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Anthropology Markers
Ontario, Ottawa — Silent Messengers of the ArcticInuksuk created by Kananginak Pootoogook, 1997
For generations, the Inuit have been creating impressive stone markers on the Arctic landscape. Inuksuk means "acting in the capacity of a human." They serve many functions, including guiding travellers, warning of danger, assisting hunters and marking places of reverence. — Map (db m39750) HM
Czech Republic, Hlavní město Praha, Prague — Vojta Náprstek
In Czech: V tomto domĕ žil a zemřel Vojta Náprstek 1826-1894 Bojovník za kulturní a společenský pokrok R 1862 položil základy Náprstokova Muzea Translated, the marker reads: In this house lived and died Vojta Náprstek (1826-1894). A champion of cultural and social progress. In the year 1862 he laid the foundations for the Náprstokova Museum. — Map (db m23067) HM
France, Aquitaine (Dordogne), Rouffignac-Saint-Cernin-de-Reil — Les Gravures et Peintures Prehistoirques de Rouffignac[Prehistoric Engravings and Paintings of Rouffignac]
furent scientifiquement découvertes le 29 juin 1956 par le professeur Louis-René Nougier, directeur de l’Institut d’Art Préhistorique de l’Université de Toulouse Romain Robert, Président – Fondateur de la Société Préhistoirque de l’Ariège avec la collaboration de Charles et Louis Plassard, Propriétaires de Cro de Granville L’Abbé Henri Breuil, Professseur Honoraire au College de France – Membre de l’Institue confirma le 11 juillet 1956 la hauté valeur scientifique de la . . . — Map (db m60391) HM
France, Aquitaine (Dordogne), Saint-Léon-sur-Vézère — Georges Grant MacCurdy
A la gloire du Professeur American Georges Grant MacCurdy 1865-1947 fondateur de la chaire de prehistoire française de l’Universite de Harvard et de la mission scientifique us des Eyzies et du prehistorien Louis Didon 1865-1927 de Perigueux pour leurs sensationnelles decouvertes dans cette region

[English translation by Google Translate (with modifications): In honor of Professor George Grant MacCurdy 1865-1947 American founder of the chair of French prehistory of Harvard University and . . . — Map (db m60389) HM

Germany, Bavaria, Nuremberg — Leopold Einstein
[Marker text in German:] Hier wohnte Leopold Einstein Geb. 1833 — Gest. 1890 Nürnberger Pionier der Internationalen Sprache Esperanto [Marker text translated into English:] Here lived Leopold Einstein, born 1833 and died 1890, Nuremberg pioneer of the international language of Esperanto. — Map (db m58002) HM
Ireland, Connacht (County Mayo), Althore — Srahwee or Altóir Megalithic Wedge TombClew Bay Archaeological Trail site 13Slí Seandálaíochta Chuan Módh
Sraith Bhuí – The Yellow River Land This is one of the finest megalithic tombs in Ireland. This particular example is a wedge tomb, so-called because of its shape, wider and higher at the entrance and gradually tapering towards the rear. This type of tomb dates to the beginning of the Bronze Age (about 2,000 BC), when there was a final flourish of tomb building in Ireland. The flat roof stone was used as an altar during Penal times, giving the tomb its local name, . . . — Map (db m28063) HM
Ireland, Connacht (County Roscommon), Ballyconboy — 988:1272 — Cruachan / Cruachain (Rathmore)
Cruachan is traditionally said to be the inauguration place of the Kings of Connacht. There are a number of monuments spread over an area of about two square miles. These include a large mound, a number of differently-shaped enclosures and some ring-forts. One of these contains a standing stone alleged to mark the resting place of the last pagan king of Ireland. De réir an tseanchais is ag Cruachain a dhéantaí Ríthe Chonnacht a ghairm. Tá roinnt séadchomharthaí scaipthe ar fud achar dhá . . . — Map (db m28192) HM
Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Newgrange — Knowth / Cnogbha
Within the great mound of Knowth there are two passage-tombs and around it, eighteen satellite tombs. The site remained a focal point for over 4,000 years. There is evidence of occupation from 3,000 B.C. to 1,200 A.D. This project has been part-financed by the European Regional Development Fund — Map (db m27219) HM
Ireland, Ulster (County Donegal), Burt — Grianan Ailligh / Grianán Ailigh
This large stone-walled fort, located on a hilltop commanding views over Loughs Foyle and Swilly and counties Donegal, Derry and Tyrone, was the royal citadel of the northern Uí Néill from the 5th to the 12th century. It was probably built some time around the birth of Christ. Its builders may have been attracted to this hilltop site by the presence here of a sacred monument - a prehistoric burial mound or tumulus, possibly from the Neolithich period (about 3000 BC). A lintelled . . . — Map (db m71458) HM
Israel, Central District, Rosh Ha'ayin — Tel Afeq - Antipatris
Archaeological excavations at Tel Afeq have exposed layers of occupation dating from the Chalcolithic period (the fourth millennium B.C.E.) until the 20th century C.E. Strategically situated on the "Afeq Pass", a bottleneck between the headwaters of the Yarqon Stream and the range of hills in the east, Afeq controlled the international route that ran from Egypt to the north. Already in the third millennium B.C.E. the city that stood here was encircled by a fortification wall. In the time of the . . . — Map (db m64309) HM
Israel, Central District, Rosh Ha'ayin — The Egyptian Governor's Residence
This is the most complete of the six Late Bronze Age (Canaanite), 1550-1200 B.C.E. palaces excavated at Afeq. The ground floor is preserved in its entirety, while the stairway testifies to the existence of the now-destroyed upper storeys. Inscriptions in Sumerian, Akkadian and Canaanite languages found in the palace be a witness to the importance of Afeq in the Egyptian government network in Canaan. A letter from Ugarit (in northern Syria) is evidence of the trade between the Egyptian and . . . — Map (db m64406) HM
Israel, Central District, Rosh Ha'ayin — The Roman Cardoהקארדו הרומי
A remnant of the main street of the Roman city of Antipatris. "Cardo" is the name for the main north-south street of a Roman-era city. Shops lined the Cardo, and at its center it was connected to the Forum, the city's central square. Grooves can be seen in the paving stones, carved over the years by the wheels of vehicles rolling along the street. The lookout tower on the Cardo was constructed during the Ottoman period, long after the street had fallen into complete disuse. — Map (db m64445) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Acre — The Crusader Fortress of the Knights of the Hospital and the Ottoman-Turkish Citadel of Akko
On this site, in the 12th-13th century, towered the fortress of the Order of the Knights of the Hospital of Saint John (the "Hospitallers") who were based in Akko (Acre) until the Muslim conquest of the city in 1291. Over the ruins of the fortress, which was reconstructed by the Ottoman Turks in the 17th and 18th centuries, was built the Citadel and Palace of the Governors Akko. In the mid-19th century the Ottoman authorities added here a large prison. Under the British Administration . . . — Map (db m65456) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Caesarea — A Collection of Architectural Artifacts
This garden presents a collection of architectural artifacts discovered during the excavation of Caesarea, or found by chance. The source of much of present day knowledge of the styles and building methods of the classical world of Greece and Rome is the work of the Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius, who wrote his major text, De Architectura, some two thousand years ago. The architecture of this region combines Hellenistic and Roman traditions with local and . . . — Map (db m64466) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Caesarea — Architectural Elements
The gable, cornice, frieze and architrave are some of the architectural elements that were typical of the facades and other monumental structures. The ornamentation of these buildings changed according to the adopted style. In the Roman world, pedestals were not only used as columns supports but also as stands for statues and representative elements. — Map (db m65175) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Caesarea — Column Capitals
In the Classical World, Planning and Aesthetics principles were clear and unambiguous. The Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders were elaborated by the Greeks and later, adopted by the Romans, with some variations. Each order bears its own rules and particular ornamental elements. Columns capitals express these different orders. — Map (db m64499) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Caesarea — Dedicatory Inscriptionכתובת הקדשה
"(Po)ntius Pilatus, the prefect of Judaea, (erected) a (building dedicated) to (the emperor) Tiberius". Replica. The original inscription, found in secondary use during the excavations of the theater, is on display at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. Pontius Pilatus was the Roman prefect who presided over the trial of Jesus of Nazareth (Matt. 27: 11-26). The content of the inscription and the use of the Latin language hint at the level of Romanization . . . — Map (db m65173) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Caesarea — King Herod's Hippodrome
"Herod built (...) on the south quarter, behind the port, an amphitheater also capable of holding a vast number of men and conveniently situated for a prospect to the sea" Josephus This edifice, whose location perfectly matches Flavius Josephus's description, was built for the inauguration of the city in 10/9 B.C. This hippodrome (circus, in Latin), was the venue for the Actian Games instituted by King Herod in honor of the Roman emperor Augustus. . . . — Map (db m65176) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Caesarea — Sarcophagi
Sarcophagi (coffins in Greek) made of stone (granite, marble, limestone) lead or wood were widely used among different people including Jews, throughout he Greco-Roman world. Sarcophagus means "flesh eater". Stone coffins were made out of two huge blocks - a cavity in which the corpse was placed and a double-slopped roof lid on which a Greek inscription was engraved: "the grave of Prokopios the Deacon". The coffins were decorated with flora, hunting mythological scenes or with geometric . . . — Map (db m64501) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Caesarea — The Chariot-RacesThe Meta Prima
The chariot races thrilled the crowds. The counterclockwise seven-lap race commenced at the starting gates (carceres) (1) and ended at a finishing line situated in front of the dignitaries' tribune (2). At each end of the axial rib (spina) were the two turning points (meta prima and meta secunda). Their sharp curves posed a major challenge to the skilled charioteers and the galloping horses. — Map (db m64537) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Caesarea — The Promontory PalaceHerod's Palace & the Roman Praetorium
The edifice consists of two main units: the Lower Palace comprising the private wing, and the Upper Palace, housing the public wing. The latter, built around a large peristyle courtyard, was associated with the ruler's judicial and administrative functions, as well as the reception and the entertainment of dignitaries. The Upper Palace was built shortly after the erection of the Lower Palace. Who built this palace? Was it King Herod, on the occasion of the inauguration of the . . . — Map (db m64517) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Caesarea — The Roman Well
Some sixty lead scroll fragments dating to the 4th. c. A.D., probably execrations tablets and binding spells, were recovered from this well, where they had been intentionally thrown as a magical practice. In his address on the dedication of the Holy Sepulchre in 335 A.D., Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea, firmly condemned these widespread practices and what he called "curse tablets of forbidden sorcery". — Map (db m64532) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Caesarea — The Theaterהתיאטרון
The only remnants left from the Theater of Caesarea are rows of seats, the orchestra, the stage and the scene-frons which is an ornamental wall behind the stage. How did it look like? Comparisons show that it might resemble the facade of a two or three-story building with elegant doorways decorated with columns, niches and sculptures. — Map (db m64498) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — A Public Grain Silo
A public grain silo from the time of King Jeroboam II (8th century BCE). The silo had a capacity of 450 cubic meters. Straw found between the stones attests to the function of the installation. — Map (db m65196) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — A Unique Continuity
[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]: The deep section dug by the University of Chicago Expedition (1925-1939) provides a unique glimpse into the nearly thirty settlements built one on top of the other at the site. Due to the unique continuity of its occupation from the Neolithic period through the Persian period - and the scope of its excavations, Tel Megiddo is considered the 'cradle' of biblical archaeology and the 'laboratory' of modern research methods. [Text on the . . . — Map (db m64908) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — From Megiddo to Armageddon
The city of Megiddo played a prominent role in the history of the ancient Near East. Strategically located at the mouth of the Nahal Iron Pass, Megiddo controlled access to the road that linked Egypt with Mesopotamia and Anatolia - the most important trade and military route of that time. Megiddo is the only site in the Land of Israel mentioned in the records of all Near Eastern ancient powers and was one of the most fought-over cities in the region. The first fully-recorded battle in history, . . . — Map (db m64782) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — Schumaker's Excavations
