“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”

Anthropology Historical Markers

460 markers matched your search criteria. The first 200 markers are listed. Next 260
Bottle Creek Site Marker in front of Baldwin County Courthouse. image, Click for more information
By Mark Hilton, January 14, 2017
Bottle Creek Site Marker in front of Baldwin County Courthouse.
Alabama (Baldwin County), Bay Minette — Bottle Creek Site
Bottle Creek Site has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses National Significance in Commemorating the History of the United States of America . . . — Map (db m100849) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Beloit — Cahawba
Site of Alabama's first permanent capital 1820-26. County seat Dallas County, 1820-66. Prison for Union soldiers during the War Between the States 1863-65. Indians were the first inhabitants over 4000 years ago. Their large fortified village could . . . — Map (db m75779) HM
Alaska (Denali Borough), Denali National Park — Ice Age HuntersThe Deadliest Predators
High above river valleys, at overlooks like this, Denali’s first human visitors watch for mammoth, giant bison, and caribou. Ridge tops made the best game launching platforms; herds tend to follow sheltered stream corridors. Hunters had to be . . . — Map (db m69724) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Hereford — Lehner Mammoth Kill Site
At this location in 1952, a large bone bed was discovered containing the remains of extinct mammoth, tapir, bison and horse. Found with the bones were the weapons and tools of the Indians who had killed and butchered these animals. The bones and . . . — Map (db m43633) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Gathering Place
]Panel 1:] Between 1100 and 1200, more people lived in this area than ever before, or since. Located along routes linking large populations to the northeast and south, villages here were well situated for trade. As people, goods, and ideas . . . — Map (db m60079) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Legacy of the Past
Box Canyon and Lomaki ruins are a short 15-minute walk from here, along the edges of ancient earthcracks. The 1/4-mile trail will take you back in time over 800 years to the remnants of this once-thriving community. You will see the few native . . . — Map (db m60114) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Village/Abandonment
A Village You are entering the “Citadel,” a ruin from the late 1100s. Research has not been completed so it is important that we leave things as they are. Will there be extra storage spaces found, possible evidence for the . . . — Map (db m60089) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Ancient Landscapes
Eight hundred years ago, a savannah-like grassland covered much of this high desert with abundant grasses. The residents would have collected and burned much of the nearby fuel, necessitating long walks to adjacent areas to gather wood. Sparse . . . — Map (db m60105) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Box Canyon Ruins
The Box Canyon ruins are typical of many pueblos found in this region. Early inhabitants constructed walls of nearby sandstone and limestone, and used local soils to cement the stones together. The flat roofs were built of timbers laid side-by-side, . . . — Map (db m60094) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Daily Life
Plaza An open area in the pueblo near the rim of the earthcrack is known as the plaza. In pueblos, the plaza was the center for many daily activities including grinding corn, making pottery, working obsidian into arrowheads, processing other . . . — Map (db m60110) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Dry Land Farming
Volcanic activity to the south produced giant fissures or earthcracks throughout the Wupatki area in the Kaibab Limestone. This formation covers most of the western half of Wupatki National Monument. The Sinagua and Anasazi Indians who inhabited . . . — Map (db m60098) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Sunset Crater Volcano
The distant San Francisco Peaks would have looked much like they do today. To the east, however, Sunset Crater Volcano would still have been belching black smoke and cinders when the Sinagua and Anasazi lived here. The thick layer of cinders over . . . — Map (db m60107) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — The Citadel / Natural Features
The Citadel It was a remarkable achievement, to use primitive mortar and local stones to build the walls above you straight up from the edge of the top of the rock. “The Citadel” is the modern name given to this ruin because . . . — Map (db m60087) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Wukoki
Wukoki, a modern Hopi word for “Big House” was once home for two or three prehistoric Indian families. The inhabitants are believed to have been of the Kayenta Anasazi culture, judging from the types of artifacts found during excavation . . . — Map (db m60078) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Tusayan Museum and Ruin
Cohonina and ancestral Pueblo (Kayenta Anasazi) people lived in this area in prehistoric time. The ancestral Puebloans built Tusayan about AD 1185. A visit to the museum and a short walk through the remains of the village will furnish a glimpse of . . . — Map (db m39631) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Tusayan Ruin Trail
Allow about 30 minutes to tour Tusayan Ruin. The 0.1 mile loop trail through the main ruin is paved and wheelchair-accessible; the side loop to a prehistoric farming site is not. Signs along the way explain the site's features. An interpretive . . . — Map (db m39633) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — "The Peaks"
They dominate the horizon, rising 12,633 feet (3851 m) to Arizona's highest point. Visible for miles from all directions, they stand guard over a land which has long sustained people in spirit and natural resources. All of the region's Native . . . — Map (db m41664) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Wupatki National Monument — The Blowhole
This blowhole - a crevice in the earth's crust that appears to breathe - is one of several found in the Wupatki area. It connects to an underground passage - size, depth, and complexity unknown - called an earthcrack. Earthcracks resulted from . . . — Map (db m41701) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Sandal TrailNavajo National Monument
Follow the easy one-mile (1.6 km) round-trip trail to a point overlooking Betatakin Ruin—multi-level cliff-village home to a community of 13th-century Anasazi farmers. On the way there and back, you’ll be walking through pygmy . . . — Map (db m71519) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — SweathouseNavajo National Monument
This miniature forked-stick hogan without a smoke hole is actually a highly effective bath — an ancient solution to the problem of keeping clean in a land where water is scarce. Here’s how it works: Stones are heated in a fire, then . . . — Map (db m71517) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Upside-down MountainNavajo National Monument
Hidden away in Tsegi Canyon’s wilderness of bare rock, sand, and sparse vegetation are surprising pockets of luxuriant growth. Betatakin Canyon—home to a village of prehistoric cliff-dwellings farmers—is one of these oases. Fir Canyon, . . . — Map (db m71514) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — Lifeline / Prehistoric Produce
Lifeline Beaver Creek has always been a major focus of life in the Verde Valley. Prehistoric Sinagua farmers constructed Montezuma Castle and other structures near the creek. They dug ditches to carry creek water to irrigate the fields of . . . — Map (db m40868) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — Macaw Pen Stone?
Could This Stone Be The Opening to a Macaw Pen? Where Did This Stone Come From? Who Used It? Why Is This Stone at Montezuma Castle? Did the Ancient Sinaguans Possibly Raise Macaws Here? In the 15th century, near modern-day Casa . . . — Map (db m40895) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — The Community
A farming community of perhaps 200 people prospered here for more than three centuries. The Castle was home to 35 or so of these people. Archeologists suggest they may have fled what is today the Flagstaff area due to overpopulation around A.D. . . . — Map (db m40840) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — The Neighborhood / Mysterious Departures
The Neighborhood You can see Montezuma Castle and Castle A from here. If you look closely at the Cliffside, you might spot other ledges and caves used by the Sinagua. The Sinagua people who made their homes here may have been a . . . — Map (db m40869) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — The People Next Door
Here’s another “castle” – this one called “A” by the archeologists who excavated it in the 1930s. Like neighboring Montezuma Castle, Castle A was occupied by Sinagua farmers between A.D. 1200 and 1450. However, with . . . — Map (db m40863) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — The Way Up / Construction Sequence
The Way Up How in the world do you build a structure large enough to house 35 people high up on a steep canyon wall? Sound impossible? Here’s how Montezuma Castle’s ingenious Sinagua farmers managed it. Construction Sequence 1. . . . — Map (db m40860) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — Welcome to The Castle
Pause a few moments to enjoy this view of Montezuma Castle. Don't you suppose it must have stopped the settlers and soldiers who first saw the cliff-dwelling over a century ago? The odd name came from a mistaken belief that the cliff-dwelling . . . — Map (db m40819) HM
California (Humboldt County), Orick — Madison Grant Forest and Elk RefugeDedicated to the Memory of Madison Grant — 1865-1937
Conservationist, author, anthropologist, a founder of the Save-the-Redwoods League.

