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African Americans Markers
2922 markers matched your search criteria. The first 250 markers are listed. Next 2672
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Central Saanich — Black Pioneers in British ColumbiaLes Pionniers Noirs de la Colombie-Britannique
In 1858, nearly 800 free Blacks left the oppressive racial conditions of San Francisco for a new life on Vancouver Island. Governor James Douglas had invited them here as promising settlers. Though still faced with intense discrimination, these pioneers enriched the political, religious and economic life of the colony. For example, Mifflin Gibbs became a prominent politician; Charles and Nancy Alexander initiated the Shady Creek Methodist Church; John Deas established a salmon cannery; and the . . . — Map (db m72868) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Lorne LewisHere Lies
Born in New Bedford Massachussets [sic] in 1814 Died in Victoria in 1912 while a resident of the Old Men's Home He came to Victoria from California in 1858 and was appointed by Governor James Douglas as a police constable but racial prejudice made his job difficult. Later he served for many years as district constable on the Songhees Indian Reserve and afterwards was a member of the British Columbia Provincial Police. — Map (db m74829) HM
Ontario, Toronto — Mary Ann Shadd Cary — 1823 – 1893
Mary Ann Shadd Cary was an anti-slavery activist, an advocate for the rights of women, and a pioneering woman newspaper editor and publisher. The daughter of a free African American shoemaker and abolitionist, Shadd began a life of teaching at age 16 by founding a school for African American children in the slave state of Delaware. Following the passing of the Fugitive Slave act (1850), many escaped and free African Americans (like Shadd) sought refuge in Canada. Shadd moved to Windsor, . . . — Map (db m57756) HM
Ontario (Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Dresden — Josiah Henson(1789 - 1883)
English After escaping to Upper Canada from slavery in Kentucky, the Reverend Josiah Henson became a conductor of the Underground Railroad and a force in the abolition movement. The founder of the Black settlement of Dawn, he was also an entrepreneur and established a school, the British-American Institute. His fame grew after Harriet Beecher Stowe stated that his memoirs published in 1849 had provided “conceptions and incidents” for her extraordinarily popular novel, . . . — Map (db m78377) HM
Ontario (Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Dresden — The Dawn SettlementLa Colonie de Dawn
English In the 1830s, the Reverend Josiah Henson and other abolitionists sought ways to provide refugees from slavery with the education and skills they needed to become self-sufficient in Upper Canada. They purchased 200 acres of land here in 1841 and established the British American Institute, one of the first schools in Canada to emphasize vocational training. The community of Dawn developed around the institute. Its residents farmed, attended the institute, and worked at sawmills, . . . — Map (db m78376) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Chatham — John Brown's Convention 1858
English Text: On May 10, 1858, American abolitionist John Brown held the last in a series of clandestine meetings here at First Baptist Church. Brown planned to establish an independent republic within the United States and wage guerrilla war to liberate the South from slavery. He came to Upper Canada to recruit blacks who had fled here in the wake of the Fugitive Slave Law (1850). On October 16, 1859, Brown and 21 supporters seized the government arsenal at Harpers Ferry, . . . — Map (db m71386) HM
Ontario (The Municipality of Chatham-Kent), Chatham — The Abolition Movement in British North America
From 1783 until the 1860s, abolitionists in British North America took part in the fight to end slavery both at home and in the United States. Thanks to the determination of colonial officials, anti-slavery organizations, and the thousands of African Americans who took refuge in Upper and Lower Canada and the Maritimes during this period, the colonies became a centre of abolitionist activity, as evidenced by the convention held here at this church by John Brown in 1858. This struggle for human . . . — Map (db m71391) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Fort Erie — Freedom Park
From around 1830 to 1860, thousands of freedom seekers used the Underground Railroad to reach sanctuary in Canada - the “promised land”. Many crossed the Niagara River from the United State to Fort Erie, including Josiah Henson and his family, who arrived on the 28th of October 1830. The book Uncle Tom’s Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe, was patterned after his life. This park has been created to celebrate their lives and to remind present and future generations of their . . . — Map (db m75878) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Chloe Cooley and the 1793 Act to Limit Slavery in Upper Canada
On March 14, 1793 Chloe Cooley, an enslaved Black woman in Queenston, was bound, thrown in a boat and sold across the river to a new owner in the United States. Her screams and violent resistance were brought to the attention of Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe by Peter Martin, a free Black and former soldier in Butler's Rangers, and William Grisley, a neighbour who witnessed the event. Simcoe immediately moved to abolish slavery in the new province. He was met with opposition in the . . . — Map (db m75858) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Negro Burial Ground 1830
Here stood a Baptist church erected in 1830 through the exertions of a former British soldier. John Oakley, who although white, became pastor of a predominantly negro congregation. In 1793 Upper Canada had passed an act forbidding further introduction of slaves and freeing the children of those in the colony at twenty-five. This was the first legislation of its kind in the British Empire. A long tradition of tolerance attracted refugee slaves to Niagara, many of whom lie buried here. — Map (db m75862) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — The Upper Canadian Act Against Slavery (1793)
Inspired by the abolitionist sentiment emerging in the late 18th century, Lieutenant-Governor J.G. Simcoe made Upper Canada the first British territory to legislate against slavery, which had defined the conditions of life for most people of African ancestry in Canada since the early 17th century. The Act of 1793 did not free a single slave, but prevented their importation and freed the future children of slaves at age twenty-five. Faced with growing opposition in the colonies, slavery . . . — Map (db m75865) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), St. Catharines — BME ChurchNational Historic Site
[Text on left side of marker]: The Salem Chapel, British Methodist Episcopal Church was the first Black church in St. Catharines. Originally known as the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the name was changed to reflect their loyalty to the British Empire. In 1793, the "Upper Canada Act Against Slavery" was passed, allowing Blacks aged 25 years and older freedom from slavery in Canada. This created a safe haven for African American runaway slaves and made Canada the destination . . . — Map (db m75867) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), St. Catharines — Harriet Ross Tubman c. 1820-1913
A legendary conductor on the Underground Railroad, Harriet Tubman became known as the "Moses" of her people. Tubman was born into slavery on a Maryland plantation and suffered brutal treatment from numerous owners before escaping in 1849. Over the next decade she returned to the American South many times and led hundreds of freedom seekers north. When the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 allowed slave owners to recapture runaways in the northern free states, Tubman extended her operations across the . . . — Map (db m75868) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), St. Catharines — Harriet Tubman
Harriet Tubman After the passing of the USA 1850 Fugitive Slave Law she said, "I wouldn't trust Uncle Sam with my people no longer: I brought them all clear off to Canada." — Map (db m75869) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), St. Catharines — Harriet Tubman(c. 1822-1913)
Born on a Maryland plantation, Harriet Tubman escaped slavery to become one of the great heroes of the 19th century. The most famous "conductor" on the Underground Railroad, she courageously led many of the people she rescued from American slavery on dangerous, clandestine journeys to safety and freedom in Canada. Tubman helped these Black refugees settle after their arrival and played an active role in the fight to end slavery. She became the public face of the Underground Railroad in British . . . — Map (db m75870) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), St. Catharines — Rev. Anthony Burns 1834-1862
Born a slave in Virginia, Burns escaped from servitude in 1854 and fled to Boston, where he was arrested under the Fugitive Slave act of 1850. Abolitionists came to his defence and serious riots ensued. This was the last trial of a fugitive slave in Massachusetts. Four months after his return to his owner in Virginia, he was sold to a North Carolina planter. However, in 1855 Burns was ransomed with money raised by the Rev. L.A.Grimes of Boston, and began studies at Oberlin College, Ohio. Burns . . . — Map (db m76249) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), St. Catharines — Richard Pierpoint c.1744-c.1838
One of the first Black settlers in this region, Pierpoint was born in Senegal. At the age of about 16 he was imprisoned and shipped to America where he became the slave of a British officer. During the American Revolution he enlisted in the British forces, thereby gaining his freedom, and served with Butler's Rangers. Disbanded at Niagara, "Captain Dick" settled near here. At the outbreak of the War of 1812 he joined the Coloured Corps and in 1821, recalling his militia service, he petitioned . . . — Map (db m75872) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), St. Catharines — Salem Chapel, British Methodist Episcopal Church
Salem Chapel, built in 1855, was an important centre of 19th-century abolitionist and civil rights activity in Canada. Harriet Tubman, the famous Underground Railroad "conductor", lived near here from 1851 to 1858 and is traditionally associated with Salem Chapel. Many of those aided to freedom became church members and put down roots in the local community. The auditory-hall design typifies the style associated with the Underground Railroad-related churches in Ontario. — Map (db m75873) HM
Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), St. Catharines — Victoria Lawn Cemetery 1855St. Catharines Heritage Corridor
The first person to be buried on this land was a sailor known simply as Brooks. that year, 1855, when the land was still known only as Potter's Fields, seven others were also buried, beginning the establishment of St. Catharines' largest and most historically significant cemetery.

