|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Simon Girty U.E. — 1741 - 1818|
|Girty's life crossed cultural boundaries between native and white societies on the frontier of American settlement. In 1756 his family was captured by a French-led native war party in Pennsylvania. Simon was adopted by the Seneca, then repatriated in 1764. An interpreter at Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh), he became an intermediary with native nations. In 1778, dismayed over rebel policy on the natives, Girty fled to Detroit. During the Revolutionary War and subsequent conflicts in the Ohio Valley, he . . . — Map (db m34688) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The Great Sauk Trail|
|Part of an ancient network of Indian paths, the Great Sauk Trail, as it came to be known, extended from Rock Island in present-day Illinois to the Detroit River. It played a significant role in the communications between the native peoples in the upper Mississippi Valley and the British in this region, particularly during the period of Anglo-American rivalry following the American Revolution. For four decades pro-British tribes such as the Sauk and the Fox made annual pilgrimages along the . . . — Map (db m36976) HM|
|Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Prescott — Major James Morrow Walsh — 1840-1905|
| Born and educated in Prescott, Walsh was trained at military schools at Kingston and by 1873 had attained the rank of Major in the militia. In that year he was commissioned in the newly formed North-West Mounted Police. While in charge at Fort Walsh, in present-day Saskatchewan, he became known for his influence and friendship with Sitting Bull, chief of the approximately 5,000 Sioux who sought refuge in Canada 1876-77, and for his role in the negotiations for their return to the United . . . — Map (db m86953) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Navy Island — Ile Navy|
|The British used Navy Island from 1761 to 1764 as a shipyard in which to build the first British decked vessels to sail the upper lakes. These were essential in maintaining the supply lines westward during Pontiac's uprising, 1763-4. Thereafter the island remained undisturbed until 14 December 1837 when William Lyon Mackenzie, after being defeated at Toronto, led a "Patriot" army from Buffalo to occupy it. Swift reaction by local militia and British regulars prevented his moving to the mainland . . . — Map (db m49052) HM|
|El Salvador, Chalatenango, La Palma — La Palma - Birthplace of Salvadoran Peace|
| . . . — Map (db m88471) HM|
|Guatemala, Sacatepéquez, Antigua Guatemala — Friar Augusto Ramírez Monasterio|
| Fray Augusto Ramirez Monasterio, OFM.
En el XV aniversario de su martirio
1983 - 1998
A su memoria
“No hay amor mas grande que este: dar la vida por su amigos” (Jn. 15, 13)
Por su amor a la iglesia,
A los jóvenes, a los pobres y a la lucha por la paz de Guatemala.
Familia Franciscana Unida
Comite de Bienhechores Franciscanas
MOJUFRA Movimientos Hermandades y Asociaciones Laicales.
Antigua Guatemala, 7 de noviembre . . . — Map (db m88712) HM|
|Mexico, Distrito Federal, Ciudad de Mexico — Andrés Quintana Roo|
| Insurgente Nacio en Merida en el año de 1787 Se recibio de abogado en Mexico, abrazo la causa insurgente al lado de Morelos Lucho contantemente por la Patria Murio en Mexico en el año de 1851. English translation: Andrés Quintana Roo Independence fighter Born in Mérida in 1787. Became a lawyer in Mexico City and joined the cause of Independence, together with Morelos. He constantly fought for the Nation. He died in Mexico City in 1851. — Map (db m91665) HM|
|Mexico, Distrito Federal, Ciudad de Mexico — Francisco M. S. de Tagle|
| Insigne Poeta Michoacano Nacio en Valladolid (Morelia) en 1772 Partidario de la libertad Redacto el Acta de Independencia en 1821 Diputado y Senador Fallecio en 1847 English translation: Francisco M. S. de Tagle Distinguished Poet Born in Valladolid (now Morelia), Michoacán in 1772 Supporter of liberty Wrote the Act of Independence in 1821 Congressman and Senator Died in 1847 — Map (db m91232) HM|
|Alabama (Autauga County), Prattville — A County Older Than the State, Autauga County|
|Created in 1818 by an act of
Alabama Territorial Legislature.
Autauga Indians lived on creek
from which the county takes its name.
Autaugas were members of the Alibamo tribe.
They sent many warriors to resist
Andrew Jackson's invasion in Creek War.
County was part of the territory ceded
by the Creeks in Treaty of Ft. Jackson, 1814.
Prattville county seat since 1868.
Earlier: Jackson's Mill, Washington, Kingston. — Map (db m27907) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Stockton — Fort Mims And The Creek Indian War, 1813-14|
In 1813, people on the United State’s southwestern frontier were fearful. The Redstick faction of the Creek Indian Nation opposed growing American influence in the area and had voted for war. However, Creeks living in the Tensaw area had intermarried with the European and American settlers and were close allies.
Early in the summer, local American militia and allied Creeks attacked a group of Redsticks at Burt Corn Creek. Tensions grew and many families along the Tensaw, . . . — Map (db m66394) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Tensaw — Fort Mims — - 500 Yards →|
| Here in Creek Indian War 1813-14 took place most brutal massacre in American history.
Indians took fort with heavy loss, then killed all but about 36 of some 550 in the fort.
Creeks had been armed by British at Pensacola in this phase of War of 1812. — Map (db m86293) HM|
|Alabama (Barbour County), Batesville — Fort Browder/15th Alabama Infantry|
Approximately one mile south-southwest of here stood Fort Browder, a small wooden fortification built in 1836 for protection in the last war with the Creek Indians and named for Isham Browder, a prominent local planter. In 1861, the fort witnessed the formation of a Confederate infantry company known as the Fort Browder Roughs initially commanded by Captain Moses Worthington. The Roughs were subsequently enrolled as Company D, 15th Alabama Infantry. Of . . . — Map (db m60895) HM|
|Alabama (Blount County), Blountsville — Blountsville|
1820-1889 seat of Blount County a county older than the State.
Named for Tennessee Governor W. G. Blount who sent Andrew Jackson to aid Alabama settlers in Creek Indian War, 1812-1814.
Indian Chief Bear Meat lived here at crossing of old Indian trading paths.
1816 - Tennesseans began trading post here and called village Bear Meat Cabin.
1820 - named changed to Blountsville and made county seat.
1889 - County seat moved to Oneonta. — Map (db m28038) HM|
|Alabama (Blount County), Oneonta — Blount County — A County Older Than the State|
|Created Feb. 7, 1818 by Alabama Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by the Creek Indian Nation. Named for the Tennessee Governor W. G. Blount, who sent militia under Andrew Jackson to punish the Creeks for Fort Mims massacre. Jackson fought and won the Creek War. Creek gave up half of their lands in Treaty of Ft. Jackson, 1814. Some of Jackson's men were first settlers of Blount. County seat moved here in 1889. — Map (db m24353) HM|
|Alabama (Butler County), Forest Home — The Butler Massacre / Fort Bibb|
The Butler Massacre
On March 20, 1818, Capt. William Butler, Capt. James Saffold, William Gardener, Daniel Shaw and John Hinson left Fort Bibb to meet Col. Sam Dale. They were attacked near Pine Barren Creek by Savannah Jack and his warriors. Gardener and Shaw were shot dead; Butler and Hinson wounded. Saffold and Hinson escaped on horseback to Fort Bibb, but Capt. Butler, thrown from his horse and left on foot, was killed by the Indians. Butler County was named in . . . — Map (db m83259) HM|
|Alabama (Butler County), Greenville — Pioneer Cemetery|
|Greenville's oldest, established 1819. Captain William Butler, for whom the county was named, buried here. He was killed fighting Indians led by Savannah Jack in March, 1818. Greenville's oldest church, a community church established in 1822, formerly stood near eastern boundary. — Map (db m70751) HM|
|Alabama (Calhoun County), Alexandria — Lincoyer — and The Battle of Tallasehatchee|
|At this site, on Nov. 3, 1813, after the Battle of
Tallasehatchee, known then as Talluschatches,
during the Creek Indian War,
Gen. Andrew Jackson found a dead
Creek Indian woman embracing her living
infant son. Gen. Jackson, upon hearing that the
other Creek Indian women were planning to kill
the infant, as was their custom when all relations
were dead, became himself the protector
and guardian of the child.
Because of his compassion, Gen. Jackson took
the infant to Fort . . . — Map (db m36551) HM|
|Alabama (Calhoun County), Alexandria — Tallasseehatchee — Creek Indian War 1813-14 — Nov. 3, 1813|
|Gen. John Coffee, commanding 900 Tennessee Volunteers, surrounded Indians nearby; killed some 200 warriors. This was first American victory. It avenged earlier massacre of 517 at Ft. Mims by Indians. — Map (db m27610) HM|
|Alabama (Calhoun County), Alexandria — The Tallasahatchie Battle Field|
|This Stone Marks The Site Of The Tallasahatchie Battle Field. On this spot
Lieut. Gen. John Coffee with
Gen. Andrew Jackson’s men
won a victory over the
Creek Indians, Nov. 3, 1813.
Erected by the
Frederick Wm. Gray Chapt.
Daughters of the American
Revolution. Nov. 3, 1913.
Anniston Ala. — Map (db m36554) HM|
|Alabama (Clarke County), Grove Hill — Elijah & Issac Pugh|
| Side 1
Near this spot are the graves of American Revolution soldier Elijah Pugh and his son Issac, a War of 1812 veteran. Elijah, born in Guilford Co., N.C. in 1760, was 18 when he joined a patriot band led by Col. Elijah Clarke at the end of 1778. He saw fierce fighting for three years, most notably at Kettle Creek in Georgia where his life was spared when a pewter flask on his body deflected a bullet. In 1784, he married Ruth Julian, a fellow patriot who as a teenager carried . . . — Map (db m83270) HM|
|Alabama (Clarke County), Whatley — Fort Sinquefield|
Kimbell - James Massacre
Creek War 1812-13
Erected by Clarke County School Children 1931
Lest we forget Hayden and his dogs. — Map (db m47701) HM|
|Alabama (Clarke County), Whatley — Kimbell - James Massacre — ←½ mile—|
| Sept. 1, 1813
Creek Indian War. 1813-14
Part of War of 1812. British used Pensacola as base to arm, incite Indians against U.S..
Prophet Francis led Indians in this raid on Kimbell home. They Killed and scalped 12 of 14 (two survivors left for dead); pillaged house, Killed livestock. — Map (db m47635) HM|
|Alabama (Clarke County), Whatley — Old Indian Trail|
|Here passed the Old Indian Trail used as a dividing line between the Choctaw and Creek Tribes.
General Andrew Jackson and his troops rested here for the night in 1813. — Map (db m47633) HM|
|Alabama (Conecuh County), Bermuda — Old Federal Road|
|Near Bermuda was the home of Jeremiah Austill, who won fame in the canoe fight on the Alabama River during the Creek Indian War. His first wife, Sarah, died of injuries from falling off a fence during an Indian raid. — Map (db m81280) HM|
|Alabama (Conecuh County), Pine Orchard — Old Federal Road — Fort Warren|
|Site of Fort Warren, built in 1816 by Colonel Richard Warren, who owned considerable land in this vicinity. This facility was used as a refuge for settlers who feared for their lives in the early days of the aftermath of the Creek Indian Wars of 1812-1814. — Map (db m47689) HM|
|Alabama (Dale County), Ariton — Veterans Memorial Bridge - 1921 / Grist Mill - Indian Battle - Recreation|
|(Front):Veterans Memorial Bridge - 1921This reinforced concrete river bridge, thought to be the first in Alabama. Was erected over Pea River in 1920-21 at a cost of $92,108.97. It was dedicated on August 3, 1921 as a memorial to the 57 men from Dale County who lost their lives in World War 1. Engineers were Mitcham, Keller, Smith and Land. County officials were Windham, Sessions, Roberts, Ziglar, Mullins and Archer. In 1977, through the efforts of the Dale County Historical Society, The . . . — Map (db m36511) HM|
|Alabama (Elmore County), Wetumpka — Fort Jackson|
|At this site stood Fort Toulouse,
later Fort Jackson, named in honor of
Gen. Andrew Jackson
March 27, 1814,
defeated the Creek Indians in a
decisive battle at Horseshoe Bend.
Peter Forney Chapter D.A.R.
May 21, 1915 — Map (db m69705) HM|
|Alabama (Etowah County), Attalla — Camp Wills|
|Established as a supply camp by General Andrew Jackson, September 1813, on the banks of Big Wills Creek. It was here that Jackson directed the first campaign of the Creek War, and promoted Colonel John Coffee to Brigadier General and Captain Newton Cannon to Colonel, 24 September 1813.