This area of 1600 acres, habitat of the last surviving herd in California of Roosevelt Elk is established as a memorial by · De Forest Grant · John D. . . . — Map (db m32569) HM

California (Imperial County), Ocotillo — Jay C. von Werlhof
The Imperial Valley College Desert Museum represents the creative vision of noted archaeologist and anthropologist Jay Crawford von Werlhof (1923-2009) A prolific author, von Werlhof wrote many scholarly books and articles on the archaeology . . . — Map (db m82451) HM
California (Kern County), McKittick — Painted Rock
Rising above the Carrizo Plain is Painted Rock, an important cultural and spiritual site to California’s native peoples. Most of the pictographs, or painted images found on Painted Rock, are characteristic of the Chumash who lived on the Channel . . . — Map (db m52158) HM
California (Kern County), Tehachapi — 1054 — Tomo-Kahni
In the Kawaiisu language, tomo-kahni means winter village. The site's location between the coast and desert allowed the site occupants to hold an important place for trade between these areas and the southern Central Valley. The sacred rock art . . . — Map (db m92889) HM
California (Lassen County), Westwood — Paul BunyanThe Legend Lives On
Paul Bunyan has been the hero of lumberjack whopper tales that were handed down for generations in the camps of White Pine lumbermen in the north eastern forests of America. In 1913 the Walker family who owned the Red River Mill in Minnesota, moved . . . — Map (db m56687) HM
California (Mendocino County), Cleone — Harvesting the Shore
For thousands of years, the Cum-a-Lul Pa'Mu (Coastal Pomo) and neighboring Indian tribal groups have set up seasonal camps within a few hundred yards of this beach to gather the sea's valuable food resources. Fishing Pomo caught . . . — Map (db m96677) HM
California (Riverside County), Blythe — 101 — Giant Desert Figures
Times of origin and meaning of these giant figures, the largest 167 feet long, smallest 95 feet, remains a mystery. There are three figures, two of animals and a coiled serpent, and some interesting lines. [Panel #1] Blythe . . . — Map (db m50992) HM
California (Riverside County), Hemet — 104 — Pochea Indian Village Site
Pochea was one of cluster of Indian villages forming the very large settlement of Pahsitna which extended along the ridge east and west of Ramona Bowl. Pahsitnah was thriving when the Spanish first passed by in 1774. A tragic story tells of the . . . — Map (db m50668) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Goffs — 61 — Pah-Ute CreekFort Pah-Ute — Mojave Road
Pah-Ute Creek, which runs year around, attracted many Indian tribes, who used several Indian trails through this area. The first white man to visit Pah-Ute Creek was Fr. Francisco Garces in May of 1776. It was given it's name by Lt. A.W. Whipple . . . — Map (db m78577) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Lucerne Valley — 737 — Chimney Rock
Conflicts between Indians and white settlers over the rich lands of the San Bernardino Mountains culminated in The Battle at Chimney Rock on February 16, 1867. Although the Indians defended themselves fiercely, they were forced to retreat into the . . . — Map (db m63982) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Newberry-Baker — 16 — Jack and Ida Mitchell
Modern Pioneers, Miner and Geologist who helped to preserve these caverns — Map (db m78594) HM
California (Ventura County), Piru — 624 — Portolá Expedition
On August 11, 1769, the explorers and priests accompanying Portolá found a populous village of Piru Indians near this point. Carrying their bowstrings loose, the Indians offered necklaces of stones, in exchange for which Portolá presented them with . . . — Map (db m51034) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Cortez — Yucca House National Monument
Yucca House National Monument Dec. 19, 1919. A fine example of a valley pueblo being held by National Park Service — Map (db m71498) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde — Canyon BarriersMesa Verde National Park
Surrounded by deep canyons, villages here seem isolated, cut off from people on other mesas. Look closely at these cliffs and imagine hand and toe trails pecked into the sheer sandstone. These vertical trails were the Anasazi’s highways; steep . . . — Map (db m71206) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde — Oak Tree HouseMesa Verde National Park
Adapting to Alcoves To level the sloping alcove floor, the Anasazi filled in behind retaining walls. The altered floor not only supported rooms but also provided working space and a safe play area for children. Oak Tree House appears to . . . — Map (db m71209) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde — Pithouse LifeMesa Verde National Park
There is an enormous gap between identifying pithouse features—the hollows and scattered stones—and visualizing the inhabitants’ daily lives. Set in the four corner post holes, timbers supported a ceiling that was probably head-high. . . . — Map (db m71203) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde — Split-Level HistoryMesa Verde National Park
Mesa-top and Alcove Living Although the Puebloan used the cliff alcoves throughout the entire time they lived in Mesa Verde, the cliff dwellings themselves were not built until the final 75-100 years of occupation. For over 600 years these . . . — Map (db m71207) HM
Connecticut (Litchfield County), Barkhamsted — Barkhamsted Lighthouse VillageA Connecticut State Archaeological Preserve
Who Lived Here ? James Chaugham (a Native American who was, according to his granddaughter, a member of the Narragansett Tribe) and his wife, Molly (of European descent), lived in a village located here for fifty years, in what became Peoples . . . — Map (db m102323) HM
Connecticut (Litchfield County), Barkhamsted — Barkhamsted Lighthouse Village CemeteryA Connecticut State Archaeological Preserve
You are now looking into the Lighthouse Village cemetery. The unmarked, upright field stones designate the final resting places of many who lived in the community, including the founding couple, James Chaugham, a Native American, and Molly . . . — Map (db m102325) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — 18 — The Sage of AnacostiaAn East-of-the River View — Anacostia Heritage Trail
This imposing property once belonged to Anacostia’s most famous resident: Frederick Douglass. After escaping slavery as a young man, Douglass rose to become a distinguished abolitionist, writer, publisher, and orator. By the 1860s Douglass was one . . . — Map (db m88723) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Pleasant Plains — "Treat Me Refined"Lift Every Voice — Georgia Ave./Pleasant Plains Heritage Trail
The House at 3017 Sherman Avenue once was a boardinghouse for Howard University students. In 1923 a determined and talented young woman from the tiny town of Eatonville, Florida, lived here while earning an Associates Degree at Howard. In a short . . . — Map (db m65674) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — Colossal Head 4 (replica)Olmec Culture — San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Vera Cruz, 1200-900 B.C.E.