Officially opened in 1856 as St. Catharines Cemetery, it was unusual in that it was an all-denominational burial ground, virtually unheard of in the 1800s. While plots in different sections were assigned to . . . — Map (db m76332) HM

Yukon Territory, Carcross — Carcross during World War IIAlaska-Canada Highway, 50 Years: 1942-1992
During World War II, Carcross played an important role in Alaska Highway construction. The connection here between the White Pass rail and water transportation systems gave the U.S. Army access to the Yukon’s interior. By early 1942, Carcross residents were well aware of the war. Many young men had joined the armed forces, and their families anxiously followed the news from Europe. That spring, however, the war moved much closer to home when 1200 Black troops of the 93rd Engineers stepped . . . — Map (db m68899) HM
Philippines, Metro Manila, Sampaloc, Manila — Santo Tomas Internment Camp — Main Building, University of Santo Tomas
Through these portals passed up to ten thousand Americans and other nationals of the free world who were interned within these walls by the Japanese military. Suffering great physical privation and national humiliation from January 4, 1942, until liberated February 3, 1945, by the American Forces under General Douglas MacArthur. — Map (db m72731) HM WM
U.S Virgin Islands, St John, St. John — Slave Quarters
Primarily used for sleeping and household storage, typical “wattle and daub”’ huts with woven stick walls (wattle), dirt floors, and tyre palm roofs comprised Annaberg’s slave quarters on the slope below. The exteriors were plastered (daubed) with fresh cow dung, clay, or a mixture of sand, lime, and water. The bedding was made of sacks stuffed with coconut husks. Cooking and chores were done in the surrounding yard. — Map (db m60777) HM
Alabama (Autauga County), Prattville — Happy Hollow
Known as Fair Road, Sixth Street from Northington Street to the big curve was called “Happy Hollow”. The road went to the Fair home place but also curved right, into Warren Circle. Here stood a small frame church where the congregation’s enthusiastic preaching, singing, and shouting led to the name Happy Hollow Church. Bethlehem Colored Methodist Episcopal was relocated in 1947 to Chestnut and Sixth, and renamed Bethlehem Christian Methodist Episcopal Church. Within the Hollow . . . — Map (db m70800) HM
Alabama (Autauga County), Prattville — Wilson Pickett, Jr.March 18, 1941 - January 19, 2006
A native of Prattville, Wilson Pickett was raised singing gospel in local churches. Upon moving to Detroit as a teenager, he began to blend gospel-style with rhythm and blues, resulting in some of "the deepest, funkiest soul music" to come from the Deep South. In 1966, he began working with musicians in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, and it was there that he cut some of his biggest hits, including “Land of a Thousand Dances,” “Mustang Sally” and “Funky . . . — Map (db m70804) HM
Alabama (Barbour County), Eufaula — Old Negro Cemetery / Fairview Cemetery
Front Interred on this gently sloping hillside are the remains of many of Eufaula’s early black citizens. Their names are known only to God because the wooden grave markers which located the burials have long since vanished. This burying ground was used until about 1870 when black interments were moved to Pine Grove Cemetery. In addition to the “Old Negro Cemetery”, there are at least five other graveyards including the Jewish, Presbyterian, Masonic Odd Fellows and Public . . . — Map (db m27987) HM
Alabama (Bullock County), Midway — First Baptist Missionary Church 1875
The Macedonia Baptist Church, located between the communities of Midway and Mt. Coney, was constructed by freedmen after the American Civil War, replacing the brush arbors used by the area’s antebellum slaves as sites for religious worship. Four separate congregations grew out of the original church: Antioch Baptist Church; Oak Grove Baptist Church; Mt. Coney Baptist Church; and Second Baptist Colored Church of Midway.

First organized in 1875, Second Baptist was built on a one-acre site . . . — Map (db m60947) HM

Alabama (Bullock County), Midway — Old Merritt School Midway Community Center
Margaret Elizabeth Merritt of Midway sold two acres for $5 to the state of Alabama in 1921 as a site for an elementary school for African-American children. Built in 1922 with matching Rosenwald funds, the Midway Colored Public School featured oak and pine construction and two classrooms divided by a partition. The building is one of the few surviving of the more than 5,000 rural black schools built with contributions from the Julius Rosenwald Fund. Enlarged twice, then renovated in 1978, it is . . . — Map (db m60910) HM
Alabama (Bullock County), Midway — 1998 — St. James C.M.E. ChurchRailroad Street Midway, Alabama
St. James Christian Methodist Episcopal Church founded by Reverend Jack McMillan, a former slave of Midway’s Daniel McMillan. Initially meeting outdoors under a brush arbor, ex-slaves and their children constructed a wood-frame church building soon after this lot was purchased in December 1882. A storm subsequently damaged the building which was rebuilt in 1896. Gable-roofed, the structure’s original steeple church bell was enclosed in a cupola. Additional rooms have been added and the main . . . — Map (db m60909) HM
Alabama (Bullock County), Union Springs — Union Springs, Alabama
In the early 1800s, settlers coming from the Carolinas and Georgia received land grants and some purchased land from the Indians. The settled and cleared the forest for new farms and plantations in what would become a newly formed State of Alabama (1819). This same area would become Macon County in 1832. African men, women, and children were brought in as slaves tending fields, doing carpentry work, becoming brick masons, and serving in the homes of their owners in various capacities. . . . — Map (db m60950) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — Freedom Riders
On May 14, 1961, a Greyhound bus left Atlanta, GA carrying among its passengers seven members of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), a.k.a. the “Freedom Riders,” on a journey to test interstate bus segregation. The bus was met by an angry mob at the bus station in Anniston, AL where tires were slashed and windows broken. Upon leaving Anniston, the bus was followed by the mob to this site where the driver stopped to change the tire. The crowd set the bus on fire and attacked . . . — Map (db m35737) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Ohatchee — Janney Furnace
The furnace was constructed by Montgomery businessman Alfred A. Janney, reportedly using slaves brought from Tennessee by a "Dr. Smith." The furnace was completed and ready to produce pig iron when, on July 14, 1864, a Union cavalry raiding force of 2,300 men, led by Major General Louvell H. Rousseau, crossed the Coosa River at Ten Islands Ford in route to destroying the railroad between Montgomery and West Point, Georgia. Learning of the location of the furnace, Rousseau dispatched his . . . — Map (db m25544) HM
Alabama (Chambers County), Valley — Lanier High School
Side 1 The school was located at three different sites on Cherry Drive. Its beginning was in The Blue Hall Building adjacent to Goodsell Methodist Church. Later it was moved to the Dallas/Jackson Home and became the Jackson Hill School. In 1921, George H. Lanier provided funds to annex high school space. It became a part of Lanett City Schools, and the name changed to Lanier High. Lanier High was accredited in 1935 and six students constituted the first graduating class. The Darden . . . — Map (db m71638) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Grove Hill — Colored and White Soldiers of World War I
This is a replica of the original tablet from the 1924 World War I monument located in front of the Clarke County Courthouse. The monument was the first memorial ever erected to honor county war dead. It cost $1,650 and was paid for with donations. This tablet has historical significance. It is unique in that it shows racial tolerance for the time by honoring Blacks and Whites on the same stone. Tolerant though it may have been, it is a relic of a segregation era and a reminder that all . . . — Map (db m57385) HM
Alabama (Coosa County), Rockford — Peace & Goodwill Cemetery
Peace & Goodwill Cemetery is Coosa County's first African American Cemetery to be placed on the prestigious Alabama Historic Cemetery Register. It provides powerful insights about the diligence and commitment of our African Ancestors. Family lineages interred here include former slaves, sharecroppers, educators, preachers, soldiers, and successful businessmen and women. These graves mark the journey of entire generations born in the 1840s and buried in the early 1900s. Most notably, Rev. . . . — Map (db m64587) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Beloit — The Beloit Industrial Institute
Marker Front: The Beloit Industrial Institute was founded in 1888 by Industrial Missionary Association, an area subdivision of the American Missionary Associations. The President of the Association, Dr. Charles B. Curtis, was a Presbyterian missionary and educator from Wisconsin who established the school and founded the Beloit community. Dr. Curtis named the community for his Alma Mater, Beloit College in Wisconsin. The Beloit Industrial Institute gained recognition as the first . . . — Map (db m22142) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — Dallas County Courthouse
The grassed over mound of brick before you was once Dallas County's courthouse. This courthouse was built in 1834. It was dismantled prior to 1905 by brick salvagers. Cahawba was the county seat from 1818 to 1866. This brought a lot of people, business and money into town. When the county seat was moved to Selma in 1866, most of Cahaba's residents moved also. After the Civil War, the abandoned courthouse became a meeting hall for freedman seeking new political power. Cahaba was known . . . — Map (db m23010) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — Kirk-View Farm
In 1866, shortly after the Civil War and a severe flood, the county seat was moved from Cahaba to Selma. Residents rapidly abandoned the town. Many homes were dismantled and reassembled elsewhere. Despite this trend, returning Confederate veteran Samuel McCurdy Kirkpatrick and his wife Sarah purchased a large brick house and outlying structures here on the northern edge of town. They acquired many of the vacated town lots and consolidated them into a large farm. For nearly seventy years, . . . — Map (db m22362) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — I Had A DreamDr. Martin L. King Jr.