The victory of this army at Horseshoe Bend, in 1814, led the Creek Indians to cede thousands of acres of land to the United States and opened the way for the formation of the Alabama Territory in 1818, and the State of Alabama in 1819. — Map (db m73993) HM|
|Alabama (Henry County), Shorterville — "Irwin Empire"|
|Site of the 1831 Irwin homeplace where over 50,000 acres of land was owned by Major General William Irwin (1794-1850). He was an Indian fighter, farmer, politician, statesman and considered one of the nation’s richest and most influential men. A portion of his land was awarded for services rendered during the Indian wars. Irwinton (Eufaula) was his namesake. He was a major force in the disposition of the last Indian lands. He drowned in the Chattahoochee River and was buried near his homesite. — Map (db m71824) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Clay — Pioneer Massey Cemetery|
|Samuel Massey and his brother - in - law, Duke William Glenn, first came to this Territory in February 1814 with Lt. Col Reuben Nash's Regt. South Carolina Volunteer Militia to help defeat the Creek Indians in the War of 1812. Samuel Massey returned to settle this land months before Alabama became a state on December 14, 1819. Samuel's son, William Duke Massey, married Ruth Reed, daughter of William 'Silver Billy' Reed. Born October 28, 1817, she was the first white girl born in Jefferson County. — Map (db m25088) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Clay — Wear Cemetery|
|Established about 1850, Wear Cemetery is located off Old Springville Road to the northeast at Countryside Circle. In the 1800's the Wear family was among the first settlers of the community later known as Clay. Twenty-three remaining graves were identified and documented in 2008. The earliest known burial is that of Samuel Wear (1766-1852), an American Revolutionary War soldier who fought the British in the Battle of King's Mountain at 14 years of age. Other military veterans buried here . . . — Map (db m25113) HM|
|Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Historic Indians|
|Five Historic Indian tribes lived in this area. By 1701, The Yuchi were living at the shoals on the Tennessee River. In early 1700s the Yuchi left, some moving to the Cherokee Nation on the Hiwassee River, TN and others to Chattahoochee River, GA. After a dispute with the Cherokee, some Yuchi moved south to the AL - GA border. Although some Creeks lived in the area by the late 1700s, their lands lay south of the Tennessee Divide. The treaty of Fort Jackson took Creek lands in southern Lawrence . . . — Map (db m36040) HM|
|Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — Holy Ground Battlefield|
|Six miles North, on December 23, 1813,
General F.L. Claiborne's army defeated
the Creeks and destroyed the Holy
Ground Indian Village. One American
was killed and 33 Creeks. William
"Red Eagle" Weatherford escaped by
leaping on horseback into the river
and swimming across. This defeat
closed the Creek military operations in
South Alabama and facilitated General
Jackson's victory at Horseshoe Bend. — Map (db m60714) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Late Indian Wars — 1866–1890|
|I am Trooper Able Freeman of the 9th Cavalry Regiment. I had been a field slave in south Alabama before and during the Civil War; but after the war, I had nowhere to go when the Union occupied the area. I wandered around living hand-to-mouth for over a year when I heard the Army was going “to raise, among others, one regiment of colored cavalry to be designated the 9th Regiment of U.S. Cavalry”. I walked to New Orleans in September 1866 to enlist for five years, and received $13 per . . . — Map (db m85542) WM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Seminole Wars / Mexican War|
I am Private Pet Younger of the 4th US Infantry Regiment. I joined the Regular Army in November 1835 at age 15. I was specially trained as part of the light infantry company whose main jobs were scouting and skirmishing. My training was mighty timely because I had stumbled right into the Second Seminole War! The Seminoles were a mixture of original Florida natives, Creeks fleeing Alabama and Georgia after the Creek War, and fugitive slaves. The conflict dates . . . — Map (db m85604) WM|
|Alabama (Marshall County), Guntersville — History of Guntersville|
|(Side A) This area's proximity to the Tennessee River and Indian trails made it a crossroads for early habitation, settlement, and trade. Archaeological studies reveal it was first inhabited about 12,000 years ago by Paleo-Indians. They were followed by various tribes of Native Americans. The Cherokees arrived in the late 1700s and called the area Kusa-Nunnahi, meaning Creek Path. In 1785, John Gunter became the first white man to settle here. He married the daughter of the local . . . — Map (db m33305) HM|
|Alabama (Monroe County), Burnt Corn — Old Federal Road — Burnt Corn|
|Burnt Corn, Monroe County's earliest settlement, became the crossroads of the Great Pensacola Trading Path and The Federal Road. Settler Jim Cornells returned from Pensacola in 1813, finding his home destroyed and his wife kidnapped by a Creek Indian war party. As the Creeks returned from procuring arms in Pensacola, Cornells and volunteers ambushed the Indians. Thus began the Creek Indian War of 1813-1814. — Map (db m47687) HM|
|Alabama (Monroe County), Perdue Hill — Fort Claiborne — Creek Indian War 1813-1814|
|Built by Gen. Ferdinand L. Claiborne as a base for his invasion of the Alabama country with U.S. Regulars, Lower Tombigbee Militia, and friendly Choctaws. Claiborne’s campaign culminated in the American victory over the Creeks at the Holy Ground. — Map (db m47641) HM|
|Alabama (Monroe County), Uriah — Creek Indian Removal|
|Little River was the home of Creek Chief William Weatherford, also known as War Chief Red Eagle. This was the area of much discussion and debate, bringing the Creeks into the War of 1812 and the Creek Civil War of 1813-1814. These events weighed heavily in the land forfeiture in the Treaty of Fort Jackson (Toulouse) in 1814. Weatherford surrendered to Andrew Jackson, ceding away the largest single tract of land in Alabama. This treaty set the stage for the forced Creek removal (Trail of Tears) . . . — Map (db m86271) HM|
|Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Fort Mitchell — <----- 5 miles -----|
|Built during Creek War 1813 by Georgia Militia on main Indian trade route to Tombigbee River.
U.S. Troops stationed here until 1837. 1836 Lower Creeks corralled here for forced removal to the West. — Map (db m26069) HM|
|Alabama (Russell County), Seale — John Bacon McDonald|
Near here is the site of the plantation of John Bacon McDonald who was born February 8, 1859. He entered the United States Military Academy on June 14, 1876, after finishing the tutelage of Colonel John M. Brannon of Seale and Captain Jerry J. Slade of Columbus. On June 11, 1881, he was graduated from West Point. He served in the Geronimo Campaign in 1885 and as an Indian Scout; the Philippines; and later Europe during World War I. In 1923 he was promoted to Brigadier . . . — Map (db m69408) HM|
|Alabama (Saint Clair County), Ashville — A County Older Than The State, St. Clair County — Created in 1818 in first session of Alabama Territorial Legislature|
|from lands ceded by Creek Indian Nation in Treaty of Ft. Jackson, 1814.
Named for Gen. Arthur St. Clair, hero of Revolution, governor of Northwest Territory.
First settlers from Tennessee, Georgia - veterans of Creek Indian War, 1813-14.
County seat since 1822 here at Ashville, named for John Ash, prominent settler.
Growing population south of Backbone Mt. led to Pell City branch county seat, 1902. — Map (db m28143) HM|
|Alabama (Saint Clair County), Ashville — John Looney House — Circa 1820|
|John Looney and son, Henry, served in General Andrew Jackson's volunteer company which built Fort Strother on Coosa River and later fought at Horseshoe Bend in 1814. Looney's family of nine moved from Maury Co. Tenn. to homestead 1817 in St. Clair County. Land patent granted in 1822.
The two story log house with double dog-trot is a rare example of pioneer architecture in Alabama.
Restored by St. Clair Historical Society 1972.
Listed in National Register of Historic Places 1974. — Map (db m24066) HM|
|Alabama (Saint Clair County), Ohatchee — Fort Strother|
|Creek Indian War Headquarters of Gen. Andrew Jackson 1813 - 1814 Erected By St. Clair County — Map (db m28144) HM|
|Alabama (Shelby County), Chelsea — City Of Chelsea — Incorporated March 1, 1996 — Mayor S. Earl Niven|
| Side A
Creek Indians once owned and hunted the land where the City of Chelsea now stands. In 1813, Andrew Jackson and his army won millions of acres of Creek land from the Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, including the area where Chelsea is located. Soon afterward, white settlers began flocking into the area, and by the mid-1800s, several pioneer homesteads were located among these hills and hollows. When the railroad came through in 1908, people began moving closer to the . . . — Map (db m38488) HM|
|Alabama (Talladega County), Fayetteville — Fayetteville|
| Here in 1814 Tennessee Troops Joined Andrew Jackson's force which won the Creek Indian War.
After Indian removal in 1836 these veterans brought their families here, named this community for their old home in Tennessee. Fayetteville Academy was built in 1850. — Map (db m57993) HM|
|Alabama (Talladega County), Sylacauga — Fort Williams — —12 miles west—|
|Built by Andrew Jackson with U.S. Regulars, Tennessee Volunteers and friendly Cherokees and Creeks. Used as advance base during final phases of Creek Indian War, 1813-1814. Military cemetery nearby. — Map (db m57761) HM|
|Alabama (Talladega County), Talladega — Battle Of Talladega — Nov. 9, 1813|
|Here Andrew Jackson led Tennessee Volunteers and friendly Indians to victory over hostile “Red Sticks.”
This action rescued friendly Creeks besieged in Fort Leslie.
Creek Indian War 1813 - 1814. — Map (db m28205) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Dadeville — Battle Of Horseshoe Bend — One hundredth anniversary — 1814 - 1914|
|This tablet is placed by
in commemoration of the
one hundredth anniversary
Battle Of Horseshoe Bend,
fought within its limits
on March 27, 1814.
There the Creek Indians, led by
Menawa and other chiefs, were
defeated by the American and
allied indian forces under
Gen. Andrew Jackson.
This battle broke the power
of the fierce Muscogee, brought
peace to the Southern frontier,
and made possible the speedy
opening up of a large part of the
State of . . . — Map (db m28751) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — A Bloody Contest — Horseshoe Bend National Military Park|
| Any officer or soldiers who flies before the enemy-shall suffer death.
With these harsh words, Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson marched his soldiers 52 miles from the Coosa River to Horseshoe Bend and a bloody contest with the Red Sticks. His battle map shows how he positioned his troops early that Sunday morning, March 27, 1814.
In the field before you-in 1814 a forest of pine, oak, and hickory-Jackson's troops prepared for battle. A half mile ahead stood a log barricade, with the . . . — Map (db m46674) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Charge! — Horseshoe Bend National Military Park|
| Having maintained for a few minutes a very obstinate contest, muzzle to muzzle, through the port-holes, in which many of the enemy's balls were welded to the bayonets of our musquets, our troops succeeded in gaining possession of the opposite side of the works. The event could no longer be doubtful...
Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson, Tennessee Militia
After a two-hour cannon bombardment of the Red Sticks' barricade, Maj. Gen. Jackson discovered that some of the Gen. Coffee's Creek and . . . — Map (db m46676) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Designed for Defense — Horseshoe Bend National Military Park|
| ...[The Creek] had erected a breast-work, of greatest compactness and strength-from five to eight feet high, and prepared with double rows of port-holes very artfully arranged...an army could not approach it without being exposed to a double and cross fire from the enemy who lay in perfect security behind it.
Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson, Tennessee Militia
The Red Sticks-a militant branch of Creek society-built the 400-yard-long barricade (breast-work) of dirt and pine logs. . . . — Map (db m46677) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Horseshoe Bend National Military Park — Who Were the Creek?|
| Horseshoe Bend National Military Park
The park offers activities designed to commemorate the events that occurred here on March 27, 1814. The Battle of Horseshoe Bend ended the Creek Indian War and added nearly 23 million acres of land to the United States.
For Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson the victory led to national fame and a successful bid for the Presidency of the United States. Stop at the visitor center for information on daily activities, special events, hiking, fishing, and . . . — Map (db m46232) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — The High Ground — Horseshoe Bend National Military Park|
| [The] high ground which extended about mid-way from the breastwork to the river was in some manner open, but the declivity and flat which surrounded it was filled with fallen timber, the growth of which was very heavy, and had been so arrayed that every tree afforded them... a communication or cover to the next, and so on to the river bank...
Col. Gideon Morgan, Cherokee Regiment
Throughout the afternoon of Mach 27th this area was the scene of brutal and deadly close combat. The . . . — Map (db m47498) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — Tohopeka in Flames — Horseshoe Bend National Military Park|
| In this meadow 350 women and children, sheltered in the village of Tohopeka, listened to the sounds of battle drifting back from the barricade 1,000 yards away. Alarmed, they watched as enemy Cherokee and Lower Creek warriors crossed the river, cutting off all hope for escape. In minutes Tohopeka, their only refuge, was in flames.
The village under attack, may have included as many as 300 log huts, which resembled simple log cabins. Tohopeka meant fort or fence in the Muskogee (Creek) . . . — Map (db m47469) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — While the Long Roll Was Beating — Horseshoe Bend National Military Park|
| I never had such emotions as while the long roll was beating...It was not fear, it was not anxiety or concern of the fate of those who were so soon to fall but it was a kind of enthusiasm that thrilled through every nerve and animated me with the belief that the day was ours without adverting to what it must cost us...
Maj. John Reid, Tennessee Militia
While General Coffee's men took position across the Tallapoosa River, Major General Jackson stationed his remaining soldiers . . . — Map (db m46675) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Daviston — With Deer Tails in Their Hair — Horseshoe Bend National Military Park|
| On the morning of the battle, Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson’s Indian allies surrounded the lower portion of Horseshoe Bend.
The Cherokee were positioned across the river from where you stand; the Lower Creek were farther upriver to your left.
Hearing distant cannon fire, Cherokee and Lower Creek warriors swam across the river, stole Red Stick canoes from this bank, and took them back to the other side. Hundreds of Indians---adorned with deer tails---then canoed across, a few at a time, to . . . — Map (db m47446) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Horseshoe Bend National Military Park — Horseshoe Bend Campaign Combatants|
In memory of the
Soldiers and Indian allies
who died in combat with the
Upper Creek Indians during the
Horseshoe Bend Campaign in
the Creek War of 1813-1814
In memory of the
Upper Creek Warriors
who died in combat with
United States forces during
the Battle of Horseshoe Bend
March 27, 1814 — Map (db m64594) WM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), New Site — Battle Of Emucfau — – 5 miles south → — January 22, 1814|
|Jackson fortified position here during Creek Indian War (1813-1814). Although repeated attacks by the Red Sticks were repulsed, Jackson withdrew with the Indians pursuing. — Map (db m45736) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Alpine — The Old Bushvalley Fort|
The Old Bushvalley Fort
For protection against
Renegade Apaches — Map (db m36274) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Benson — Council Rocks|
Four miles southeast at
Apache peace treaty with Cochise
was ratified in 1872
Near Dragoon Springs on October 12, 1872, General O.O. Howard and Cochise, Chief of the Chiricahua Apache Indians, ratified a peace treaty ending years of warfare between that tribe and the white settlers. Cochise's stronghold was hidden deep in the Dragoon Mountains beyond. — Map (db m27877) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bowie — Centennial of Chiricahua Apache/U.S. Cessation of Hostilities 1886|
| [Side 1: In English :]
September 4-8, 1986, Arizonans marked the return of the Chiricahua Ex-Prisoners of War and their descendants in ceremonies that completed a spiritual circle. We remembered and reflected on the clash between National Expansion and the Chiricahua's determination to resist and remain free on their land, and on how so few could have so great and lasting impact on so many. Together we struggled with notions of equality and cultural differences and achieved a . . . — Map (db m42513) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bowie — Fort Bowie — National Historic Site|
|A Regional Legacy
Cochise. Geronimo. Though their reputations were fierce, the Chiricahua Apaches didn't stop explorers, prospectors, settlers, and merchants from Westward immigration. To establish a lifeline between the East and California, the Butterfield Overland Trail was built in 1858, directly through the heart of Apache Pass. But as the Apaches' land and lifestyle became threatened, they retaliated with attacks on traveling parties and raids on settlements.
The Bascom Affair, a . . . — Map (db m37761) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bowie — 086-352 — Old Fort Bowie — Guardian of Apache Pass|
|Established 1862 following the Battle of Apache Pass, largest conflict in Arizona Indian Wars. Massed Apaches under Cochise and Mangas Coloradas were routed by howitzers fired by California Volunteers attacked in the pass. Fort Bowie overlooked only spring for miles. — Map (db m6994) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bowie — Post Cemetery|
|The Post Cemetery predated the establishment of Fort Bowie, when soldiers of the California Column were interred here in 1862. The area was unfenced until 1878, when a four-foot adobe wall was erected to protect the graves from desecration by post livestock. In early 1885, a picket fence replaced the adobe wall and by 1887, headstones replaced the wooden headboards. Some simply read: "Unknown. Killed by Apaches."
