, Dick Pugh, to remain in the Fall River Valley and help to complete the . . . — Map (db m10287) HM|
|California (Shasta County), Fall River Mills — Fort Crook|
|In Commemoration of
Established July 1, 1857 by Lieut' George Crook and Command for the protection of the immigrants and settlers. Later occupied by Capt John W Gardner and Capt McGregor.
The boundaries of this fort were designated as one mile in every direction from the flag pole.
Abandoned June 1, 1869 — Map (db m57825) HM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Fort Jones — 317 — Fort Jones — 1852-1858|
|On this ground there was established on Oct. 16, 1852 a military post by Companies A and B First United States Dragoons. From April 23 1853 until June 28 1858, the date of its abandonment, this fort was garrisoned by Company E 4th US Infantry.
Named in honor of Colonel Roger Jones, Brevet Major General of the Army, 1824-1852.
Dedicated this 14th day of July 1946 to the officers and men who served here, among whom were Sgts. James Bryan and John Griffin and Pvt. Gundor Salverson, who upon . . . — Map (db m62845) HM|
|California (Sonoma County), Jenner — 5 — Fort Ross|
|Founded 1812 by Russians from Sitka. When Russians withdrew to Alaska, 1841, Captain Sutter bought the improvements and supplies. Acquired by State in 1906 and remaining buildings restored - Greek Orthodox Chapel, Commandants Quarters and Stockade. Now a State historical monument.
Historical Landmark No. 5
Department of Public Works - Division of Highways — Map (db m57666) HM|
|California (Sonoma County), Jenner — Sandy Beach Cove|
|Sandy Beach Cover lies below the fort. The principal port of the settlement was 19 miles to the south at Port Rumiantsev (Bodega Bay), where there was a deep-water anchorage and a warehouse. Russian Navy and Russian-American Company ships frequently visited California ports, trading and conducting scientific studies. They stopped at Rumiantsev to load and offload goods and to get fresh water. Vessels from many other countries stopped there to trade as well. There was frequent travel and . . . — Map (db m16362) HM|
|California (Sonoma County), Jenner — The Call Family Residence — 1878 - 1972|
|George Washington Call (1829-1907) and his Chilean wife, Mercedes Leiva (1850-1933), bought 2,500 acres including Fort Ross in 1873. While maintaining a house in San Francisco, the family developed a dairy ranch and expanded the transport of local goods by sea. The Calls built this residence in 1878, as a headquarters for the ranch and shipping operations, and a home for their family, which eventually included nine children. They soon made Fort Ross a thriving community center and shipping port for neighboring farms, ranches, and lumber mills. — Map (db m16357) HM|
|California (Sonoma County), Jenner — The Native Alaskan Village|
|Native Alaskans, brought to Fort Ross by the Russian-American Company to hunt sea mammals and provide a work force for the colon, established a village on the marine terrace in front of the fort. The neighborhood also included the dwellings of inter-ethnic households composed of Native Alaskan men and local Native Californian women, In this "View of Fort Ross, 1828" by A. B. Duhaut-Cilly these homes appear on the far left above the ocean. This one-half acre site was investigated by . . . — Map (db m16361) HM|
|California (Yuba County), Wheatland — Camp Far West Cemetery|
| [ Inscribed on the monument: ]
To the Memory of the Pioneers who were buried here between the years
1844 – 1856
By the Grand Parlor
Native Sons of the
[ Inscription on missing bronze plaque: ]
In Honor of the Known
Military Buried Here
Pvt. George Eckweller, Co.F., 2nd Inf. 1849 • Pvt. John Stevenson, Co.F., 2nd Inf. 1849 • Pvt. Newton Barnes, Co.F., 2nd Inf. 1849 • Pvt. Baldwin, Co.E., 2nd Inf. . . . — Map (db m40633) HM|
|Colorado (Costilla County), Fort Garland — Fort Garland|
|This memorial is the
property of the State of Colorado
United States military outpost
to protect settlers from
hostile Indians. Named for
Brig. Gen. John Garland
Commander of this district in 1858 Established 1858. Abandoned 1883
Commanded by Col. Kit Carson 1866-7
the State Historical Society of Colorado
The Mrs. J. N. Hall Foundation
The . . . — Map (db m22731) HM|
|Colorado (La Plata County), Breen — [Old] Fort Lewis College|
|Originated on the site of a U.S. Cavalry post established in 1880 at Hesperus. From 1891 until 1956 the old fort was operated as an Indian school, a vocational high school and a junior college.