The demonstration that led to the most important advance in civil rights for millions of Black Americans began here March 21, 1965. It was the 50-mile march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, the State Capital. Defying threats of death, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., led 400 Black and White Americans on the longest, largest, most dramatic march of his 13-year career. It gave southern Blacks the right as citizens to cast a ballot and help determine and help operate the government under . . . — Map (db m73865) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — The Selma Movement(The Beginning) / (The Prize)
[Side A:] (The Beginning) The major civil rights protest, which focused national attention on the issue of racial discrimination in voting & led to the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, was centered in Selma. In January of 1963 local citizens organized a voter registration class & by February others were in Selma to assist with registration. Local law officials & blacks seeking to register to vote soon clashed & this received widespread news coverage. Dr. Martin . . . — Map (db m37662) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — 1965 — Valley Creek Presbyterian ChurchOne of state’s first Presbyterian churches
Established in 1816 by eight families form Rocky River Presbyterian Church in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. In 1859 this two-story brick building replaced original wooden structure. Sanctuary and former slave gallery are on second floor. Other meetings held on first floor. In nearby cemetery lies heroes of America’s wars since 1776. — Map (db m37619) HM
Alabama (Elmore County), Wetumpka — Elmore County Training School
Constructed in 1924 on five acres, this building was one of nine schools constructed in Elmore County with funding assistance from the Julius Rosenwald Fund. Between 1912-32, Julius Rosenwald, a Jewish philanthropist and CEO of Sears, Roebuck and Company teamed up with Booker T. Washington and Tuskegee Institute to provide matching grants for the construction of school buildings for African Americans in mostly rural areas of the South. This collaborative effort produced more than 5,000 of these . . . — Map (db m70548) HM
Alabama (Elmore County), Wetumpka — Wetumpka's Bridges
(side 1) In 1834, the Wetumpka Toll Bridge Co. built the first of four bridges spanning the Coosa River at this site. It was destroyed in a flood in 1844. A second toll bridge was completed the same year by John Godwin whose slave, Horace King, designed and supervised construction of this covered bridge. Emancipated in 1846, King built numerous bridges in the South and his services were much in demand by the CSA during the Civil War. After the war, he was elected to the state . . . — Map (db m69449) HM
Alabama (Hale County), Gallion — Freetown
Side A In 1867 a group of African American men and women laid the foundations for Freetown. William, John, Albert, George, Richard, and Peter Collins; Susan and Lawrence Moore; Thomas Jeffries; the children of John Jeffries; and Louisa Conway and her children received over six hundred acres of land in the will of John Collins, a local planter who had migrated from Virginia to Alabama in 1837. The early residents included former slaves and free people of color. Many of the men were . . . — Map (db m38192) HM
Alabama (Hale County), Gallion — Oak Grove School
Tuskegee educator Booker T. Washing and Julius Rosenwald, Sears, Roebuck & Company president, initiated one of the most ambitiuous school building programs for African Americans in the United States. The Oak Grove School is one example of the more than 5,300 school buildings constructed in 15 southern states between 1912 and 1913 with financial support of the Rosenwald Rural School Building Fund. In 1925, the local community match Rosenwald's gift and hired Grover Scott to erect his school on . . . — Map (db m72975) HM
Alabama (Henry County), Abbeville — Henry County Training SchoolEstablished 1914
Founded by Laura L. Ward. Building designed and constructed by Jim McCauley on land given by Glass Maybin. Classes began Sept., 1917. Principals who served school were: J. H. Jackson, W. R. Rosser, Felix Blackwood, Sr., and William B. Ward, Sr. First teachers were: Laura L. Ward, Bertha Matthews and Mattie Belle. School operated for 53 years until closed June 30, 1970. During this time it served as principal educational center for black citizens of Henry County, graduating a total of 1297 students. — Map (db m71809) HM
Alabama (Henry County), Abbeville — Rosa Parks Lived Here
Front Civil rights pioneer Rosa McCauley Parks was born on February 4, 1913 in Tuskegee, Alabama. Shortly after her birth her parents James and Leona McCauley, moved here to a 260 acre farm owned by her grandparents, Anderson and Louisa McCauley. Her father, a builder, designed and constructed the Henry County Training School for black students in 1914. After a few years in Henry County, Rosa and her mother moved to Pine Level, Alabama, to live with her maternal grandparents, while her . . . — Map (db m60681) HM
Alabama (Henry County), Newville — Newville High School / Newville Rosenwald School
Side 1 Newville High School The first known school in Newville was at Center Church in 1881. When Grange Hall was built in 1891, church services and school were held on the first floor. In 1913, Grange Hall was torn down and the wood was used to build a school. Newville Public School became Newville Jr. High in 1920. In 1923, it was decided to build an up-to-date modern brick school. Newville High School was opened in 1929. The school building at Concord was moved to . . . — Map (db m71812) HM
Alabama (Houston County), Dothan — Cherry Street African Methodist Episcopal Church
On this site in 1877 Gaines Chapel Church was organized. A wooden structure was erected adjacent to an existing graveyard. In 1891 and 1901 additional land was purchased. In 1908 the present building was dedicated. This structure was of early twentieth century design. At this time its name was changed to Cherry Street AME Church. The Church has been declared the “Mother Church” of the AME denomination in the State of Alabama. — Map (db m73362) HM
Alabama (Jackson County), Paint Rock — The History of Paint Rock, Alabama / Paint Rock Arrests in 1931 Began 'Scottsboro Boys' Cases
(side 1) The History of Paint Rock, Alabama Originally Camden circa 1830, the post office was renamed Redman in 1846 and became Paint Rock on May 17, 1860. After the Memphis and Charleston Railroad Co. built a depot and water tower in 1856, the village thrived as a farm to market center. Four battles were waged nearby during the Civil War and Union troops guarded the railroad. Early industries included a mill to grind corn and wheat, a pencil mill, and two mills made . . . — Map (db m69756) HM
Alabama (Jackson County), Scottsboro — Jackson County Courthouse And The Scottsboro Boys
Marker front: Constructed in 1911-1912 and designed by architect Richard H. Hunt, the Jackson County Courthouse is a Neo-Classical, brick building situated on a town square in Scottsboro, the county seat of Jackson County. The front, two-story portico is supported by four stone columns of the Doric order. A cupola on the top contains a Seth Thomas clock. This courthouse was the site of the first of the Scottsboro Boys trials. Two white women accused nine black teenagers of rape on . . . — Map (db m22264) HM
Alabama (Jackson County), Scottsboro — Scottsboro Railroad Depot
The Memphis and Charleston Railroad Company constructed the Scottsboro Railroad Depot in 1860-1861 as a passenger and freight facility. The rail line ran throughout the Confederacy and the Union considered its capture vital to cutting off supplies to the south. On January 8, 1865, the Depot was the site of an intense battle between 101st U.S. Colored Infantry and the 110th U.S. Colored Infantry, who held the Depot, and Confederate soldiers led by Brigadier-General H. B. Lyon. The out-numbered . . . — Map (db m22258) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — "Peace Be Still"Mark 4:39
On Palm Sunday, 1963 Rev. N. H. Smith, Rev. John T. Porter and Rev. A. D. King led a sympathy march from St. Paul United Methodist Church down 6th Avenue North in support of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth and Rev. Ralph Abernathy who were in jail. 2,000 marchers assembled behind Smith, Porter and King like a "storm cloud". The march climaxed at Kelly Ingram Park where the marchers were met by billy clubs and police dogs. In the heat of the event these three ministers . . . — Map (db m73023) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 1963 Church Bombing Victims
This cemetery is the final resting place of three of the four young girls killed in the September 15, 1963 church bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church. Addie Mae Collins, Cynthia Wesley and Carol Robertson are buried here. The fourth victim, Denise McNair, is buried elsewhere. The tragic loss of these lives led to the end of the era of massive resistance to social change in Birmingham and the release of the city from the fear which long paralyzed progress in human relations. — Map (db m61197) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 4th Avenue District
The Fourth Avenue "Strip" thrived during a time when downtown privileges for blacks were limited. Although blacks could shop at some white-owned stores, they did not share the same privileges and services as white customers, so they created tailor shops, department stores, cafeterias, billiard parlors, fruit stands, shoe shine shops, laundry service, jewelry and record shops, and taxicab stands. These businesses were distinctively geared toward and managed by blacks. When darkness fell, the . . . — Map (db m26985) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Alabama Veterans MemorialLiberty Park
            Pearl Harbor               May 31, 1941 Dear Friend, I hope all is well with you. I am doing well but due to the present state of emergency the Pacific Fleet is held in a place known as Hawaiian Territory. Would you do me a great favor? Whenever you are in town get me some info on our class ring. I missed out on getting one due to the lack of funds. Now that I am away from everything that reminds me of the good old days I would like very much to have that ring. I would be . . . — Map (db m27409) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Arthur D. Shores"Dean of Black Lawyers in The State of Alabama."
During the first 30 years of his 54-year-old practice, Attorney Shores practiced all over the State of Alabama - from the Tennessee line to the Gulf of Mexico at Mobile Bay, and from the Mississippi borders to the Georgia limits. During the period roughly between 1940 and 1950 he was the only lone voice in the wilderness defending the civil rights of black people. Mr. Shores practiced civil rights law all over the state of Alabama during an era in which his life was in constant jeopardy. He . . . — Map (db m26720) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Brock Drugs Building
The Brock building was established in 1915, located at the intersection of Fourth Avenue and 18th Street North, was built while the area was residential. The three-story building housed a hotel upstairs that catered to professional musicians and athletes. The drug store served as the "gathering place" for black patrons during the early 1920's through the early 1960's. The building was demolished in the 80's. The most notable businesses included:             1928 - 1977 Palm Leaf Hotel   . . . — Map (db m26723) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Carrie A. Tuggle1858 - 1924
In Tribute to Carrie A. Tuggle 1858 - 1924 Scholar, Teacher and Christian. A life of unselfish service to the troubled and the homeless black boys and girls. In 1903, she founded a school and orphanage, the Tuggle Institute. — Map (db m27391) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Civil Rights Freedom RidersMay 14, 1961
On Mother's Day, May 14, 1961, a group of black and white CORE youth on a "Freedom Ride" from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans arrived by bus at the Birmingham Greyhound terminal. They were riding through the deep south to test a court case, "Boynton vs. Virginia", declaring segregation in bus terminals unconstitutional. Here they were met and attacked by a mob of Klansmen. The riders were severely assaulted while the police watched, yet the youth stood their grounds. — Map (db m26698) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Don't Tread on Me
1963 A female protestor remained defiant as police drag her away from a demonstration in Birmingham's nearby retail district. Activists in Birmingham--led for seven years by Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth before the 1963 Birmingham Campaign--put their lives on the line to rebel against the City's unjust and unconstitutional segregation laws. One such law, City Code Section 369, said, ?It shall be unlawful to conduct a restaurant in the city at which White and Colored people are served in the same . . . — Map (db m73035) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Don't Tread on Me
Leaders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) learned they could apply economic pressure to White businesses with more effective results than moral persuasion alone. Therefore, the central strategy of the Birmingham Campaign targeted the City's retail base. "Project C" (the "C" stood for "confrontation") started with sit-ins at Birmingham lunch counters and continued with marches, pickets and boycotts of Birmingham retail stores. Movement leaders used these non-violent direct . . . — Map (db m73037) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Born Jan. 15, 1929 Assassinated Apr. 4. 1968 "...yes, if you want to say that I was a drum major, say that I was a drum major for justice; say that I was a drum major for peace..." His dream liberated Birmingham from itself and began a new day of love, mutual respect and cooperation. This statue of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. erected by citizens of Birmingham as an indication of their esteem for him and in appreciation of his sacrificial service to mankind. Unveiled: Jan. 20, 1986 . . . — Map (db m73007) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth invited Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. to Birmingham in 1962. Shuttlesworth saw potential in the young minister, and their combined efforts were instrumental in Birmingham's desegregation. The campaign catapulted King into the spotlight as the foremost leader in America's Civil Rights Movement. — Map (db m73031) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dr. Ruth J. Jackson1898 - 1982
Dedicated to Dr. Ruth J. Jackson 1898-1982 This woman of strength and vision graduated from the Poro School of Cosmetology, the first black registered school in the State of Alabama. At the vanguard of the Civil Rights Movement, she was unwavering in her devotion to the Birmingham Community. She inspired both children and adults to complete their education. Members of the Southern Beauty Congress and the Alabama Association of Modern Beauticians, Organizations to which she rendered . . . — Map (db m27090) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — East Birmingham
Marker Front: Founded in 1886 on 600 acres of land, East Birmingham was the agricultural area consisting primarily of dairy farms extending to the present Birmingham airport. The East Birmingham Land Company that developed the area was formed by local industrialist who proposed sites for manufacturing plants, employee housing , and a streetcar line linking them to Birmingham. East Birmingham was annexed to the city in 1910. In the decades after 1886, Industrial enterprises and . . . — Map (db m26633) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Eddie James KendrickDecember 17, 1937 - October 5, 1992
Eddie James Kendrick, nicknamed "cornbread", was born the eldest of five children to Johnny and Lee Bell Kendrick in Union Springs, Alabama. After attending Western-Olin High School in Ensley, Alabama, Eddie was persuaded by his childhood friend Paul Williams to move to Detroit, Michigan. It was there they formed a singing group called "The Primes". While in Detroit, the duo met Otis Williams of the music group "The Distants". The two groups merged forming the legendary "Temptations". . . . — Map (db m26724) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Foot Soldier TributeRonald S. McDowell, Artist I.B.J.C.