Of the most decorated was Medal of Honor recipient O.O. Spence. Also interred . . . — Map (db m68858) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bowie — The Bascom Affair / Bascom-Cochise Meeting Site|
|The Bascom Affair
On February 4, 1861, 2nd Lt. George Bascom, and his detachment of 54 men encamped two hundred yards east of here. Bascom’s mission was to find Cochise, recover a kidnapped boy and return livestock assumed taken by the Chiricahua Apaches.
During the meeting with Cochise and members of his band, Bascom ordered Cochise held hostage until the boy and his livestock were returned. Knowing neither he, nor his people had committed the acts, the Apache chief was insulted . . . — Map (db m42008) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Dragoon — Confederate Graves at Dragoon Springs|
|On May 5, 1862, a Confederate foraging party rounding up cattle near the abandoned Butterfield Overland Mail Station battled a group of Apaches. The soldiers were members of Company A, Governor John R. Baylor's Regiment of Arizona Rangers, under the command of Captain Sherod Hunter. Captain Hunter's command was based at Tucson and engaged in operations against Union forces from California. Four of Hunter's men were killed, and the Apaches took 25 horses and 30 mules. It is unknown whether any . . . — Map (db m83149) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Dragoon — Dragoon Springs Stage Stop — Land of Legends — Coronado National Forest|
| The San Antonio and San Diego Mail Line began service across Arizona to the Pacific coast in July, 1857. Its route included a stop here near the Dragoon spring. The San Antonio Line was commonly known as the "Jackass Mail" because mules were used to pull the coaches, and passengers were packed on mule-back across the Colorado Desert.
The Overland Mail Bill was passed by Congress in 1857 to begin twice weekly mail service between St. Louis and San Francisco. Construction of this station, . . . — Map (db m76940) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Elfrida — Camp Rucker and the Indian Scouts|
|Camp Supply served as the base for two companies of Indian Scouts: Company C commanded by 2nd Lieutenant John A. Rucker, and Company D led by 1st Lieutenant Austin Henely. Each Company included between 32 and 40 Scouts who enlisted for 6 months at a time. During the first few months of the Camp’s operation the nighttime chanting and singing of Henely’s Scouts resulted in complaints by enlisted soldiers. An order to relocate the Indian Scouts at least ¾ mile from Camp was subsequently issued. . . . — Map (db m42080) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Elfrida — Chief Cochise|
|Greatest of Apache Warriors
Died June 8, 1874
In this his favorite stronghold
Interred secretly by his followers
The exact place of burial was known to only
One white man – his blood brother
Thomas J. Jeffords — Map (db m37766) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), San Simon — Geronimo Surrender Monument|
|"Near here Geronimo, last Apache Chieftain and Nachite with their followers surrendered on Sept. 6th 1886 to General Nelson A. Miles. U. S. Army. Lieutenant Chas. B. Gatewood with Kieta and Martine Apache scouts, risked their lives to enter the camp of the hostiles to present terms of surrender offered to them by General Miles.
After two days Gatewood received the consent of Geronimo and Nachite to surrender.
The surrender of Geronimo in Skeleton Canyon, on that historic day, forever . . . — Map (db m28355) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — "Unknown Soldiers"|
|In Memory of those who stood and fought,
But names have been forgotten.
May they rest in peace. — Map (db m28252) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Willcox — 1 — The Schwertner House, 1880|
|Built by Delso Smith as an Army Officer reception center during the Indian wars. Bought by Mr. Schwertner in 1893 and donated to the local Historic Society in 1980.
It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. — Map (db m28418) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Happy Jack — Battle of Big Dry Wash|
|Seven miles north of this point a band of Apache Indians were defeated by United States troops on July 17, 1882. A group of tribesmen from the San Carlos Apache reservation had attacked some ranches in the vicinity, killing several settlers. Cavalry and Indian scouts were immediately sent into the field in search of the hostiles. Five troops of cavalry and one troop of Indian scouts converged on the Apaches, surrounding them at the Big Dry Wash. The resistance of the Indians was broken after . . . — Map (db m67424) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Happy Jack — General Crook Trail|
|Under the direction of General George Crook this trail was built in the early 1870's. Starting at Fort Whipple, it winds down to Fort Verde then eastward across the Mogollon Rim to Fort Apache covering 200 miles. It was used as a supply route by wagons and pack animals and as a tactical road by the cavalry during the Apache Indian Campaign. A few old trees and rocks can still be seen with original blazes which mark the mileage from various Forts. Many landmark names come from the mileage such as Thirteen Mile Rock and Twentynine Mile Lake. — Map (db m67419) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Happy Jack — General Crook Trail|
|Under the direction of General George Crook this trail was built in the early 1870's. Starting at Fort Whipple, it winds down to Fort Verde then eastward across the Mogollon Rim to Fort Apache covering 200 miles. It was used as a supply route by wagons and pack animals and as a tactical road by the cavalry during the Apache Indian Campaign. A few old trees and rocks can still be seen with original blazes which mark the mileage from various Forts. Many landmark names come from the mileage such as Thirteen Mile Rock and Twentynine Mile Lake. — Map (db m67420) HM|
|Arizona (Graham County), Fort Thomas — Geronimo|
|Named for the rebellious medicine man who led the Chiricahua Apaches on their last raids, to surrender, and then into exile in Florida and Oklahoma. Their descendants lived in Eastern Arizona again. This was also the site of original Camp Thomas, established in 1876 to keep Geronimo's tribesmen on their farmlands along the Gila River. — Map (db m28050) HM|
|Arizona (La Paz County), Ehrenberg — In Memory of Hualapai Ancestors — Yu’ Nyihay Jamj Vo:jo — La Paz Trail of Tears - April 21, 1874 – April 21, 1875|
|We honor our ancestors who died violent deaths at the hands of their captors and at this concentration camp. We greet the spirits of our ancestors and embrace their strength and above all else, their will to survive this holocaust: the Hualapai People’s strength and cultural survival endures to all future generations to come. — Map (db m36012) HM|
|Arizona (Maricopa County), Apache Junction — Alchesay|
| Alchesay led his people in war and peace
Alchesay Canyon, to your right, was named for a great leader. Chief Alchesay, born around 1853, was a leader among the White Mountain Apache. Other Apaches looked up to him not only because he towered six feet tall, but also because they respected his judgment.
He served as one of the celebrated Apache Scouts during the Apache Wars. The Scouts were famous for their endurance, cunning and tracking ability-eleven of them, including Alchesay, . . . — Map (db m34073) HM|
|Arizona (Maricopa County), Fort McDowell — Camp Reno|
|From 1866 to 1868 this outpost of Ft. McDowell served as a departure point for military expeditions against the Tonto and Pinal Apache Indians. — Map (db m27679) HM|
|Arizona (Maricopa County), Fort McDowell — Fort McDowell|
|This important military post protected central Arizona settlements from the Tonto Apaches during the Indian wars 1865-1886. Its function as a military post ended in 1890 and it became a reservation by executive order, September 15, 1909 as home of the Mohave-Apache and Yavapai-Apaches. It was the home and burial place of Dr. Carlos Montezuma, a Mohave Apache Indian. Scouting parties from Fort McDowell regularly patrolled the Tonto Basin area beyond Four Peaks. — Map (db m27681) HM|
|Arizona (Mohave County), Bullhead City — Arizona Medal of Honor|
|The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States Armed Forces to those who distinguish themselves "…conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of their lives above and beyond the call of duty while engaged in action against an enemy of the United States…"
The first Medal of Honor action in our nation's history occurred at Apache Pass, Arizona on February 13, 1861 by U. S. Army Assistant Surgeon Bernard J. D. Irwin.
During the Indian . . . — Map (db m29435) HM|
|Arizona (Mohave County), Kingman — Camp Beale Springs Arizona|
|This camp, established March 25, 1871 by Company F, 12th Infantry commanded by Capt. Thomas Bryne, was located at a spring used by Indians for centuries. It was named for Navy Lt. Edward F Beale who established a wagon road along the 35th parallel.
In 1865 William Hardy created a stop on his toll road from Prescott to Hardyville. It was an Army outpost during the Hualapai War of 1866-1870.
The location became a temporary reservation for Hualapai Indians from 1871 to 1874. The spring . . . — Map (db m29411) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — Adjutant's Office (117)|
|Built of adobe bricks in 1876, this is the third oldest surviving building at Fort Apache. Originally the Adjutant's Office (administrative office) of the post, it also served variously as post headquarters, military Post Office, telegraph office, and post library. During the military period, the main entrance was located on the west side facing the parade ground.
Rehabilitated in 2001, it continues to serve Fort Apache and surrounding communities as the U.S. Post Office. — Map (db m36799) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — Captain's Quarters (102 and 103)|
|An 1891 fire, sparked by a defective chimney and fanned by high winds, destroyed five sets of wood frame officers' quarters that had been constructed in this area between 1883 and 1886.
Using sandstone quarried just east of the Fort, these two matched stone buildings were constructed in 1892 to replace the five that burned.
After the creation of the Theodore Roosevelt Indian Boarding School, building 102 was used as the Home Economics classroom for a time, and both buildings served as . . . — Map (db m36779) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — First Commanding Officer's Quarters (101)|
|This log cabin is the oldest surviving building at Fort Apache. The westernmost of a series of eight log cabins built in 1871 to form Officers' Row, this cabin was designated the Commanding Officer's Quarters. It was originally an 18 by 20 foot log pen with a canvas floor. A second pen, attached by an enclosed, ten-foot wide dogtrot was added later. Further additions include a log extension on the northwest side and wood frame additions constructed after the installation of a steam-powered . . . — Map (db m36778) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — Officer's Quarters (106)|
|This frame officer's quarters in the only one of seven built between 1883 and 1886 to have survived without significant modifications. Like many of the post's residences, it was built around a large central hallway that runs the length of the house. This hallway aided circulation during the summer months and also allowed for flexibility in the residence's use: it could be used as a dormitory for bachelor officers, divided to house two officers with small families, or occupied exclusively by the . . . — Map (db m36794) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — Officers' Quarters (107, 108, 109)|
|These three officers' quarters were constructed between 1883 and 1888 to house junior officers and their families. With clipped-corner porches and symmetrical front elevations, these quarters reflect the architectural style established by the military for Officers' Row. The westernmost of the quarters (building 107) is sided in a vertical board and batten siding, which was common in other early frame buildings including several other officers' quarters in this area. It is the only surviving . . . — Map (db m36796) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Fort Apache — Parade Ground|
|This large open field between Officers' Row and the enlisted men's Barracks Row was used by the army for drill practice, training, and review. When called to action, troops would assemble here prior to departure. It also provided a prime location for baseball games and other athletic competitions held between different units stationed at the fort.
Reduced somewhat by the construction of the girls' dormitory, the Parade Ground continued this latter service as it became the athletic field for the Theodore Roosevelt School. — Map (db m36781) HM|
|Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Camp Lowell 1866-1873|
|Camp Lowell was established at this location in 1866 by the U.S. Army in recognition of the strategic military importance of Tucson. The local populace was fearful of Apaches, and the camp provided military protection as well as bringing financial benefits to the residents of Tucson. The two principal purposes of this military installation were to supply other army outposts south of the Gila River and to protect the citizens of the southern Arizona territory.
Camp Lowell consisted . . . — Map (db m83013) HM|
|Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Fort Lowell|
|The military post, established in 1862
near downtown Tucson, was moved to
this location in 1873. One of many
active forts on the Arizona frontier,
Lowell served also as a major supply
depot, influencing the economy and
social life of the community. At its
peak in the 1880's, three companies of
infantry and two troops of cavalry -
more than 250 officers and soldiers
- were stationed here. The need for
Fort Lowell steadily declined after
Geronimo's surrender in 1886 and,
despite . . . — Map (db m83031) HM|
|Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Fort Lowell|
|Largest of the early Arizona military installations
this was the supply base for military posts in southern Arizona during the long warfare against the Apaches. Built in 1873, it was Gen. Nelson A. Miles' headquarters in the final campaign against Geronimo, and was abandoned in 1891. — Map (db m83032) HM|
|Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Veterans Memorial — Fort Lowell Park|
|Dedicated to the enduring memory of the men and women who faithfully served in the military forces of the United States of America and in grateful acknowledgment of their contribution to this nation, which in time of peril, found in them its protectors. — Map (db m28932) HM|
|Arizona (Pinal County), Oracle — La Casa Del High Jinks — National Register of Historic Places — Historic Site|
|On this site on April 14, 1912, Colonel William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody – Pony Express rider, plainsman, Indian Wars scout, and Wild West showman – staked the High Jinks gold mine, after investing in Oracle mining for ten years. He sometimes stayed and entertained at a cabin here until his death in 1917.
In the 1920s, Mexican stonemasons helped Cody's foster son Lewis H. "Johnny" Baker, wife Olive Burgess Baker, her sister Marie Burgess Way and husband Forest Ranger Lewis Claude . . . — Map (db m70305) HM|
|Arizona (Pinal County), Sacaton — Honoring Native American Women Veterans|
Honoring Native American
Dedicated February 22, 2003
American Legion Post 84
Sculptor: Oscar Urrea
Artist: Jim Covarrubias — Map (db m32844) WM|
|Arizona (Pinal County), Superior — Picket Post Mountain|
|A landmark and lookout point during Indian Wars; site of outpost of Camp Pinal which was located at head of Stoneman Grade to the east. Soldiers protected Pinal City and the Silver King Mine from Apache raiders. It was the home of Col. William Boyce Thompson, mining magnate and founder of the Southwest Arboretum at the foot of the mountain. — Map (db m34122) HM|
|Arizona (Santa Cruz County), Patagonia — John Ward's Ranch|
|Arizona Pioneer Johnny Ward established a ranch here in 1858. In 1861 Indians kidnapped his Mexican stepson Felix Ward. Army officers assumed that local eastern Chiracahua Apaches were responsible, leading to the infamous conflict between Lt. Bascom and Cochise. In fact, the Pinal Band of the Western Apaches took Felix. John Ward died in 1867. The ranch was also the site of a blacksmith and wheelwright shop, a mining headquarters, a store, finally, a produce farm before it was abandoned in 1903 — Map (db m24436) HM|
|Arizona (Santa Cruz County), Sonoita — Camp Crittenden|
|Established August 10, 1867. Named Camp Crittenden by Generals Orders No. 57 Department of California, September 30, 1867, in honor of Thomas S. Crittenden, Col. 32nd U.S. Infantry Major General U.S. Volunteers. Camp abandoned June 1, 1873. Established to protect settlements of Babocomari, Sonoita, and Santa Cruz Valleys against Indians. Leading a detachment of troops from Camp Crittenden, Lieut. H. B. Cushing was killed in a skirmish on May 5, 1871 by an Apache war leader from Cochise's band. — Map (db m27114) HM|
|Arizona (Yavapai County), Camp Verde — "0" Mile Post General Crook Trail|
|The Crook Road begins at this point
with the first in a series of mile markers
across the Mogollon Rim segment of the
military supply trail connecting Forts
Whipple, Verde and Apache. Reconnoitered
in 1871 by General George Crook with a
small detachment of cavalry, the route was
100 miles shorter than earlier trails and
opened the rugged Rim country to tactical
operations. The Boy Scouts of America,
Grand Canyon Council, re-marked the road in
1975-76 as a Bicentennial . . . — Map (db m28561) HM|
|Arizona (Yavapai County), Camp Verde — Camp Verde|
| The oldest settlement in the Verde Valley. Site of historic Fort Verde. The first settlers came into the valley in February, 1865, followed by the military in August, 1865. Original military and historic buildings still stand. — Map (db m40814) HM|
|Arizona (Yavapai County), Camp Verde — Fort Verde State Historic Park — The West As It Really Was!|
| The Mythology of a Western Fort
Fort Verde is typical of western forts built in the 1870's and 1880's but our vision of forts comes from movies. Log stockades with towers and John Wayne fearlessly firing his rifle at attacking Indians. The reality is different. In truth, the Indians were sophisticated fighters who knew they would be outnumbered and outgunned and rarely attacked forts.