The first excavations at Tel Megiddo were directed by Gottlieb Schumacher on behalf of the Deutscher Palastina-Verein, between 1903 and 1905. After excavating the Tempelburg ('temple-fortress') in the eastern section of the mound, Schumacher dug a 25m. wide trench running north to south across the mound. The remains of several monumental buildings, as well as burial chambers vaulted in fine-stone corbelling, were exposed in the trench. — Map (db m65019) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — Tel Megiddo National ParkWorld Heritage Site — The Biblical Tels - Megiddo, Hazor, Beer Sheba
The biblical tels of Megiddo, Hazor and Beer Sheba were inscribed in 2005 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as World Heritage Sites with outstanding universal value. They are fitting representatives of the 200 biblical tels in Israel, which were flourishing cities in the past.These cities were established alongside ancient commercial roads and near prosperous agricultural areas, and were ruled by a central government. They made their mark on the . . . — Map (db m64811) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The City-Gate(The Late Bronze Period)
[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]: The Late Bronze period (1550-1150 B.C.) is marked by Egyptian rule of Canaan. At that time, Megiddo was one of the country's major city-states and its king a loyal vassal of the Egyptian pharaoh. The city-gate and the elaborate palace located just inside the are the best-known remains of this period. The city-gate was apparently incorporated into the Middle Bronze (2000-1550 B.C.) fortifications that were still in use at the time. [Text . . . — Map (db m64821) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The City-Gate(The Iron II Period)
[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]: Megiddo became an Israelite city sometime between the 10th and 9th centuries B.C., and functioned as an administrative center for he fertile Jezreel Valley. Some time later, a massive wall (1) and a monumental city-gate (2-4) were built. According to one opinion, the gate dates to the reign of Solomon (10th c. B.C.). Other scholars postdate the gate to the reign of either Ahab (9th c.) or Jeroboam II (8th c. B.C.). [Text across the . . . — Map (db m64882) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Northern Palace
[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]: The foundations of this palace, first investigated by Y. Yadin in 1960, are presently being excavated by 'The Megiddo Expedition'. The edifice was apparently laid out as a bit hilani (North Syrian palace) whose architecture included a monumental porticoed entrance and a large central ceremonial hall. [Text across the Bottom of the Marker]: "And he made the hall of pillars (...) there was a porch in front with . . . — Map (db m64898) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Northern Stables
[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]: Architectural complexes dating from the same period (9th or 8th c. B.C.) and of similar design were found near the northern and southern edges of the mound. Through the years they variously interpreted as stables, storehouses or marketplaces. Recent research seems to corroborate their identification as horse-stables. [Text across the Bottom of the Marker]: "I besieged and conquered Samaria. Led away as booty 27,290 . . . — Map (db m64889) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Sacred Area
[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]: This area served as a focus of worship for over two thousand years, from the Early Bronze through the Iron I periods. The University of Chicago excavation section a series of temples (1, 3-5) built one on top of the other. The Megiddo Expedition, led by a team from Tel Aviv University, uncovered an additional temple (2) unique in the Levant in its monumentality and the thousands of sacrificial animal bones found in and around it. [Text . . . — Map (db m64985) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Southern Palace
[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]: An elaborate ashlar-built palace (1) stood near the southern edge of the mound. A monumental entrance (2) - the only visible remains still standing - led to the courtyard (3). Like the northern palace, this edifice may have been built along the lines of a North Syrian bit hilani. One interpretation dated its construction to King Solomon (10th c. B.C.), whereas another one postdates it to Ahab's reign (9th c. B.C.). [Text across . . . — Map (db m65198) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Southern Stables
[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]: The southern stables' five units could accommodate 150 horses. As in the northern complex, each unit consists of a rectangular building divided into three sections by two rows of alternating pillars and troughs. It seems that the Northern Kingdom established a major horse-breeding and training center at Megiddo in the 8th c. B.C., and this was apparently one of the reasons for its prosperity. Assyrian records from the 9th and the 8th c. B.C. . . . — Map (db m65204) HM
Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Water System
[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]: The problem of supplying water to large cities, a serious issue even in times of peace, could become acute in times of siege. Megiddo's main water source was located at the foot of the mound, beyond the city's fortifications. In order to ensure access to the spring from within the city, a hidden gallery was built on the slope of the mound in the 10th or 9th c. B.C. This gallery was later blocked and replaced by an elaborate water system, which . . . — Map (db m65215) HM
Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — The House of Ahiel
Here Dwells Ahiel in a Four Room House "He (David) had houses made for himself in the City of David..." (1 Chronicles15: 1) The name 'Ahiel' appears on potsherds found among the ruins of this house. The House of Ahiel is a 'four-room house' - a typical Israelite dwelling, consisting of three parallel spaces closed off by a fourth. The roof beams were supported by pillars, part of which can be seen here. It is reasonable to assume that this was a two-story . . . — Map (db m65296) HM
Israel, Northern District, Capharnaum — The Synagogue of Jesus
The Late Fourth Century A.D. "White Synagogue" Built Upon the Remains of the "Synagogue of Jesus" Map (db m64091) HM
Israel, Northern District, Nazareth — The Ancient Village of Nazareth
What is left of the ancient village consist of a network of grottoes and bits of walls form various historical periods. Going backwards in time we found first the remains of the XVII century Franciscan monastery, then the palace of the crusader archbishop of Nazareth and the humble homes with some parts datable up to the VIII cent. B.C. The parts that were carved out of the soft local rock are the best preserved: cistern for storing rainwater, silos set on different levels for storing . . . — Map (db m65462) HM
Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — "Magic on the sea of galilee..."
Tiberias the capital of the Galilee, one of the four Holy Cities of Israel Which was built by Antipas in the year 17-20, C.E. Antipas named the city Tiberias in honor of the Roman Ceasar, Tiberius. The institution of Jewish Leadership, the Sanhedrin and the Presidency moved to Tiberias from Tzipori. The Jerusalem Talmud was complied in Tiberias in the 5th century. Schools of poets, Rabbies and Scholars are thriving during the period of Geonim. "The Tiberias Vowel Punctuation" was developed in this period and still is in use today. — Map (db m65327) HM
Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — Domestic Building
This building was part of Tiberias' northern quarter between the 6th and 11th centuries CE. The quarter occupied by Jews and the synagogue stood in its center. This building has three rooms and a courtyard with a well. — Map (db m65359) HM
Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — Doors of Burial Caves / Burial Customs - Sarcophagi
[Text at the top of the marker]: Doors of Burial Caves Burial caves were frequently sealed by stone doors in order to prevent bad smells and looting. In 2nd-3rd centuries CE Tiberias, basalt doors were used in mausolea and decorated with relief of panels and iron nails that imitated wooden doors. [Text at the bottom of the marker]: Burial Customs - Sarcophagi Burial in stone coffins (sarcophagi) was common from the second to the fifth centuries CE. The . . . — Map (db m65341) HM
Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — The Crusader-Ottoman Building / Millstones
[Text at the top of the marker]: The Crusader-Ottoman Building This was built in the 12th century CE and remained in use until the Ottoman period. The hall has typical pointed vaults and embrasures in the walls, with remains of another two perpendicular halls. These halls were part of the Tiberias fort that was the capital of the Crusader 'Galilee Principality', and was integrated into Daher el-Omar's fortifications in the 18th century CE. [Text at the bottom of the . . . — Map (db m65331) HM
Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — The Synagogue
This is one of the thirteen synagogues existed in Tiberias according to the Talmud. It was a square building divided by two rows of columns. One of the mosaics bears a dedication inscription decorated with Jewish symbols: Lulav and Etrog. The dedication mentions "Prokolos son of Crispos" who either made the mosaic or donated it. The synagogue was built in the 6th century CE and lasted until the 11th century CE. — Map (db m65333) HM
Israel, Northern District, Tsipori — The Citadel
The Citadel (perhaps a watch tower) was built during the crusader period on foundations from an earlier period. Some of the cornerstones are rubble-filled Roman sarcophagi. In the 18th Century the building was renovated by Dahr El-Omar, the Bedouin ruler of the Galilee. At the end of the Ottoman Period it was rebuilt for use as a schoolhouse and was renovated again during the British Mandate. — Map (db m65412) HM
Israel, Northern District, Tsipori — The Theater
The Roman theater was built in the late first or early second century C.E. Carved into the bedrock on the steep northern slope of the hill. It's diameter is 72 m., and it seated 4000. The rows of seats constructed on the hewn bedrock were robbed in antiquity. The lowest three rows are partly reconstructed with original stones. Behind the orchestra (place of the choir during the Greek period, and reserved for honored guests in Roman times) stood a stage. It's floor was made of wooden . . . — Map (db m65405) HM
Israel, Northern District (Upper Galilee Regional Council), Snir — The Court of Nemesis
Nemesis was the goddess of vengeance and Roman imperial justice. Her long and narrow court was built in 178 CE in front of a great niche in which her statue was placed. A Greek inscription above the niche mentions the names of the goddess and of the donor. The pavers of the court were arranged in a checker pattern of white and reddish stones. — Map (db m64781) HM
Israel, Northern District (Upper Galilee Regional Council), Snir — The Court of Pan & the Nymphs
The stepped and paved courtyard on which you are standing was built in the mid-first century CE. An artificial cave was quarried in the cliff-face opposite the courtyard, and there the statue of Pan was placed. Pagan worship was carried out in this courtyard, as illustrated below. In 148 CE, two more niches were added to the rock face. According to the Greek inscriptions chiseled on the rock scarp, one niche housed a sculpture of Echo, the mountain nymph and Pan's consort, and the other, a . . . — Map (db m64754) HM
Israel, Northern District (Upper Galilee Regional Council), Snir — The Grotto of the God Panמערת האל פאן
The cave is the nucleus beside which the sacred sanctuary was built. In this "abode of the shepherd god," pagan cult began as early as the 3rd century BCE. The ritual sacrifices were cast into a natural abyss reaching the underground waters at the back of the cave. If the victims disappeared in the water, this was a sign that the god had accepted the offering. If. however, signs of blood appeared in the nearby springs, the sacrifice had been rejected. — Map (db m64738) HM
Israel, Northern District (Upper Galilee Regional Council), Snir — The Sanctuary of Pan
The conquests of Alexander the Great (3rd c. BCE) brought the Greeks to the East, and to Banyas. The Greeks were taken by the natural beauty of the site, touched particularly by the cave in which the springs welled. It is no wonder that they sanctified this cave, dedicating it to Pan, god of the forest and the shepherds. Thus came the name Panyas, later becoming "Banyas" in Arabic pronunciation.Towards the end of the first century BCE, the Romans incorporated Banyas into Herod's empire. To show . . . — Map (db m64764) HM
Israel, Northern District (Upper Galilee Regional Council), Snir — The Temple of Augustusמקד ש אוגוסטוס
Built in 19 BCE, during the reign of Herod the Great, in honor of the Roman Emperor Augustus. The coin at the top of this text, shows the facade of the temple. In front of you is the western wall of the hall with semicircular and rectangular niches housing the statues of the deities. The back wall of the temple served as a passage to the Grotto of Pan - the holy of holies of this site. The passage was decorated with the carved stones displayed to your right. — Map (db m65177) HM
Israel, Northern District (Upper Galilee Regional Council), Snir — The Temple of Zeus
Built around 96 CE in the days of Emperor Trajan, for the city's 100th anniversary. A marble inscription found at the site implies that it was a temple for Pan and for Zeus of Heliopolis (the city of Ba'albek). Only the foundations of the temple survived. Originally it included a columnar portico behind which there stood a "cella" (hall) where rites were conducted. The splendid Corinthian capital seen nearby once crowned one of the four columns of the facade. The Panias city coin above shows . . . — Map (db m64768) HM
Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — Bathing in Roman Style