This sculpture is dedicated to the Foot Soldiers of the Birmingham Civil Rights Movement. With gallantry, courage and great bravery they faced the violence of attack dogs, high powered water hoses, and bombings. They were the fodder in the advance against injustice. Warriors of a Just Cause: They represent humanity unshaken in their firm belief in their nation’s commitment to liberty and justice for all. We salute these men and women who were the Soldiers of this Great Cause.     . . . — Map (db m27394) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Fourth Avenue Historic District.
Marker front: Prior to 1900 a "black business district" did not exist in Birmingham. In a pattern characteristic of Southern cities found during Reconstruction, black businesses developed alongside those of whites in many sections of the downtown area. After the turn of the century, Jim Crow laws authorizing the distinct separation of "the races" and subsequent restrictions placed on black firms forced the growing black business community into an area along Third, Fourth, and Fifth . . . — Map (db m26702) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Fraternal Hotel Building
The Fraternal Hotel Building was built in 1925. Some of the businesses that were located in this building included: 1925 - 1980 Fraternal Hotel 1925 - 1970 Fraternal Café 1950 - 1966 Monroe Steak House 1985 - 1994 Grand Lodge Knights of Pythians 1928 - 1931 Mabry Brothers Department Store 1952 - 1985 Hill Photo Studio 1950 - 1985 Central Barber Shop Famous persons such as: Dr. Martin L. King, Jr., Rev. Jesse Jackson, Jackie Robinson, Monroe Kennedy and many others were . . . — Map (db m27518) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Green Acres Café1705 - 4th Avenue, North
Businesses that occupied this building between 1908 - 1970 1908 - 1913 Southern Bell Telephone Company Stockroom 1915 - 1926 OK French Dry Cleaning Company 1927 - 1938 George Kanelis Billiards 1940 - 1945 Alex’s Steak House 1946 - 1971 OK Cleaning Company Historically, this building has been identified as the OK Cleaners building. During the early 1970’s until 1989 this building remained vacant. Green Acres Café was established in 1959 and was located at 1600 - 6th Avenue, . . . — Map (db m27521) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Ground Zero
You are standing at Ground Zero of the 1963 civil rights struggle in Birmingham. When African-American leaders and citizens resolved to fight the oppression of a strictly segregated society, they were met with vitriol and violence despite their own determinedly peaceful approach. — Map (db m73015) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Jim Crow on the Books
The first march to City Hall was organized in 1955 by Rev. Fred L. Shuttlesworth when he petitioned the city to hire Negro policemen. By 1963, thousands of Blacks marched on City Hall to protest Jim Crow laws that were a constant reminder of Blacks' second-class status in America. Such laws robbed them of fair voting, and public facility rights. Separate water fountains, restrooms, schools, public transportation and other facilities were marked with "Whites Only" and "Colored" or "Negroes" . . . — Map (db m73036) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Julius Ellsberry
In dedication to Julius Ellsberry, the first Black Alabama man to die in World War II; born Birmingham, Ala, 1922. Enlisted in the U.S. Navy, 1940; First Class Mate [sic] Attendant aboard battleship Oklahoma in the Battle of Pearl Harbor, did sacrifice his life to save his shipmates, December 7, 1941. — Map (db m63761) HM WM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Julius Ellsberry Memorial Park
In honor of Julius Ellsberry of Birmingham World War II Hero First Jefferson County Citizen to die for his country at Pearl Harbor while serving aboard the U.S.S. Oklahoma December 7, 1941 — Map (db m70261) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Kneeling Ministers
Responsible for much planning and leadership, the clergy played a central role in the Birmingham Campaign--like the famous Palm Sunday incident in 1963 (see nearby plaque). Local clergy like Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth worked with out-of-town ministers, Martin Luther King, Jr., and even a group of rabbis from New York, who likened segregation to the Holocaust. — Map (db m73080) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Non-Violent Foot Soldiers
The central principle of the American Civil Rights Movement was non-violence, based on the strategies of Mahatma Gandhi, who led India's independence struggle against the British Empire. Being non-violent did not mean being passive. Using "direct action," protesters aggressively disobeyed unfair segregation laws. This put them on a collision course with the White establishment that refused to change. Protesters were trained to resist, yet not fight violence with violence. They believed that . . . — Map (db m73029) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Non-Violent Foot Soldiers
Those who participated in the marches and other demonstrations in the Birmingham Campaign agreed to a pledge of nonviolence. A few of the "Ten Commandments" of the pledge were: "Mediate daily on the teaching and life of Jesus. Remember always that the nonviolent movement in Birmingham seeks justice and reconciliation - not victory. Refrain from the violence of the fist, tongue and heart." After protesters knelt to pray in the streets, they were arrested. Here they quietly line-up to get into . . . — Map (db m73033) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Pauline Bray Fletcher1878 - 1970
In Tribute to Pauline Bray Fletcher 1878 - 1970 The First Black Registered Nurse of Alabama Through self-sacrifice, perseverance founded in 1926 Camp Pauline Bray Fletcher. Renewing the faith and the good health of all black children. — Map (db m27393) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Police Presence
May 1963 Helmeted police stand ready in Kelly Ingram Park outside the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, one of many strategic hubs from which "Project C" organizers launched marches. Police try to keep marchers away from City Hall, usually stopping them at 17th Street. White police often considered this street to be the great dividing line between them and Black protesters advancing to government sites downtown. — Map (db m73032) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Reflecting Pool
Throughout May 1963, the pressure continued to build. The downtown business district was closed, a prominent black-owned motel was bombed, and 3,000 federal troops were dispatched to restore order before Birmingham was officially desegregated. This placid fountain mirrors the peace that the brave "Freedom Fighters" helped forge. — Map (db m73021) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth
No one did more to bring about positive change in Birmingham than the Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth. In his struggle for equal rights, he survived a series of assaults, including the bombing of his home and a brutal armed beating by the Ku Klux Klan. In spite of it all, he was instrumental in victory after victory for civil rights in Birmingham and America. — Map (db m73025) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Rev. Fred Shuttleworth Bethel Baptist Church
Rev. Fred Shuttleworth's tenure as pastor of Bethel Baptist Church (1953-1961) was marked by demonstrations, bombings and passionate sermons critical of segregation laws. His activism earned him a house bombing, frequent beatings, arrests, and threats to his family. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. called Shuttleworth “one of the nation's most courageous freedom fighters.”Shuttleworth organized lunch counter sit-ins and encouraged Blacks to apply for civil service jobs. The church was . . . — Map (db m50398) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Rickwood Field
Built by local industrialist A. H. "Rick" Woodward, this park opened on August 18, 1910. It is the oldest surviving baseball park in America. Rickwood served as the home park for both the Birmingham Barons (until 1987) and the Birmingham Black Barons (until 1963). It was also a favorite site for barnstorming Major League teams. Many greats of the game thrilled crowds here, including Babe Ruth, Jackie Robinson, Ty Cobb, Burleigh Grimes, Ted Williams, Stan Musial, Walt Dropo,and Reggie Jackson. . . . — Map (db m22526) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Sixteenth Street Baptist ChurchHas Been Designated a National Historic Landmark.
This property possesses National Significance in commemorating the history of the United States. In 1963 it was the staging ground for the Birmingham Campaign Civil Rights Youth Marches and the place where a bomb killed four young girls, "Martyred Heroines of a Holy Crusade for Freedom and Human Dignity." — Map (db m63733) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Smithfield
Marker Front: This residential area was carved from the Joseph Riley Smith plantation, a 600 acre antebellum farm, one of the largest in 19th century Jefferson County. Smithfield lies to the west of Birmingham's city center on the flat land & hills north of Village Creek & has the city's earliest & most substantial concentration of black, middle-class residences, small commercial enclaves & churches. The neighborhood illustrates the lifestyles of a wide spectrum of black Birmingham . . . — Map (db m26990) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Children's Crusade
On May 2, 1963, more than 1,000 students skipped school and marched on downtown, gathering at the 16th Street Baptist Church. Bull Connor responded by jailing more than 600 children that day. So the next day, another 1,000 students filled the park in which you stand now. With his cells full and his back against the wall, Connor responded savagely. — Map (db m73017) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Foot Soldiers
When notoriously racist police commissioner Eugene "Bull" Connor sicced dogs on the "Foot Soldiers" of the movement, civil rights leaders hoped it would shine a national spotlight on their plight, but the country at large remained woefully ignorant. However, Southern Christian Leadership Conference leaders had an ace up their sleeves... — Map (db m73398) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Tuxedo Junction
"Tuxedo Junction" was the street car crossing on the Ensley-Fairfield line at this corner in the Tuxedo Park residential area. It also refers to the fraternal dance hall operated in the 1920's and 1930s on the second floor of the adjacent building, and to the 1939 hit song "Tuxedo Junction", written by Birmingham musician-composer Erskine Hawkins, who grew up nearby and became a well known big band leader in New York City.         "Co-ome on down, forget your care,         Co-ome on . . . — Map (db m25623) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Water Cannons
Bull Connor ordered the fearless "Child Crusaders" to be blasted with high-pressure fire hoses, and he once again loosed the dogs on the young demonstrators. When the media finally exposed the nation to the cruel scene, President John F. Kennedy attempted to intervene, but a defiant Connor continued to brutalize and imprison indiscriminately. — Map (db m73019) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Wilson Chapel And Cemetery("The Little Brown Church in the Wildwood")
Wilson Chapel was built in 1916 as a memorial to James and Frances Wilson by their daughters, Rosa Wilson Eubanks and Minerva Wilson Constantine. At the time of its construction the area was developing into a community of country homes known as Roebuck Springs. Styled after the architecture of English parish churches, the chapel marks and protects the site of one of the oldest cemeteries in Alabama. Frances Wilson's father, Audley Hamilton, was granted this land in 1818 and the cemetery . . . — Map (db m26681) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Zion Memorial Gardens