This portrait of an Olmec ruler is among 17 colossal heads known from one of the world’s great ancient civilizations. Without wheels or iron tools, the Olmec created spectacular monumental sculptures and ceremonial centers on Mexico’s Gulf Coast. . . . — Map (db m39628) HM
Florida (Brevard County), Cape Canaveral — F-857 — Carter-Fuller Mound Complex
Before modern construction a complex of six burial mounds occupied this location. They were built by the ancestors of the prehistoric Ais tribe, a group who occupied the Cape Canaveral area at the time of European contact. Based on pottery styles . . . — Map (db m101390) HM
Florida (Broward County), Fort Lauderdale — The Tequesta
The Tequesta Indians and their ancestors lived and traveled along the New River for at least 5000 years. The Tequesta were Native Americans that lived in Southeast Florida in an area that extended from Boca Raton to Key West encompassing the . . . — Map (db m100444) HM
Florida (Broward County), Pompano Beach — F-849 — Pompano Beach Indian Mound
Side One: The Pompano Beach Indian Mound is a prehistoric sand burial mound that was used by the Tequesta tribe and their ancestors for burial of their dead. Located nearby was their associated village and midden dating as far back as AD . . . — Map (db m100403) HM
Florida (Escambia County), Pensacola — F-871 — Emanuel Point Shipwrecks / Los Naufragios de Emanuel Point
Side 1 Emanuel Point Shipwrecks In August 1559, eleven ships under command of Don Tristan de Luna y Arellano sailed into Pensacola Bay, then called Ochuse, to establish a new colony for Spain. Intended to stake a claim on the . . . — Map (db m102003) HM
Florida (Escambia County), Pensacola — F-313 — Hawkshaw
(Side 1) The Hawkshaw site has supported prehistoric and historic occupations which span a period of nearly 2,000 years. It was inhabited around A.D. 150 by groups of Native Americans whom archaeologists call the Deptford Culture. Scientific . . . — Map (db m72238) HM
Florida (Flagler County), Palm Coast — F-529 — Mala Compra Plantation Historic Site
Joseph Martin Hernandez (1788-1857) purchased and worked Mala Compra Plantation, originally a Spanish land grant, from 1816 to 1836. The name Mala Compra means “bad bargain” or “bad purchase” in Spanish. It served as the . . . — Map (db m99955) HM
Florida (Hernando County), Bayport — F-788 — The Bayport Area Before Human Occupation/Bayport's First People
(side 1) The Bayport Area Before Human Occupation The fossilized remains of many prehistoric animals and plants are buried in the Bayport area. During the Eocene Period, 45 million years ago (MYA), the Gulf covered this region. . . . — Map (db m93296) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — Old Fort Brooke Municipal Parking Structure1982
On this site was located the first cemetery for Fort Brooke, a U.S. military post dating from 1824 to 1882. Seminole Indians, soldiers and civilian settlers buried here were excavated by archaeologists in 1980 prior to construction of the parking . . . — Map (db m44377) HM
Florida (Lee County), Fort Myers — People and Plants
The story of people and plants provides a continuous thread from the Calusa to early Estero Island settlers, and to the present and future generations. With all the great advances in science and technology, people still rely on natural resources to . . . — Map (db m90988) HM
Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — Brickell Park
The Brickell Family donated Brickell Park to Miami in 1921 as a preserve for the family mausoleum. Their remains are now in Woodlawn Cemetery. Brickell Park is one of the few parks connecting Brickell Avenue to the shoreline of Biscayne Bay. From . . . — Map (db m65647) HM
Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — Mary Brickell Park
The Tequesta Indians were the indigenous people of Miami prior to European contact. Mary Brickell Park encompasses a portion of what was the largest Tequesta village in southeast Florida. Archaeological evidence reveals that this site was in use . . . — Map (db m65648) HM
Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — Saving the Circle
The Miami Circle site would not exist today if it were not for the support of the community. Public outcry over the impending destruction of the Miami Circle led to additional archaeological research and preservation of the 2.2 acre parcel of . . . — Map (db m65471) HM
Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — The Miami Circle
On this spot of land at the mouth of the Miami River, a historic discovery shed new light on one of Florida's early peoples - the Tequesta. During the demolition of the Brickell Point apartments in 1998, archaeologists uncovered preshistoric . . . — Map (db m65644) HM
Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — The Miami Circle at Brickell Point
The Miami Circle at Brickell Point has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America. The Miami Circle is a 38-foot diameter ring of post . . . — Map (db m65646) HM
Florida (Miami-Dade County), Palmetto Bay — The Deering Estate at CutlerEstablished 1890
Listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1986, the Deering Estate at Cutler is a 444 acre environmental, archaeological, historical and architectural preserve owned by the State of Florida and managed by the Miami-Dade County Park . . . — Map (db m73439) HM
Florida (Okaloosa County), Fort Walton Beach — Preserving and Protecting the Mound
Preserving the Mound Florida is home to a rich variety of cultural resources that represent our society. Many significant archaeological sites, like the Fort Walton Temple Mound, are in public ownership. The preservation of the temple . . . — Map (db m99254) HM
Florida (Palm Beach County), Jupiter — Jupiter Inlet Midden I
Jupiter Inlet Midden I is an ancient shell mound built by Indians known as Jeaga. A description of these Indians by Jonathan Dickinson was first published in 1699. This shell mound is the site of the village of Hobe where the Dickinson shipwreck . . . — Map (db m96948) HM
Florida (Palm Beach County), Jupiter — F-587 — Sawfish Bay
The waterfront location of today’s Sawfish Bay Park played a major role in the prehistoric and historic settlement of the Jupiter area. First inhabited during the Archaic Period 5,000 years ago, this site provided access to an intricate . . . — Map (db m96953) HM
Florida (Pinellas County), Safety Harbor — Safety Harbor Site
. . . — Map (db m13646) HM
Florida (Pinellas County), Tierra Verde — F-90 — Tierra Verde Mound
A large Indian burial mound was built near this spot about 1500 A.D. It was used for some years by the inhabitants of a nearby Safety Harbor culture village, Indians who were among the ancestors of the later Tocobago tribe. Excavation in 1961 by . . . — Map (db m13679) HM
Florida (Polk County), Mulberry — The Mulberry Time Capsule
This marker commemorates the dedication of the Mulberry Time Capsule. The capsule was placed here on June 12, 1977 by the Greater Mulberry Chamber of Commerce. The capsule will be opened in the year 2076 to view the mememtoes of the 1976 . . . — Map (db m4984) HM
Florida (Putnam County), Welaka — Mount Royal
(panel 1) Mount Royal Mount Royal is an ancient American Indian site that includes the burial mound beyond this display, as well a the remains of a Spanish mission and associated village. The mound was built around 1,000 years ago by . . . — Map (db m93077) HM
Florida (Putnam County), Welaka — F-299 — The Mount Royal Site
Indians constructed the mound and earthworks of this site between A.D. 1250 and 1500. They built the mound as a place to bury their dead, and it grew in phases. When Clarence B. Moore excavated portions of the mound in the 1890s, he discovered . . . — Map (db m93075) HM
Florida (Sarasota County), Osprey — Historic Spanish Point
Front Side of Marker: This 30-acre preserve includes prehistoric shell middens and a burial mound dating from 3,000 B.C. to 1,000 A.D., buildings from the homestead of John Greene Webb, and gardens from the winter estate of Mrs. Potter . . . — Map (db m60326) HM
Florida (Sarasota County), Sarasota — Indian Beach
5,000 years ago, prehistoric Indians seasonally came to these shore, drawn by freshwater springs, bays teeming with fish and shellfish, and woods rich with game. By 1000 A.D. their middens, ceremonial mounds, and a village plaza stood nearby. . . . — Map (db m60327) HM