Building materials were a concern. Many forts were located in barren, treeless areas and building . . . — Map (db m40815) HM|
|Arizona (Yavapai County), Camp Verde — The Congressional Medal of Honor - Apache Campaign 1872 - 1873|
|The following named individuals were assigned, either permanently or temporarily, to Camp Verde, Arizona Territory. While stationed here their personal action in combat was above and beyond the call of duty, earning them the nation's highest award.
The Congressional Medal of
Winter Campaign 1872-1873
Awarded March 1875
Pvt. Chiquito • Pvt. Blanquet
Awarded April 12, 1875
Sgt. Jim • Pvt. Nannasaddie • . . . — Map (db m28593) HM|
|Arizona (Yavapai County), Prescott — John Towhey|
14 Inf. N.Y.
Plaque Attached to Stone:
-- January 1970 --
This stone with inscription of incident was originally located on the Yavapai Indian Reservation approximately 1000 yards northwest of this site.
It was donated to the Veterans Administration Center by the Yavapai Indian Tribe for viewing by the public. — Map (db m21966) HM|
|Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — United States Commanders in Chief|
[Written on the initial marker, provided for context]
Our Constitution names the President of the United States the Commander in Chief of all the Armed Forces. Presidents who have served in our military are displayed on the following plaques. Each has served either on Active Duty, in the National Guard or in the Reserves. History will judge their performance as President and as Commander in Chief, usually long after they have served. Each President is to be commended for their . . . — Map (db m92384) HM WM
|Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — United States Commanders in Chief|
[Written on the initial marker, provided for context]
Our Constitution names the President of the United States the Commander in Chief of all the Armed Forces. Presidents who have served in our military are displayed on the following plaques. Each has served either on Active Duty, in the National Guard or in the Reserves. History will judge their performance as President and as Commander in Chief, usually long after they have served. Each President is to be commended for their . . . — Map (db m92389) HM WM
|Arkansas (Sebastian County), Fort Smith — Clues from the Past — Fort Smith National Historic Site|
|The building in front of you is very much as it appeared in the 1890s. First used as a military barracks, it was later converted for use as a courthouse and jail. Over time its appearance changed to accommodate the different needs of the people using it. Between 1851 and 1887, the structure was 1 ½ stories with large porches. The second story of the courthouse was added in 1891 for use as a hospital for the prisoners, and the long porches were removed and replaced with shorter ones.
. . . — Map (db m82354) HM WM|
|California (Alameda County), Oakland — In Memory of Col. John Coffee Hays — 1-28-1817 • 4-21-1883|
|Born near Little Cedar Lick, Wilson County, Tennessee. Lived in Mississippi, where he learned surveying. Joined Republic of Texas Army in May, 1836, and served 3 years in ranger/spy companies. Gained fame as an Indian fighter while surveyor for Bexar County, Texas. In 1840, age 23, appointed Captain of Rangers, later a Major. Was in more than 40 Indian/Mexican fights, including Plum Creek, Bandera Pass, Battle of Salado, Enchanted Rock and Painted Rocks.
As Colonel of 1st Regiment, Texas . . . — Map (db m55204) HM|
|California (Fresno County), Firebaugh — 10 — Andrew Davidson Firebaugh - Firebaugh's Ferry|
|Andrew Davidson Firebaugh was born in Virginia in 1823. He served with the Texas Mounted Riflemen in the Mexican War. Coming to Californian in 1849, he fought in the Mariposa Indian War under Major James D. Savage on the expedition that discovered Yosemite in 1854. He established a trading post and ferry on the San Joaquin River one quarter mile due north of here. Known as Firebaugh's Ferry, it was a station on the great Butterfield Overland Stage Route. He built the first road over Pacheco . . . — Map (db m28015) HM|
|California (Fresno County), Fresno — 3 — Fort Washington|
|Approximately 2 miles north of this point, Fort Washintgon was built in the spring of 1850 by Wiley B Cassity (Cassady or Cassidy), Charls D. Gibbes, Major Lane and others. This fort, probably the first building erected in Fresno County, served as protection for miners and travelers during the Indian uprisings of 1850-51. Cassity and Gibbes operated a ferry across the San Joaquin River northeast of the fort. Cassity was slain by the Indians on Feb. 25, 1851. The fort was destroyed by flood, . . . — Map (db m28013) HM|
|California (Lassen County), Janesville — Fort Janesville|
| built in 1859 during the Piute War — Map (db m87774) HM|
|California (Lassen County), Susanville — Peter Lassen Grave|
|In memory of
the pioneer who was killed by the Indians
April 26, 1859
Aged 66 years — Map (db m10261) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), El Portal — Site of Savage’s Trading Post|
|Here in 1849, James D. Savage, established a store built of logs. He engaged in trading and mining and married several squaws for protection and influence. In spring of 1850, fearing Indian depredations, he moved to Mariposa Creek. In December, his store and others were pillaged and burned and a real war began. A volunteer battalion was formed and Savage elected Major. In pursuit of the most warlike tribe their secret hide-out, Yosemite Valley, was discovered, and the war brought to a quick . . . — Map (db m904) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Wawona — 4 — Yosemite Valley's First Visit by White Men|
|From the crest of the ridge of a few hundred feet behind this point members of the Mariposa Battalion under the leadership of Major James D. Savage looked into Yosemite Valley on March 27, 1851. Alarmed by the encroaching tide of California Gold Rush miners, the Indians who made Yosemite their home raided and destroyed foothill trading posts. In retaliation, Major Savage's battalion pursued them into their mountain stronghold. After a long fight the Indians surrendered and were taken to . . . — Map (db m47417) HM|
|California (Modoc County), Canby — Evans and Bailey Fight 1861|
|Monument site on top of hill — Map (db m87842) HM|
|California (Modoc County), Newell — Warm Springs Indians|
|Two Warm Springs Indians, acting as scouts with the U.S. Army were killed at the Battle of Dry Lake. That final battle of the Modoc War was fought about 10 miles S.E. of here May 10, 1873. They were brought to the Peninsula Camp, just south of here, and buried by the army. — Map (db m87893) HM|
|California (Sacramento County), Sacramento — Colonel William Stephen Hamilton — In Memory of the Rough Diamond|
|Born in New York August 4, 1797; came to California in 1849
Died on October 9, 1850
In size and features, talent and character, He much resembled his illustrious father.
Sacramento Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution — Map (db m12405) HM|
|California (Sacramento County), Sacramento — General George Wright — 1803 – 1865|
|A graduate of West Point, his gallantry on the fields of battle earned him commendations; from the Seminole War in Florida, to the Mexican War, to the Indian Campaign in the Pacific Northwest. His unwavering loyalty to the Union would prompt President Lincoln to appoint him Commander of the Pacific Coast during the Civil War. The sinking of the steamer "Brother Jonathan" off the coast of Crescent City during a violent storm claimed the General as a victim, July 30, 1865 — Map (db m10766) HM|
|California (Shasta County), Castella — CHL 116 — Battle Rock|
|Battle of the Crags was fought below Battle Rock in June 1855. This conflict between the Modoc Indians and the settlers resulted from miners destroying the native fishing waters in the Lower Soda Springs area. Settlers led by Squire Reuben Gibson and Mountain Joe Doblondy, with local Indians led by their Chief Weilputus, engaged Modocs, killed their Chief Dorcas Dalla, and dispersed them. Poet Joaquin Miller and other settlers were wounded. — Map (db m69857) HM|
|California (Shasta County), Fall River Mills — Captain Dick and Richard Pugh|
|In Commemoration of
Captain Dick and Richard Pugh
The 1850's saw tension and turmoil between the early settlers and the native peoples of the Fall River Valley.
Richard Pugh, a native of Wales, was chosen by Lt. George Crook to be his guide when he and his company were sent to Fall River Valley in 1857. In October 1857 Lt. Crook was transferred to the Klamath Area in Northern California. He asked his guide, Dick Pugh, to remain in the Fall River Valley and help to complete the . . . — Map (db m10287) HM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Hornbrook — Bradford Ripley Alden — 1811-1870|
|On Aug. 8, 1853 Captain Alden led 10 men of the 4th U.S. Infantry from Fort Jones and 80 volunteers from Yreka over these mountains to the assistance of the Rogue River Valley.
This force augmented by 100 volunteers from Oregon defeated the Indians on Battle Mountain where Captain Alden was severely wounded.
Erected by his grandchildren and the Siskiyou County Historical Society
1948 — Map (db m70216) HM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Newell — 110 — Canby’s Cross|
|General E.R.S. Canby was murdered here in April, 1873, while holding a peace parley under flag of truce with Captain Jack and Indian Chiefs. Rev. Eleazer Thomas, Peace Commissioner, was likewise treacherously slain. — Map (db m10466) HM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Newell — 9 — Captain Jack’s Stronghold — * <— 11 Miles *|
|From this fortress Captain Jack and his Indian forces successfully resisted capture by U.S. Army troops from December 1, 1872 to April 18, 1873. Other nearby landmarks of the Modoc Indian War are Canby's Cross, No.110 and Guillam's Graveyard, No.13 — Map (db m76320) HM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Tule Lake — Ambush at Midday - The Thomas-Wright Battle of April 26, 1873 — Last Victor for the Modocs|
|Forced to flee the stronghold, the Modoc took cover amid the craggy lava features in this area. A group under Scarface Charley watched from the Schonchin Flow as Army troops marched from Gillems Camp toward their concealed position.
Officers Thomas and Wright were leading an artillery reconnaissance patrol to Hardin Butte. The soldiers were unenthusiastic and ill-prepared for an encounter. When the patrol stopped for lunch in the depression before you, a few scouts were sent out, but most . . . — Map (db m87906) HM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Tule Lake — Attack at Hospital Rock|
|It was April 11, 1873, the middle of the Modoc War. Though greatly outnumbered, Modoc warriors had easily defeated the Army in the first battle for the Stronghold in January, and soldiers had waited through the winter while peach talks dragged on. At last, the restless troops were moved to Hospital Rock and Gillems Camp, much closer to the Modoc.
At midday, soldiers spotted three Modoc crossing the lave beds in front of you waving a white flag. When two officers approached them, they opened . . . — Map (db m87916) HM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Tule Lake — Canby Cross|
|Over the years, various individuals and group have made efforts to memorialize the death of General E.R.S. Canby, the only general to be killed in an Indian War. This wooden cross is a replica of an original erected by a U.S. soldier in 1882, just nine years after the event. Some of the very same troops Canby had commanded here in the lava beds were still fighting other Indian Wars, and public interest and emotion about such conflicts ran high.
Although the inscription on the cross may . . . — Map (db m87909) HM WM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Tule Lake — Shore of Tule Lake|
|This was the shoreline of Tule Lake in 1872-73. The Modoc Indians occupying the Stronghold obtained water at this point.
Once nearly 100,000 acres, the lake was drained between 1912 and 1958 to make fertile land available for homesteads. — Map (db m87914) HM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Tule Lake — The Road to the Stronghold|
|Thousands of years ago, flowing lava cooled forming a natural fortress. The surrounding area later became the center of the Modoc Indian homeland. A series of events made this lava stronghold a focal point in the war to remove the Modoc from their land in 1872-1873.
Time line, left to right:
1846 - The blazing of the Applegate Emigrant Trail brings Modoc and settlers into increasingly frequent contact.
1864 - After years of conflict with settlers, the Modoc . . . — Map (db m87917) HM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Tulelake — Attracted to Water|
“When I was a child…I played around Tule Lake where the tules and grass grow thick… We used to go out in the tall grass… and look for chub fish… and shoot at (them) with our arrows.”
Peter Schonchin, last surviving Modoc War warrior.
The original shoreline of Tule Lake lies just over the rise in front of you. Modoc Indians and settlers lived along the water’s edge for generations. During the Modoc War and the era of the Civilian Conservation Corps, . . . — Map (db m63249) HM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Tulelake — Last Meeting of the Peace Commission — Lava Beds National Monument|
|By April 1873, months of peace talks to end the Modoc War had gone nowhere. General E.R.S. Canby found himself caught between President Grant’s Indian Peace Policy and the desire of some settlers to have the Army eliminate the Modoc band. The Modoc leader, Captain Jack, was also caught between peace and war factions. Some Modoc argued that - as in their own tradition - once the leaders of an army were killed, the soldiers would retreat. They pressured Captain Jack to act.
Within minutes of . . . — Map (db m63211) WM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Tulelake — Lava Fortress — Captain Jack's Stronghold|
|“Peaceable if you can, forcibly if you must,” ordered Indian Agent T. B. Odeneal. The U.S. Army garrison’s task was to bring the Modocs and their leader, Captain Jack, back to the reservation. His refusal started the Modoc War in the fall of 1872.
In early December about 60 Modoc warriors retreated with their families to the lava formations just south of here. The jagged landscape formed a natural fortress where the Modocs withstood two major army assaults. But after the army . . . — Map (db m63213) WM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Tulelake — Modoc War Casualties — Gillems Graveyard|
|It is difficult today to trace the disposition of all those killed in action during the Modoc War. This site was first consecrated January 17, 1873, when two soldiers were buried here. It became an official cemetery in April when thirteen enlisted men were brought from the battlefield at Hardin Butte. Officers were taken to private cemeteries in their home towns or to various military cemeteries around the country.