Mt. Zion Baptist Church began burying here in the mid-1800s. On June 2, 1970, New Grace Hill Cemetery, Inc., a subsidiary of the Booker T. Washington Insurance Company in Birmingham, purchased this cemetery and officially named it Zion Memorial Gardens. Dr. A. G. Gaston (1892-1996) organized the Booker T. Washington Burial Society in 1923, responding to the lack of burial insurance available to African Americans. Gaston believed, “a proper funeral is of immense importance….it’s the very . . . — Map (db m35602) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Leeds — John HenryLedgendary 'Steel Drivin' Man'
The story of "steel driving' man" John Henry is one of America's most enduring legends. The strong ex-slave became a folk hero during construction of the Columbus & Western Railroad between Goodwater and Birmingham. He drilled holes for explosives used to blast tunnels. According to legend, he was involved in a race against a steam-powered drill that its manufacturer claimed could do the job faster than a man. Witnesses said after the all-day contest that he and his heavy hammer cleared . . . — Map (db m22207) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Bennett Walker Smith
Rev. Dr. Bennett W. Smith, as president of the Progressive National Baptist Convention, expanded the organization internationally. Active in Civil Rights in America and South Africa, he counseled President Bill Clinton on racial equality. Inducted 2010 City of Florence Walk of Honor — Map (db m38645) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Burrell Normal SchoolBurrell High School — Burrell-Slater High School 1903~1969
This school named Burrell Academy,formerly in Selma, Alabama, was given to Florence by the American Missionary Association. In 1903, Burrell Normal School opened and served African ~American students in grades 1-12. In 1937, the Florence City Board of Education assumed its operation and changed the name to Burrell High School. In 1951, it was moved to the Slater Elementary School Building on South Court Street and its name was changed to Burrell Slater High School. That building burned in 1958. . . . — Map (db m56356) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Capture of John A.MurrellNatchez Trace Outlaw — 1834
John A. Murrell, known as the "Great Western Land Pirate," was captured near this site in the winter of 1834. He was said to have killed over 400 people, including many kidnapped slaves. His arrest was brought about thought the clever maneuvering of Tom Brannon, a local African~American slave. An attempt had been made by the outlaw to recruit Brannon as a contact man for his far~reaching empire of crime. Brannon was awarded $100 for his bravery and his name was publicized across the country. — Map (db m28463) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Church Spring and School(Circa 1840-1895)
About 1849, African-Americans began holding religious services in a brick cow shed overlooking the town spring near the site. It was purchased in 1857 by the local Methodists for this congregation, with Robin Lightfoot, a slave as its pastor. In 1879, it was organized as St. Paul's African-American Methodist Episcopal Church. Children of slaves and freemen were taught here in early years. In 1866, the Freedmen's Bureau established a school for the children of African-Americans, probably at this location. — Map (db m45812) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Dr. Hicks Boulevard
This boulevard was named in honor of Dr. Leonard Jerry Hicks by the City of Florence in 1981. Dr. Hicks was a prominent Black leader of the community and was recognized for his skills as a physician across the State of Alabama. He was born September 20, 1899, at Plant City, Florida, and died September 27, 1973, at Florence. Dr. Hicks' medical office was located near this site. — Map (db m35257) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Dred Scott(In Florence 1820 -1830)
Dred Scott, whose name is associated with the landmark U.S. Supreme Court Dred Scott Decision of 1857, was born in Virginia between 1795~1809. In 1818 he was in Madison County, Alabama. He came to Florence with the Peter Blow family in 1820. About 1827 the Peter Blow Inn was established at this site, Scott served as the hostler here until the Blows relocated to St. Louis, Missouri, in 1830. Afterwards, Scott was sold to Dr. John Emerson. It was under Emerson’s service that Scott based his legal . . . — Map (db m35183) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Dred Scott
Dred Scott, a slave who served as the hostler in Peter Blow's Florence Hotel, waged a 14-year legal fight for freedom that resulted in the U.S. Supreme Court's Dred Scott Decision of 1857, a pivotal event in American history. — Map (db m56375) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Florence Bethel Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America
The "Mother Church" of the Presbytery, Florence Cumberland Colored Presbyterian Church originated in 1898 on property deeded by the city. Led, in 1918, by Rev. Holt Smith, it bought property on Alabama Street and build a frame structure. In 1948 Rev. Earl McDonald led in the construction of the annex named for him and the Jerome Robinson Education building. In 1997, the name became Florence Bethel Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America. The church continually proclaims the compassion of Christ throughout the world. — Map (db m32767) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — James Thomas Rapier
Lawyer and statesman James T. Rapier, a son of free African-American parents in Florence, holds the distinction of being just the second African-American from Alabama to be elected, in 1873, to the U.S. Congress. Inducted 2007 City of Florence Walk of Honor — Map (db m28887) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — John Thomas Bulls, Jr
For 21 years following the end of World War II, John Bulls served as Agricultural Extension Advisor for the U.S. Dept. in India, Nigeria, Tunisia and Uganda, assisting farmers and organizing community development programs. — Map (db m38642) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Patton Elementary School(1891-1958)
First school in Florence Public school system built 1890 on land given by Governor Robert M. Patton. It was occupied in 1891. Designed originally to serve all white elementary school children of Florence. Usually served six grades divided into nine sections. The building was remodeled several times and also housed the Superintendents Offices. Cloakrooms, safety doors, fire escapes were added, and the third floor was removed in 1921. Ada Coffee, leading Alabama educator, joined the facility . . . — Map (db m29272) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — St Paul African Methodist Episcopal Church(Organized 1879 from earlier 1840 Congregation)
In early 1840s about 14 African-American members from First Methodist formed own congregation “Church Springs” near South Court Street. In 1857, a nearby brick cow shed was converted for its use under Rev. Robin Lightfoot who became a martyr during the Civil War. Site of American Missionary School after Emancipation. Organized as St. Paul AME in 1879. Relocated to Court and Alabama Streets in 1895. Charles B. Handy was early pastor and William W. Handy was early leader (father and . . . — Map (db m56357) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — The Greater Mount MoriahPrimitive Baptist Church — ~1896~
The congregation first met in home of Mrs. Betsy Key. Organized as "Fairgrounds Church" in 1896 at nearby site of early Florence Racetrack and Fairgrounds, with Andy Sloss as pastor. Later, the church was moved to Irvine Avenue (formerly Fish-Trap Road). Mrs. Mary Ola Key was given honor of naming the church "Mount Moriah." The adjoining lot was purchased and church rebuilt in 1924, with C.A. Crump as pastor. In 1924, the building was remodeled and another addition erected under David Tolbert . . . — Map (db m56355) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Weeden Heightsearly 1900s
This Twentieth century business and residential area was developed by John D. Weeden Jr. during the building of Wilson Dam and the World War I Defense Plants. Weeden Heights was carved from 3,800-acre Sweetwater Plantation, the former home of his grandfather, Governor Robert M. Patton. The slave village, with its 23 small cabins facing a community square, was located north of the Broadway Recreation Center. An unmarked slave cemetery is nearby. In 1871 the Pattons gifted a 25-acre farm in this . . . — Map (db m35632) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — William Christopher Handy
Born in Florence in 1873, W.C. Handy wrote some of the country's most recognizable blues music such as the "St. Louis Blues." He became internationally known as the "Father of the Blues." Inducted 2007 City of Florence Walk of Honor — Map (db m28890) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Wilson Family Cemetery 19th Century / Slave Cemetery 19th Century
Side A In 1818 three Wilson brothers John, Matthew and Samuel, came from Virginia to purchase large farms in this area. The plantations of John and Matthew joined near this cemetery. All three brothers and their families are buried here. Inscriptions on two gravestones tell of a Civil War atrocity when, on April 30, 1865 two local Union guerrilla gangs tortured and murdered John Wilson and his nephew, Matthew Jr. Two others in the house were shot, yet lived to tell the story. The . . . — Map (db m28160) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Courtland — The African ~ American Experience
Marker Front: African~Americans played a very significant role in the early history of Courtland. Most came as slaves from the older southern states to help clear the land, to plant crops of cotton and corn, and to serve as household domestics. President Thomas Jefferson’s great~grandson, William S. Bankhead, brought his personal servant and valet, Jupiter, from Monticello when he settled near Courtland in the 1840s. Skilled slave craftsmen also assisted in constructing many Courtland . . . — Map (db m29009) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Danville — James Cleveland "Jesse" Owens
Born near this site 12 September 1913 to Henry Cleveland and Emma (Fitzgerald)Owens, who were sharecroppers and the offspring of freed slaves, Jesse was destined to attain immorality in the 1936 Olympic Games at Berlin, Germany. Although he moved to Cleveland, Ohio, at age 9, his early years here in Lawrence County, Alabama, helped mold his noble character. After high school, he enrolled at Ohio State where on 25 May 1935 at a Big Ten Conference meet, he broke and tied various world track and . . . — Map (db m37465) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Auburn — Baptist Hill
(Side 1) Auburn's first separate black community cemetery offers a rich source of the city’s black heritage. Much of the history is oral but it is known that a white man gave most of the land in the early 1870’s. The four acre cemetery contains over 500 marked graves and many others are unmarked. The oldest grave is dated 1879. Those interred here are a cross section of the city’s blacks. Many were born slaves but later succeeded in teaching or business. The cemetery is still in use . . . — Map (db m74453) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Auburn — Ebenezer Baptist ChurchBaptist Hill — East Thach Avenue