Florida (Seminole County), Geneva — King Philipstown/Osceola
(side 1) Here, where the St. Johns River emerges from near-by Lake Harney, stands a shell mound complex significant to the history and pre-history of Seminole County. The mound has been examined by anthropologists Daniel Britton in the . . . — Map (db m93040) HM
Florida (Seminole County), Sanford — Sanford's First Residents
Over 1,000 years ago, the Timucua (tee-MOO-quo) people established villages in this area. They fished, hunted, and grew crops such as maize, squash, and beans. By the 1700s, the Timucuans began to disappear as they succumbed to war and disease . . . — Map (db m55389) HM
Florida (Volusia County), Ponce Inlet — F-893 — Green Mound State Archaeological Site
The Green Mound is one of the best preserved and last remaining shell mounds in the region. The site holds a rich history of the prehistoric Florida Indians who inhabited the site for hundreds of years. Archaeological studies of the mound date . . . — Map (db m100949) HM
Florida (Wakulla County), Crawfordville — F-394 — Wakulla Springs Archaeological & Historic District
This location is significant as it represents relationships between human culture and natural resources from the settlement systems of the Paleoindian period to the recent historic past, a period of nearly 15,000 years. There are 55 recorded . . . — Map (db m101862) HM
Georgia (Dekalb County), Decatur — 044-1 — Steatite Boulder
This steatite boulder was found on the site of a prehistoric quarry along Soapstone Ridge 8 miles south of Decatur. It shows the methods of Indians in making stone bowls, with the first girdling of the stone to remove workable cores. It is estimated . . . — Map (db m8752) HM
Georgia (Early County), Blakely — 049-10 — Kolomoki Mounds Archaeological Area
You are at the edge of one of the largest and most important mound groups in the southeastern United States. Most of this complex of mounds was constructed about A. D. 200-600. Archaeologists call this period the Middle Woodland Period and the . . . — Map (db m48243) HM
Georgia (Glynn County), Jekyll Island — 63-16 — Tabby
Tabby was the building material for walls, floors, and roofs widely used throughout coastal Georgia during the Military and Plantation Eras. It was composed of equal parts of sand, lime, oyster shell and water mixed into a mortar and poured into . . . — Map (db m17578) HM
Georgia (Murray County), Chatsworth — Mystery Shrouds Fort Mountain
The trail to the north of this site leads to the mysterious and prehistoric wall of loose rocks from which Fort Mountain takes its name. Many generations of explorers, archaeologists, geologists, historians and sight-seers have wondered about the . . . — Map (db m46359) HM
Georgia (Walker County), Chickamauga — American Indian Occupation of the AreaHistoric Chickamauga Georgia
There were humans living in what is now Walker County as early as around 10,000 B.C. For thousands of years the people subsisted through hunting and gathering of wild plant foods. The Middle Woodland period (ca. 200 B.C. - 400 A.D.) was marked by . . . — Map (db m77661) HM
Hawaii (Hawaii County), Kawaihae — Pu'ukohola HeiauA Sacred Place Since Prehistoric Times
A heiau (temple) at Pu’ukohola was built long before Kamehameha started construction on the heiau that you see. This showed great vision and strategy on the part of the kahuna (priests). The heiau was physically very prominent and imposing on the . . . — Map (db m71886) HM
Hawaii (Hawaii County), Keauhou — Hale Mua
This archaeological site has been identified as a men's house associated with a person of chiefly rank who resided at the Lonoikamakahiki Residence. Hydration-Rind dating performed by the Bishop Museum indicated that the major portion of this site . . . — Map (db m39410) HM
Hawaii (Hawaii County), Keauhou — Inikiwai Ku'ula Heiau
This archaeological site is known as the Inikiwai Heiau. It is sometimes known as the Pahe'ehe'e Ku'ula. Hawaiian Fishermen built these shrines on promontories along the seashore or near ponds and streams. These shrines are a place for . . . — Map (db m39305) HM
Hawaii (Hawaii County), Keauhou — Lonoikamakahiki Residence
This archaeological site is known as the Lonoikamakahiki Residence. It is believed that during different periods of time, four great Hawaiian kings lived at this site. These kings were Umi, Lonoikamakahiki, Kalaniopuu, and . . . — Map (db m39409) HM
Hawaii (Hawaii County), Waikoloa Village — The Waikoloa Petroglyph Field
Before you lies one of the major concentrations of ancient rock carvings in the Hawaiian Islands. Boundaries were not crossed casually in old Hawaii, and the thousands of surface carvings here, just north of the border between the ancient kingdoms . . . — Map (db m4247) HM
Hawaii (Kauai County), Kawaihae — Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site
Welcome to Pu’ukohola Heiau, one of the most famous heiau (temples) in the Hawaiian Islands. This heiau is an integral component of the traditional Hawaiian social, political, and religious systems, and a significant place in the history of King . . . — Map (db m71874) HM
Indiana (Allen County), Fort Wayne — Fort Wayne ~ Fort Dearborn Trail
An ancient Indian trail, through Pottawattomie country, variably called the Dragoon, White Pigeon, Great Northwestern and Fort Dearborn Road. After 1795 used for mail delivery between Fort Wayne and Fort Dearborn. Captain Wells, Wayne spy, was slain . . . — Map (db m20782) HM
Indiana (Boone County), Thorntown — 06.1961.1 — Indian CemeteryEel River Tribe of Miamis
Ka-wi-a-ki-un-gi Village "Place of Thorns" (Thorntown) was center of 64, 000 acre Thorntown Indian Reserve. Granted to Eel River Miamis in 1818, ceded to U.S. in 1828. — Map (db m21352) HM
Indiana (Putnam County), Greencastle — The Ancient Peoples Who Once Walked Here
We seldom pause to think of the peoples who long ago (some say 13,000 B.C. - 8,000 B. C.) Moved back and forth across this land. We know nothing, about these “Old Ones” and their times, they left no traces visible to us. They are known . . . — Map (db m56415) HM
Indiana (Warren County), Williamsport — The Trail of Death
In 1838 a band of over 800 Potawatomi Indians were forcibly removed from their homeland in Northern Indiana and marched to Eastern Kansas. Many died along the trail during the two month trek. This mournful caravan traveled this road on September 14, . . . — Map (db m9307) HM
Iowa (Allamakee County), Harper Ferry — The Mystery of the MoundsEffigy Mounds National Monument — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior
In 1766, English and French Canadian traders wintered near this site. They must have puzzled over these strange earthen shapes-or others even nearer their cabin. The traders could not have known that the humble grave markers were vestiges of a . . . — Map (db m61987) HM
Kansas (Pottawatomie County), Westmoreland — Archeological Site 14-PO1311

During excavation of the footing for this flag pole the remains of a Stone Age Native American, estimated 1,000 years old, were discovered. The find remains at this location. . . . — Map (db m80950) HM

Kansas (Scott County), Scott State Park — El Cuartelejo Archeology
In 1899, when Prof. H. T. Martin of the University of Kansas made the first archeological excavations of El Cuartelejo, most of the lower part of the original stone work was still in place, as shown in this photograph. Evidences of several other . . . — Map (db m65975) HM
Kentucky (Ballard County), Wickliffe — Burial Mound(Mound C)
Native American Indian of the Mississippian culture were buried in this cemetery mound sometime in the A.D. 1200s. First excavated in 1932 by owner Col. Fain King, the mound was referred to as “Mound C”. A building was constructed over . . . — Map (db m58870) HM
Kentucky (Ballard County), Wickliffe — Ceremonial Mound
Excavations have shown that building stood on several earlier levels of this mound. We do not know how big those buildings were. This structure is approximately the size of the posthole pattern in the architecture building (Mound B) — Map (db m58872) HM
Kentucky (Ballard County), Wickliffe — King Mounds"Ancient Buried City"