Most enlisted men were buried where they fell on the battlefields. In August, . . . — Map (db m63670) HM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Tulelake — The End of the Modoc War — Lava Beds National Monument|
|Through the winter of 1872-1873, a vastly outnumbered group of Modoc Indians resisted attempts by the U.S. Army to remove them from their homeland. Driven from Captain Jack's stronghold, the Modoc moved into this area in mid-April. Intimate knowledge of the land helped the Modoc ambush an Army patrol in the Thomas-Wright Battle and avoid capture for several more weeks. Ongoing disagreements among the Modoc, however, led to a splintering of their group, which brought about their eventual defeat. . . . — Map (db m63270) WM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Tulelake — War in the Lava Beds — November 1872 - June 1873|
|From this command post, the U.S. Army directed part of a frustrating campaign against a small band of Modoc Indians. Determined to defend their homeland, the Modoc consistently outmaneuvered the Army, who at times outnumbered them ten to one. Just over six months of battles and surprise attacks, interspersed with long periods of waiting, resulted in a final Modoc defeat. Significant Modoc War sites are located and interpreted throughout the park. See inset map.
For seven weeks in . . . — Map (db m63668) HM|
|California (Tulare County), Springville — Battle Mountain|
A long period of unrest between the settlers and Indians of Tulare County erupted in war during the Spring of 1856. Untrue reports that five hundred head of cattle had been stolen in Frazier Valley and the burning of the Orson K. Smith sawmill aroused the local settlers. A group of volunteers under the command of Foster DeMasters located a party of over seven hundred Indians in fortified positions on the cone shaped mountain in the valley below. Unable
to breach the Indian defenses on their . . . — Map (db m34474) HM|
|California (Tuolumne County), Dardanelle — The Last Battle|
|The canyon to your right was the scene of the last battle between Indians and whites in Tuolumne County. On February 10, 1858, a band of Piutes attacked a group of employees of the Columbia & Stanislaus River Water Co. In the fight which followed Jerry Perley was killed, S. Waldron and Michael Hildreth were wounded, T. Enochs escaped by feigning death, and two Indians were killed.
The Indians escaped a pursuing party of Columbian miners, led by Fred Hildreth, by crossing the summit into their tribal area. — Map (db m78075) HM|
|Colorado (Costilla County), Fort Garland — 190 — Fort Garland|
Top of the Marker:
The Soldier’s Life
Fort Garland housed infantry and cavalry units. During the 1870’s the famed Buffalo Soldiers—African-American cavalrymen—were also posted here. For all soldiers—and their families—life at Fort Garland was often dull, sometimes dangerous, but never easy. A civilian who visited the post remarked that despite its remoteness “frontier life suggests a poetic expansiveness, but to the soldier it usually involves a . . . — Map (db m71032) HM WM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Colorado Soldier's Monument|
Colorado Territory - Organized
February 28, 1861
Colorado Admitted as a State
August 1, 1876
Census of Territory in 1861 - 23,331
Richard Ed Whitsitt Adjutant General
David H. Moffat, Jr. Adjutant General
Military Organizations in the Civil War
First Colorado Infantry
Later First Colorado Cavalry
Col. John P. Slough Col. John M Chivington
Second Colorado Infantry
Col . . . — Map (db m4745) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Silas S. Soule|
|At this location on April 23, 1865, assassins shot and killed 1st Colorado Cavalary Officer Capt. Silas S. Soule. During the infamous Sand Creek Massacre of November 29, 1864, Soule had disobeyed orders by refusing to fire on Chief Black Kettle's peaceful Cheyenne and Arapaho village. Later, at Army hearings, Soule testified against his commander, Col. John
M. Chivington, detailing the atrocities committed by
the troops at Sand Creek. His murderers were never
brought to justice. — Map (db m67133) HM|
|Colorado (Elbert County), Kiowa — 272 — Trail Under Siege / Rising to the Challenge|
| Trail Under Siege Indians of Colorado’s High Plains
Kiowa and Comanche Indians migrated to these prairies in the 1700s, followed by Cheyennes and Arapahos in the early 1800s. The region’s vast grasslands, thick bison herds, and brisk fur trade made for prosperous, if not entirely harmonious, living; the allied Cheyennes and Arapahos warred frequently against the Comanches and Kiowas (who gradually moved south of here) until 1840, when the tribes agreed to a historic peace. In 1851 the . . . — Map (db m45756) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Buffalo Bill|
Colonel William Frederick Cody
Noted scout and Indian fighter
Born February 26, 1846 Scott County, Iowa
Died January 10, 1917 Denver, Colorado
William F. Cody
Medal of Honor
Indian Scout 3 US Cav
Feb 26 1846 Jan 10 1917 — Map (db m29670) HM|
|Colorado (Kiowa County), Eads — Remains — Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site|
”Many years have passed. The land is still here. We lived here, our clans lived here. The land here is our home - we have come back home.”
Wonoo3ei’i ceciniihi’ coowoo’ou’u. Nih’iine’etiino’ hiitiino. Neito’eininoo nih’iine’etii3i’ hiitiino.Nuhu’ biito’owu’, neyeih’inoo - cee’no’eeckoohuno.
Etaose’esehohae’xove. He’tohe ho’e hetseohe eso’eaahtse’ho’ta. Hetseohe nahvo’estaneheveme, Tsetsestahetse naa Tseso’taevetse. He’tohe ho’e . . . — Map (db m71872) HM|
|Colorado (Kiowa County), Eads — The Attack|
|A barrage of arms fire was leveled against the Cheyenne and Arapaho. Amid the wild confusion, soldiers noticed people at the village “... going slowly away in a sort of listless, and dazed, or confused manner ...” Throughout the morning and into the afternoon, Volunteers pursued the Indians up Sand Creek and across adjacent plains and bluffs. The scene became chaotic as troops advanced up both sides of the creek. A member of the 3rd Colorado remembered, “After a short dash we . . . — Map (db m71873) HM|
|Colorado (Kiowa County), Eads — The Sand Creek Massacre — Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site|
|On November 29, 1864, U.S. Colonel John Chivington and 700 volunteer troops attacked an encampment of Cheyenne and Arapaho along Sand Creek. The thunderous approach of horses galloping toward camp at dawn sent hundreds fleeing from their tipis. Many were shot and killed as they ran. While warriors fought back, escapees frantically dug pits to hide in along the banks of Sand Creek - cannonballs later bombarded them.
In the bloody aftermath, some of the soldiers mutilated dead bodies and . . . — Map (db m72552) HM|
|Colorado (Logan County), Merino — 2 — Fort Wicked|
|Due west 940 feet stood
Originally Godfrey’s Ranch
Famous Overland Stage Station
One of the few posts withstanding the Indian uprising of 1864 on the road to Colorado.
Named from the bitter defence make by Holon Godfrey. — Map (db m61998) HM|
|Colorado (Logan County), Sterling — 34 — Battle of Summit Springs|
| 3 miles southeast from this point is the site of theBattle of Summit Springs
Last engagement with Plains Indians in Colorado, July 11, 1869. Cheyennes who raided western Kansas were attacked by General E. A. Carr with the Fifth U.S. Cavalry and Pawnee scouts under Maj. Frank North. Two white captives were held by the Indians; one (Mrs. Alderidge) was killed, the other (Mrs. Weichel) was rescued. Chief Tall Bull and 51 Indians killed. — Map (db m61997) HM|
|Colorado (Logan County), Sterling — 227 — Indian Wars 1864-1869|
|In November 1864, in southeastern Colorado, U.S. Volunteers troops attacked Black Kettle’s peaceful band of Cheyenne Indians at Sand Creek. In retaliation for the massacre and mutilation of 163 Cheyenne men, women, and children, Cheyenne warriors with their Arapaho and Sioux allies struck military and civilian targets along the South Platte River Trail. On January 7, 1865, 1,500 warriors attacked stage and telegraph stations, ranches, and wagon trains on a 100-mile front between Julesburg, . . . — Map (db m51217) HM|
|Connecticut (New Haven County), Milford — George W. Baird|
|George W. Baird
Medal of Honor
Brig General US Army
Dec 13 1839 Nov 28 1906 — Map (db m54720) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Northwest — Philip H. Sheridan — General of the Army of the United States|
| SHERIDAN — Map (db m22046) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Northwest — Walter Reed Memorial|
|[Front]Walter Reed 1851 - 1902 Bacteriologist - Research Scientist
In Honor of his great work in the fight for the eradication of yellow Fever.
[Insignia of the Army Medical Corps]
In recognition of the high public service of Major Walter Reed. — Map (db m68990) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Northwest — Winfield Scott — General-in-Chief, U.S. Army|
|SCOTT — Map (db m21943) WM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Northwest — Winfield Scott|
| In Honor of
Born 13 June 1788 – Died 29 May 1866
General in Chief of the Army
1841 – 1861
Founder of the
United States Soldiers Home — Map (db m52806) HM|
|Florida (Alachua County), Gainesville — F-201 — Fort Clarke|
|Near this site was located Fort Clarke, originally a U.S. Army post during the Seminole War, and afterwards a settlement. The name is preserved in nearby Fort Clarke Church. At this site crossed the early settlement and military road connecting the old county seats at Newnansville (near present-day Alachua) and Spring Grove with Micanopy. Fort Clarke was named for a U.S. Army officer. — Map (db m65191) HM|
|Florida (Alachua County), Gainesville — F-165 — Spanish Cattle Ranching|
|Present-day Gainesville was the center of a large Spanish cattle ranching industry, founded on the labor of native Timuqua Indians, during the 1600s. LaChua, largest of the ranches, was a Spanish corruption of an Indian word, and in turn was corrupted into "Alachua County." English raids destroyed the Indian civilization and Spanish ranches, although large wild herds of cattle were not uncommon during Seminole War years (1835-1842). — Map (db m72916) HM|
|Florida (Alachua County), Micanopy — F-706 — Micanopy|
|Founded after Spain relinquished Florida to the United States in 1821. Micanopy became the first distinct American
town founded in the new US territory. Originally an Indian trading post, Micanopy was built under the auspices of the
Florida Association of New York. A leading member of the company, Moses E. Levy, along with Edward Wanton, a
former Anglo-Spanish Indian trader, played important roles here. In 1822, a select group of settlers and skilled
craftsmen departed New York . . . — Map (db m54271) HM|
|Florida (Alachua County), Rochelle — F- 353 — Rochelle Vicinity|
Colonel Daniel Newnan led a troop of the Georgia militia on a raid into the area in September 1812 in an attempt to annex Florida to the United States in the War of 1812. The raiders engaged a force of Seminole Indians under the command of Seminole chief King Payne. Several soldiers and Indians were killed in the fierce battle, including King Payne. Ft. Crane, named for Lt. Colonel Ichabod Crane, Commander of the U.S. Army District of Northeast Florida, was built in . . . — Map (db m54642) HM|
|Florida (Brevard County), Cocoa — F-69 — Hernandez Trail|
One half mile to the west ran the Hernandez Trail used during the Seminole War. It connected forts along the east Coast to Ft. Dallas in Miami and across from Ft. Pierce and Ft. Capron to Ft. Brooke near Tampa. Brig. General Joseph M. Hernandez, born 1792 in St. Augustine, served as the first delegate to Congress and held a number of positions of importance in the Territory of East Florida. In 1837 under orders from General Thomas S. Jesup, he captured Indian Chief Osceola. — Map (db m72606) HM|
|Florida (Brevard County), Melbourne — The Hernandez-Capron Trail|
|The Hernandez-Capron Trail parallels I-95 here in Brevard County. Laid out in 1838 by U.S. Army during Second Seminole war, it linked King's Road in St. Augustine and forts along St. John's River with Ft. Capron, 4 mi. north of present Ft. Pierce. Branches went to Ft. Dallas (Miami) and Ft. Brooke (Tampa). Named for Capt. Erastus Capron, Brevard section also honored Gen. Joseph Hernandez. Later it was the only inland trail available for settlers. Cattlemen used it up to the 1930s. — Map (db m75839) HM|
|Florida (Calhoun County), Blountstown — F-120 — Blunt Reservation and Fields|
|This is the western boundary of a reservation set aside by the treaty of Fort Moultrie and given to John Blunt (Blount) one of the six principal chiefs of the Florida Indians. The Apalachicola River was the eastern boundary. The treaty was ratified January 2, 1824. Signers of the treaty were William P. Duval, James Gadsden, Bernard Sequi, Nea Mathla, John Blunt, Tuski Hajo, Mulatto King, Emathlochee and Econchatimico. Blountstown was named after him. — Map (db m78029) HM|
|Florida (Calhoun County), Blountstown — F-324 — Cochranetown - Corakko Talofv|
|(This is Florida's first bi-lingual marker. The second language is Apalachicola Muskogee/Creek.) Apalachicola Creek Indians permanently settled Calhoun County in 1815; wars forced them out of Alabama. A new Tribal Town was built by Chief Tuskie Hajo Cochrane between Old River and Noble Lake. Cochrane is an anglisized version of his Creek name Corakko pronounced “Cho’thlakko” which means Horse. The 1823 Treaty of Moultrie Creek recognized Cochranetown with its 100 families as part . . . — Map (db m48489) HM|
|Florida (DeSoto County), Fort Ogden — F-256 — Fort Ogden|
As white settlers moved into Florida, demands increased for the removal of the Seminole Indians to a western reservation. The Seminoles failed to cooperate, and in 1835 the conflict known as the Second Seminole War began. By 1841, the Indians were still entrenched in central and south Florida. Campaign plans for that year aimed at clearing Indians from the area between the Withlacoochee River and the frontier and then attacking Indian bands in big Cypress Swamp. To sustain the wide-ranging . . . — Map (db m72605) HM|
|Florida (Dixie County), Horseshoe Beach — F-439 — The Jackson Trail — Florida Heritage Site|
|On December 26, 1817, U.S. Secretary of War John C. Calhoun directed General Andrew Jackson to protect citizens trying to settle in Florida. Jackson arrived in Florida with the largest army ever to invade the state to date -- 2,000 Creek Warriors and 1,000 Georgia and Tennessee militiamen. After leaving Nashville, Tennessee, they traveled through Georgia and on to Florida, winding up in Suwanee-Old Town (now Dixie County). Jackson's goal was to remove the Indians, destroy their homes and . . . — Map (db m61566) HM|
|Florida (Duval County), Jacksonville — Seminole War Blockhouse Site|
|Here stood the blockhouse erected for the defense of the settlers against the Indians during the Seminole War
1835-1842 — Map (db m70535) HM|
|Florida (Escambia County), Pensacola — Desiderio Quina|
|Born in Italy in 1777, Desiderio Quina served the Spanish army in the Louisiana Infantry Regiment. He was later employed in Pensacola as an apothecary for the John Forbes Company where he married Margarita Bobe. His son Desiderio was born in 1817 and fought in the second Seminole War with a regiment of Alabama mounted volunteers. He opened a pharmacy on Government Street in Pensacola about 1842 and later earned a license to act as a physician. — Map (db m80044) HM|
|Florida (Escambia County), Pensacola — Stephen R. Mallory|
Born on the island of Trinidad in 1812, Stephen Mallory's family eventually made Key West their home. Mallory studied law, volunteered in the Florida militia during the second Seminole War, and became Inspector of Customs at Key West. In 1830 he met Angela Moreno of Pensacola who would become his wife. He served his country as a United States Senator and Secretary of the Confederate Navy. After the Civil War, Mallory became one of Pensacola's most prominent attorneys. — Map (db m80042) HM|
|Florida (Gadsden County), Chattahoochee — F-810 — Apalachicola Arsenal — Officers Quarters and Guard Room|
|The Apalachicola Arsenal, originally known as the Mt. Vernon Arsenal, was built was built by the United States Army and served as an arms depot during the Second Seminole Indian War. Construction began in 1832, and was completed in 1839. The original compound consisted of nine buildings in a 400 ft. by 400 ft. quadrangle behind 12-foot high, 30-inch-thick perimeter wall, plus the outbuildings. The U.S. Army maintained the arsenal until 1861, when it was taken over by Confederate troops. . . . — Map (db m79625) HM|
|Florida (Gadsden County), Chattahoochee — F-811 — Apalachicola Arsenal — Powder Magazine|
|The Apalachicola Arsenal, originally known as the Mt. Vernon Arsenal, was built was built by the United States Army and served as an arms depot during the Second Seminole Indian War. Construction began in 1832, and was completed in 1839. The original compound consisted of nine buildings in a 400 ft. by 400 ft. quadrangle behind 12-foot high, 30-inch-thick perimeter wall, plus the outbuildings. The U.S. Army maintained the arsenal until 1861, when it was taken over by Confederate troops. . . . — Map (db m79626) HM|
|Florida (Gilchrist County), Fanning Springs — The History of Fort Fanning|
|Fort Fanning was built in 1838 during the Second Seminole War.