(Side 1) This simple frame structure was built by newly freed black men and women before 1870. The property on which the building stands was given to a member of the Ebenezer congregation in 1865, the year the War Between the States ended, by a white landowner, Lonnie Payne. The church is built of hand hewn logs, felled on the Frazer plantation, northeast of Auburn, and were hauled by mule to this site. Members of the congregation constructed the building. The Church and its early . . . — Map (db m74450) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Auburn — J. F. Drake High School / Alma Mater
(Side 1) J. F. Drake High School J.F. Drake High School, formerly Lee County Training School, educated Black children of the community from 1958 to 1970. It bears the name of Dr. Joseph Fanning Drake. Drake consisted of 12 classrooms, gymnasium, kitchen, and band room/storage room. The State of Alabama curriculum was the course of study which included vocational and college preparatory. Extracurricular activities included sports, theater, and performing and fine arts. Dr. . . . — Map (db m74457) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Auburn — Noble Hall
Marker Front: The Greek Revival rock and mortar house was built by Addison Frazer (1809-1873) between 1852 and 1854 and served as the center for a 2,000 acre cotton plantation. Frazer owned 100 slaves and was on the Board of Trustees of Auburn Masonic Female College and East Alabama Male College. The contractor from Kentucky used slave labor to build the eight rooms with 12 foot high ceilings and 18 inch exterior walls, two cantilever balconies and eight Doric columns. In the rear . . . — Map (db m25988) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Auburn — Robert Wilton Burton1848-1917
(Side 1) Near this site once stood "Four-Story Cottage," the home of Robert Wilton Burton. A one-story house with wide porch and bay window, Burton built it in 1885 with proceeds from the sale of four stories to children's magazines. Born in Camden County, Georgia, Burton grew up in Lafayette, Alabama, where he began writing stories for the newspaper, on various subjects. In the early 1870’s, with his brother, he opened a bookstore in Opelika, Alabama. In 1878, at the request of the . . . — Map (db m74440) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Loachapoka — First Rosenwald School
Side 1 On this site once stood the first of over 5,300 Rosenwald schools for black children built between 1913 and 1932. The schools were started in a collaboration between Julius Rosenwald, CEO of Sears, Roebuck, and Company and Booker T. Washington, Principal of Tuskegee Institute. The dedication was held on May 18, 1913. Rosenwald grew up poor and believed in self-help; consequently, he paid for only part of the expenses to build the schools. The rest was to be raised by . . . — Map (db m73539) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Opelika — African-American Rosemere CemeteryLee County
Side 1 On February 9, 1876, the City of Opelika paid D.B. Preston $80 for two acres of land to establish an African-American section of Rosemere Cemetery. This rectangular area of the cemetery contains 176 blocks, with 16 being partial blocks. A full block has 32 grave spaces. Dr. John Wesley Darden (1876-1949) settled in Opelika in 1903. He became the first African-American doctor within a 30 mile radius. He married Miss Maude Jean Logan. After they were married, Dr. and Mrs. Darden . . . — Map (db m75139) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Opelika — Darden House
Dr. John Wesley Darden, was the first African American physician to treat patients within a 30-mile radius of Opelika. He built the Darden House in 1904, and later married Maude Jean Logan of Montgomery. Dr. and Mrs. Darden shaped many lives through their commitment to the community by providing better health care and education. The Darden House became the social and political center of the African American community in Opelika. Dr. Darden sometimes saw patients in a clinic on the main floor . . . — Map (db m75131) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Opelika — Thompson ChapelAmerican Methodist Episcopal Zion Church
Organized c. 1872 by Rev. John Ford, Tom Isaiah, Julius Crockrum, Daniel Billingslea, Fannie Bryant, Charity Harris, Sarah Chambers and others, and named for presiding Bishop J. P. Thompson. This congregation first met in a house near the oil mill and later at a grape arbor on Torbert Street. Sanctuary erected 1878, remodeled 1911 and annex built 1962. — Map (db m75157) HM
Alabama (Limestone County), Athens — Fort Henderson / Trinity School - 1865-1970
Fort Henderson Built on this site in 1863 by federal forces occupying Athens. It was a five-sided earthen fort with some frame buildings and underground bomb-proofs. Abatis lined the fifteen-foot deep perimeter ditch, a small portion of which is still visible. On September 24, 1864 after a brief fight and a clever ruse orchestrated by Confederate General Nathan B. Forrest, the fort and its 900 man garrison of mostly the 110th U.S. colored infantry were surrendered. After moving the . . . — Map (db m41787) HM
Alabama (Limestone County), Athens — Lucy's Branch/Legacy of The Little Elk Community
Lucy's Branch This site is named for Lucy Bedingfield, daughter of a slave and a Cherokee Indian. She was born 1832, and her Indian name was Finch. She married Meredith Bedingfield, a slave and had 9 children. Lucy was an astute and avid storyteller. She purchased 170 acres in June 1888, for $600, recorded by U.S. Paten #43463. One of the last known Indian Chiefs in the area formerly occupied this land. Lucy mortgaged the farm several times by making her mark. She used "Gold Coins of the . . . — Map (db m32776) HM
Alabama (Limestone County), Athens — Trinity School Cistern
This cistern is the last remnant of Trinity School located here 1865-1907. The cistern was used to store rainwater collected from the roof. No physical evidence remains of the Ross Hotel, the Chapman Quarters, and other buildings on this block, which played an important role in Athens history. Trinity, a school for the children of former slaves, was established here, on the old Richardson property, in 1865, primarily through the efforts of Miss Mary Frances Wells, the school's principal and . . . — Map (db m72219) HM
Alabama (Limestone County), Tanner — Oakland United Methodist Church
Generations of African~American families have worshiped here, beginning with services held under a brush arbor prior to the Civil War. In August of 1879, the land for the Oakland Methodist church was deeded to parishioners. In a wooden one-room building, they worshiped and operated their own private school, serving the surrounding communities and producing a number of ministers and educators. The Limestone County Board of Education took charge of the school in 1929 until it closed at the end of . . . — Map (db m29094) HM
Alabama (Lowndes County), Lowndesboro — Elmore BollingMay 10, 1908 - December 4, 1947
Lowndesboro, AL—Enraged whites, jealous over the business success of a Negro were believed to the lynchers of Elmore Bolling. Bolling, 39, was found riddled with shot gun and pistol shots 150 yards from his general merchandise store. It is believed that more than one person figured in the murder but Producers Commission Company Union Stock white employee, resident of Braggs is the only person held. He was released on $2500 bond. Bolling's small trucking business frequently hauled . . . — Map (db m70940) HM
Alabama (Lowndes County), Lowndesboro — Viola Liuzzo
In memory of our sister Viola Liuzzo who gave her life in the struggle for the right to vote... March 25, 1965 Presented by SCLC/WOMEN Evelyn Lowery National Convener - 1991 - The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Joseph Lowery, President — Map (db m70938) HM
Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — Campsite 2Selma to Montgomery Trail
Rosie Steele Farm March 22, 1965 — Map (db m70954) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Franklin — Franklin's Educational Legacy
(obverse) Franklin School, originally constructed on this lot, was in operation as early as the 1890s teaching grades 1-11. By the mid 1930s, it was downsized to grades 1-6. There were northern and southern classrooms adjoined by a common auditorium. The school's original water source was a spring near the building, later a dug well in the front yard with a hand pump provided water. Heat was provided by a wood-burning pot belly stove. Each student brought a stick of wood every morning . . . — Map (db m68028) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Shorter — Prairie Farms Resettlement Community
(obverse) Beginning in the mid-1930s during the Great Depression, the federal New Deal promoted Land Resettlement to move farmers across the nation off worn out soil to new farmland. The Resettlement Administration, and its successor the Farm Security Administration, established one of these experimental planned communities here in west Macon County, the all-African American “Prairie Farms.” With more than 3,100 acres from two plantations purchased by the federal . . . — Map (db m68000) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — Booker T. Washington
On this site stood the "shanty" where Booker T. Washington first opened school, July 4 1881. Later it became "State Normal School", next "Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute", now "Tuskegee Institute". — Map (db m69096) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — Butler Chapel AME Zion Church
Before the mid-1960s, Tuskegee’s black population faced many challenges when attempting to register to vote. Furthermore, the State of Alabama redrew the town’s political boundaries in an effort to prevent registered blacks from voting in local elections. In response to this discrimination, several thousand people gathered at Butler Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church on June 25, 1957 for the first meeting of the Tuskegee Civic Association’s “Crusade for Citizenship.” . . . — Map (db m69048) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site — A Bit to Eat
Known as the Tea Room, this small lunchroom was built during the initial expansion phase of Moton Field in 1942 and 1943, when amenities such as offices and bathrooms not built into the original hangar were added. Here, personnel stationed at Moton Field could get a bite to eat. Cadets ate at Tuskegee Institute, but they could also buy a snack in the Tea Room if they had the time. . . . cadets, instructors, and people in the area. . . come and have a snack, a bit to eat, because . . . — Map (db m64362) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site — A Typical Day
Try to imagine how Moton Field looked and sounded when the cadets trained here. Compare the scene today to the photograph below, taken from your vantage point around 1944. As the pace of training accelerated during the war, Moton Field became a very busy place. Between the two hangars, aircraft were refueled from one of six fuel tanks, which remain in the ground near where you are standing. Planes in need of maintenance taxied to the hangar. Everywhere, there were flight instructors, . . . — Map (db m64366) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site — Bath and Locker House
This building was completed in 1941 as a restroom, shower, and locker room for administrative and support personnel. It had facilities for both men and women. Both black and white may have used the building. If so, it almost certainly would have been the only integrated facility of its kind in the South at that time. The Bath and Locker House was probably not used by cadets, since they were at Moton field only a few hours a day. But mechanics, such as the one shown in this photo, needed . . . — Map (db m64361) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site — FIRE!