Site of an ancient religious and commercial center of the Mound Builder. Approximately one thousand years old, situated on the only high ground at the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. Tombs, temples, altars, jewels, dwellings, tools, . . . — Map (db m58869) HM
Kentucky (Ballard County), Wickliffe — Welcome to Wickliffe MoundsState Historic Site
Nearly one thousand years ago, this village was home for Native Americans of the prehistoric Mississippian culture. Peaceful farmers, these mound building Indians lived throughout the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys. Exhibits at Wicklffe Mounds . . . — Map (db m58873) HM
Kentucky (Montgomery County), Mount Sterling — 1655 — The Gaitskill Mound
Indian Mound attributed to Adena people who inhabited Ohio Valley ca. 800 B.C. to 700 A.D. They began cultivating simple crops, bringing about a mixed hunting and farming economy. Central to Adena life were rituals involving cremation and mound . . . — Map (db m73886) HM
Louisiana (Avoyelles Parish), Marksville — Marksville MoundsAncient Mounds Trail
Marksville is a ceremonial center with two earthen ridges enclosing seven mounds. Indians built these earthworks between 100 BC and AD 400. During that time, the site covered 200 acres and included other earthworks that are now destroyed. The . . . — Map (db m97726) HM
Louisiana (Avoyelles Parish), Marksville — The Marksville Site
One mile east is the Marksville prehistoric Indian ceremonial center. This site, occupied from 1-400 A.D., was related to the Ohio Hopewell Culture, and was noted for its elaborate trade networks and mortuary ceremonialism. — Map (db m98269) HM
Louisiana (East Baton Rouge Parish), Baton Rouge — Ceremonial Indian Mound
One of a group of mounds probably constructed about A.D. 1000 during the Cole Creek culture period. Surrounded by a large village area, such mounds served as foundations for sacred buildings and as platforms for the chief to address the tribesmen. . . . — Map (db m87446) HM
Louisiana (East Baton Rouge Parish), Baton Rouge — LSU Campus Mounds
Hunter-gatherers built these two mounds 5,000 years ago. Part of the oldest earthen-mound complex in North America,they were placed on the National Register of Historic Places on March 1, 1999. They are older than the Egyptian pyramids, and . . . — Map (db m87223) HM
Louisiana (East Carroll Parish), Transylvania — Transylvania MoundsAncient Mounds Trail
Transylvania once had up to 12 mounds. Only 6 are visible now. The mounds were rectangular in shape with flat tops prior to being altered in historic times. The largest is nearly 34 feet tall. It is in the center of the site and overlooks 2 plaza . . . — Map (db m89789) HM
Louisiana (Orleans Parish), New Orleans — Congo Square
Congo Square is in the “vicinity” of a spot which Houmas Indians used before the arrival of the French for celebrating their annual corn harvest and was considered sacred ground. The gathering of enslaved African vendors in Congo Square . . . — Map (db m20954) HM
Maryland (Allegany County), Flintstone — American Indian Rockshelter Trail
Eons ago, before there was a lake and dam that filled the valley, an ancient stream flowed through from the north. Now known as Rock Gap Run, it slowly cut through the rising sandstone bedrock that eventually became Evitts Mountain. The . . . — Map (db m95908) HM
Maryland (Calvert County), St. Leonard — Jefferson Patterson Park & MuseumState Museum of Archaeology
Welcome to Jefferson Patterson Park and Museum (JPPM), State Museum of Archaeology, where we explore the changing cultures and environment of the Chesapeake Bay region over the past 12,000 years.

You can investigate the thousands of years of . . . — Map (db m80923) HM

Maryland (Calvert County), St. Leonard — What is this Big White Building?
The Maryland Archaeological Conservation (MAC) Laboratory is a state-of-the-art archaeological research, conservation and collections facility. Opened in 1998, the Lab holds the State’s archaeological artifact collections. In the labs, the often . . . — Map (db m81091) HM
Maryland (Prince George's County), Accokeek — First People of the PotomacPiscataway Park
When Europeans first arrived on the shores of North America, they found a continent inhabited by perhaps tens of millions of people! These people had arrived more than 10,000 years earlier, and through many generations had created complex societies, . . . — Map (db m8560) HM
Massachusetts (Franklin County), Hawley — First Church of Hawley
Site of the First Church of Hawley Erected 1793 Reverend Jonathan Grout 1st Pastor This memorial placed by the sons and daughters of Hawley August 10, 1935 — Map (db m25876) HM
Michigan (Macomb County), Sterling Heights — S0309 — Holcombe Beach
Near this site in 1961 archaeologists from the Aboriginal Research Club and the University of Michigan uncovered evidence of an early Paleo-Indian settlement. Here about 11,000 years ago these first prehistoric dwellers in the Great Lakes region . . . — Map (db m34227) HM
Minnesota (Nicollet County), St. Peter — Archaeology
Archaeology is the recovery and study of material evidence, such as remainders of pottery, to help us learn about people and places of the past. In 1994 the Minnesota Historical Society conducted a survey to map and excavate the . . . — Map (db m78179) HM
Minnesota (Traverse County), Brown Valley — Browns Valley Man
On October 9, 1933, William H. Jensen, an amateur archaeologist, uncovered the badly broken skeleton of a man in a gravel pit on the plateau visible about ½ mile south of this marker. The plateau was formed as an island in the ancient River . . . — Map (db m93964) HM
Mississippi (Adams County), Stanton — Emerald MoundMississippi Mound Trail
Covering roughly eight acres, Emerald Mound is the second largest Mississippian mound north of Mexico. The main platform was constructed in three stages beginning ca. AD 1350. Archaeological excavations have confirmed that the first and second . . . — Map (db m97256) HM
Mississippi (Harrison County), Biloxi — Archaeological Findings
Sadly, Hurricane Katrina in 2005 devastated the Moran Art Studio, but it did allow exploration of the rest of the site. Faculty and students from the University of Southern Mississippi conducted archaeological excavations from 2005 until 2012. In . . . — Map (db m102261) HM
Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — Pocahontas Mounds
Built and used between A.D 1000 and 1300, this platform mound and a nearby burial mound mark the ceremonial and political seat of a regional chiefdom of the Plaquemine culture. A thatched, clay-plastered ritual temple or chief's lodging stood atop . . . — Map (db m77266) HM
Mississippi (Panola County), Batesville — Batesville MoundsMississippi Mound Trail
Seven mounds were originally recorded at the Batesville site. Of these, two remain intact. Mound B is a rectangular platform mound nine feet high; Mound C is a conical and stands 20 feet high. Mounds A and D have been greatly reduced by plowing but . . . — Map (db m102575) HM
Mississippi (Warren County), Vicksburg — Old Natchez District
Ceded by Choctaws & Chickasaws in Fort Adams Treaty, 1801, confirming earlier British treaty. Contained most of present Warren, Jefferson, Claiborne, Adams, Franklin, Wilkinson & Amite counties. — Map (db m72185) HM
Mississippi (Wilkinson County), Fort Adams — Smith Creek MoundsMississippi Mound Trail
The Smith Creek site consists of three mounds surrounding a large plaza. Mound A is the site's largest monument, at over 30 feet. Mound B is a burial mound surrounded by a ditch or moat. Mound C, to the east, is eroding into Smith Creek; its . . . — Map (db m96735) HM
Mississippi (Wilkinson County), Lessley — Lessley MoundMississippi Mound Trail
The Lessley site consists of one large, rectangular platform mound. Excavations in 2013 determined that the mound was built in two or more stages, beginning in the Late Coles Creek or Early Plaquemine Period, ca. AD 1100-1350. Based on excavated . . . — Map (db m96644) HM
Missouri (Platte County), Riverside — Renner Village Site23PL1
This area was frequented by prehistoric people as early as 5000 B.C.. This site is best known as the regional center of aboriginal population in Hopewell times, A.D. 1-500, and occupied throughout the Woodland Culture into Middle Mississippian . . . — Map (db m73531) HM
Missouri (Vernon County), Fair Haven — Archaeology