The fort was originally called "Palmetto", but was renamed in honor of Colonel Alexander Campbell Wilder Fannin (1788-1846).
Made of real wood, and situated in warm humid climate, remnants of the actual fort have long since disappeared.
Colonel Fannin served under General Andrew Jackson in the First Seminole War. As a lieutenant, at the beginning of the Second Seminole War, he was noted for outstanding service when he . . . — Map (db m67884) HM|
|Florida (Hamilton County), White Springs — Wars and Conflicts in White Springs|
|Although residents living here have always been somewhat insulated, outside influences such as war and conflict have historically influenced the Town of White Springs. The Spanish, French, British, and Americans all fought wars to won the peninsula of Florida. The Seminole War proved to be the longest and most expensive war in US history, lasting from 1817 until 1842. Since most of the population of the Florida territory was in north central Florida, most of the early conflicts of the war . . . — Map (db m44512) HM|
|Florida (Hardee County), Bowling Green — Fort Chokonikla|
|This leisurely 10 minute, 1/4 mile long trail will lead you to the site of Fort Chokonikla built in late 1849. It consisted of three square blockhouses for defense, and canvas tents for sleeping. No battles were fought here and it was abandoned about one year later due to sickness. — Map (db m62019) HM WM|
|Florida (Hardee County), Zolfo Springs — Seminole Indian Battle|
|One of the Last Battles fought with the Seminole Nation ended here on June 16, 1856 with Defeat of the Indians by Soldiers from Ft. Meade. — Map (db m61059) HM|
|Florida (Hernando County), Weeki Wachee — Bayport|
|The interior of Central Florida opened for settlement by whites in the mid-1840s following the end of the Second Seminole War. In the absence of roads and railroads, coastal and inland waterways provided the transportation routes essential to farmers for marketing crops and receiving supplies. The village of Bayport, located at the mouth of the Weekiwachee River, sprang up in the early 1850s as a supply and cotton port. During the War Between the States, Union naval squadrons blockaded . . . — Map (db m67109) HM|
|Florida (Highlands County), Fort Basinger — F-54 — Fort Basinger|
|Col. Zachary Taylor had Fort Basinger built in 1837, during the Seminole Wars, on the Kissimmee River 17 miles above its mouth. It was a small stockade which served as a temporary fort and supply station on the line of forts extending from Tampa to Lake Okeechobee. Named for Lt. William E. Basinger of the 2nd Artillery, who was killed in Dade's Massacre, the fort was abandoned at the end of the Indian wars. — Map (db m54083) HM|
|Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — Fort Brooke Cemetery|
|During the Second Seminole War (1835-42) the U.S. Army established a cemetery at this site for soldiers, civilian employees, and Indians. In 1883, about 20 soldiers were removed to Barrancas National Cemetery, Pensacola. In time the grave sites became obliterated, and passed out of all remembrance. In 1980, the burial site was discovered accidentally during the construction of the city parking complex. One hundred and two soldiers and civilians were reburied at Oaklawn Cemetery, March 24, . . . — Map (db m44689) HM|
|Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — Historic Fort King Trail|
|The Old Military Road connecting Ft. Brooke (Tampa) and Ft. King (Ocala) ran through this vicinity. On Dec. 23, 1835, Maj. Francis L. Dade set out over the Trail with a detachment of 109 soldiers to reinforce the small garrison of Ft. King.
On the morning of Dec. 28, 1835, Chief Alligator, leading the Seminoles and Maroons, ambushed the Dade Expedition near Bushnell. Only three survived. The Dade Massacre, planned by the fiery Osceola marked the beginning of the Second Seminole War. — Map (db m8980) HM|
|Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — Old Fort Brooke Municipal Parking Structure — 1982|
|On this site was located the first cemetery for Fort Brooke, a U.S. military post dating from 1824 to 1882. Seminole Indians, soldiers and civilian settlers buried here were excavated by archaeologists in 1980 prior to construction of the parking garage and reinterred in other locations. Evidence of occupation by Indian groups spanning the period 8,000 B.C. - A.D. 1824 was also recovered during the excavations.
City of Tampa Bob Martinez Mayor City Council Lloyd Copeland, . . . — Map (db m44377) HM|
|Florida (Lake County), Astor — F-93 — Fort Butler|
|Located on the west bank of the St. Johns, Ft. Butler was built in 1838 during the Seminole Wars. It consisted of a crude log stockade and barracks for the garrison. The Fort was one of the military installations designed to protect the St. Johns River, which served as an important artery of communication with the garrisons in central Florida. On the opposite bank, near the frontier settlement of Volusia, stood Ft. Call. — Map (db m31341) HM|
|Florida (Lake County), Umatilla — F-598 — Fort Mason|
|During the Second Seminole War (1835-1842), troops under the command of Brig. Gen. Abraham Eustis left Volusia County headed toward the Withlacoochee River as part of a military action in response to the December 28, 1835 massacre of Major Francis L. Dade and his command near Bushnell. In March 1836 the troops camped nearby while a bridge was constructed over the Ocklawaha to the west. They built a fortified stockade about one mile south of this location, on the east side of Smith Lake. It was . . . — Map (db m56224) HM|
|Florida (Leon County), Fort Braden — F-502 — Old Fort Braden School|
|Fort Braden was established in 1839 as a military outpost during the Second Seminole War (1835-1842). At the end of the war the fort was abandoned, but the small farming community that had developed nearby continued. A school in the Fort Braden area was first mentioned in an 1847 Tallahassee Floridian article reporting tax collections at the Fort Braden schoolhouse. Early education in rural Leon County was provided at small, one-room schools. The education these schools offered was . . . — Map (db m79475) HM|
|Florida (Leon County), Tallahassee — Capt. John Parkhill — Of Leon Volunteers|
|This monument is erected by his fellow citizens of Leon County, Florida, as a testimonial of their high esteem for his character and public services. The memory of the hero is the treasure of his country. He was born July 10, 1823 and was killed at Palm Hammock in South Florida while leading his company in a charge against the Seminole Indians, November 28 A.D. 1857 — Map (db m73046) HM|
|Florida (Leon County), Tallahassee — F-504 — Chaires Historic District|
|The community of Chaires was established in the 1820s during Floridas Territorial Period (1821-1845). The community is named after Green Hill Chaires, who, along with his two brothers, Benjamin and Thomas Peter, came from Georgia and established vast plantations in Eastern Leon County. Chaires plantation eventually grew to 20,000 acres with a home on Lake Lafayette. It was later destroyed and his wife, two of his children and several of his slaves were massacred in 1839 during the Second . . . — Map (db m79536) HM|
|Florida (Leon County), Tallahassee — F-452 — Mission San Luis|
|Mission San Luis de Talimali was among the largest and most important missions in Spanish Florida. Its parishioners were Apalachee Indians who were descendents of those people whose village Hernando de Soto appropriated during the winter of 1539-1540. The Apalachees were the most culturally advanced of Florida´s native peoples, and Mission San Luis was one of the first missions established by Franciscan friars in their efforts to serve the Apalachees´ major villages that spread across the . . . — Map (db m79564) HM|
|Florida (Leon County), Tallahassee — Presbyterian Church — (One Block West)|
|The oldest public building in Tallahassee. Construction was begun in 1835 and completed in 1838. Contains original slave galleries. The building was used many times as a place of refuge for women and children during Indian Wars. — Map (db m73053) HM|
|Florida (Miami-Dade County), Key Biscayne — Let It Shine|
|The Cape Florida Lighthouse stands today as a reminder of perseverance in the face of hardship.
The Cape Florida Lighthouse was built to alert ships as they sailed near the dangerous reefs of the Florida Keys.
Constructed in December 1825, the Lighthouse and its keepers suffered from harsh weather, an 1836 Seminole attack and Confederate sabotage during the Civil War. Deactivated in 1878, the Lighthouse endured years of neglect before the State of Florida purchased this site in . . . — Map (db m79720) HM|
|Florida (Miami-Dade County), Key Biscayne — Lighthouse Keeper's Cottage|
|The original brick dwelling was completed in July 1825: a two story cottage with two rooms on each floor. The lower floor was dirt and the upper floor had only one small window on each end. The kitchen was attched to the back. The first lighthouse keeper, John Dubose, wrote of constantly making improvements with his sons' help.
In the 1830s, the government added four dormer windows. In 1835, a major hurricane damaged the cottage. In 1836, the cottage was burned to the ground in the . . . — Map (db m80255) HM|
|Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — Dade County — Created Jan. 28, 1836, Named for Major Francis Langhorn Dade — 1784 - 1815|
|Born 1793 in Virginia. Joined 12th U.S. Infantry in 1813; Served with it thru War of 1812; In 4th Regiment rest of his life. Promoted from 3rd Lieut. to Major, Commanded garrison at Key West. In Seminole War was sent with 117 men to aid Gen. Clinch at Fort Drane. Ambushed by 200 Indians and Negroes. Killed in Dade Massacre Dec. 28, 1835. Only three escaping. Monument to Maj. Dade is before Memorial Hall at West Point.
In grateful appreciation this marker is erected by: The Dade County . . . — Map (db m88531) HM|
|Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — Fort Dallas and the William F. English Plantation Slave Quarters — Miami River Greenway|
|The United States of America took possession of Florida from Spain under the terms of the 1821 Treaty of Paris. In 1830, the U.S. implemented the Indian Removal Act, forcing Seminole Indians south into the Miami and Everglades area. The Second Seminole War erupted in 1835 and was marked by the killing of Miami-Dade County's namesake, Major Francis Longhorn Dade. During the war, settlers attempted to take Seminole Lands, relocate Seminoles west of the Mississippi River and reclaim runaway . . . — Map (db m78126) HM|
|Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — F-573 — Virginia Key Beach Park|
|Virginia Key Beach Park is an environmental and historic landmark located on a barrier island. Its earliest recorded history is of an 1838 skirmish during the Second Seminole War in which three Seminoles were killed on this site. From the early 1900s onward, during the era of segregation, this location became a popular unofficial colored recreation area, popularly known as "Bears Cut." In 1945, following a bold protest led by Attorney Lawson E. Thomas and others to demand an officially . . . — Map (db m79381) HM|
|Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — Wagner Homestead — Miami River Greenway|
|This 1850s structure is the oldest standing house in Miami-Dade County. It was built by William Wagner, a German immigrant and U.S. Army veteran. After being wounded in the Mexican-American War in 1847, Wagner returned to Fort Moultrie, Georgia to recuperate and married Eveline Aimar, a French Creole.
In 1855, Wagner's former Army unit was assigned from Fort Moultrie to Fort Dallas along the north shore of the Miami River. There, Wagner joined forces with Captain Sinclair, a sea captain . . . — Map (db m78192) HM|
|Florida (Miami-Dade County), Palmetto Bay — F-215 — The Perrine Land Grant|
| (side 1)
In 1838, the United States Congress granted a township of land in the southern extremity of Florida to noted horticulturist Dr. Henry Perrine and his associates. This land was to be used in experiments aimed at introducing foreign tropical plants and seeds into Florida. Although Dr. Perrine did not select a township before his death in 1840, he indicated the areas he preferred and his family later selected the land which came to be called the Perrine Land Grant. Born in 1797, . . . — Map (db m73442) HM|
|Florida (Monroe County), Islamorada — Tea Table Key|
|Indians lived on this island over 1000 years ago. In 1722, it was known as Boys Island. In Dec., 1838, Lt. Coste established a Naval base here and named it Ft. Paulding. This was the base for the West Indian Squadron used to blockade the coast to keep the Indians from receiving supplies from the Bahamas or Cuba.
The Navy's first steamship, "The Sea Gull" was based here.