The Fire Protection Shed in front of you was used to store equipment such as hoses, fire extinguishers, and tools for fighting fires. Fire was always a danger at the airfield because of the flammable materials used in airplanes and the fuels stored on site. [Background photo caption reads] In 1941 a fire damaged the Bath and Locker House. Imagine what could have happened if this fire had spread to the fuel tanks nearby. [Inset photo caption reads] The Physical Plant Director . . . — Map (db m64364) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site — Hangar No. 1
In Hangar No. 1 flying became real for the aviation cadet. The hangar housed the main activities of the airfield, including flight debriefings, flight record-keeping, aircraft maintenance, and military and civilian management. Several smaller rooms surrounding the original space were added as the program grew. The door to your left originally led to the Machine Shop where metal parts for aircraft were repaired. Through those doors you will now find an orientation and information area, . . . — Map (db m64365) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site — The Control Tower
From Moton Field’s Control Tower, controllers directed flight operations and signaled landing instructions to pilots through a system of flashing colored lights. Dispatchers called cadets for their flights. The tower overlooked the busy – and noisy – flow of aircraft, pedestrian, and vehicle traffic between two hangars. The tower was where the dispatcher would look out on the field and call the cadets over the loudspeaker to tell them about their flight assignments. Also . . . — Map (db m64363) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — The Tuskegee Airmen's Plaza
This plaza is dedicated to the memory of the Tuskegee Airmen, including General Daniel "Chappie" James, whose training at Tuskegee University and the Tuskegee Army Air Field enabled them to prove for all time the competence and bravery of Black Americans in the U.S. Air Force. This plaza commemorates their courageous service in the air and on the ground--both women and men--in defense of the United States of America. Without their commitment and daring, America's victories over her enemies would have been much more difficult. — Map (db m20076) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Buffalo SoldiersHuntsville, AL
(south side) After the Civil War, the future of African-Americans in the United States Army was in doubt. In July 1866, Congress passed legislation establishing two cavalry and four infantry regiments to be made up of African-American soldiers. The mounted regiments (9th and 10th Cavalries) conducted campaigns against Native-American tribes on the Western Frontier, where they were nicknamed “Buffalo Soldiers” by Native-Americans. Their service also included subduing Mexican . . . — Map (db m75092) HM WM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Fifth Avenue SchoolSite of Alabama's First Public School Integration
Opened in 1944, the Fifth Avenue School became the focal point for major educational change on September 9, 1963, when Sonnie Hereford IV became the first African-American student to integrate public schools in Alabama. Following a lengthy court battle, Dr. Sonnie Hereford III enrolled his son in the first grade at the school. Veronica Pearson (Rison School), David (Piggee) Osman (Terry Heights School) and John Anthony Brewton (East Clinton School) enrolled in other Huntsville City Schools . . . — Map (db m55722) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Oakwood CollegeFounded 1896
Oakwood College, which began as an industrial school, was founded by the Seventh-day Adventist Church in 1896 to educate African Americans in the South. The school was erected on 380 acres purchased during the previous year for $6,700. Additional property secured in 1918 nearly tripled its land holdings. The school underwent several name changes over its history: 1896: Oakwood Industrial School 1904: Oakwood Manual Training School 1917: Oakwood Junior College 1943: Oakwood College In 1958, . . . — Map (db m34953) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Oakwood CollegeFounded 1896
Oakwood College, which began as an industrial school, was founded by the Seventh-day Adventist Church in 1896 to educate African Americans in the South. The school was erected on 380 acres purchased during the previous year for $6,700. Additional property secured in 1918 nearly tripled its land holdings. The school underwent several name changes over its history: 1896: Oakwood Industrial School 1904: Oakwood Manual Training School 1917: Oakwood Junior College 1943: Oakwood College In 1958, . . . — Map (db m34955) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Original Site of Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University
(Front) Original site of Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University (now located at Normal, Alabama) Legislature approved 9 December 1873 "a normal school for the education of colored teachers" in Huntsville. Ex-slave William Hooper Councill founder and first president. Classes began May 1875 with sixty-one pupils and two teachers; held in rented buildings until moved 1891 to this site - the first school-owned property. Land-grant funds received 1891 for training of Negroes in . . . — Map (db m39825) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Rev. Dr. Joseph E. Lowery Boyhood Home Site(Dean of Civil Rights Movement)
Side A Dr. Joseph Echols Lowery was born in Huntsville on Oct 6, 1921, to Dora and Leroy Lowery. He grew up in Lakeside (Methodist) church. He began his education in Huntsville, spent his middle school years in Chicago, and returned to complete high school. He attended Alabama A&M University. Knoxville College, Payne College and Theological Seminary. He served as pastor of United Methodist churches in Mobile, Birmingham and Atlanta for 45 years, retiring from the pulpit in 1997. He . . . — Map (db m27901) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Saint Bartley Primitive Baptist ChurchLocated here 1872-1964 — Oldest Negro congregation in Alabama
Organized 1820 by William Harris, a slave, who was minister more than 50 years. Original church, called Huntsville African Baptist, stood 4 blocks south in Old Georgia Graveyard. In 1870, this church and 3 others formed Indian Creek Primitive Baptist Association. Congregation occupied brick church on this site 1872-1964. In 1965, moved to new building, 3020 Belafonte Ave., N.W. Present name honors Bartley Harris, saintly second minister. Other pastors: Felix Jordan, Eli Patton, Richard Moore, Amos Robinson. — Map (db m35960) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Site of the Huntsville Slave Cemetery
On September 3, 1818, the Huntsville City Commissioners purchased two acres of land from LeRoy Pope for a "burying ground" for slaves. This cemetery was located within the NE quarter of Section 1, Township 4, Range 1 West of the Base Meridian. It was affectionately known as "Georgia" within the black community. The cemetery continued to be used from 1818 until 1870 when Glenwood Cemetery was designated as the city's burial ground for African Americans. No known records have survived. — Map (db m35214) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Slave Cemetery1800s
This cemetery site was used as a burial ground for slaves who lived on both the Peter Blow and Job Key plantations from 1811 to 1865. Dred Scott's first wife and their two children are believed to have been buried here. The cemetery continued to be used through the early 1900s. — Map (db m31562) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — War of 18121812 - 1815
I am Private Darbin Abolt of the 7th US Infantry Regiment, part of which is commanded by Captain Zachary Taylor, our future president. I was already in the Army when he declared war on the British in June 1812. We were fed up with the British interfering with our trade with France, whom they were already at war with, attacking and boarding our ships and impressing our sailors into their Navy, and supporting the Indians against our settlements. It was insulting to our national honor and we were . . . — Map (db m71428) WM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — William Hooper Councill High School Site1892-1966
The first public school for African-Americans in the city of Huntsville was named for the founder of the Alabama A&M University. The site, selected by a committee headed by the Rev. W.E. Gaston, was donated by the Davis-Lowe family. Founded in 1867 in the basement of Lakeside Methodist Episcopal Church on Jefferson Street, the school was moved to a frame building on this site in 1892. The first diplomas were granted in 1912. A brick structure replaced the original building in 1927. The school . . . — Map (db m36065) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Madison — Pension Row
Pension Row is representative of many small town African American neighborhoods. Once a thriving community with its own schools, churches, businesses, lodges, and recreation areas, it has been a part of Madison since Madison was incorporated in 1869. for much of the 19th and 20th centuries, it was home to most of Madison's black citizens, including businessmen, teachers, preachers, farmers, housekeepers, and workers in the town's gins and warehouses. The narrow streets, designed for horse-drawn . . . — Map (db m44264) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Normal — Alabama A&M University former names / Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical UniversityNormal, Alabama
Alabama A&M University former names 1873 - Colored Normal School at Huntsville 1885 - The Huntsville State Colored Normal and Industrial School 1896 - The State Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes 1919 - The State Agricultural and mechanical Institute for Negroes 1948 - Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical College 1969 - University status achieved Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University Legislature approved 9 December 1873 "a normal school for the education of . . . — Map (db m39760) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Normal — Councill Training School(1919 - 1970)
Side A In 1919, the first building was erected nearby with funds provided locally and supplemented with a Julius Rosenwald Foundation grant. Named for William H. Councill, Alabama A&M University founder, the three-room structure was built for black students in grades 1-6. Traditionally county black students were taught in churches and lodge halls. Many would continue their education at the University's Laboratory School. The second school was erected on this site in 1948. This structure . . . — Map (db m39761) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Normal — William Hooper CouncillFounder — Alabama A&M University
"...A tower of knowledge, of strength, of power ...Let us build..." Dr. William Hooper Councill served as President of Alabama A&M University and was the catalyst for its early development from its founding in 1875 until his death in 1909. Born a slave, Dr. Councill emerged as a man of vision, conviction, and stamina, driven by a quest to further others through the promise of education. The Founder's Memorial Project was conceived and executed through the leadership of Dr. Dorothy . . . — Map (db m39763) HM
Alabama (Marengo County), Faunsdale — St. Michael's Cemetery
Interred in the north section of this cemetery were many slaves who had labored on Faunsdale Plantation since its founding in 1843. The earliest identified burial in the black section of the cemetery is that of Barbary (Harrison), a house servant on the Plantation who died at the age of 70 in March 1860. Wooden markers, long since vanished, once designated earlier graves. This ground interred not only slaves and freedmen, but also many of their descendants until the last burial in 1960. . . . — Map (db m72965) HM
Alabama (Marengo County), Faunsdale — St. Michael's Episcopal Churchyard
1844 - Dr. Thomas & Louisa Harrison gave acre of their Faunsdale Plantation for a log church designated Union Parish. 1852 - name changed to St. Michael’s Parish. 1855 - slave artisans Peter Lee and Joe Glasgow built Gothic Revival-style church. 1888 - church disassembled and moved to town of Faunsdale. 1932 - destroyed by tornado; much of the interior wood salvaged for new brick church building. Northern part of churchyard has graves of slave communicants. Oldest marked . . . — Map (db m72964) HM
Alabama (Marengo County), McKinley — Bethel Hill Missionary Baptist Church
Following the Civil War and emancipation, newly freed African Americans, who had worshiped in the Bethel Church in McKinley while enslaved, established their own Bethel Church in a wooden house at the rear of the current church site. In the mid-1880s, this black Bethel Church became Bethel Hill Missionary Baptist Church. Elizabeth Borden deeded five acres of land to the church in 1894, and Rev. J.A. Lawson led the effort to erect a new building the same year. The structure was bricked during . . . — Map (db m72969) HM
Alabama (Marengo County), Shiloh — Shiloh Baptist ChurchOrganized July 1827
The original building was located about three miles east of the present site near the village of Shiloh. It was used as a union church until it became a Baptist Church in 1842. A new building was erected at the present site and the first bodies were laid to rest in the adjacent cemetery. Prior to the Civil War, blacks also attended worship services. In 1878, they withdrew their membership to erect their own building. Seven churches have been organized from Shiloh Church, of which five remain active. — Map (db m72970) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mt. Vernon — Mount Vernon Arsenal and Barracks/Searcy Hospital
(obverse) Mount Vernon Arsenal and Barracks Established 1828 by Congress to store arms and munitions for U. S. Army. Original structures completed 1830's. Arsenal appropriated by Confederacy 1861; equipment moved to Selma facilities. After Civil War used as U. S. Army barracks; from 1887-1894 served as holding ground for Apache Indian prisoners. Deeded to State of Alabama 1895. Josiah Gorgas, later Chief of Ordnance of Confederacy, stationed here 1850's; Dr. Walter . . . — Map (db m70593) HM
Alabama (Monroe County), Perdue Hill — Perdue Hill Industrial School
The Perdue Hill Industrial School was founded by Patrick J. Carmichael after he moved to this area in 1918. Carmichael acted as both the principal and teacher during the early years of the school, which was originally a one-room structure serving eleven students. The State of Alabama provided $75 annually towards school operating costs, and students paid a tuition of $.25 each year. When money ran short for the African-American children that the school served, tuition was often paid with . . . — Map (db m47643) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Hope Hull — Tankersley Rosenwald SchoolErected in 1923
This building was one of fourteen schools constructed in Montgomery County with funding assistance from the Julius Rosenwald Fund. Between 1912-32, Julius Rosenwald, a Jewish philanthropist and CEO of Sears, Roebuck and Company teamed up with Booker T. Washington and Tuskegee Institute to provide matching grants for the construction of school buildings for African Americans in mostly rural areas of the South. This collaborative effort produced more than 5,000 of these buildings in 15 southern . . . — Map (db m71427) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Mathews — The Jonesville Community(Honoring Mr. Prince Albert Jones Sr.)