The first president of the college was Charles Dale Rea. It was chiefly through his aggressive leadership that the college was reconstructed here in 1956.
In 1962 it became a liberal arts college operating on a trimester program and offering work leading to the bachelor of arts and bachelor of science degrees. — Map (db m22765) HM|
|Colorado (Larimer County), Loveland — Namaqua|
| This Memorial Is the
Property Of The State Of Colorado
Home, trading post and fort of
Mariano Modena, early trapper,
scout and pioneer.
First settlement in the
Big Thompson Valley.
Station on Overland Stage
route to California in 1862.
The State Historical Society of Colorado
The Mrs. J.N. Hall Foundation
The Namaqua Chapter, Daughters of
the American Revolution
1931 — Map (db m51194) HM|
|Colorado (Logan County), Merino — Fort Wicked|
|Due west 940 feet stood
Originally Godfrey’s Ranch
Famous Overland Stage Station
One of the few posts withstanding the Indian uprising of 1864 on the road to Colorado.
Named from the bitter defence make by Holon Godfrey. — Map (db m61998) HM|
|Colorado (Morgan County), Fort Morgan — Old Fort Morgan|
|Occupied from 1864 to 1868 and the divergence of the Denver Cut Off from the Overland Trail
This monument is erected by Fort Morgan Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution
1912 — Map (db m51213) HM|
|Colorado (Pueblo County), Pueblo — Fort Pueblo — Site of Indian Massacre — Dec 25, 1854|
|This memorial commemorating the Old Pueblo Fort Site erected by The Arkansas Valley & Pueblo Chapters, Daughters of the American Revolution. Dedicated Nov. 17, 1923.
On Christmas Day, 1854, a massacre occurred at Fort Pueblo on the Arkansas. The fifteen men of the fort were killed and one woman (Chepita) and two boys carried away by the Indians. — Map (db m64755) HM|
|Colorado (Sedgwick County), Ovid — Fort Sedgwick — Due South 1 ¼ Miles is the site of|
|Established in September, 1864, as a United States Army Post. Called Camp Rankin and Post Julesburg Name changed in November 1865, to honor General John Sedgwick, who was killed at Spottsylvania May 9, 1864 The fort protected the stage line and emigrant trains from Indians. Abandoned in May, 1871. From this fort, Sedgwick County derives its name. — Map (db m47365) HM|
|Colorado (Sedgwick County), Ovid — Fort Sedgwick, Colorado Territory|
| "We have no business to put men out here unless we give them food and shelter, and all things but sand and water must be hauled from 1 to 400 miles." Lt. Gen. William T. Sherman, Fort Sedgwick, August 1866|
Camp Rankin was established just north of here in September 1864 as a response to increasing troubles from Plains Indians. The post was soon renamed Fort Sedgwick in honor of Major General John Sedgwick, a Civil War hero.