"The fittings of the interior - apartments, colonnades and baths - were of manifold variety and sumptuous ..." Josephus Flavius Beyond the human need for cleanliness, the bathhouse also had a social function. Bathing and the associated physical activities were an important element in Roman social and cultural life, to which Herod aspired. This was where the king and his guests met, bathed and exercised. The sophisticated bathing arrangements, which are reminiscent of a dry . . . — Map (db m64079) HM
Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The Discovery Location of the "Lots"
"...then, having chosen by lot ten of their number to dispatch the rest... these, having unswervingly slaughtered all, ordained the same rule of the lot for one another, that he on whom it fell should slay first the nine nd then himself last of all." Josephus Flavius Here several hundred inscribed pottery shards (ostraca) were found. Outstanding among them was a group consisting of names and nicknames, including the name "Ben Ya'ir." Yigael Yadin, the most distinguished of . . . — Map (db m64101) HM
Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The Rebel's Community Life
How to organize community life under siege? Near the western entrance square were discovered large concentrations of inscribed pottery shards (ostraca) from the period of the revolt. They bear names, combinations of letters or single letters in Hebrew. These shards were apparently used as food-rationing coupons, as a substitute for money, or to register fighting units or the families that lived on the mountain. Both types demonstrate the community life of the rebels in Masada. It is probable . . . — Map (db m64077) HM
Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The Water Gateשער המים
The path that climbed to Masada from the west via the cisterns terminated at this gate. Visitors to the mountain and the beasts of burden that carried water took this path to the summit of Masada. A channel starting at the gate carried to some of the cisterns on the mountain. The stone paving of the gate was intended to prevent damage to the surface from the animals' hooves. — Map (db m64148) HM
United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Fermanagh), Irvinestown — Centenary Gardens House 1St. Patrick Meets the Mystery, Legends and Religion of Ireland
In this house the story of St. Patrick meeting the legends and spiritual traditions of the Celtic People in Ireland is presented. St. Patrick became familiar with them during his time of captivity. The Celtic Religion of Ireland Before St. Patrick The Celts believed that gods and spirits were everywhere. They had sun worship, tree worship and wind worship. This is a hymn to nature by the Celtic poet Amergrin who lived 500 years before Christ. 'I am the wind that breathes upon . . . — Map (db m72630) HM
Alaska (Denali Borough), Denali National Park — Ice Age HuntersThe Deadliest Predators
High above river valleys, at overlooks like this, Denali’s first human visitors watch for mammoth, giant bison, and caribou. Ridge tops made the best game launching platforms; herds tend to follow sheltered stream corridors. Hunters had to be expert, deadly; the climate was too harsh for year-round edible plants. Caribou fur made the warmest clothing. Its microscopically hollow hairs are a natural insulator. While they waited the hunters made knives and repaired and sharpened . . . — Map (db m69724) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Hereford — Lehner Mammoth Kill Site
At this location in 1952, a large bone bed was discovered containing the remains of extinct mammoth, tapir, bison and horse. Found with the bones were the weapons and tools of the Indians who had killed and butchered these animals. The bones and weapons date back 11,000 years. The discoverer of this bone bed was Ed Lehner, on whose ranch it was located. Ed had observed the bones eroding out of the banks of a side drainage of the San Pedro River near his home. In 1955 and 1956, . . . — Map (db m43633) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Gathering Place
]Panel 1:] Between 1100 and 1200, more people lived in this area than ever before, or since. Located along routes linking large populations to the northeast and south, villages here were well situated for trade. As people, goods, and ideas converged on the area, a complex society of several thousand evolved. This particular village became the heart of a thriving community and was a landmark, a gathering place, and a ceremonial center. It is remarkable that this land, so dry and . . . — Map (db m60079) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Legacy of the Past
Box Canyon and Lomaki ruins are a short 15-minute walk from here, along the edges of ancient earthcracks. The 1/4-mile trail will take you back in time over 800 years to the remnants of this once-thriving community. You will see the few native plants that grow in this high-desert environment; how the eruptions of Sunset Crater Volcano affected the ancient inhabitants; and the plaza where daily activities such as cooking and grinding corn took place. The whole picture of this prehistoric . . . — Map (db m60114) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Village/Abandonment
A Village You are entering the “Citadel,” a ruin from the late 1100s. Research has not been completed so it is important that we leave things as they are. Will there be extra storage spaces found, possible evidence for the defense theory? We do know this is one of the larger pueblos in Wupatki National Monument and could have been the home for many families. You are welcome to speculate about what will be found here, as we do. Abandonment What happened? Exact . . . — Map (db m60089) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Ancient Landscapes
Eight hundred years ago, a savannah-like grassland covered much of this high desert with abundant grasses. The residents would have collected and burned much of the nearby fuel, necessitating long walks to adjacent areas to gather wood. Sparse annual rainfall forced the inhabitants to catch and save as much water as they could, or walk miles to other sources. Since the use of the area by modern ranchers, the land has undergone other dramatic changes. Cattle grazing stripped much of the . . . — Map (db m60105) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Box Canyon Ruins
The Box Canyon ruins are typical of many pueblos found in this region. Early inhabitants constructed walls of nearby sandstone and limestone, and used local soils to cement the stones together. The flat roofs were built of timbers laid side-by-side, covered with smaller branches and finally plastered over with mud. Smoke was vented from the rooms through a square hole in the ceiling, which frequently served as the only access to the room. Doorways were small and windows almost . . . — Map (db m60094) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Daily Life
Plaza An open area in the pueblo near the rim of the earthcrack is known as the plaza. In pueblos, the plaza was the center for many daily activities including grinding corn, making pottery, working obsidian into arrowheads, processing other plants for food, and cooking. It would have also been used for meetings, conducting trade, and as a controlled play area for children. During the warmer months, the plaza received extensive use from dawn until after dusk; rooms inside the pueblo were . . . — Map (db m60110) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Dry Land Farming
Volcanic activity to the south produced giant fissures or earth cracks throughout the Wupatki area in the Kaibab Limestone. This formation covers most of the western half of Wupatki National Monument. The Sinagua and Anasazi Indians who inhabited these ancient pueblos probably found the earthcracks to be the most productive farming sites. There is no evidence of streams close by which could be used for water. All of the farming was dependent on the rainfall. Corn, squash and other crops . . . — Map (db m60098) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Sunset Crater Volcano
The distant San Francisco Peaks would have looked much like they do today. To the east, however, Sunset Crater Volcano would still have been belching black smoke and cinders when the Sinagua and Anaszi lived here. The thick layer of cinders over the sandy soil helped hold moisture, which was beneficial to the growing of crops. Eventually, even Sunset Crater Volcano grew quiet, and the winds blew the cinders away and dried out the soil. Why the Lomaki residents departed is not . . . — Map (db m60107) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — The Citadel / Natural Features
The Citadel It was a remarkable achievement, to use primitive mortar and local stones to build the walls above you straight up from the edge of the top of the rock. “The Citadel” is the modern name given to this ruin because of its location, but archeologists wonder why the Anasazi often built in high, hard-to-get-at places. Some theories say it was defensive. Others say it was to avoid building on croplands, or for sun and breeze. Or was it more simple? Today we often . . . — Map (db m60087) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Wukoki
Wukoki, a modern Hopi word for “Big House” was once home for two or three prehistoric Indian families. The inhabitants are believed to have been of the Kayenta Anasazi culture, judging from the types of artifacts found during excavation and stabilization. This site, occupied from approximately 1120-1210 A.D. afforded its occupants a commanding view of the surrounding terrain. The unusual three-story height, combined with its position atop this Moenkopi Sandstone outcrop, lends . . . — Map (db m60078) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Tusayan Museum and Ruin
Cohonina and ancestral Pueblo (Kayenta Anasazi) people lived in this area in prehistoric time. The ancestral Puebloans built Tusayan about AD 1185. A visit to the museum and a short walk through the remains of the village will furnish a glimpse of the way of life of people at Grand Canyon more than 800 years ago. Excavation of the Tusayan ruin was conducted in 1930 under the direction of Harold S. Gladwin and the staff of the Gila Pueblo of Globe, Arizona. They named it Tusayan . . . — Map (db m39631) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Tusayan Ruin Trail
Allow about 30 minutes to tour Tusayan Ruin. The 0.1 mile loop trail through the main ruin is paved and wheelchair-accessible; the side loop to a prehistoric farming site is not. Signs along the way explain the site's features. An interpretive trail guide with greater detail about Tusayan's inhabitants is available to your right. Tusayan Ruin is a remnant of a small village of about 30 people who lived here for 25 to 30 years in the late 1100s. The architecture was typical for that period. . . . — Map (db m39633) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — "The Peaks"
They dominate the horizon, rising 12,633 feet (3851 m) to Arizona's highest point. Visible for miles from all directions, they stand guard over a land which has long sustained people in spirit and natural resources. All of the region's Native peoples revere them. Spanish friars christened these peaks as San Francisco Mountain in 1629 to honor their St. Francis of Assisi. The first wave of Spanish explorers, surprised that such large mountains did not spawn lakes or streams, charted them the . . . — Map (db m41664) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Wupatki National Monument — The Blowhole
This blowhole - a crevice in the earth's crust that appears to breathe - is one of several found in the Wupatki area. It connects to an underground passage - size, depth, and complexity unknown - called an earthcrack. Earthcracks resulted from earthquake activity in the Kaibab Limestone bedrock and have enlarged over time. Archaelogists have yet to uncover any evidence of prehistoric structures or uses at the blowhole. Its connection to the Wupatki Pueblo remains a mystery. Today, the . . . — Map (db m41701) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Sandal TrailNavajo National Monument
Follow the easy one-mile (1.6 km) around-trip trail to a point overlooking Betakakin Ruin—multi-level cliff-village home to a community of 13th-century Anasazi farmers. On the way there and back, you’ll be walking through pygmy forest—a complex community of plants and animals that dominates the high, semi-arid plateaus of the American Southwest. Watch in particular for dwarfed, gnarled pinyon and juniper trees “posing” in photogenic postures and . . . — Map (db m71519) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — SweathouseNavajo National Monument
This miniature forked-stick hogan without a smoke hole is actually a highly effective bath—an an ancient solution to the problem of keeping clean in a land where water is scarce. Here’s how it works: Stones are heated in a fire, then rolled in, or carried in on a wooden fork. The bathers undress outside, and then crawl inside. A blanket is hung over the door opening. Now all it takes is patience while the radiant heat does its work. This is the time for relaxing tired . . . — Map (db m71517) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Upside-down MountainNavajo National Monument
Hidden away in Tsegi Canyon’s wilderness of bare rock, sand, and sparse vegetation are surprising pockets of luxuriant growth. Betatakin Canyon—home to a village of prehistoric cliff-dwellings farmers—is one of these oases. Fir Canyon, over to your right, is another. The deeper and narrower the canyon, the less sunshine reaches into its depths. Less sunshine means less evaporation of rainwater, so plant life flourishes. You could say that the climate of Fir Canyon is like an . . . — Map (db m71514) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — Lifeline / Prehistoric Produce
Lifeline Beaver Creek has always been a major focus of life in the Verde Valley. Prehistoric Sinagua farmers constructed Montezuma Castle and other structures near the creek. They dug ditches to carry creek water to irrigate the fields of corn, beans, squash, and cotton they cultivated on flat patches of creek-bottom land. They also hunted animals attracted by the creek, and gathered creekside plants. Ever-sensitive to the moods of Beaver Creek – because their lives literally . . . — Map (db m40868) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — Macaw Pen Stone?