The main source for information about the Osage Indians' daily life is in the ground beneath us. Like pages of a book, archaeology can reveal stories about who the people were and how they lived. Information is revealed not only by the . . . — Map (db m61399) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Huntley — Buffalo CountryThe Eastern Plains of Montana
The great plains of eastern Montana was home to thousands of buffalo before Euro-American hunters nearly wiped them out in the early 1800’s. The animals were central to the Indian lifeway. In the dog days, hunters herded buffalo into corrals . . . — Map (db m99063) HM
Montana (Gallatin County), Three Forks — The Naming of a RiverThe Headwaters of the Missouri River
Many nations traveled and lived along these banks, giving their own names to the river. “Missouri” is the official name given by the U.S. Geological Survey. It dates back to French explorer Jacques Marquette’s journal and 1673 map of . . . — Map (db m99215) HM
Nevada (Churchill County), Lovelock — 147 — A Home of Early Man
Stretching before you are two vast sinks, terminal areas of the Humboldt and Carson River drainage systems. The marshey remnant of Lake Lahontan, between you and the distant Humboldt Range, served as a life sustaining resource of wildlife for . . . — Map (db m67352) HM
Nevada (Lander County), Austin — 136 — Toquima Cave
East of the summit, north of the highway, and under a basalt flow lies Toquima Cave. Red, white, and yellow aboriginal drawings (pictographs) decorate its walls. Usually located near springs, as here, and on migratory big game trails, painted . . . — Map (db m62126) HM
New Mexico (San Juan County), Aztec — "For the Enlightenment of the Nation"Aztec Ruins National Monument
Working from his house and publishing through the American Natural History Museum, Earl Morris intrigued the nation with his findings at Aztec Ruins. In 1923 the site Morris had known since boyhood was preserved as a national monument . . . — Map (db m71078) HM
New Mexico (San Juan County), Aztec — Aztec Ruins National Monument
Through the collective recognition of the community of nations, expressed within the principles of the convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage Aztec Ruins National Monument has been designated an outlier . . . — Map (db m71077) HM
New Mexico (Taos County), Taos — Wheeler Peak13,161 Feet Above Sea Level — Highest Point in New Mexico
Named in honor of Major George Montague Wheeler (1832-1909) who for ten years led a party of surveyors and Naturalists collecting geologic, biologic, planimetric, and topographic data in New Mexico and six other southwestern states. — Map (db m50743) HM
New York (Albany County), Cohoes — The Cohoes Mastodont
The Cohoes Mastodont was discovered during the excavation for Harmony Mill #3 in 1866. The mill is sometimes referred to as the "Mastodon Mill" for this reason. When all the bones were recovered, they were kept at the Harmony Mills Office on . . . — Map (db m41622) HM
New York (Chenango County), Norwich — Ruth Benedict1887-1948
Childhood Home of Dr. Ruth Benedict. First Well – Known Woman Anthropologist. Author, Patterns of Culture Gerorge E. Pataki, Governor — Map (db m93278) HM
New York (Kings County), New York — Early North American Colonist Remains
Beneath this site lie the remains of seven individuals believed to be early North American born colonists. The remains dated to the late Eighteenth to early Nineteenth Century were discovered approximately 100 feet Southwest of here during . . . — Map (db m24331) HM
New York (Monroe County), Greece — Long Pond Site
An Iroquois group camped here around 1400 A.D. Ash beds excavated in 1912 yielded artifacts of bone, stone and pottery. County of Monroe, 1961. — Map (db m77156) HM
New York (Montgomery County), Amsterdam — Chuctanunda Terrace Site
Native Americans have been visiting the site for nearly 5,000 years, drawn to this location by the rich resources of the Mohawk River and the Chuctanunda Creek North, and the animals and plants that flourished on their banks. The site was visited . . . — Map (db m97442) HM
New York (Niagara County), Lewiston — Lower Landing Archeological District — National Historic Landmark
Lower Landing Archeological District has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America The . . . — Map (db m66332) HM
New York (Onondaga County), Cardiff — Cardiff Giant
Disinterred near this village on Oct. 16, 1869. Represented as a petrified prehistoric man, it was subsequently proved a hoax. — Map (db m40055) HM
New York (Onondaga County), Cardiff — The Cardiff Giant
Discovered here October 16, 1869. It was proved a hoax, one of the greatest public deceptions in American history. — Map (db m40056) HM
New York (Orleans County), Carlton — Fishing CampA Prehistoric Destination — Maritime Heritage
Fishing For Food, Not Fun! For more than 800 years the opposite bank was the scene of bustling spring and summer activity by Native Americans. Fish were netted from Oak Orchard River, and processed over firepits and drying racks. The fish prepared . . . — Map (db m82703) HM
North Carolina (Alamance County), Burlington — G 33 — Trading Path
Colonial trading route, dating from 17th century, from Petersburg, Virginia, to Catawba and Waxhaw Indians in Carolina, passed nearby. — Map (db m28700) HM
North Carolina (Alamance County), Mebane — G 34 — Trading Path
Colonial trading route, dating from 17th century, from Petersburg, Virginia, to the Catawba and Waxhaw Indians in Carolina, passed nearby. — Map (db m28822) HM
North Carolina (Haywood County), Canton — P 83 — Garden Creek
Cherokee villages and mounds 1/3 mile west a key site for archaeologists. Occupied from 8000 B.C. to 1600s A.D. — Map (db m75502) HM
North Carolina (Macon County), Franklin — Q-9 — Nikwasi
This mound marks site of old Cherokee town, Nikwasi. A council of Sir Alexander Cuming with the Indians here lead to a treaty, 1730. — Map (db m3261) HM
North Carolina (Macon County), Franklin — Nikwasi MoundCherokee Heritage Trails
You are standing on land that has been part of a town for about three thousand years. This mound was the spiritual, political, and physical center of the Cherokee town of Nikwasi. A council house or town house on top of the mound held the sacred . . . — Map (db m75523) HM
North Carolina (Montgomery County), Mount Gilead — Burial Huts at Town Creek
You are standing in a reconstruction of a burial hut built in this location over six hundred years ago. Its size and shape are based on evidence gained through scientific archaeological excavation. The outer walls are made of upright posts covered . . . — Map (db m37203) HM
North Carolina (Montgomery County), Mount Gilead — Preservation and the Archaeological Record
Organic materials, including the human body, decompose when buried in the ground. Clothing made of animal skins or hides does not survive after many years of burial. Likewise, most pigments used to paint the body do not survive. Foodstuffs placed in . . . — Map (db m37214) HM
North Carolina (Montgomery County), Mount Gilead — Town Creek Indian Mound
Has been designed a Registered National Historic Landmark Under the provisions of the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935 This site possesses exceptional value In commemorating and illustrating The history of the United States . . . — Map (db m37201) HM
North Carolina (Swain County), Qualla — An Ancient and Settled Landscape
Today, members of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians continue to honor and cultivate the traditions which have guided their culture for thousands of years. The Qualla Boundary, as it has been known for generations, is a small fragment of the . . . — Map (db m99076) HM
Ohio (Allen County), Lima — The Henry Boose Site
In 1959 this area was discovered to be an almost four thousand year old burial ground of the Glacial Kame People-named for the distinctive gravel elevations in which their dead were buried. The area was once a farm owned by Henry Boose, an early . . . — Map (db m78679) HM
Ohio (Clark County), Enon — Adena Mound Enon Ohio1200 BC - 1000 AD — National Historic Site
This Adena Mound is the second largest conical mound in Ohio. These large conical mounds are believed to be Adena while the many small or effigy mounds are Hopewell, a later culture.