Beginning as a couple of sod huts surrounded by a sod wall, . . . — Map (db m47341) HM
|Colorado (Sedgwick County), Ovid — Hard Duty on the Plains|
|Military records, diaries and letters of those who survived life at the post reveal a saga of fraud and corruption, bravery and daring-do...triumph and tragedy...where conditions were considered unlivable, pleasures were few and the nearest bath was the South Platte River." Dallas Williams, Fort Sedgwick, C.T. - Hell Hole on the Platte|
Those who did not survive were buried in the cemetery on a hill just south of the fort. In 1891, the bodies were transferred to Fort McPherson Military . . . — Map (db m47342) HM
|Connecticut (Fairfield County), Stamford — Fort Stamford|
|To mark the site near by of Fort Stamford Built and garrisoned for the defense of the people in these parts in the War for American Independence Erected by Stamford Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution Sept. 14, A.D. 1926 < Lower Marker : > Relocated and rededicated by the Stamford Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution October 17, 1999 — Map (db m53431) HM|
|Connecticut (Fairfield County), Stamford — Fort Stamford — 1781 - 1783|
|1776 1976 In August, 1781 Gov. Jonathan Trumbull and the Council of Safety ordered construction of fortifications near Stamford to prevent a surprise attack from the enemy. Designed by Col. Rufus Putnam, and erected and garrisoned by Brig. Gen. David Waterbury of Stamford with 700 state troops, Fort Stamford was completed in December, 1781. In February, 1782 Maj. Hugh Maxwell and a Massachusetts detachment of 150 men were dispatched to man the fort until the arrival in . . . — Map (db m53433) HM|
|Connecticut (Hartford County), Windsor — Old Fort Marker — 1633 - 1933|
|On the brow of the hill overlooking the meadow
stood the Old Stone Fort or Stoughton House. It was
in two portions, one stone, probably the older, and one wood. At the north end was a door of heavy oak
timbers studded with iron spikes, which bore the
hacks and cuts of indian tomahawks. The house was
torn down in 1809 — Map (db m28364) HM|
|Connecticut (New Haven County), Meriden — Castle Craig|
Dedicated october 29, 1900
Castle Craig Tower stands 32 feet high on 976 foot East Peak in Meriden's Olmstead designed Hubbard Park. It has the distinction of being the highest point within 25 miles of the coast from Maine to Florida. Its design origins are clouded. Some say its native trap rock construction resembles Norman watchtowers on Europe's Rhine River while others claim it was modeled and named after an ancient castle in Scotland.
Meriden industrialist Walter Hubbard . . . — Map (db m33628) HM|
|Connecticut (New Haven County), New Haven — Beacon Hill|
|On this spot a signal beacon
was established in 1775
and about this hill
bravely resisted a large force
of invading British troops
July 5, 1779
To honor the deeds of the Fathers
Rising above the location of this sign stands Beacon Hill. In 1775 a large pile of brush and firewood was placed on top of Beacon Hill ready to be set on fire as a beacon light to warn of an enemy approach.
On July 4, 1779 British troops were sighted in Long Island Sound heading . . . — Map (db m35735) HM|
|Connecticut (New Haven County), New Haven — Black Rock Fort|
|Black Rock Fort
Here on July 5, 1779, eighteen men under Lieutenant Daniel Bishop stood in defense of New Haven against a British fleet commanded by Commodore Sir George Collier and land forces commanded by Major General William Tryon. When ammunition ran out the Patriots spiked their guns and withdrew. — Map (db m35730) HM|
|Connecticut (New Haven County), New Haven — Fort Nathan Hale — Black Rock Fort|
|Fort Nathan Hale
Black Rock Fort
Entered the National Register of
Historic Places October 28, 1970 — Map (db m35726) HM|
|Connecticut (New London County), Groton — Covered Way|
|A pathway between the fort and the lower battery where soldiers using it were under cover from enemy gunfire. — Map (db m19053) HM|
|Connecticut (New London County), Groton — Powder Magazine|
|Built in 1843 for the storage of gun Powder — Map (db m19055) HM|
|Connecticut (New London County), Groton — Shot Furnace|
|Built in 1843 – To heat cannon balls to set wooden vessels aflame when struck — Map (db m19054) HM|
|Connecticut (New London County), Groton — The Construction of Fort Griswold — Stabilization and Preservation of Fort Griswold — Phase 1|
|In November 1775, Colonel Jedeiah Elderkin was directed by the Governor and the Council of Safety “to view the circumstances of the harbor at New London and neighboring places, and consider of the most proper place and manner of fortifying the same against our enemies.” Elderkin recommended the fortification of several places in New London and Groton including the summit of the hill on Groton Heights where, “It seems nature had prepared a place to plant cannon for the . . . — Map (db m19041) HM|