While the Navy was looking for Indians in the Everglades, the Indians attacked nearby Indian Key on Aug. 7, 1840 . . . — Map (db m83541) HM|
|Florida (Orange County), Christmas — F-252 — Fort Christmas|
|As white settlers moved into Florida in the 1820's and 1830's, there were growing demands that the Seminole Indians be removed to a reservation west of the Mississippi. Efforts to convince the Seminoles to move failed, and in 1835 the conflict known as the Second Seminole War began in earnest. Late in 1837, Maj. Gen. Thomas S. Jesup, overall commander in Florida, began intensive preparations to carry the fighting to south Florida, where he believed he would find a large force of hostile . . . — Map (db m54086) HM|
|Florida (Orange County), Maitland — Fort Maitland / Maitland / Lake Maitland — 1838 — Directly east of this highway|
was built in November 1838 by Lt. Col. Alexander C. W. Fanning, U.S.A. (1788-1848) on the military road connecting Fort Melon (Sanford) with Fort Gatlin (Orlando) and used as a stockade in the war between the United States and the Seminole Indians. The fort was named in honor of William Seton Maitland (1798-1837), a native of New York, a graduate of West Point whom President Andrew Jackson commissioned Brevet Captain for gallantry and good conduct at Withlacoochee 31 December . . . — Map (db m7452) HM|
|Florida (Orange County), Maitland — F-523 — Lake Lily Drive — A Florida Heritage Site|
|This road was the first direct route from Northeast Florida to Maitland. It followed Maitland Avenue around this west side of Lake Lily and continued south on what is now Highway 17-92. During the Second Seminole War the United States Army used this trail to connect the forts along its route. Fort Maitland was built in 1838 on the west shore of Lake Maitland, a day's march from Fort Mellon (Sanford). The fort was named in honor of Captain William Seton Maitland (1798-1837), who was cited for . . . — Map (db m13636) HM|
|Florida (Orange County), Orlando — F-483 — Site of Fort Gatlin|
|On November 9, 1838, during the Second Seminole Indian War (1835-42), the U.S. Army established Fort Gatlin in Mosquito County. This fort was named for Army Assistant Surgeon John S. Gatlin (1806-1835), who was killed in the Dade Massacre in 1835. The site of the fort was chosen as a military outpost due to its strategic position overlooking three lakes and because the area was frequented by Native Americans led by Seminole Chief King Philip and his son Coacoochee. The fort served the state . . . — Map (db m6912) HM|
|Florida (Palm Beach County), Jupiter — Ft. Jupiter - Jupiter Lighthouse|
|Fort Jupiter was located three miles west on Loxahatchee River, erected January 1838 by troops commanded by Major General Thomas S. Jessup, establishing base for operations in the Seminole Indian Wars. Jupiter Lighthouse, approximately one mile northeast, first lighted July 10, 1860, darkened during the War between the States, was relighted June 23, 1866. — Map (db m14310) HM|
|Florida (Pasco County), Dade City — Lanier Bridge|
| Front The first bridge crossing the Withlacoochee River at this site was built in the 1850's by slaves belonging to James Lanier. Replaced several times during the following century, the bridge served lumber, turpentine and cattle operations along with several short-lived small towns including Ashley and Titanic. Some timbers from one of the early bridges remain in the river about 100 yards downstream. During the Second Seminole War, Old Tiger Tail, a prominent War Chief, had his camp . . . — Map (db m66331) HM|
|Florida (Pasco County), Dade City — Site of Old Fort Dade|
|This is the site of Old Fort Dade built in 1835 and dedicated to Major Francis Dade — Map (db m67111) HM|
|Florida (Pasco County), Dade City — Whitehouse|
|Whitehouse Road marks the south boundary of land settled about 1842 by James Gibbons under the Armed Occupation Act. The first Fort Dade Post Office was established there in 1845. In that year, Gibbons' widow, Mary, wed William Kendrick, Captain of the Fort Dade Militia. Their whitewashed, two-story split board home and trading post was the beginning of Dade City. At the end of the Seminole Wars, Sampson, a free Negro serving the Army as Indian Interpreter, fell in love with Rose, a Whitehouse . . . — Map (db m10474) HM|
|Florida (Pasco County), Darby — The Bradley Massacre|
|Near this spot, on May 14, 1856, a Seminole war party attacked the home of an early settler Capt. Robert Duke Bradley of the Florida Foot Volunteers. Two of the Bradley children were killed before the Indians withdrew. This was the last such attack on a settler’s homestead east of the Mississippi. — Map (db m37715) HM|
|Florida (Pasco County), Land O Lakes — Concord Stagecoach Road|
|Stagecoach Village takes its name from the coach road connecting Tampa Bay with the settlement at Chocochattee Hammock, near present-day Brooksville. The route - about 1 1/2 miles west of here - was sometimes called "Scott's Trail," having been cleared by the U.S. Army under Gen. Winfield Scott during the Second Seminole War. An old Indian trail ran parallel to the coach road at this spot.
An archeological examination by Janus research - commissioned by Lennar Homes - revealed two . . . — Map (db m61925) HM|
|Florida (Pasco County), near Lacoochee — F-136 — Fort Dade|
|Located one mile east of this point on the south bank of the Withlacoochee River at the crossing of the Fort King Road. The Fort, built in 1837, named for Major Francis Langhorne Dade, served for many years as a depot and observation post in the heart of the Seminole Indian settlement. Here, March 6, 1837, the Seminole leaders, Jumper and Alligator, met General Thomas S. Jesup to sign the "Ft. Dade Capitulation." — Map (db m41170) HM|
|Florida (Polk County), Bartow — Fort Carroll|
|One mile north of here, a stockade type depot was erected by a detail of the 7th Infantry, U.S.A. while on a march to the Kissimmee River. Built Jan. 22, 1841, it was named in honor of Sergeant-Major Francis Carroll who suffered a hero’s death at the hand of Indians near Micanopy. — Map (db m54087) HM|
|Florida (Polk County), Bartow — Site of Fort Blount|
|Established 1853 and used as a place of refuge for the settlers of this community during the Seminole Indian War 1855-1858 Name changed to Bartow 1867 In honor of Confederate General Francis S. Bartow — Map (db m54085) HM|
|Florida (Polk County), Fort Meade — Site of Fort Meade|
|Built by Lt. George G. Meade
who later became commanding general
of the Union Forces
during the Civil War.
Headquarters of a military area
during the Seminole Indian War 1849-1858.
Near here were fought several engagements
with the hostiles.
Garrisoned by U.S. Army
and Florida Mounted Volunteer troops. — Map (db m56924) HM|
|Florida (Polk County), Fort Meade — Willoughby Tillis Battle Monument|
|(West face) A group of United States Army soldiers led by Lt. Carlton engaged the Seminole Indians in what is known as the Willoughby Tillis Battle in this vicinity on June 14-16, 1856. These five men who lost their lives in this engagement are buried here. (North face) In memory of Lt. Alderman Carlton Lott Whidden William Parker killed June 14, 1856 and Robert F. Prine George Howell killed June 16, 1856 and others who were wounded (East face) This monument erected by . . . — Map (db m57248) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — Dade Pyramids|
These three pyramids cover vaults containing the individually unidentified remains of 1468 soldiers of the Florida Indian Wars
The Florida Indian Wars began with the murder of an Indian agent at Fort King on December 25, 1835. While enroute from Fort Brooke(Tampa) to Fort King (Ocala) 106 officers and men under command of Major Francis L. Dade, Company B, 4th Regiment of Infantry, were ambushed by hostile Indians on December 29, 1835. All but two men were killed in the . . . — Map (db m77411) HM WM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — F-434 — Major Dade and His Command Monuments|
|On December 28, 1835, during the Second Seminole War, a column of 108 U.S. Army soldiers dispatched from Fort Brooke (Tampa) to relieve the detachment at Fort King (Ocala) was surprised by a strong force of Seminole Indians near Bushnell in Sumter County. Except for three soldiers and an interpreter, the entire column of 108 men, led by Major Francis Langhorne Dade, perished in battle that day. On August 15, 1842, Dade and his command, as well as other casualties of the war, were re-interred . . . — Map (db m77413) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — William Wing Loring|
|(Front):In memory of a distinguished American solider, citizen of St. Augustine, Fla. Born December 4, 1818. Died December 30, 1885. His courage in battle was conspicuous; His devotion to duty unfailing; His ability recognized by three governments. He commanded the first trans-continental march; convoying to California, in safety an emigrant train of three hundred wagons through pathless and hostile territory; an unsurpassed record, this memorial is erected by Anna Dummett Chapter . . . — Map (db m47015) HM|
|Florida (Saint Lucie County), Fort Pierce — F-60 — St. Lucie County|
|St. Lucie County was formed in 1844 and recreated in 1905. Named for St. Lucie of Syracuse, the region's original inhabitants were the Tegesta Indians. Ft. Pierce, the county seat, was named for Major B.K. Pierce, brother of Pres. Franklin Pierce. The fort was the headquarters of the Army of the South under Gen. Jesup during the Seminole Indian wars. A settlement about the fort began soon after its establishment about 1838. — Map (db m82794) HM|
|Florida (Santa Rosa County), Pensacola Beach — Apache Prisoners|
|In 1886 the U.S. Army exiled 400 Apaches from the Southwest to Florida and sent most of them to Fort Marion in St. Augustine. Several Pensacola citizens, however, petitioned the government to imprison Geronimo, a medicine man and warrior, and 15 other Apache men at Fort Pickens instead, separating them from their families. Prisoners worked seven-hour days, clearing overgrown weeds, planting grass, and stacking cannonballs. The families were reunited at Fort Pickens in 1887. One year later all . . . — Map (db m86084) HM|
|Florida (Sarasota County), Venice — Casey's Pass|
|[East Side of Marker]
The fragile lands surrounding this pass were settled thousands of years ago by prehistoric Indians. Over time, storms and currents changed the land, and the original Floridians' villages were lost. The 1851 U.S. Coast and Geodetic chart labelled Casey's Pass. Later, a military map slipped the name onto the island to the north, and it remains Casey Key. These place names honor John Charles Casey, U.S. Army captain and Indian agent. A graduate of West Point, he . . . — Map (db m32732) HM|
|Florida (Sarasota County), Venice — The Calusa and Seminole Peoples|
|The Calusa were native Florida Indians who dominated south Florida from their homeland on the southwest Gulf coast. They were formidable warriors, accomplished artists, and expert boaters. The Calusa did not farm, but instead prospered by fishing in the rich estuaries using nets, traps, and weirs, and by gathering shellfish and wild plant foods. They resisted Spanish domination for over two hundred years.
In the early 1700s other Indians from Georgia and Alabama raided into the Florida . . . — Map (db m23873) HM|
|Florida (Seminole County), Longwood — Seminole County|
|The importance of Seminole County in the history of the area lies in its location at the navigable headwaters of the St. Johns River and the elevated forest land south of the three large lakes within its boundaries: Monroe, Harney, and Jesup. Ancient Indian mounds along these waters indicate its importance before recorded history. The perfection of the steamboat in the early part of the 19th century opened the river waterways to commerce, and the banks of these lakes became the staging points . . . — Map (db m54051) HM|
|Florida (Seminole County), Sanford — Fort Mellon and Mellonville|
|During the Second Seminole War in 1836, the U.S. Army established Camp Monroe as a staging area for unloading troops and supplies. The army built the road that eventually became Mellonville Avenue to connect the camp to the river. The camp was enclosed by pickets on three sides but open to the river. Approximately 300 men were based at the camp. A long pier was built in 1837 at the end of the army road for receiving supplies. This became the Mellonville Pier. Over time, a river port developed . . . — Map (db m52159) HM|
|Florida (Seminole County), Sanford — Fort Reid|
| Fort Reid was named and established in this area during the Second Seminole War by Colonel William Harney on July 7, 1840, in honor of Robert Raymond Reid, Fourth Territorial Governor of Florida. Stationed here between July 1840 and January 1841 were the Headquarters of Colonel Twiggs of the Second Dragoons, including the commands of the St. Johns District, Army of the South, plus the District South of New Smyrna under Col. Harney. For the year of 1840, Fort Reid reached a force of 417 and . . . — Map (db m52162) HM|
|Florida (Seminole County), Sanford — Sanford's First Residents|
|Over 1,000 years ago, the Timucua (tee-MOO-quo) people established villages in this area. They fished, hunted, and grew crops such as maize, squash, and beans. By the 1700s, the Timucuans began to disappear as they succumbed to war and disease brought by the English, French, and Spanish colonists as well as being assimilated into European culture and religion. In 1763, the last Timucuans were taken to Cuba by the Spanish. Evidence of the Timucuan way of life can be found in middens: mounds of . . . — Map (db m55389) HM|
|Florida (Seminole County), Sanford — Second Seminole War — 1835-1842|
|The Second Seminole War was the most costly war, in lives and money, ever fought by the United States government against Native Americans. This second of three wars resulted from the Treaty of Payne's Landing in 1832 which required the Seminoles to leave Florida. The Seminoles refused to leave and the war began. In 1836, Camp Monroe was established as the East Florida headquarters for the US Army. The camp was positioned strategically on the southern shore of Lake Monroe on the St. Johns River. . . . — Map (db m57542) HM|
|Florida (Seminole County), Sanford — Site of Fort Mellon|
|Formerly Camp Fanning where on February 8, 1837 during one of the fiercest battles of the Seminole Wars Capt. Mellon Commandant was killed in an attack of 400 braves led by King Philip and Coacoochee — Map (db m52142) HM|
|Florida (Seminole County), Sanford — Steamboats|
|Where you are standing is the site of the first Central Florida's established expressway. Steamboat navigation on the St. Johns River provided the entry to Central Florida during the 19th century. During the Second Seminole War (1835-42) the US Army established Fort Mellon on their wilderness shores, supplying nine named steamboats and some thirty chartered ships. Afterward steamboat traffic served to provide contact and trade to the sparsely settled region. During the 1870s and '80s steamer . . . — Map (db m52389) HM|
|Florida (Sumter County), Bushnell — Ft. Armstrong|
|During the Second Seminole Indian War (1835-42) a number of military forts were constructed in Florida. These forts served as supply bases and other logistic supports. Near this site was constructed Ft. Armstrong. The fort was constructed in November 1836 by a detatchment of Tennessee Volunteers under the command of Major Robert Armstrong. Also, near this site General Keith Call, in command of some 2500 troops, including a Florida Cavalry unit, a U.S. Artillery Battalion, a group of Tennessee . . . — Map (db m42035) HM|
|Florida (Sumter County), Bushnell — On This Spot — December 28, 1835 — Dade Battlefield|
|Major Francis L. Dade and his command consisting of detachments of the Fourth Infantry, Second and Third Artillery United States Army, while marching from Tampa Bay to Fort King was attacked by a superior force of Seminole Indians commanded by Mico Nopah head chief of the Indians. The entire command save three were killed after a spirited resistance by the troops.
Here was fought the first battle of the Seven Years War with the Florida Indians.