Could This Stone Be The Opening to a Macaw Pen? Where Did This Stone Come From? Who Used It? Why Is This Stone at Montezuma Castle? Did the Ancient Sinaguans Possibly Raise Macaws Here? In the 15th century, near modern-day Casa Grande in northern Mexico, thrived a vibrant community and trading center called Paquime. There, tropical birds called macaws, were brought up from the jungles far to the south. Thousands of macaws were bred and raised in compact adobe boxes that . . . — Map (db m40895) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — The Community
A farming community of perhaps 200 people prospered here for more than three centuries. The Castle was home to 35 or so of these people. Archeologists suggest they may have fled what is today the Flagstaff area due to overpopulation around A.D. 1100. Their name, “Sinagua,” is a variation of the Spanish “sin agua,” which means “without water.” The excavation of mounds of broken pottery, worn-out tools, animal bones, and other trash at the base of the cliff . . . — Map (db m40840) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — The Neighborhood / Mysterious Departures
The Neighborhood You can see Montezuma Castle and Castle A from here. If you look closely at the Cliffside, you might spot other ledges and caves used by the Sinagua. The Sinagua people who made their homes here may have been a closely-knit community of families and friends. Even though the trappings of civilization change over time, people’s social needs don’t. Take a moment to imagine busy villagers doing their daily chores, perhaps chatting about the weather, crops, an upcoming . . . — Map (db m40869) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — The People Next Door
Here’s another “castle” – this one called “A” by the archeologists who excavated it in the 1930s. Like neighboring Montezuma Castle, Castle A was occupied by Sinagua farmers between A.D. 1200 and 1450. However, with 45 rooms and an estimated occupancy of 100, it was much larger. It’s not nearly as well preserved, because sometime before the Sinaguas’ mysterious disappearance in the late 1400s a fire destroyed almost all interior features. All you can see today . . . — Map (db m40863) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — The Way Up / Construction Sequence
The Way Up How in the world do you build a structure large enough to house 35 people high up on a steep canyon wall? Sound impossible? Here’s how Montezuma Castle’s ingenious Sinagua farmers managed it. Construction Sequence 1. Limestone ledges and caves before the castle was built. 2. First construction; a six-room unit (3rd floor). 3. Small room added at west (left) end; one room built on next (4th) floor. 4. Fourth floor expanded. Two rooms built in small cave . . . — Map (db m40860) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — Welcome to The Castle
Pause a few moments to enjoy this view of Montezuma Castle. Don't you suppose it must have stopped the settlers and soldiers who first saw the cliff-dwelling over a century ago? The odd name came from a mistaken belief that the cliff-dwelling was a castle Aztec refugees had built for their emperor. We know now that Montezuma never strayed this far north from his home in Mexico, but the name has stuck. Why did a community of prehistoric farmers choose this particular alcove high in the . . . — Map (db m40819) HM
California (Humboldt County), Orick — Madison Grant Forest and Elk RefugeDedicated to the Memory of Madison Grant — 1865-1937
Conservationist, author, anthropologist, a founder of the Save-the-Redwoods League.

This area of 1600 acres, habitat of the last surviving herd in California of Roosevelt Elk is established as a memorial by · De Forest Grant · John D. Rockefeller, Jr. · Archer M. Huntington · New York Zoological Society · Boone and Crockett Club · National Audubon Society · American Wildlife Foundation · Save-the-Redwoods League · California State Park Commission

1948 — Map (db m32569) HM

California (Kern County), McKittick — Painted Rock
Rising above the Carrizo Plain is Painted Rock, an important cultural and spiritual site to California’s native peoples. Most of the pictographs, or painted images found on Painted Rock, are characteristic of the Chumash who lived on the Channel Islands, central coast and interior region of California. The painting style of the Yokuts from the San Joaquin Valley also suggest their use of Painted Rock. The Salinan people in the Cholame area are the nearest native people to the northwest of . . . — Map (db m52158) HM
California (Lassen County), Westwood — Paul BunyanThe Legend Lives On
Paul Bunyan has been the hero of lumberjack whopper tales that were handed down for generations in the camps of White Pine lumbermen in the north eastern forests of America. In 1913 the Walker family who owned the Red River Mill in Minnesota, moved their operations out west. It was a big job carving a mill and town out of the northern Sierras – they needed all the help they could get – so they brought Paul Bunyan with them. Never before known outside the haunts of the logging camp, . . . — Map (db m56687) HM
California (Riverside County), Blythe — 101 — Giant Desert Figures
Times of origin and meaning of these giant figures, the largest 167 feet long, smallest 95 feet, remains a mystery. There are three figures, two of animals and a coiled serpent, and some interesting lines. [Panel #1] Blythe Intaglios In 1931, George Palmer, a local pilot, discovered these huge figures outstretched across the desert pavement on the terraces above the Colorado River near Blythe, California. Archaeologists call these kinds of earth figures "geoglyphs" or . . . — Map (db m50992) HM
California (Riverside County), Hemet — 104 — Pochea Indian Village Site
Pochea was one of cluster of Indian villages forming the very large settlement of Pahsitna which extended along the ridge east and west of Ramona Bowl. Pahsitnah was thriving when the Spanish first passed by in 1774. A tragic story tells of the natives contracting smallpox from Europeans; a terrible epidemic spreading, and some survivors fleeing to the area of the present Soboba Reservation. — Map (db m50668) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Goffs — 57 — Pah-Ute CreekFort Pah-Ute — Mojave Road
Pah-Ute Creek, which runs year around, attracted many Indian tribes, who used several Indian trails through this area. The first white man to visit Pah-Ute Creek was Fr. Francisco Garces in May of 1776. It was given it's name by Lt. A.W. Whipple during his Pacific Railroad Expedition of 1854. The War Department ordered, in 1857, that the Mojave Indian Trail be used as a wagon road from the Colorado River to the Pacific Ocean. It became known as the Mojave Road. Fort Pah-Ute was . . . — Map (db m50703) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Lucerne Valley — 737 — Chimney Rock
Conflicts between Indians and white settlers over the rich lands of the San Bernardino Mountains culminated in The Battle at Chimney Rock on February 16, 1867. Although the Indians defended themselves fiercely, they were forced to retreat into the desert. In the years following, the Indians' traditional mountain food-gathering areas were lost to white encroachment. — Map (db m63982) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Newberry-Baker — 13 — Jack and Ida Mitchell
Modern Pioneers, Miner and Geologist who helped to preserve these caverns — Map (db m72956) HM
California (Ventura County), Piru — 624 — Portolá Expedition
On August 11, 1769, the explorers and priests accompanying Portolá found a populous village of Piru Indians near this point. Carrying their bowstrings loose, the Indians offered necklaces of stones, in exchange for which Portolá presented them with beads. — Map (db m51034) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Cortez — Yucca House National Monument
Yucca House National Monument Dec. 19, 1919. A fine example of a valley pueblo being held by National Park Service — Map (db m71498) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde — Canyon BarriersMesa Verde National Park
Surrounded by deep canyons, villages here seem isolated, cut off from people on other mesas. Look closely at these cliffs and imagine hand and toe trails pecked into the sheer sandstone. These vertical trails were the Anasazi’s highways; steep climbs were part of their daily routine. Throughout the Mesa Verde area there is strong evidence of cooperation and exchange: ceremonial structures like Sun Temple check dams, widespread advances in pottery and architecture. The Mesa Verde culture . . . — Map (db m71206) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde — Oak Tree HouseMesa Verde National Park
Adapting to Alcoves To level the sloping alcove floor, the Anasazi filled in behind retaining walls. The altered floor not only supported rooms but also provided working space and a safe play area for children. Oak Tree House appears to utilize every inch of alcove space. Some apartments rose four stories to the roof of the inner alcove. There are additional storage rooms along an upper ledge. Oak Tree House contains about 50 rooms and 6 kivas. (Inscription under the photo on . . . — Map (db m71209) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde — Pithouse LifeMesa Verde National Park
There is an enormous gap between identifying pithouse features—the hollows and scattered stones—and visualizing the inhabitants’ daily lives. Set in the four corner post holes, timbers supported a ceiling that was probably head-high. Above the firepit there was probably a smoke hole, which also may have been the pithouse entrance. Some features are more revealing. Grinding Corn The grinding stone and slab - mano and metate - symbolize the Anasazi's new ties to the mesa top. . . . — Map (db m71203) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde — Split-Level HistoryMesa Verde National Park
Mesa-top and Alcove Living Although the Puebloan used the cliff alcoves throughout the entire time they lived in Mesa Verde, the cliff dwellings themselves were not built until the final 75-100 years of occupation. For over 600 years these people lived primarily on the mesa tops. Of 4000 ruins within the park only 600 are cliff dwellings. All of these cliff dwellings were built and occupied in A.D. 1200 and 1300. — Map (db m71207) HM
District of Columbia, Washington — "Treat Me Refined"Lift Every Voice — Georgia Ave./Pleasant Plains Heritage Trail
The House at 3017 Sherman Avenue once was a boardinghouse for Howard University students. In 1923 a determined and talented young woman from the tiny town of Eatonville, Florida, lived here while earning an Associates Degree at Howard. In a short time she would win international acclaim as novelist and anthropologist Zora Neale Hurston. Hungry for culture, Hurston devoured Howard's opportunities. She performed in campus theater, played violin, joined Zeta Phi Bet sorority, and co-founded . . . — Map (db m65674) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), National Mall — Colossal Head 4 (replica)Olmec Culture — San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Vera Cruz, 1200-900 B.C.E.