This mound is the property of the Village of Enon. . . . — Map (db m100536) HM

Ohio (Clermont County), Felicity — Edgington Mound
This burial mound was built during the time period 1000 B.C. to 400 A.D. Because the 15 foot 9 inch mound is conical shaped, it is believed to have been built by the Adenda Culture. It is 133 feet in diameter at the base. The mound received its . . . — Map (db m99947) HM
Ohio (Clermont County), Georgetown — 7- 13 — Utopia
Utopia was founded in 1844 by followers of French philosopher Charles Fourier (1772-1837). Fourierism, based on utopian socialism and the idea of equal sharing of investments in money and labor, reached peak popularity in the United States about . . . — Map (db m99948) HM
Ohio (Erie County), Kelley's Island — Inscription Rock
Between three and four hundred years ago, Ohio pre-historic Indians, believed to be of the Erie tribe, pecked numerous inscriptions or pictographs on the top surface of this large native limestone rock. The figures, now nearly obliterated by the . . . — Map (db m28009) HM
Ohio (Franklin County), Worthington — 36-25 — Jeffers Mound
Archaeologists believe that this prehistoric mound, part of a complex of earthworks, was used for rituals by the Hopewell people and was probably built between 100 BC and 400 AD. Note the painted post tops marking the Hopewell pole house footprint. . . . — Map (db m12756) HM
Ohio (Hancock County), Findlay — 19-32 — Indian Green / McKinnis-Litzenberg Farmstead
Indian Green This area of western Hancock County is a part of the Maumee River Watershed known as "Indian Green." Wyandot Indians chose this area for hunting and ceremonial grounds along the Blanchard River in the 1700s because it was next to . . . — Map (db m93378) HM
Ohio (Hocking County), South Bloomingville — 3-37 — Salt and Hunting Trails
Modern roads often have their precedents in much older thoroughfares. Two ancient paths once converged near this point. As late as the 1700s, the Salt Trail guided Native Americans from the upper Scioto Valley plains past Cantwell Cliffs, Cedar . . . — Map (db m24765) HM
Ohio (Jackson County), Leo — Leo Petroglyph
On the flat surface of this rock is one of the finest examples of prehistoric Indian petroglyphs or craved writings in Ohio. These figures are carved on an exposed portion of the black Hand Sandstone bedrock which underlies much of east-central . . . — Map (db m20858) HM
Ohio (Licking County), Glenford — Flint Ridge
Flint Ridge is a chain of long, narrow hills extending from a few miles east of Newark almost to Zanesville, a distance of more than twenty miles. The surface of these hills is underlain with an irregular layer of flint, which may be only a few . . . — Map (db m12958) HM
Ohio (Lucas County), Toledo — A Prehistoric Fort
A Prehistoric Fort consisting of earthen walls accompanied by moats, formerly occupied this site. The walls, three to four feet high, probably were surmounted by palisades which together with the steep river banks, rendered the fort fairly secure . . . — Map (db m25860) HM
Ohio (Marion County), Marion — 8- 51 — The Old Blockhouse Site
The U.S. Army built a two-story blockhouse on a nearby hill during the War of 1812. The blockhouse was one of a series of such structures erected along the Greenville Treaty line to guard against Native Americans who supported the British during . . . — Map (db m94537) HM
Ohio (Ross County), Chillicothe — A Flourishing Culture
On Mordecai Hopewell's Ohio farm archeologists excavated Indian mounds in 1891 and found copper ornaments, stone tools, effigy pipes, obsidian spear points, ornamented bear teeth, shark teeth, intricately carved bones, mica cutouts, and much more. . . . — Map (db m20999) HM
Ohio (Ross County), Chillicothe — A Scared Purpose
Some 2,000 years ago the Mound City Group contained the highest density of mounds of any of the Hopewell earthworks, 24 in a 13-acre area. Today 22 can be counted. One of the missing mounds (Mound 15) is present in outline only, marked by the . . . — Map (db m20839) HM
Ohio (Ross County), Chillicothe — Ancient Monuments
When Cleopatra, Julius Caesar, and Jesus lived, the Hopewell culture built and used Mound City Group. We do not know what the Hopewell called this sacred place, but early archeologists named it for the great number of mounds found here. In 1846 . . . — Map (db m21023) HM
Ohio (Ross County), Chillicothe — Effigy Pipes
Although small and rather ordinary, this mound (Mound 8) contained a remarkable find. Nearly 200 pipes-mostly broken-were discovered here. Skillfully carved from stone, the pipes faithfully detailed human heads and indigenous animals. The pipe bowls . . . — Map (db m20994) HM
Ohio (Ross County), Chillicothe — Mica Splendor
With the building of Camp Sherman, the army leveled this mound-Mound 13-to three feet above ground and built a barrack over it. In 1920 Ohio archeologists led by William Mills excavated the mound and were astonished to uncover the cremated remains . . . — Map (db m20996) HM
Ohio (Wyandot County), Carey — 4-88 — Sheriden Cave — Ohio Historical Marker
Indian Trail Caverns, first opened in 1927, is one of many caves that occur on the dolomite ridge traversed by State Route 568 in Wyandot and Hancock counties. Sheriden Cave, a karst sinkhole associated with the caverns, was discovered in 1989. It . . . — Map (db m93656) HM
Oklahoma (Tulsa County), Tulsa — Creek Nation Council Oak Memorial
Fire is a revered element of many sacred rituals of the Mvskoke (Muscogee Creek People). The sacred fire represents the divine masculine of the "Epofvnkv" (the Creator) to which all things are connected. The sacred fires were integral to the . . . — Map (db m68043) HM
Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), McKees Rocks — McKees Rocks Mound
Largest Native American burial mound in Western Pennsylvania (16 feet high & 85 feet wide). It was hand-built by the Adena people between 200 BC and 100 AD and later used by the Hopewell people. Late 19th century excavations uncovered 33 skeletons . . . — Map (db m40899) HM
Pennsylvania (Beaver County), Beaver — Fort McIntoshYou Are Here
Much forged iron was found near this site, suggesting it was the location of the blacksmith or armorer's shop. The top edge of the slope, now greatly eroded, was much wider in 1778, and would have accommodated the shop and barracks, as well as the . . . — Map (db m44753) HM
Pennsylvania (Beaver County), Beaver — Fort McIntoshYou Are Here
Visible here are remains of stone fireplace hearths and a portion of the original footer for the south wall of the fort. Artifacts found here included USA buttons and artillery projectiles, suggesting this may have been officers' quarters and . . . — Map (db m44886) HM
Pennsylvania (Beaver County), Beaver — Fort McIntoshYou Are Here
The size and shape of the fort was confirmed by the angle of the nearby foundation wall, which matches the opposite wall on the west side. The fort was very large and well built, constructed of square - hewn logs laid horizontally on stone . . . — Map (db m44888) HM
Pennsylvania (Bucks County), Bristol — Replica of the Spanish Garitas
This monument is a replica of the Spanish Garitas, or guardhouses, that lined the forts of San Juan, Puerto Rico, and is dedicated to the Puerto Rican people who have made their homes in Bristol. In March of 1509 a ship . . . — Map (db m80537) HM
Pennsylvania (Bucks County), Doylestown — Margaret Mead(1901 - 1978)
The world-renowned anthropologist and writer lived in this house and graduated in 1918 from Doylestown High School. Among her most famous works are “Coming of Age in Samoa” (1928) and “Male and Female” (1949). — Map (db m22319) HM
South Dakota (Roberts County), Wilmont — Whetstone Valley Rest Area
You are standing on top of the Coteau des Prairies (Hills of the Prairies) overlooking the rich Whetstone Valley. This landscape was carved out some 20,000 years ago by a massive glacier which extended approximately 2,000 feet above where you now . . . — Map (db m91421) HM
Tennessee (Davidson County), Hermitage — "Have the Negro Houses Placed Where the Old Ones Stands"