|Connecticut (New London County), New London — “Aim, Load, Fire”|
| This scene features a replica 32-pound cannon that would have been employed here during the 1850s and 1860s. Thirty-two pound refers to the weight of the cannonballs used in this weapon. The soldiers are in the process of sponging the bore, or cleaning the cannon barrel, and are getting ready to load a cannonball. To fire the cannon, a seven-man gun crew (five shown in the scene) engages in a sequence of intricate and precise movements. In fewer than 20 seconds, the crew sponges the . . . — Map (db m48406) HM|
|Connecticut (New London County), New London — Blockhouse|
| This sturdy granite building is the oldest surviving structure at Fort Trumbull State Park. At the urging of President George Washington, Congress authorized funds to fortify American seaports in 1794. A French engineer, Stephen Rochefontaine, directed the fortification effort in New England. This blockhouse, sometimes called a citadel, was built under the 1794 federal program, when the first Fort Trumbull was repaired and reconfigured. The first Fort Trumbull had been built almost twenty . . . — Map (db m48265) HM|
|Connecticut (New London County), New London — Civil War|
| Ironically, the Third System forts, built to protect the U.S. coastline from foreign aggression, were never fired on by another country, but some were attacked by American rebel forces. The Civil War started in April of 1861 when Confederate cannon fired on Fort Sumter, a Third System fort built on an island to defend the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. The bombardment of hot cannonballs and exploding shells caused flames to rage through Fort Sumter, and the federal troops stationed . . . — Map (db m48313) HM|
|Connecticut (New London County), New London — Fort Interiors|
| The fort you are now in has had continuous military occupation since its erection in 1852. the latest occupant, the United States Navy, used the facilities from 1941 and 1997. When the fort was turned over to the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, the rooms were found to have been outfitted with modern heating devices, electrical service, lighting, and dropped suspended ceilings. Some rooms had been adapted to laboratory use and had floor mounted concrete slabs, and . . . — Map (db m48358) HM|
|Connecticut (New London County), New London — Fort Trumbull|
| This five-sided fort was built between 1839 and 1852 to protect New London Harbor as part of a broad system of coastal fortification undertaken by the federal government. This is the third Fort Trumbull built on this promontory, which was known as Mamacock or Fort Neck. The granite for the massive walls came from the quarry at Millstone Point. Three walls, with four bastions projecting for the corners, face the water for defense against a naval attack. The ravelin, the angular stone . . . — Map (db m48253) HM|
|Connecticut (New London County), New London — Maury Hall — Building 28|
| Maury Hall, a substantial two-story concrete building, stood on this site from the 1930s or early 1940s until 1999. It served as classrooms for the U.S. Maritime Service officers’ training program at Fort Trumbull during Worl War II. Known to the navy simply as Building 28, it housed the Electromagnetics Division of the Navy Underwater Sound Laboratory from 1948 to 1963. The Electromagnetics Division developed submarine antennas, radio communications systems, periscopes, and other optical . . . — Map (db m48303) HM|
|Connecticut (New London County), New London — North Battery|
| Between 1875 and 1876, the army built this installation for heavy guns, known as the North Battery, to strengthen the military effectiveness of Fort Trumbull. Designed for five cannon aimed toward the water, the battery contained four gun platforms located between earthen mounds, and a fifth platform placed just north of the row of mounds. The cannon projected over a granite wall fronted by an earth embankment that shielded the troops from enemy fire. The mounds provided further protection, . . . — Map (db m48258) HM|
|Connecticut (New London County), New London — Parade Ground|
| This parade ground appears on a map from the 1830s, when the second Fort Trumbull was still standing. Its use dates back at least that far. The army conducted drills and inspections of troops on this stretch of land until the early twentieth century. The Revenue Cutter Service School of Instruction and later the Coast Guard Academy used the parade ground to drill and review cadets until 1932, when the academy moved upriver to its present location. The parade ground also served as a site for . . . — Map (db m48272) HM|