This portrait of an Olmec ruler is among 17 colossal heads known from one of the world’s great ancient civilizations. Without wheels or iron tools, the Olmec created spectacular monumental sculptures and ceremonial centers on Mexico’s Gulf Coast. In 1946, Smithsonian archaeologist Matthew W. Stirling excavated the 6-ton basalt original of this head, which is on display at the Museum of Anthropology in Xalapa, Veracruz. [Map of the Gulf of Mexico region, locating the “Olmec . . . — Map (db m39628) HM
Florida (Escambia County), Pensacola — F-313 — Hawkshaw
(Side 1) The Hawkshaw site has supported prehistoric and historic occupations which span a period of nearly 2,000 years. It was inhabited around A.D. 150 by groups of Native Americans whom archaeologists call the Deptford Culture. Scientific excavation of the site revealed hundreds of trash pits containing food remains and household debris which provided detailed information about the daily life of these prehistoric people. They sustained themselves with the abundant marine resources . . . — Map (db m72238) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — Old Fort Brooke Municipal Parking Structure1982
On this site was located the first cemetery for Fort Brooke, a U.S. military post dating from 1824 to 1882. Seminole Indians, soldiers and civilian settlers buried here were excavated by archaeologists in 1980 prior to construction of the parking garage and reinterred in other locations. Evidence of occupation by Indian groups spanning the period 8,000 B.C. - A.D. 1824 was also recovered during the excavations. City of Tampa Bob Martinez       Mayor City Council Lloyd Copeland, . . . — Map (db m44377) HM
Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — Brickell Park
The Brickell Family donated Brickell Park to Miami in 1921 as a preserve for the family mausoleum. Their remains are now in Woodlawn Cemetery. Brickell Park is one of the few parks connecting Brickell Avenue to the shoreline of Biscayne Bay. From 700 BC to AD 1000 Tequesta Indian villages ran from Brickell Point up both sides of the Miami River as far west as Miami Avenue. Constructed mounds and cemeteries were part of the landscape until the mid 1880s when pioneers began clearing and building . . . — Map (db m65647) HM
Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — Mary Brickell Park
The Tequesta Indians were the indigenous people of Miami prior to European contact. Mary Brickell Park encompasses a portion of what was the largest Tequesta village in southeast Florida. Archaeological evidence reveals that this site was in use from 500 BC to ca. AD 1000. It is estimated that there were as many as several hundred people living in the village at any given time. The last of the Tequesta emigrated to Cuba in the eighteenth century. Mary and William Brickell, one of Miami's . . . — Map (db m65648) HM
Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — Saving the Circle
The Miami Circle site would not exist today if it were not for the support of the community. Public outcry over the impending destruction of the Miami Circle led to additional archaeological research and preservation of the 2.2 acre parcel of land. The joint efforts of the public and private partners, led by Miami-Dade County, resulted in a successful campaign to preserve the precious site. South Floridians and others from around the world rose to the occasion by protesting and campaigning . . . — Map (db m65471) HM
Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — The Miami Circle
On this spot of land at the mouth of the Miami River, a historic discovery shed new light on one of Florida's early peoples - the Tequesta. During the demolition of the Brickell Point apartments in 1998, archaeologists uncovered preshistoric artifacts and a dense deposit of black soil, animal bones and shells. Salvage excavations revealed an unusual feature consisting of holes and basins carved into the shallow Miami oolitic limestone bedrock in a circular pattern 38 feet in diameter. . . . — Map (db m65644) HM
Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — The Miami Circle at Brickell Point
The Miami Circle at Brickell Point has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America. The Miami Circle is a 38-foot diameter ring of post holes carved into bedrock, dating between 500 B.C.E. and 750 C.E. The circle is the foundation of a wooden structure built by the ancestors of the Tequesta people. The site's well-preserved outline of American Indian architecture, artifacts . . . — Map (db m65646) HM
Florida (Pinellas County), Safety Harbor — Safety Harbor Site
has been designated a Registered National Historic Landmark under the provisions of the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935 This site possesses exceptional value in commemorating or illustrating the history of the United States — Map (db m13646) HM
Florida (Pinellas County), Tierra Verde — F-90 — Tierra Verde Mound
A large Indian burial mound was built near this spot about 1500 A.D. It was used for some years by the inhabitants of a nearby Safety Harbor culture village, Indians who were among the ancestors of the later Tocobago tribe. Excavation in 1961 by State agencies added to our knowledge of these people. — Map (db m13679) HM
Florida (Polk County), Mulberry — The Mulberry Time Capsule
This marker commemorates the dedication of the Mulberry Time Capsule. The capsule was placed here on June 12, 1977 by the Greater Mulberry Chamber of Commerce. The capsule will be opened in the year 2076 to view the mememtoes of the 1976 Bicentennial celebration in "The Phosphate Center of the World." The sky has no hunger and the earth heals her wounds, but the time of man is short. — Map (db m4984) HM
Florida (Sarasota County), Osprey — Historic Spanish Point
Front Side of Marker: This 30-acre preserve includes prehistoric shell middens and a burial mound dating from 3,000 B.C. to 1,000 A.D., buildings from the homestead of John Greene Webb, and gardens from the winter estate of Mrs. Potter Palmer. In 1975, it became the first nomination in Sarasota County to the National Register of Historic Places. Five years later the heirs of Mrs. Palmer donated the historic site to Gulf Coast Heritage Association, Inc., which today operates Historic . . . — Map (db m60326) HM
Florida (Sarasota County), Sarasota — Indian Beach
5,000 years ago, prehistoric Indians seasonally came to these shore, drawn by freshwater springs, bays teeming with fish and shellfish, and woods rich with game. By 1000 A.D. their middens, ceremonial mounds, and a village plaza stood nearby. European diseases and war eventually decimated these Floridians. Centuries later Seminoles and Spanish fishermen worked at ranchos or fish camps often built on old Indian sites. The rancho industry supplied mullet, roe, and other seafood to Cuban markets. . . . — Map (db m60327) HM
Florida (Seminole County), Sanford — Sanford's First Residents
Over 1,000 years ago, the Timucua (tee-MOO-quo) people established villages in this area. They fished, hunted, and grew crops such as maize, squash, and beans. By the 1700s, the Timucuans began to disappear as they succumbed to war and disease brought by the English, French, and Spanish colonists as well as being assimilated into European culture and religion. In 1763, the last Timucuans were taken to Cuba by the Spanish. Evidence of the Timucuan way of life can be found in middens: mounds of . . . — Map (db m55389) HM
Georgia (Dekalb County), Decatur — 044-1 — Steatite Boulder
This steatite boulder was found on the site of a prehistoric quarry along Soapstone Ridge 8 miles south of Decatur. It shows the methods of Indians in making stone bowls, with the first girdling of the stone to remove workable cores. It is estimated to be at least 3000 years old by archaeologists studying such remains in central and north Georgia. The soapstone quarry on River Road, DeKalb County, is the largest found by archaeologists in Georgia. — Map (db m8752) HM
Georgia (Early County), Blakely — 049-10 — Kolomoki Mounds Archaeological Area
You are at the edge of one of the largest and most important mound groups in the southeastern United States. Most of this complex of mounds was constructed about A. D. 200-600. Archaeologists call this period the Middle Woodland Period and the particular time the Swift Creek because the Pottery types found here are similar to those found at the Swift Creek site in Central Georgia. Mounds D and E, which is partially covered by the museum, were explored in the 1940s and 50s by Dr. William H. . . . — Map (db m48243) HM
Georgia (Glynn County), Jekyll Island — 63-16 — Tabby
Tabby was the building material for walls, floors, and roofs widely used throughout coastal Georgia during the Military and Plantation Eras. It was composed of equal parts of sand, lime, oyster shell and water mixed into a mortar and poured into forms. The lime used in tabby was made by burning oyster shell taken from Indian Shell Mounds, the trash piles of the Indians. The word tabby is African in origin, with an Arabic background, and means "a wall made of earth or masonry." This method of . . . — Map (db m17578) HM
Georgia (Murray County), Chatsworth — Mystery Shrouds Fort Mountain
The trail to the north of this site leads to the mysterious and prehistoric wall of loose rocks from which Fort Mountain takes its name. Many generations of explorers, archaeologists, geologists, historians and sight-seers have wondered about the identity of the unknown builders and the purpose of their handiwork. From the brink of a cliff on the east side of the mountain, the wall extends 885 feet to another precipice on the west side. Its highest parts measure about seven feet but . . . — Map (db m46359) HM
Hawaii (Hawaii County), Kawaihae — Pu'ukohola HeiauA Sacred Place Since Prehistoric Times
A heiau (temple) at Pu’ukohola was built long before Kamehameha started construction on the heiau that you see. This showed great vision and strategy on the part of the kahuna (priests). The heiau was physically very prominent and imposing on the landscape, adding to its spiritual power. Only the male kahuna (priests), male ali’i (chiefs) and other royalty were allowed to enter the heiau. Women of all status were forbidden entry into the heiau proper. The structure was designed so that . . . — Map (db m71886) HM
Hawaii (Hawaii County), Keauhou — Hale Mua
This archaeological site has been identified as a men's house associated with a person of chiefly rank who resided at the Lonoikamakahiki Residence. Hydration-Rind dating performed by the Bishop Museum indicated that the major portion of this site was constructed in pre-historic times over a period of 1550 to 1630 AD. Evidence that supports the identification as a men's house is the architectural construction of this site, which is similar to other known men's houses elsewhere in the . . . — Map (db m39410) HM
Hawaii (Hawaii County), Keauhou — Inikiwai Ku'ula Heiau
This archaeological site is known as the Inikiwai Heiau. It is sometimes known as the Pahe'ehe'e Ku'ula. Hawaiian Fishermen built these shrines on promontories along the seashore or near ponds and streams. These shrines are a place for prayer and offerings to the fish god Ku'ula or the fisherman's personal family gods ('Aumakua). Ku'ula was the most prominent god of fishing. His wife, Hina, and son Aiai, were also fishing gods. The shrine itself is also called a Ku'ula. Fishermen . . . — Map (db m39305) HM
Hawaii (Hawaii County), Keauhou — Lonoikamakahiki Residence
This archaeological site is known as the Lonoikamakahiki Residence. It is believed that during different periods of time, four great Hawaiian kings lived at this site. These kings were Umi, Lonoikamakahiki, Kalaniopuu, and Kamehameha I. This residence is believed to have been originally built by Umi. Umi was the son of Liloa who was a superior chief of the entire island of Hawaii who lived in the 15th century. Liloa and Umi were direct descendants of . . . — Map (db m39409) HM
Hawaii (Hawaii County), Waikoloa Village — The Waikoloa Petroglyph Field
Before you lies one of the major concentrations of ancient rock carvings in the Hawaiian Islands. Boundaries were not crossed casually in old Hawaii, and the thousands of surface carvings here, just north of the border between the ancient kingdoms of Kohala and Kona, suggest that many may have a religious or commemorative meaning to the event of crossing that border. Groups waiting for permission to cross, or armies poised to defend the border or attack it, made simple encampments using . . . — Map (db m4247) HM
Hawaii (Kauai County), Kawaihae — Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site
Welcome to Pu’ukohola Heiau, one of the most famous heiau (temples) in the Hawaiian Islands. This heiau is an integral component of the traditional Hawaiian social, political, and religious systems, and a significant place in the history of King Kamehameha I, who brought the Hawaiian Islands together under one rule. Pu’ukohola Heiau is a National Historic Site administered by the National Park Service and held in stewardship for the common benefit for Hawaiian people, for people of the . . . — Map (db m71874) HM
Indiana (Allen County), Fort Wayne — Fort Wayne ~ Fort Dearborn Trail
An ancient Indian trail, through Pottawattomie country, variably called the Dragoon, White Pigeon, Great Northwestern and Fort Dearborn Road. After 1795 used for mail delivery between Fort Wayne and Fort Dearborn. Captain Wells, Wayne spy, was slain along this route. — Map (db m20782) HM
Indiana (Boone County), Thorntown — 06.1961.1 — Indian CemeteryEel River Tribe of Miamis