This ground dedicated by the state of . . . — Map (db m20024) HM|
|Florida (Sumter County), Wahoo vicinity — F-283 — The Battle of Wahoo Swamp|
|The Battle of Wahoo Swamp occurred nearby on November 21, 1836. The 2d Seminole War, a seven-year clash caused by rivalry between Indians and settlers over central Florida lands, had begun almost a year before. By November, Indian forces had converged on Wahoo Swamp to fight General (and Territorial Governor) R.K. Call's army. On November 21, about 2500 Tennessee Volunteers, regular army artillery, Florida militiamen, and hundreds of Creek Indians advanced on a one-mile front. In the wild melee . . . — Map (db m41679) HM|
|Florida (Volusia County), Port Orange — F-34 — Battle of Dunlawton Plantation|
|During the 2nd Seminole War, 1836, the Mosquito Roarers, a company of Florida militia under Major Benjamin Putnam, engaged a large band of Seminoles pillaging Dunlawton, a sugar plantation on the Halifax River. Heavy fighting ensued, but the militiamen were unable to disperse the Indians. The extensive system of sugar plantations on Florida's east coast was eventually destroyed by Seminole raids and the sugar industry in this area never recovered. — Map (db m34346) HM|
|Florida (Volusia County), Port Orange — Destruction of Dunlawton Plantation|
|In January 1836, during the second Indian War, the Indians burned Dunlawton Plantation. Only the brick walls, the chimneys and the heavy iron machinery were left. The Plantation was not rebuilt until the 1840's. The war cost the United States 19 million dollars, four times the amount paid to Spain for the entire state of Florida. — Map (db m46553) HM|
|Florida (Volusia County), Port Orange — Dunlawton's Building Blocks — coquina up close|
|The ruins here include chimneys and other structures made of coquina, Spanish for "tiny shell." Quarried locally (and elsewhere in the Southeast), this native stone contains mollusk shell fragments and quartz sand, bound together by calcium carbonate. Centuries after the Spanish first used coquina in Florida, frontier Americans chose it for their sugar factory. Visitors to this mill in the 1830s would have found tightly mortared blocks that looked white or pastel-colored. That's . . . — Map (db m46539) HM|
|Florida (Volusia County), Port Orange — Historic Sugar Cane Machinery|
|Animal powered rollers, used to crush sugar cane, came from the Samuel Williams Plantation. This Plantation was destroyed by the Indians and never rebuilt. — Map (db m46552) HM|
|Florida (Volusia County), Port Orange — Living on the Edge|
|One reality of this sugar plantation was its isolation. When owner John Marshall asked for help against the Seminoles, an army commander in St. Augustine offered muskets and a lecture: "I need scarcely add," he warned, "that the best reliance of the inhabitants ought to be upon their own efforts." Even the Marshalls' best efforts could go awry. Hired workers strained accommodations and nerves at this remote site. Dunlawton's supply ship - a link to the outside - grounded and broke up in . . . — Map (db m46550) HM|
|Florida (Volusia County), Port Orange — Telling Dunlawton's Stories|
|How do we know what we know about Dunlawton? The information sources range from period documents to objects in the ground. Questions remain, but researchers have made a start at uncovering the plantation's key stories. Among the written sources, land records trace Dunlawton's ownership and size, while government claims by the Andersons list buildings and other property lost to the Seminoles. Though few travellers' descriptions have surfaced, family letters offer views of life at Dunlawton . . . — Map (db m46549) HM|
|Florida (Volusia County), Port Orange — The Dunlawton Sugar Factory — Great Expectations:|
|These are the ruins of people's dreams, left by successive landowners, free workers, and slaves. Hoping to make sugar in the nineteenth century, they faced isolation, hurricanes, and dispossessed Seminoles. Some lost money in their ventures, and others lost more. A blending of family names - Dunn and Lawton - gave this spot its familiar label in the 1830s. Actually, the plantation's story began earlier, in 1804, when an immigrant from the Bahamas received a 995-acre land grant on . . . — Map (db m46537) HM|
|Florida (Volusia County), Port Orange — The Most Dangerous Chieftain|
|When Sarah Anderson and her sons owned Dunlawton, Mosquito County settlers formed a militia unit called the Mosquito Roarers. Even with its fine name, this group reportedly lacked anyone who had ever "seen a gun fired in anger." By the mid-1830's, the Andersons and other planters were in trouble. Distrustful of the U.S. government and tired of broken promises and relocation schemes, Seminole raiders attacked Florida's coastal plantations. Dunlawton itself was wrecked in December 1835 after the . . . — Map (db m46547) HM|
|Florida (Volusia County), Port Orange — The Roof|
|Dunlawton's new metal roof is meant to protect stonework and machinery. But it also makes an important point. Though not an exact replica of the wooden roof that protected it, this shelter reminds us that a large, enclosed factory once stood here. Dunlawton's combustible structures burned in the 1830's when Seminoles sacked the Anderson plantation. That meant the next owner had to cover and important space. "The frame of the sugar house is nearly ready for raising," John Marshall wrote in an . . . — Map (db m46544) HM|
|Florida (Volusia County), Volusia — Volusia|
|Volusia, on the east bank of the river St. Johns, is the birthplace of Volusia County and the oldest settlement. The United States Courts confirmed Horatio Dexter's 1815 Spanish title and Joseph Rattenbury's 1817 title to the 17,000-acre Volusia tract, which extended from the Macayan Indian Mounds (1558) north to Lake George. Volusia Township was surveyed in 1821 divided into government Lots in 1834 and confirmed on the United States Cadastral Survey Map.
This majestic oak marks the center . . . — Map (db m31351) HM|
|Georgia (Baker County), Newton — 004-2 — Battle of Chickasawachee Swamp|
|Near here in Chickasawachee Swamp a decisive battle of the Southern Indian Wars was fought July 3, 1836. About 300 warriors were entrenched on an island in the swamp, after a raid in which they killed several settlers. A force of militia under command of Col. Thomas Beall followed them into the swamp and a fierce battle was fought. A number of Indians were killed, and 13 soldiers wounded, 1 mortally. A large amount of plunder taken on the raid on Roanoke was recovered here. This battle broke . . . — Map (db m26959) HM|
|Georgia (Baldwin County), Milledgeville — 005-7 — Montpelier — <------<<<<|
|This church is named Montpelier after Fort Montpelier of 1794, 1/2 mi. below here down the Oconee. This fort & others were built during the Creek Indian troubles. Capt. Jonas Fouche was ordered to guard the Ga. frontier from the mouth of the Tugaloo to Fort Fidius on the Oconee. 200 militia cavalry & infantry raised under Gov. Telfair were placed under the command of Maj. Gaither, Federal commandant. A note on Fouche’s map reads: “As it is 40 mi. from Fort Twiggs to Mount Pelah where Maj. . . . — Map (db m36103) HM|
|Georgia (Baldwin County), Milledgeville — 005-5 — Old Fort Fidius — >>>-- 1793-1797 -->|
|The first settlement in this section was made up of four frame houses, a dozen or more cabins and a fort. It was called Federal town. Many of the soldiers died so a new fort was built several miles up the river and named Fort Fidius. It was located 2 miles below the mouth of Fishing Creek and 4 miles below this point. In 1794 Commander Roberts complained to the Secretary of War that he had only 69 able-bodied men to face 10,000 Indians. In 1797 the U.S. Government replaced Fort Fidius with . . . — Map (db m36323) HM|
|Georgia (Baldwin County), Milledgeville — Old Fort Wilkinson|
|Where treaty of limits took place
between the United States and
Creek Nation of Indians
June 16 1802, ratified June 11 1803
this treaty was signed by James Wilkinson
Benjamin Hawkins, Andrew Pickins. Commissioners
on the part of the United States and
forty chiefs and warriors. — Map (db m43166) HM|
|Georgia (Baldwin County), Milledgeville — 005-22 — The Rock Landing — >>>------>|
|Five miles south of this point is the Rock Landing at the head of navigation on the Oconee River and at the junction of the old Indian trading paths leading westward. In 1789 Pres. Washington sent Gen. Benjamin Lincoln here to treat with Chief Alexander McGillivray and 2000 Creek warriors and settle the Georgia-Creek controversy over cession of the trans-Ogeechee lands. Here also was the official residence of James Seagrove, appointed the first U.S. Indian agent to the Creeks in Sept., 1791. He . . . — Map (db m36326) HM|
|Georgia (Barrow County), Winder — 007-1 — Fort Yargo — <------<<<<|
|This remarkably preserved log blockhouse was built in 1793, according to historians. There are several references to Fort Yargo as existing prior to 1800. Its location is given as three miles southwest of “Jug Tavern,” original name for Winder. Early historians say Fort Yargo was one of four forts built by Humphries Brothers to protect early white settlers from Indians. The other three forts were listed as at Talassee, Thomocoggan, now Jefferson, and Groaning Rock, now Commerce. . . . — Map (db m22396) HM|
|Georgia (Berrien County), Nashville — 010-4 — Indian Fights|
|In the summer of 1836, a company of militia under Capt. Levi J. Knight of near Ray City was sent to protect the settlers from marauding Indians on their way to join the Seminoles in Florida. When a party of Indians plundered the plantation of William Parker, near Milltown, the militia pursued them N.E. across the county overtaking them near Gaskins Pond not far from the Alapaha River. Several were killed and some injured as Indians fled across the river. A few days later the militia encountered . . . — Map (db m40123) HM|
|Georgia (Bibb County), Macon — 11-5 — Fort Hawkins|
|Fort Hawkins was established at this site in 1806 on the eastern bank of the Ocmulgee River at the border of the Muskogee Creek Nation. The location was chosen by the fort’s namesake, Benjamin Hawkins, who served as the U.S. Agent for Indian Affairs South of the Ohio River from 1796-1816. Located along the old Federal Road linking the Georgia interior to ports at Mobile and New Orleans, the fort served as a military supply point and a frontier trading post. The fort was decommissioned in 1828 . . . — Map (db m59564) HM|
|Georgia (Carroll County), Whitesburg — 022-3 — McIntosh Reserve|
|William McIntosh, Scotch-Coweta Chief of the Coweta Towns, distinguished soldier in the battle of Autossee and Horseshoe Bend, and in the Seminole Wars with the rank of Brigadier-General, was killed by Upper Creeks and is buried here, the site of his home. As leading Creek collaborator with whites, he assembled at Indian Springs in February 1825, a small group of Lower Creek Chiefs who ceded all Creek lands in Georgia west of the Flint River. Angered, Upper Creeks pronounced a death sentence, . . . — Map (db m12548) HM|
|Georgia (Charlton County), Folkston — Henry Roddenberry|
|Memorial to Henry Roddenberry
Born 1803 – Died 1861
Son of George Roddenberry (1758 – 1850)
A Soldier in the American Revolution
Settled near Traders Hill about 1835
Indian War Mounted Soldier 1838 – 1839
A first citizen of Charlton County, he was its first Tax Collector 1854-1855, its first State Senator 1855-1856, and a public servant unitl death in 1861.
A born leader, honored and respected by all, and revered by his posterity. — Map (db m27443) HM|
|Georgia (Charlton County), Folkston — 024-2 — Okefenokee Swamp — <--- 10 mi. ---<<<<|
|Okefenokee, “Land of the Trembling Earth”, was a favorite hunting and fishing ground for many tribes of Indians. General Charles Floyd with 250 dragoons drove out the last of these, the Seminoles, in 1838 ending Indian rebellion in southern Georgia. In 1937 the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service acquired most of the 400,000 acres of the swamp. Now a sanctuary for wild life, it abounds in rare species of birds, mammals, fish and reptiles in a vast natural botanical garden. All hunting is prohibited; some fishing is allowed. — Map (db m27477) HM|
|Georgia (Charlton County), Folkston — 024-6 — Racepond Named For "Race Pond"|
|Racepond was named for “Race Pond,” a round cypress pond near here, where, about 1836, United States soldiers ran their horses for sport.
The troops were stationed at the pond to watch for and capture any Indians who might venture out from the Okefenokee Swamp where they had taken refuge from the great trek to the Western Reservation. Only a few men at a time were needed for patrol duty, and the rest amused themselves by racing their mounts over a track they constructed around . . . — Map (db m53021) HM|
|Georgia (Charlton County), Folkston — 024-4 — Sardis Church — <--- 2 mi. ---<<<<|
|Sardis Church, about 2 miles West on this Road, is the oldest church in Charlton County. Constituted some time before 1821, the first edifice was built in this area. The church was moved to or near its present site in 1840. The pulpit in this edifice has been in use for more than 100 years, and bears a bullet scar from the Indian Wars.
With 24 members, Sardis Church was admitted to the Alapaha River Primitive Baptist Association, October 13, 1856.
In the cemetery adjacent to the . . . — Map (db m27439) HM|
|Georgia (Chattahoochee County), Cusseta — 026-3 — Battle of Hitchity|
|In February, 1836, after rumors of unrest among the Creek Indians and a report of 500 having crossed the Chattahoochee River at Bryants Ferry, 22 members of the Georgia Militia under Col. John H. Watson were sent out from Columbus to investigate the rumor. At the mouth of Upatoi Creek they found 40 armed Indians returning to the ferry. The Indians took cover immediately and commenced firing. After some firing on both sides two of the white men were killed and two wounded. The Militia left the . . . — Map (db m55463) HM|
|Georgia (Cherokee County), Ball Ground — 028-1 — Battle of Taliwa|
|Two and one-half miles to the east, near the confluence of Long-Swamp Creek and the Etowah River, is the traditional site of Taliwa, scene of the fiercest and most decisive battle in the long war of the 1740's and 50's between the Cherokee and Creek Indians. There, about 1755, the great Cherokee war-chief, Oconostota, led 500 of his warriors to victory over a larger band of Creeks. So complete was the defeat that the Creeks retreated south of the Chattahoochee River, leaving to their opponents . . . — Map (db m15481) HM|
|Georgia (Clay County), Fort Gaines — 1814 Boundary / Founding of Fort Gaines|
| 1814 Boundary
The boundary line defined in the Treaty of Fort Jackson (August 1814) between the confederated Creek tribes and the United States extended eastward from the mouth of Cemochechobee Creek south of here to a point near Jesup, Georgia. Signed by General Andrew Jackson for the U.S. and Tustennugge Thlocco (Big Warrior) and Thstennugge Hopoie (Little Prince) for the Creeks, the treaty ceded about 23 million acres of land and was intended to separate hostile Indians from . . . — Map (db m47225) HM|
|Georgia (Clay County), Fort Gaines — 030-6 — Fort Gaines|
|One of several forts on Georgia’s western frontier for the protection of white settlers, Fort Gaines was established in 1816 by order of Gen. Edmund P. Gaines, commander of a large district, who used this as his headquarters. Containing two blockhouses, the 100-foot square fort was enclosed by a stockade eight feet high. During 1817, when Indians were active in the area, settlers look refuge in the fort, garrisoned by Federal troops under Gen. John Dill. Maintained for a number of years, the . . . — Map (db m48308) HM|
|Georgia (Clay County), Fort Gaines — 030-7 — Fort Gaines Guards|
|Organized in 1836 under the command of Col. J. E. Brown, for 74 years the Fort Gaines Guards was one of the best and, later, the oldest military organization in western Georgia. Kept intact between wars, the Guards fought in the Indian and Mexican Wars In 1861, 120 men under Capt. B. A. Turnipseed, as Co. D, 9th Ga. Regiment, Tige Anderson’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Corps, fought gallantly through the War Between the States. Of the original 120, only 13 remained to surrender at Appomattox. . . . — Map (db m47097) HM|