|Connecticut (New London County), New London — Post Civil War to 1910|
| After the Civil War fewer troops were stationed at Fort Trumbull, but at least one artillery company continued to serve here each year into the early twentieth century. It became evident during the Civil War that advances in weapons had caused the stone forts built on the seacoast as part of the Third System to become outdated. New guns, called rifled cannon, fired pointed projectiles capable of piercing the stone walls of a fort in a single hit, something that round cannonballs could . . . — Map (db m48356) HM|
|Connecticut (New London County), New London — Site Orientation|
| On this rocky and windy promontory overlooking the Thames River, more than two hundred years of military history have unfolded. The history of this place and those who served here reflects strategic and technological developments from the American Revolution through the cold war. From 1775, when Connecticut was a colony preparing to defend itself against British oppression, through the standoff with the Soviet Union in the second half of the twentieth century, the activities and fortification . . . — Map (db m48647) HM|
|Connecticut (New London County), New London — South Battery|
| The army built this gun line, known as the South Battery, around 1840, while the present Fort Trumbull was under construction. By 1879, this battery contained eight cannon of two types, six Rodmans and two Parrotts. A low protective wall made of granite and earth, called a parapet, shielded the gun crews from enemy fire. In 1879, four smaller siege guns stood on additional platforms in front of this gun line, on the edge of a cove that is now largely filled in. By 1892 they had been . . . — Map (db m48262) HM|
|Connecticut (New London County), New London — The Barracks|
| This building housed army enlisted men serving in the artillery or infantry from the 1830s until Fort Trumbull was downgraded to a supply post, in 1907. Built of rough-cut granite, the original stone section dates from about 1830, the same year that the army built the officers’ quarters (now the visitors’ center). An observer wrote at the time, “The soldiers’ barracks are the best I have ever seen in the United States.” The wooden section, which no longer exists, was probably added . . . — Map (db m48300) HM|
|Connecticut (New London County), New London — The Third System|
| Although the United States won the War of 1812, the searing memory of the nation’s capital in flames continued to disturb the public and Congress alike. The British had entered the Chesapeake Bay, continued up the Potomac River, and set fire to Washington, D.C., in 1814. The need for stronger coastal fortifications was very clear. President James Madison told Congress in 1815 that “a certain degree of preparation for war . . . affords also the best security for the continuance of . . . — Map (db m48353) HM|
|Delaware (Kent County), Hartly — KC-97 — Cheney Clow's Rebellion|
|During the American Revolution many Delawareans remained loyal to the British Crown. In 1778 a group of Loyalists under the leadership of local resident Cheney Clow constructed a fort near this location. Concerned that they would march on Dover, a detachments of Delaware militia commanded by Lt. Col. Charles Pope was sent to investigate. Arriving on April 14, the party exchanged fire with the fort's occupants. Returning two days later with reinforcements, Pope found the post abandoned and . . . — Map (db m39715) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Christiana — Talbot's Fort|
|Colonel George Talbot , cousin of Lord Baltimore, in defiance of William Penn's claim to Delaware,erected a fort nearby, 1684, on land of the Widow Ogle. Talbot dispossessed settlers between here and Iron Hill who refused to acknowledge Baltimore as proprietor. Fort garrisoned about two years boundary settled by agreement 1760. Surveyed by Mason and Dixon 1763. Confirmed by proclamation of the Provincial Governor, John Penn 1775. — Map (db m60040) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Delaware City — Batteries Hentig and Dodd — The 1890s modernization continued|
|By the turn of the century, Fort Delaware had become part of a coastal defense system, linking Fort Mott in New Jersey and Fort Dupont in Delaware. Batteries* Hentig and Dodd, which each housed two rapid-fire guns, were intended to furnish close-range support for the submerged electric cables and torpedo net. Both batteries were named in honor of army officers who had died in action. ---------- * battery – two or more pieces of artillery used together. — Map (db m21662) HM|