Ka-wi-a-ki-un-gi Village "Place of Thorns" (Thorntown) was center of 64, 000 acre Thorntown Indian Reserve. Granted to Eel River Miamis in 1818, ceded to U.S. in 1828. — Map (db m21352) HM
Indiana (Putnam County), Greencastle — The Ancient Peoples Who Once Walked Here
We seldom pause to think of the peoples who long ago (some say 13,000 B.C. - 8,000 B. C.) Moved back and forth across this land. We know nothing, about these “Old Ones” and their times, they left no traces visible to us. They are known to archaeologists as the Paleo-Indians. Later, another wave of migration flowed across the centuries. The people of the Woodland Culture were here by 1,000 B.C. Those of the Mississippian Culture were here (900 A.D.) Before Columbus discovered . . . — Map (db m56415) HM
Indiana (Warren County), Williamsport — The Trail of Death
In 1838 a band of over 800 Potawatomi Indians were forcibly removed from their homeland in Northern Indiana and marched to Eastern Kansas. Many died along the trail during the two month trek. This mournful caravan traveled this road on September 14, 1838 and camped near Williamsport. — Map (db m9307) HM
Iowa (Allamakee County), Harper Ferry — The Mystery of the MoundsEffigy Mounds National Monument — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior
In 1766, English and French Canadian traders wintered near this site. They must have puzzled over these strange earthen shapes-or others even nearer their cabin. The traders could not have known that the humble grave markers were vestiges of a prehistoric mound-building culture which spread across most of eastern North America 1,000 years before Christ. Discovery of larger mounds in Ohio in the late 1700’s led some historians to claim the “Mound Builders” were remnants of Old . . . — Map (db m61987) HM
Kansas (Scott County), Scott State Park — El Cuartelejo Archeology
In 1899, when Prof. H. T. Martin of the University of Kansas made the first archeological excavations of El Cuartelejo, most of the lower part of the original stone work was still in place, as shown in this photograph. Evidences of several other buildings about 100 yards south and 25 yards north were also reported. Later archeological work was carried out by the Smithsonian Institution in 1939, Northern Illinois University in 1965 and the Kansas State Historical Society in 1970. These . . . — Map (db m65975) HM
Kentucky (Ballard County), Wickliffe — Burial Mound(Mound C)
Native American Indian of the Mississippian culture were buried in this cemetery mound sometime in the A.D. 1200s. First excavated in 1932 by owner Col. Fain King, the mound was referred to as “Mound C”. A building was constructed over the exposed burials and placed on display for many decades. In 1991, the remains were taken from public view out of respect to native American Indians, and to be in compliance with federal laws that protect Indian burial mounds. Plastic replicas of . . . — Map (db m58870) HM
Kentucky (Ballard County), Wickliffe — Ceremonial Mound
Excavations have shown that building stood on several earlier levels of this mound. We do not know how big those buildings were. This structure is approximately the size of the posthole pattern in the architecture building (Mound B) — Map (db m58872) HM
Kentucky (Ballard County), Wickliffe — King Mounds"Ancient Buried City"
Site of an ancient religious and commercial center of the Mound Builder. Approximately one thousand years old, situated on the only high ground at the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. Tombs, temples, altars, jewels, dwellings, tools, etcetera, were uncovered. Excavations started October 2, 1932. For education and posterity. — Map (db m58869) HM
Kentucky (Ballard County), Wickliffe — Welcome to Wickliffe MoundsState Historic Site
Nearly one thousand years ago, this village was home for Native Americans of the prehistoric Mississippian culture. Peaceful farmers, these mound building Indians lived throughout the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys. Exhibits at Wicklffe Mounds museum interpret the culture of the Mississippian people and the scientific discipline of archaeology. Research continues to provide important information about this archaeological site and its history. Operated by the Kentucky Department of Parks, . . . — Map (db m58873) HM
Louisiana (Orleans Parish), New Orleans — Congo Square
Congo Square is in the “vicinity” of a spot which Houmas Indians used before the arrival of the French for celebrating their annual corn harvest and was considered sacred ground. The gathering of enslaved African vendors in Congo Square originated as early as the late 1740's during Louisiana’s French colonial period and continued during the Spanish colonial era as one of the city’s public markets. By 1803 Congo Square had become famous for the gathering of enslaved Africans who . . . — Map (db m20954) HM
Maryland (Prince George's County), Accokeek — First People of the PotomacPiscataway Park
When Europeans first arrived on the shores of North America, they found a continent inhabited by perhaps tens of millions of people! These people had arrived more than 10,000 years earlier, and through many generations had created complex societies, formed viable political systems, built monumental structures in the Mississippi River valley, and farmed the land long the Potomac River. The Piscataway people have lived in southern Maryland for close to a thousand years. Their language and . . . — Map (db m8560) HM
Massachusetts (Franklin County), Hawley — First Church of Hawley
Site of the First Church of Hawley Erected 1793 Reverend Jonathan Grout 1st Pastor This memorial placed by the sons and daughters of Hawley August 10, 1935 — Map (db m25876) HM
Michigan (Macomb County), Sterling Heights — S0309 — Holcombe Beach
Near this site in 1961 archaeologists from the Aboriginal Research Club and the University of Michigan uncovered evidence of an early Paleo-Indian settlement. Here about 11,000 years ago these first prehistoric dwellers in the Great Lakes region inhabited a lake shore. Excavations of artifacts and bones reveal that for food the Paleo-Indians hunted Barren Ground caribou, a species suited to the tundra-like terrain of that era. As their environment changed, these Indians were forced to adapt to . . . — Map (db m34227) HM
Minnesota (Big Stone County), Brown Valley — Browns Valley Man
On October 9, 1933, William H. Jensen, an amateur archaeologist, uncovered the badly broken skeleton of a man in a gravel pit on the plateau visible about ½ mile south of this marker. The plateau was formed as an island in the ancient River Warren, an outlet of Glacial Lake Agassiz. From flint spear points of the parallel-flaked type found in the grave and from the surrounding geological evidence, University of Minnesota archaeologists estimated that the burial dated to about 6000 B.C. . . . — Map (db m70958) HM
Mississippi (Warren County), Vicksburg — Old Natchez District
Ceded by Choctaws & Chickasaws in Fort Adams Treaty, 1801, confirming earlier British treaty. Contained most of present Warren, Jefferson, Claiborn, Adams, Franklin, Wilkinson & Amite counties. — Map (db m72185) HM
Missouri (Vernon County), Fair Haven — Archaeology
The main source for information about the Osage Indians' daily life is in the ground beneath us. Like pages of a book, archaeology can reveal stories about who the people were and how they lived. Information is revealed not only by the artifacts but also by its relationship with other things. For example, finding a single projectile point gives archaeologists a certain amount of information. But its presence among projectile points and chert waste in a small area tells archaeologists . . . — Map (db m61399) HM
Nevada (Churchill County), Lovelock — 147 — A Home of Early Man
Stretching before you are two vast sinks, terminal areas of the Humboldt and Carson River drainage systems. The marshey remnant of Lake Lahontan, between you and the distant Humboldt Range, served as a life sustaining resource of wildlife for prehistoric man who lived by its shores. Generations occupied caves located on the lower slopes of the distant range. Scientific archeological excavation reveals that Lovelock and Ocala caves served as homes to man from 2,000 B.C. to about 1840 A.D. . . . — Map (db m67352) HM
Nevada (Lander County), Austin — 136 — Toquima Cave
East of the summit, north of the highway, and under a basalt flow lies Toquima Cave. Red, white, and yellow aboriginal drawings (pictographs) decorate its walls. Usually located near springs, as here, and on migratory big game trails, painted or pecked petroglyphs are associated with the food gathering localities of Nevada's prehistoric inhabitants. There are no known specific meanings attached to the particular design elements. Presumably, these people created the designs as ritual . . . — Map (db m62126) HM
New Mexico (San Juan County), Aztec — "For the Enlightenment of the Nation"Aztec Ruins National Monument
Working from his house and publishing through the American Natural History Museum, Earl Morris intrigued the nation with his findings at Aztec Ruins. In 1923 the site Morris had known since boyhood was preserved as a national monument “for the enlightenment and culture of the nation” by President Warren G. Harding. — Map (db m71078) HM
New Mexico (San Juan County), Aztec — Aztec Ruins National Monument
Through the collective recognition of the community of nations expressed within the principles of the convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage Aztec Ruins National Monument has been designated an outlier of Chaco Culture National Historical Park. World Heritage Site and joins a select list of protected areas around the world whose outstanding natural and cultural resources form the common inheritance of all mankind — Map (db m71077) HM
New Mexico (Taos County), Taos — Wheeler Peak13,161 Feet Above Sea Level — Highest Point in New Mexico
Named in honor of Major George Montague Wheeler (1832-1909) who for ten years led a party of surveyors and Naturalists collecting geologic, biologic, planimetric, and topographic data in New Mexico and six other southwestern states. — Map (db m50743) HM
New York (Albany County), Cohoes — The Cohoes Mastodont
The Cohoes Mastodont was discovered during the excavation for Harmony Mill #3 in 1866. The mill is sometimes referred to as the "Mastodon Mill" for this reason. When all the bones were recovered, they were kept at the Harmony Mills Office on exhibit, where they were seen by hundreds of people. The discovery was a nationwide sensation, generating considerable press coverage and controversy. In 1867, the skeleton was transferred to state ownership and exhibited in the State Cabinet of Natural . . . — Map (db m41622) HM
New York (Kings County), New York — Early North American Colonist Remains
Beneath this site lie the remains of seven individuals believed to be early North American born colonists. The remains dated to the late Eighteenth to early Nineteenth Century were discovered approximately 100 feet Southwest of here during underground utility work in June 1994. Following archaeological study, the remains were reinterred December 12, 1995. — Map (db m24331) HM
New York (New York County), New York City — "Sankofa"African Burial Ground National Monument
[On the marker is the Adinkra symbol "Sankofa," a symbol for the importance of learning from the past] For all those who were lost,         For all those who were stolen, For all those who were left behind,         For all those who were not forgotten. — Map (db m13323) HM
New York (Niagara County), Lewiston — Lower Landing Archeological District — National Historic Landmark
Lower Landing Archeological District has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America The archeological remains of Joncaire's Trading Post (1719-1741) and other archeological resources document inter-cultural relations at this key point within the colonial Niagara Historic District. 1998 National Park Service United States . . . — Map (db m66332) HM
New York (Onondaga County), Cardiff — Cardiff Giant
Disinterred near this village on Oct. 16, 1869. Represented as a petrified prehistoric man, it was subsequently proved a hoax. — Map (db m40055) HM
New York (Onondaga County), Cardiff — The Cardiff Giant
Discovered here October 16, 1869. It was proved a hoax, one of the greatest public deceptions in American history. — Map (db m40056) HM
North Carolina (Alamance County), Burlington — G 33 — Trading Path
Colonial trading route, dating from 17th century, from Petersburg, Virginia, to Catawba and Waxhaw Indians in Carolina, passed nearby. — Map (db m28700) HM
North Carolina (Alamance County), Mebane — G 34 — Trading Path
Colonial trading route, dating from 17th century, from Petersburg, Virginia, to the Catawba and Waxhaw Indians in Carolina, passed nearby. — Map (db m28822) HM
North Carolina (Montgomery County), Mount Gilead — Burial Huts at Town Creek
You are standing in a reconstruction of a burial hut built in this location over six hundred years ago. Its size and shape are based on evidence gained through scientific archaeological excavation. The outer walls are made of upright posts covered with wattle and daub. The roof is made of poles lashed together and covered with straw thatching on the outside and river cane on the inside. A small central hearth provides light and warmth for visitors to the burial hut. Similar structures, perhaps . . . — Map (db m37203) HM
North Carolina (Montgomery County), Mount Gilead — Preservation and the Archaeological Record