When Jackson's plantation turned a profit in the 1820s, he invested it in slaves and buildings. Letters sent from Jackson to Andrew Jackson Jr. and his overseer in 1829 show that brick was being made for new buildings. In September 1829, Andrew . . . — Map (db m85383) HM
Tennessee (Davidson County), Hermitage — A Lively PlaceFinding Strength in Family and Community
For nearly thirty years – from the construction of the brick dwellings in 1829 to the sale of this parcel of land in 1856 – the Field Quarter was home to at least eight enslaved families at The Hermitage. With fifty to eighty . . . — Map (db m85429) HM
Tennessee (Davidson County), Hermitage — Determined ResistanceFighting for Freedom
In spite of the threat of violence, the men, women, and children who Andrew Jackson held in bondage still found ways to fight against the injustice and inhumanity of slavery. There were several instances of slaves running away. Jackson family . . . — Map (db m85475) HM
Tennessee (Davidson County), Hermitage — Ginning and Pressing "King Cotton"Wealth Created by Enslaved Hands
Andrew Jackson built a cotton gin and press at The Hermitage in 1807, both of which stood in the field in front of you. It was a shrewd decision on Jackson's part, not only making his plantation more self-sufficient, but also generating additional . . . — Map (db m85479) HM
Tennessee (Davidson County), Hermitage — Land Conservation at The HermitageNative Warm Season Grasses Plan
Native warm season grasses grow well during the summer heat. These are bunch type grasses, and the bare ground between the grass clumps provides wildlife cover and nesting space. Habitat conditions are excellent for species such as bobwhite quail, . . . — Map (db m85446) HM
Tennessee (Davidson County), Hermitage — Stories Told by Things the Enslaved Left Behind
Artifacts found during excavations of the Field Quarter have much to say about daily life within the Hermitage enslaved community. Animal bones tell us a great deal about diet. Buttons and sewing equipment provide details about clothing. Marbles, . . . — Map (db m85445) HM
Tennessee (Davidson County), Hermitage — The Field QuarterLives of Labor
In 1806, Andrew Jackson purchased 640 acres north of the first Hermitage and in turn used this land mostly for field crops such as cotton and corn. Jackson chose this portion of that land to build dwellings for his field slaves because of its . . . — Map (db m85432) HM
Tennessee (Davidson County), Hermitage — The Field Quarter SpringNourishing Body and Spirit
Known as “Muddy Spring” in Andrew Jackson's time, this fast flowing spring was the primary source of water for the fifty to eighty enslaved men, women, and children who lived in the nearby Field Quarter. Along with its life-sustaining . . . — Map (db m85382) HM
Tennessee (Davidson County), Hermitage — The Hermitage OverseerBetween Two Worlds
As was common at large plantations, Jackson hired a white overseer on an annual contract to supervise farm operations, particularly the lives and work of the enslaved. The overseer's contract began on January 1, after the previous year's crop had . . . — Map (db m85477) HM
Tennessee (Davidson County), Hermitage — The North Cabin
The remains of the North Cabin stood near this spot until 1988 when it was dismantled because of structural instability. The foundation of the chimney is the only part of the building visible. The North Cabin was a one-story log dwelling with a . . . — Map (db m85478) HM
Tennessee (Knox County), Farragut — Native American Settlement
Initial permanent habitation in the area we now call Farragut began approximately 3,000 years ago when the Woodland Indians moved in the area on a permanent basis and became east Tennessee's first farmers.

The Woodland tribe was replaced . . . — Map (db m100831) HM

Tennessee (Madison County), Pinson — 4D 12 — Pinson Mounds
Built between 1 and 500 A.D. by prehistoric Indians, this complex of over a dozen mounds contains the oldest flat-topped, ceremonial mounds in America. Religious ceremonies were conducted on the tops of these mounds, the tallest of which is over 70 . . . — Map (db m52565) HM
Texas (Bexar County), Helotes — 2432 — Helotes
According to archeologists, human occupation of the Helotes area dates to about 7000 years before present, when small bands of Nomadic Indians who migrated seasonally in search of food and game camped in this vicinity. Early Texas Pioneer John . . . — Map (db m46922) HM
Texas (Brewster County), Big Bend National Park — Comanche Trail
You are now traveling the Comanche Trail blazed by Comanche Indians, en route from the western plains to Mexico, and traveled later by emigrants and soldiers. It extended south from the Horse Head Crossing of the Pecos by Comanche Springs . . . — Map (db m53931) HM
Texas (Brewster County), Big Bend National Park — Rock Art at Hot Springs
When J.O. Langford homesteaded this section in 1909, he was moving into an area that had long been inhabited by native Americans. Walk this trail to view pictograph and petroglyphs created by prehistoric people hundreds or even thousands of years . . . — Map (db m53936) HM
Texas (Brewster County), Marathon — 1258 — Double Mills
A natural watering place in prehistoric time, as evidenced by artifacts found here. Used later by Indians and Spaniards on roads from northern Mexico. As Maravillas Creek developed from a draw into water channel, old water hole vanished. About . . . — Map (db m53933) HM
Texas (Briscoe County), Silverton — 187 — Archeological Sites at Mackenzie Reservoir and Tule Canyon
Before this area was covered by Mackenzie Reservior, evidence of human occupancy was found at 77 recorded archeological sites. The earliest artifacts date back 10,000 years to a bison kill. Prehistoric occupancy is indicated by burial sites, shallow . . . — Map (db m99858) HM
Texas (Cherokee County), Alto — 6971 — Mound Prairie
Bulging out of the earth a few yards from this point, three prehistoric Indian mounds interrupt the prevailing flat terrain. Long overgrown with grass, the mounds and adjacent village (covering about 100 acres) constitute one of the major aboriginal . . . — Map (db m21202) HM
Texas (Cherokee County), Alto — 6860 — Site of Neches Indian Village
Here at the opening of the 18th century stood a village of the Neches Indians. Their name was given to the river and later to a mission, San Francisco de Los Neches, established near by. With the Cherokees, the Neches Indians were expelled from . . . — Map (db m27041) HM
Texas (Coke County), Blackwell — 2637 — Indian Rock Shelters
Throughout this area during the last several centuries, rock ledges gave protection to Lipan, Kickapoo, Comanche, and Kiowa Indians. In one typical shelter archeologists found evidence of 3 periods of occupation, plus numerous intricate petroglyphs . . . — Map (db m77615) HM
Texas (Culberson County), Pine Springs — 7930 — Guadalupe Peak
Guadalupe Peak, Texas' highest mountain at 8,749 feet above see level, dominates one of the most scenic and least-known areas of the state. It lies behind and to the right of El Capitan (8,078 feet), the sheer wall that rises more than 3,000 feet . . . — Map (db m61490) HM
Texas (DeWitt County), Hochheim — 1126 — Cuero I Archeological District
Extending 45 miles along the Guadalupe River Basin, Cuero I Archeological District was created to define and preserve cultural resources threatened by a proposed reservoir. Archeological investigation in 1972-73 revealed 352 significant prehistoric . . . — Map (db m61047) HM
Texas (Fisher County), Sylvester — 82 — Adair - Steadman Site
In this vicinity is a prehistoric archeological site discovered in 1969 near the Clear Fork of the Brazos River. Archeologists have conducted extensive scientific excavations and attribute most of the cultural materials to the Paleo-Indian Period. . . . — Map (db m81124) HM
Texas (Floyd County), Floydada — 12355 — Coronado in Blanco Canyon
From 1540 to 1542, Francisco Vazquez de Coronado led the first organized European exploration of the southwest in search of the fabled "cities of gold." With a company of more than a thousand men and women and thousands of . . . — Map (db m25292) HM

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