Organic materials, including the human body, decompose when buried in the ground. Clothing made of animal skins or hides does not survive after many years of burial. Likewise, most pigments used to paint the body do not survive. Foodstuffs placed in ceramic pots, gourd containers, or shell cups, also disappear except for microscopic or chemical evidence. Therefore while archaeologists are extremely careful to recover all traces of organic materials, interpretation of these burial practices is based largely on tradition and historical research. — Map (db m37214) HM
North Carolina (Montgomery County), Mount Gilead — Town Creek Indian Mound
Has been designed a Registered National Historic Landmark Under the provisions of the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935 This site possesses exceptional value In commemorating and illustrating The history of the United States U.S. Department of the Interior National Park Service 1964 — Map (db m37201) HM
Ohio (Erie County), Kelley's Island — Inscription Rock
Between three and four hundred years ago, Ohio pre-historic Indians, believed to be of the Erie tribe, pecked numerous inscriptions or pictographs on the top surface of this large native limestone rock. The figures, now nearly obliterated by the elements, measured and drawn in detail by Captain Seth Eastman, United States Army, in 1850. This relief of the Inscription Rock was made from the original Eastman drawing. Scale is approximately 1 to 15. The meanings of the pictographs are not known. . . . — Map (db m28009) HM
Ohio (Franklin County), Worthington — 36-25 — Jeffers Mound
Archaeologists believe that this prehistoric mound, part of a complex of earthworks, was used for rituals by the Hopewell people and was probably built between 100 BC and 400 AD. Note the painted post tops marking the Hopewell pole house footprint. The mound is recorded on the National Register of Historic Places and was given to the Worthington Historical Society in 1974 in memory of Herman Plesenton Jeffers. — Map (db m12756) HM
Ohio (Hocking County), South Bloomingville — 3-37 — Salt and Hunting Trails
Modern roads often have their precedents in much older thoroughfares. Two ancient paths once converged near this point. As late as the 1700s, the Salt Trail guided Native Americans from the upper Scioto Valley plains past Cantwell Cliffs, Cedar Falls, and Ash Cave to the salt springs in present-day Jackson County to obtain this precious commodity. The alignment of this path parallels State Route 56 from South Bloomingville and then turns southward along Narrows Road through the Salt Creek . . . — Map (db m24765) HM
Ohio (Jackson County), Leo — Leo Petroglyph
On the flat surface of this rock is one of the finest examples of prehistoric Indian petroglyphs or craved writings in Ohio. These figures are carved on an exposed portion of the black Hand Sandstone bedrock which underlies much of east-central Ohio. The meaning of the petroglyphs cannot be determined but it is thought that they are either tribal symbols or depict activities in the history of the Indian group. Among the inscriptions at least a fish, a bird, an unidentified animal and three . . . — Map (db m20858) HM
Ohio (Licking County), Glenford — Flint Ridge
Flint Ridge is a chain of long, narrow hills extending from a few miles east of Newark almost to Zanesville, a distance of more than twenty miles. The surface of these hills is underlain with an irregular layer of flint, which may be only a few inches or several feet in thickness and varies greatly in color and texture. In many places along this ridge the soil has been eroded revealing the underlying flint. You are standing on one of these outcroppings. Flint is formed by a geologic . . . — Map (db m12958) HM
Ohio (Lucas County), Toledo — A Prehistoric Fort
A Prehistoric Fort consisting of earthen walls accompanied by moats, formerly occupied this site. The walls, three to four feet high, probably were surmounted by palisades which together with the steep river banks, rendered the fort fairly secure from attack by enemies. The fortification probably pertained to the Erie Nation of Indians, living in northern Ohio prior to 1655. The unobstructed view of the river in either direction enabled defenders of the fort to guard against surprise attack by enemy canoemen…. — Map (db m25860) HM
Ohio (Ross County), Chillicothe — A Flourishing Culture
On Mordecai Hopewell's Ohio farm archeologists excavated Indian mounds in 1891 and found copper ornaments, stone tools, effigy pipes, obsidian spear points, ornamented bear teeth, shark teeth, intricately carved bones, mica cutouts, and much more. From this astounding find, archeologists later defined an American Indian culture they named the Hopewell that lived 2,200 to 1,500 years ago. The Hopewell were not the first American Indians to build mounds and earthworks, nor were they the only . . . — Map (db m20999) HM
Ohio (Ross County), Chillicothe — A Scared Purpose
Some 2,000 years ago the Mound City Group contained the highest density of mounds of any of the Hopewell earthworks, 24 in a 13-acre area. Today 22 can be counted. One of the missing mounds (Mound 15) is present in outline only, marked by the postholes of a ceremonial building that predates the mound. The other mound was excavated over a century ago and its precise location is unknown. We don't know what the Hopewell called the site, only that they used it in a purposeful manner-for . . . — Map (db m20839) HM
Ohio (Ross County), Chillicothe — Ancient Monuments
When Cleopatra, Julius Caesar, and Jesus lived, the Hopewell culture built and used Mound City Group. We do not know what the Hopewell called this sacred place, but early archeologists named it for the great number of mounds found here. In 1846 Ephraim Squier and Edwin Davis, pioneers of American archeology from Chillicothe, excavated several of the mounds. Their investigation greatly increased our knowledge of the Hopewell culture, but they concluded the mounds "were places of sacrifice." This . . . — Map (db m21023) HM
Ohio (Ross County), Chillicothe — Effigy Pipes
Although small and rather ordinary, this mound (Mound 8) contained a remarkable find. Nearly 200 pipes-mostly broken-were discovered here. Skillfully carved from stone, the pipes faithfully detailed human heads and indigenous animals. The pipe bowls sculpted in human effigies give us impressions of Hopewell hairstyles, headdresses, and facial tattooing. The animal effigies represent the abundant wildlife found in the Hopewell's world. Some archeologists think that the pipes were mainly . . . — Map (db m20994) HM
Ohio (Ross County), Chillicothe — Mica Splendor
With the building of Camp Sherman, the army leveled this mound-Mound 13-to three feet above ground and built a barrack over it. In 1920 Ohio archeologists led by William Mills excavated the mound and were astonished to uncover the cremated remains of 20 burials. Some were on raised platforms with an array of usual objects. A surprise find here was a raised-rectangular grave covered with sheets of mica, an exotic mineral not found in Ohio. Atop the mica were cremated remains of four people. . . . — Map (db m20996) HM
Oklahoma (Tulsa County), Tulsa — Creek Nation Council Oak Memorial
Fire is a revered element of many sacred rituals of the Mvskoke (Muscogee Creek People). The sacred fire represents the divine masculine of the "Epofvnkv" (the Creator) to which all things are connected. The sacred fires were integral to the religious, political and social systems long before the first European contact. The ashes of our ceremonial fires from each of the tribal towns were carried over the long march to be rekindled here. The sacred fires are built with logs pointing to . . . — Map (db m68043) HM
Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), McKees Rocks — McKees Rocks Mound
Largest Native American burial mound in Western Pennsylvania (16 feet high & 85 feet wide). It was hand-built by the Adena people between 200 BC and 100 AD and later used by the Hopewell people. Late 19th century excavations uncovered 33 skeletons and artifacts made of stone, copper, and shells. — Map (db m40899) HM
Pennsylvania (Beaver County), Beaver — Fort McIntoshYou Are Here
Much forged iron was found near this site, suggesting it was the location of the blacksmith or armorer's shop. The top edge of the slope, now greatly eroded, was much wider in 1778, and would have accommodated the shop and barracks, as well as the bastion at the southwest corner, only part of which is visible. — Map (db m44753) HM
Pennsylvania (Beaver County), Beaver — Fort McIntoshYou Are Here
Visible here are remains of stone fireplace hearths and a portion of the original footer for the south wall of the fort. Artifacts found here included USA buttons and artillery projectiles, suggesting this may have been officers' quarters and barracks for the artillery company of the 1st American Regiment in 1785. — Map (db m44886) HM
Pennsylvania (Beaver County), Beaver — Fort McIntoshYou Are Here
The size and shape of the fort was confirmed by the angle of the nearby foundation wall, which matches the opposite wall on the west side. The fort was very large and well built, constructed of square - hewn logs laid horizontally on stone foundations, with the outer walls formed partly by the barracks and other buildings on the perimeter. — Map (db m44888) HM
Pennsylvania (Bucks County), Bristol — Replica of the Spanish Garitas
This monument is a replica of the Spanish Garitas, or guardhouses, that lined the forts of San Juan, Puerto Rico, and is dedicated to the Puerto Rican people who have made their homes in Bristol. In March of 1509 a ship carrying Juan Ponce de Leon arrived in San Juan. With him was the West African Juan Garrido. They landed and were met by Agueybana chief Taino. Briefly there was harmony. The mixing of cultures that form Puerto Rico had begun. En Marzo de . . . — Map (db m31315) HM
Pennsylvania (Bucks County), Doylestown — Margaret Mead(1901 - 1978)
The world-renowned anthropologist and writer lived in this house and graduated in 1918 from Doylestown High School. Among her most famous works are “Coming of Age in Samoa” (1928) and “Male and Female” (1949). — Map (db m22319) HM
Tennessee (Madison County), Pinson — 4D 12 — Pinson Mounds
Built between 1 and 500 A.D. by prehistoric Indians, this complex of over a dozen mounds contains the oldest flat-topped, ceremonial mounds in America. Religious ceremonies were conducted on the tops of these mounds, the tallest of which is over 70 feet high. Several smaller burial mounds and a circular earthwork are also present. The site was occupied only on ceremonial occasions. — Map (db m52565) HM
Texas (Bexar County), Helotes — Helotes
According to archeologists, human occupation of the Helotes area dates to about 7000 years before present, when small bands of Nomadic Indians who migrated seasonally in search of food and game camped in this vicinity. Early Texas Pioneer John M. Ross acquired title to the land here in 1836, purchasing rights to a Republic of Texas land grant from Almazon Huston, Quartermaster General of the Republic of Texas Army. In 1852 Ross sold the property to Thomas Devine and Francis Giraud, who . . . — Map (db m46922) HM
Texas (Brewster County), Big Bend National Park — Comanche Trail
You are now traveling the Comanche Trail blazed by Comanche Indians, en route from the western plains to Mexico, and traveled later by emigrants and soldiers. It extended south from the Horse Head Crossing of the Pecos by Comanche Springs (Fort Stockton) to the Rio Grande. — Map (db m53931) HM
Texas (Brewster County), Big Bend National Park — Rock Art at Hot Springs
When J.O. Langford homesteaded this section in 1909, he was moving into an area that had long been inhabited by native Americans. Walk this trail to view pictograph and petroglyphs created by prehistoric people hundreds or even thousands of years ago. Do not touch any surfaces containing rock art: the natural oils on your hands will cause the images to decay. Pictographs are images painted onto rock. Petroglyphs are images carved or pecked into rock. Numerous red pictographs . . . — Map (db m53936) HM
Texas (Brewster County), Marathon — Double Mills
A natural watering place in prehistoric time, as evidenced by artifacts found here. Used later by Indians and Spaniards on roads from northern Mexico. As Maravillas Creek developed from a draw into water channel, old water hole vanished. About 1900 a rancher, George Miller, dug two wells and put up twin windmills. After that site was called Double Mills. Became campsite for ranchers driving cattle and horses from Mexico or the Chisos Mountains to the railroad at Marathon. Also for wagon . . . — Map (db m53933) HM
Texas (Cherokee County), Alto — Mound Prairie
Bulging out of the earth a few yards form this point, three prehistoric Indian mounds interrupt the prevailing flat terrain. Long overgrown with grass, the mounds and adjacent village (covering about 100 acres) constitute one of the major aboriginal sites in North America. From about 500 to 1100 A.D., Caddoan Indians inhabited the village, which lay near the southwest edge of a great mound-building culture. Called ""Mississippian,"" this culture once flourished throughout the present eastern . . . — Map (db m21202) HM
Texas (Cherokee County), Alto — Site of Neches Indian Village
Here at the opening of the 18th century stood a village of the Neches Indians. Their name was given to the river and later to a mission, San Francisco De Los Neches, established near by. With the Cherokees, the Neches Indians were expelled from Texas in 1839. — Map (db m27041) HM
Texas (Culberson County), Pine Springs — 7930 — Guadalupe Peak
Guadalupe Peak, Texas' highest mountain at 8,749 feet above see level, dominates one of the most scenic and least-known areas of the state. It lies behind and to the right of El Capitan (8,078 feet), the sheer wall that rises more than 3,000 feet above this spot to mark the south end of the Guadalupe Range. The starkness of the mountainside belies the lushness that the Guadalupes conceal. Tucked away in their inner folds are watered canyons shaded by bigtooth maples, velvet ash, junipers and . . . — Map (db m61490) HM
Texas (De Witt County), Hochheim — 1126 — Cuero I Archeological District
Extending 45 miles along the Guadalupe River Basin, Cuero I Archeological District was created to define and preserve cultural resources threatened by a proposed reservoir. Archeological investigation in 1972-73 revealed 352 significant prehistoric and historic sites spanning 9,000 years of human occupancy. The remains include the camps of prehistoric nomads and of historic Indians such as Tonkawas and Comanches. Other sites mark early Anglo-American settlement, which began with the colonizing efforts of Green DeWitt in the 1820s and 30s. — Map (db m61047) HM
Texas (Floyd County), Floydada — Coronado in Blanco Canyon
From 1540 to 1542, Francisco Vazquez de Coronado led the first organized European exploration of the southwest in search of the fabled "cities of gold." With a company of more than a thousand men and women and thousands of horses and mules, cattle and sheep, Coronado trekked north from Culiacan, Mexico, through land that became Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas. The exact route along which their Indian guides led the . . . — Map (db m25292) HM
Texas (Harris County), Nassau Bay — 10678 — Harris County Boys' School Archeological Site
In this vicinity lies evidence of a prehistoric Indian campsite and burial ground that takes its current name from the property on which it resided at the time of its discovery. The archeological site is classified as a shell midden site because of the presence of a midden, or refuse pile, of oyster and rangia clam shell. The midden collected as the result of early inhabitants consuming shellfish and leaving the empty shells where they ate, which was usually at or near their campsite. . . . — Map (db m50124) HM
Texas (Hutchinson County), Fritch — 12095 — Antelope Creek Ruins
Plains Village Native Americans occupied a series of interconnected rock dwellings near here from about 1200-1500. Called "Texas' first apartment house," the ruins have been the focus of numerous excavations through the years. Made of native dolomite, the rock and slab dwellings averaged about 12 feet by 15 feet in size with a single opening, a long crawlway, on the east side. Other rooms contained a central hearth under four roof-support posts, while smaller rooms were thought to be . . . — Map (db m71822) HM
Texas (Kendall County), Boerne — Cascade Cavern
Probably formed during the Pleistocene epoch by the underground passage of the Cibolo River, Cascade Cavern presents an interesting mix of geological, archeological,and historical features. It exhibits a combination of the joint and the dip and strike types of caverns, and is the home of a number of unusual animals, including cliff and leopard frogs, Mexican brown bats, and Cascade Cavern salamanders. Archeological evidence uncovered near the cave indicates the presence of two Indian . . . — Map (db m46924) HM
Texas (Nacogdoches County), Nacogdoches — Ancient Mound
Mound Street got its name in the 18th century from mounds which lined it from Main to King Street. These were built by prehistoric Indians. Only this one remains. Pottery from a demolished mound that measured 150 by 75 feet is preserved in Old Stone Fort, Stephen F. Austin State College. — Map (db m21252) HM
Texas (Walker County), Huntsville — The Bedias Indians
The Bedias (Bidai, Bedai) Indians, a small southeastern Texas tribe, were probably the earliest inhabitants of the Walker County region. "Bidai" is thought to derive from a Caddo word meaning "brushwood". The peaceful Bedias lived in scattered villages and subsisted by hunting, fishing, cultivating maize and trading with other Indians and early settlers. As their numbers dwindled, they were assimilated into other cultures of the area. "The Source" Sculpture created by: Monica A. Taylor and Lawrence T. Zink — Map (db m50171) HM
Texas (Williamson County), Cedar Park — 13894 — Wilson-Leonard Brushy Creek Burial Site
In this vicinity is a prehistoric archeological site discovered in 1973 by a team of Texas Highway Department archeologists. Scientific excavations have produced evidence that the site was a major camping ground for prehistoric peoples, particularly during the Archaic Period (2,000 – 8,000 years ago). More than 150 fireplaces, numerous projectile Plainview points, and several types of spear points have been uncovered. In 1982, archeologists discovered the skeleton of a human female, . . . — Map (db m69215) HM
Texas (Winkler County), Kermit — Blue MountainElevation 3,500 ft.
Projection of Staked Plains. Winkler County's highest point. Lookout and landmark for red men and whites. Indians found here fuel, sheltering caves and water. Left artifacts and 138 mortar holes for grinding food. On cave walls bragged of their prowess as horse wranglers, hunters, fishermen by using crushed stone paints to make pictographs 4 inches high. Also gave story of a fight between two lizards. A directional sign told of a water-hole 9 days by trail to the northeast. . . . — Map (db m21692) HM
Utah (San Juan County), Blanding — Hovenweep National Mounument
Welcome to “Hovenweep.” It is a Paiute and Ute word meaning “deserted valley.” It was the name given this extraordinary place by pioneer photographer William H. Jackson, who visited here in 1874. It’s an apt description. As you scan the vast and lonely expanse surrounding you, it’s hard to imagine these solitary canyons once echoed with the cries and laughter of hundreds of men, women and children. Established as a National Monument in 1923, Hovenweep preserves . . . — Map (db m71464) HM
Utah (San Juan County), Blanding — The Square Tower GroupHovenweep National Monument
Over 700 years ago, Little Ruin Canyon was the scene of a sizable ancestral Pueblo community. Sustained by a small spring at the head of the canyon and rainwater held behind check dams on the mesa top, they flourished in what we would consider a harsh environment. (Inscription under the photos in the lower left) Hovenweep Castle and Stonghold House. — Map (db m71468) HM
Utah (San Juan County), Monticello — Newspaper RockState Historical Monument
Newspaper Rock is a petroglyph panel etched in sandstone that records approximately 2,000 years of early man's activities. Prehistoric peoples, probably from the Archoic, Basketmaker, Fremont and Pueblo cultures, etched on the rock from B.C. to A.D.1300. In historic times, Utah and Navajo tribesmen, as well as Anglos, left their contributions. There are no known methods of dating rock art. Interpreting the figures on the rock, scholars are undecided as to their meaning or have yet to . . . — Map (db m4615) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Fertile Hunting Grounds For The IndiansOlde Wythe’s History Begins
Long before citizens of Hampton ever called Olde Wythe home, this area was used by the Kecoughtan Indians for hunting, fishing, and growing crops. The Kecoughtans were part of a loose confederation of the Algonquin whose chieftain was Powhatan. The Algonquin first lived on the Virginia peninsula over two thousand years ago. When the English laid anchor in Hampton Roads near the village of Kicotan in 1607, it was the peaceful Kecoughtan tribe who welcomed them before the settlers sailed on . . . — Map (db m33932) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Lumpkins JailArcheology Study Site
The grass and wood chips to your right mark the area of an archeological examination of the remnants of one of our nations most notorious slave jails: the Devil’s Half Acre ---- the place where run-away slaves were punished and large numbers of “surplus” slaves were collected for re-sale in the large markets of Charleston and New Orleans. The specific test site was a 15 foot deep pit dug near the center. It revealed two things: the foundation of a kitchen . . . — Map (db m40679) HM
Virginia (Caroline County), Bowling Green — Caroline County, Virginia
(front of marker) The first African-American slaves were brought to Caroline County around 1700. Few records were kept of their existence, except for their status and value as property and the occasional brush with the law. Many slaves of Caroline County were executed for their participation in slave uprisings or rebellions, while others were rewarded by their slave master for their loyalty and betrayal of their slave brothers and sisters. Slave labor cleared the vast wilderness . . . — Map (db m34350) HM
Virginia (Southampton County), Franklin — U 116 — The Hand Site
East of here near the Nottoway River stood a Late Woodland Indian settlement occupied intermittently circa A.D. 700 to 1650, and long claimed by the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway). Excavated in the 1960s, occupation phases included features such as a fortified town and burials. In an area flanked by Iroquoian Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) and Meherrin to the north- and southwest, and by Algonquian Weyanoke, Nansemond, and Chowanoke tribes to the northeast and south, the site shows influences from both . . . — Map (db m60635) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Boomer — Ancient Works
On a ridge between Armstrong and Loop creeks across the river are extensive prehistoric stone ruins whose walls are several miles long, and enclose a large area. Many of these stones are from the valley below the old wall. — Map (db m20820) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Found Underground
The ground around you hides the remains of the U.S. Armory at Harpers Ferry. Beneath the surface archeologists discovered walls, floors, pipes, and the base of a massive 90-foot chimney. As the team slowly and painstakingly excavated small pits throughout the site, the uncovered over 28,000 artifacts - some in almost pristine condition - providing a glimpse into the past. Artifacts found her include (clockwise): a bone-handled toothbrush, and apothecary's weight, a carved pipe bowl, a file . . . — Map (db m21124) HM
West Virginia (Kanawha County), St. Albans — St. Albans Archeological Site
Discovered in 1963 by Sam Kessell. Recognized as one of the oldest and deepest stratified sites of the Early Archaic period (8,000-10,000 BC). Artifacts recovered document early inhabitants who camped here along Kanawha River, were small hunter-gather groups with ancestral links to modern Native Americans. Site listed on National Register in 1974. — Map (db m34492) HM
Wisconsin (Dane County), Madison — Madison is an Indian mound capitalThe Madison Heritage Series
At least 887 earthen Indian mounds once dotted the land around lakes Mendota, Monona, Wingra, Waubesa, and Kegonsa—so many that archaeologist Charles E. Brown once suggested Madison be renamed Mound City. Most southern Wisconsin mounds were constructed between 2,800 and 900 years ago. At first Indians shaped them into cones, and later into animal, spirit, and linear forms. Often built on high ground near water, the mounds were burial sites and probably served other ceremonial purposes. . . . — Map (db m35551) HM
Wisconsin (Dane County), Monona — 384 — The Outlet Mound
The largest of nineteen conical, oval and linear mounds once located in this vicinity, the Outlet Mound was constructed as a burial place by Woodland Indians about 2,000 years ago. It was saved from destruction by the Wisconsin Archaeological Society and local citizens in 1944 and donated to the City of Monona. — Map (db m19958) HM
Wisconsin (Dane County), Shorewood Hills — Blackhawk Country Club Mound Group
the Blackhawk Country Club Mound Group in Shorewood Hills, Wisconsin is listed in the National Register of Historic Places — Map (db m57920) HM
Wisconsin (Kenosha County), Paris — 420 — Schaefer Mammoth Site
Over 12,000 years ago, Native Americans slaughtered a Northern Woolly Mammoth in a small lake near this site. Between 1992-93, the Kenosha Public Museum excavated the site and concluded that the woolly mammoth stood at 11 feet and weighed 14,000 pounds or 7 tons. This mammoth, or Ice Age elephant, lived among spruce trees and steppe-like vegetation during the Pleistocene glacial epoch. The Schaefer Mammoth Site is one of the oldest mammoth discoveries in the New World, definitively proving that . . . — Map (db m38569) HM
Wisconsin (Sauk County), Baraboo — Site 4 — Man Mound
This huge likeness of a man is thought to represent a powerful Indian God. The aborigines who made it may have been the Effigy Mound Builders. These Indians lived here about 1000 years ago. Nearly 900 of their earthworks have been found in Sauk County. They were often used for burials. Man Mound was first surveyed in 1859 by Wm. H. Canfield. The lower extremities were cut off by road construction before the park was established in 1908. Another Man Mound, near LaValle, was destroyed some years ago. — Map (db m57940) HM
Wisconsin (Waukesha County), Big Bend — 31-02 — Maney Ridge Prehistoric Effigy Mounds
On the ridge above this road and the Fox River lies a series of prehistoric earthworks. They represent visible remnants of both social and ritual behavior of one of Wisconsin’s unique prehistoric cultures, the Effigy Mound Indians. The conical mounds are from the Middle Woodlands time, circa 200 BC-700 AD. The effigy and linear mounds are representative of Late Woodlands time, circa 7900 AD – 1400 AD. Archaeological excavations reveal the use of some as burial and religious . . . — Map (db m43587) HM
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