(Obverse) The Jonesville Community on Old Pike Road in Mathews, named for wealthy landowner George Mathews from Olgethorp County Ga. was designated by the Montgomery County Commission on October 16th, 2007 to honor the life and legacy of Prince Albert Jones Sr. (April 25, 1916 - January 13, 2008) and his family to the community. Jones was born and reared in the area and devoted much of his nearly 92 years of life to helping others in Mathews and the surrounding communities of . . . — Map (db m68716) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama State University / Tatum Street
Side 1 Alabama State University The Early Years Founded in 1867, the Lincoln School in Marion, Alabama became the first state-assisted normal school for African Americans in 1874. The school prospered in that location for 13 years, training teachers, preachers, and scholars. Following a racial incident in Marion in 1887 the main building was burned down and the school was moved to Montgomery where it would become the State Normal School for Colored Students. The state . . . — Map (db m71345) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama State University / Tullibody
Side A Founded 1866 as the Abraham Lincoln Normal School in Marion. Alabama by nine former slaves. Operated from 1868 until 1874 by the American Missionary Association. The school began to receive state funding in 1874, making it the first state-assisted normal school and university for blacks in Alabama. Moving from Marion to Montgomery in 1887, the school's classes initially were held in black churches. The institution had several name changes. Finally becoming Alabama State . . . — Map (db m28638) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Aurelia Eliscera Shines BrowderCivil Rights Pioneer
Side 1 Aurelia Eliscera Shines Browder was born January 29, 1919, in Montgomery, Alabama. She graduated with honors in 1956 from Alabama State Teachers College (now Alabama State University). In April 1955, Browder's refusal to give up her seat on a Montgomery bus to a white passenger led to her arrest. During the Montgomery Bus Boycott, which began in December 1955, she was a volunteer driver for those who declined to ride the buses. On February 1, 1956, serving as lead . . . — Map (db m71349) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Bernard Whitehurst and the Whitehurst Case / Montgomery: Learning From the Past
(side 1) Bernard Whitehurst and the Whitehurst Case On December 2, 1975, Bernard Whitehurst was shot to death by a police officer in Montgomery, Alabama. He died behind a house on Holcombe Street, running from police officers who mistakenly believed he was the suspect in a robbery of a neighborhood grocery store. The facts were slow to emerge in this shooting of a black man by a white police officer. But investigations urged by the Whitehurst family, the city’s daily . . . — Map (db m69366) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Bethel Missionary Baptist Church
Organized in 1967 as the Second Colored Baptist Church, congregation later changed named to Bethel Missionary Baptist. First building burned in 1908. Rev. E.W. Pickett then conducted services in "Love and Charity Hall" until second structure built in 1912 in same neighborhood but different site. In 1943, church remodeled under leadership of Rev. H.H. Hubbard. During the ministry of Rev. Edward Martin, the members, having outgrown the old building, built present edifice. Congregation has taken . . . — Map (db m71089) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Beulah Baptist ChurchOrganized 1880
Beulah Baptist Church was organized in the home of Monday and Dora Duvall, on the corner of Hull and Winnie Streets. Rev. William (Billy) Jenkins served as the pastor when the first church building was erected on Norton Street. Beulah served as the first classroom for the Alabama Colored People's University, which later became State Normal College, then Alabama State University. During the Church's centennial celebration, the University's president, Dr. Levi Watkins, who was a member of Beulah, . . . — Map (db m71377) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Birthplace of Nat "King" Cole
Nat King Cole was a jazz pianist, composer, and singer celebrated as an American popular music artist in the 1940s and 1950s. He was born March 17, 1919 in Montgomery, Alabama as one of five children to Edward James Coles, a minister at Beulah Baptist Church in Montgomery, and Perlina Adams Coles, who sang in the choir. He began formal lessons at the age of 12, eventually learning not only jazz and gospel but also classical music. By age 17, he wrote songs and played jazz piano in his . . . — Map (db m71228) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Black Members of the Alabama Legislature Who Served During The Reconstruction Period of 1868-1879
1868-1869: Senate: Benjamin F. Royal, Bullock; House: Benjamin Alexander, Greene; James H. Alston, Macon; Samuel Blandon, Lee; John Carraway, Mobile; George Cox, Montgomery; Thomas H. Diggs, Barbour; Joseph Drawn, Dallas; Ovide Gregory, Mobile; James K. Greene, Hale; Daniel H. Hall, Bullock; George Houston, Sumter; Benjamin Inge, Sumter; Columbus Jones, Madison; Shandy Wesley Jones, . . . — Map (db m46414) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Centennial Hill
This neighborhood evolved around historic First Congregational Church established through the American Missionary Association (AMA) October 6, 1872, by Pastor George Whitfield Andrews. In 1867 the AMA and the Freedmen's Bureau, headed by General Wager Swayne, opened Swayne Primary School, Montgomery's first school for blacks, just two blocks south of here. Alabama State University, begun in 1867 as the "Lincoln School of Marion" by nine ex-slaves and taken over by the AMA in 1868, was relocated . . . — Map (db m71238) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — City of St. Jude/The Selma to Montgomery March
(side 1) City of St. Jude Founded by Father Harold Purcell in the 1930s, the City of St. Jude included church, school, medical facilities, social center and rectory. Its mission was to provide spiritual, educational, social and health services for Montgomery's black citizens. Distinguished for its Romanesque architecture and landscaping, site was designed by architects William Calham and Joseph Maschi. Leading the way in nondiscriminatory health care, the institution helped . . . — Map (db m71091) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Civil Rights Freedom RidersMay 20, 1961
On May 20, 1961, a group of black and white SNCC members led by John Lewis left Birmingham for Montgomery on a Greyhound bus. They were determined to continue the "Freedom Ride" from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans that had met with violence in Birmingham. Their purpose was to test a court case, "Boynton vs. Virginia," declaring segregation in bus terminals unconstitutional. Upon arriving in Montgomery, their police escort disappeared, and an angry mob of over 200 Klan supporters attacked and . . . — Map (db m71256) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Cleveland Court Apartments
On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks left work and boarded a downtown bus. Her destination was home, Cleveland Court Apartment No. 634. She didn't make it home that day as she was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white man. This single act of defiance, violating the segregation laws of that time, led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott and launched Rosa Parks into the national spotlight. She later became a distinct symbol as the "Mother of the Civil Rights Movement." The apartment . . . — Map (db m71385) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Day Street Baptist Church
Organized from Bethel Baptist Church, congregation founded 1882 with Rev. George Casby as first minister. Originally met in frame building; fund-raising began for this edifice in 1906. Designed by Wallace Rayfield, Tuskegee Institute architect and faculty member, building completed ca. 1910. A graduate of Pratt School of Architecture, Rayfield established the first black architectural firm in Birmingham and won national recognition. Day Street's community activities included the organization of . . . — Map (db m71081) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist ChurchOrganized 1877
The second black Baptist Church in Montgomery. First pastor was Rev. C. O. Boothe. Present structure built 1885. Designed by Pelham J. Anderson; built by William Watkins, a member of the congregation. Many prominent black citizens of Montgomery have been members, Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. served as pastor (1954-1960). Montgomery bus boycott organized here December 2, 1955. — Map (db m25128) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Elijah Cook / City of Montgomery v. Rosa Parks
Elijah Cook Born a slave in Wetumpka in 1833, Elijah Cook became a leader in Montgomery’s African American community. Credited with helping to establish the city’s first school for blacks in the basement of the Old Ship AME Zion Church in 1865, he also selected the site for Swayne College (later Booker T. Washington School) that opened in 1868. In 1887, he assisted in posting the $10,000 surety bond to relocate the Lincoln School of Marion (later Alabama State University) to . . . — Map (db m69222) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — First Baptist Church (Brick-A-Day Church)
Organized in 1866, this pioneering congregation grew out of First Baptist Church, now on Perry Street, where early parishioners had worshipped as slaves. The first building, facing Columbus Street, was erected in 1867. Nathan Ashby served as first pastor (1866-70) to over 700 members and as first president of the Colored Baptist Convention of Alabama, now known as the Alabama Baptist State Convention, which was organized here in 1868. The Baptist Foreign Mission Convention, later part of the . . . — Map (db m36499) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Georgia GilmoreFebruary 5, 1920 - March 3, 1990
Georgia Gilmore, cited as a “solid energetic boycott participant and supporter.” Lived in this house during the days of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Once arrested on a bus, Gilmore was ardent in her efforts to raise funds for the Movement and organized “Club From Nowhere” whose members baked pies and cakes for sale to both black and white customers. Opening her home to all, she tirelessly cooked meals for participants including Dr. Martin Luther King and Dr. Ralph . . . — Map (db m28197) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Harris House
Front Between May 20-24, 1961 Dr. Harris opened this home to a group of 33 students from Nashville, Tennessee, who were challenging interstate bus segregation. Known as the Freedom Riders, the group was attacked at the historic Montgomery Greyhound Bus Station upon arrival and harassed by rioters. In the days following attack, martial law was declared and Harris' home served as a haven for the Freedom Riders. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.,Dr. Ralph D. Abernathy, James Farmer, John Lewis, . . . — Map (db m28134) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Historic Site of St. James Holt Crossing Baptist Church
On this site, the St. James Baptist Church #2, also known as St. James Holt Crossing Baptist Church, stood as the oldest Baptist church founded by African Americans in the City of Montgomery. Organized in 1875, the Church occupied two buildings on this property—one was relocated to make way for the railroad in 1908, and the second was relocated in 2004 as part of improvements to adjoining properties. The Church now resides east of Zelda Road on property formerly owned by the Alabama . . . — Map (db m71339) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Holt Street Baptist Church
Congregation founded by former members of Bethel Baptist Church in 1909. Under leadership of Rev. I.S. Fountain, group met for four years in Labor's Hall, corner of Cobb and Mobile Streets, before purchasing this site and constructing church in 1913. Congregation added wing 1946, and in 1953 demolished old structure and built present sanctuary. On evening of December 5, 1955, the first day of Bus Boycott, some 5,000 people gathered here. Dr. Martin Luther King, newly elected leader of . . . — Map (db m71086) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Home of Ralph David Abernathy(March 11, 1926-April 30, 1990)
This was the home of Dr. Ralph David Abernathy, a central leader of the historic events of the Civil Rights Movement. Dr. Abernathy graduated from Alabama State University in 1950 and from Atlanta University in 1951. He and his family lived here while he was pastor of the First Baptist Church located on Ripley Street in Montgomery, Alabama. In 1955, Abernathy along with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., helped lead the successful boycott of Montgomery’s segregated bus system. In 1957, . . . — Map (db m71232) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Johnnie R. and Arlam Carr, Sr. Home
This home was originally owned in 1901 by Emily V. Semple. It changed hands several times until purchased by Flora K. Daniels and Arlam and Johnnie R. Carr, Sr. The Carrs moved into this residence in 1943. They resided here during the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott. Johnnie Carr was an active member of the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) under the leadership of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., at that time. In 1964, Johnnie and Arlam Carr, Sr. became the lead plaintiffs on behalf of their . . . — Map (db m71265) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Juliette Hampton Morgan / Montgomery City-County Public Library
(side 1) Juliette Hampton Morgan Juliette Hampton Morgan was a white Montgomery, Alabama librarian whose privileged upbringing seemed unlikely to produce the determined civil rights activist that she became. Her letters to the Montgomery Advertiser supporting the 1956 Bus Boycott, integration of the University of Alabama, and national compliance with public school integration drew fire from traditionalists who demanded her resignation. People boycotted the Carnegie . . . — Map (db m71258) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Lilly Baptist Church"The Lilly" — 820 Hill Street
Lilly Baptist Church, established November, 1900 as a missionary church of Bethel Missionary Baptist. Originally located on St. Clair Street in a small frame building. Moved May 27, 1973, into new 1500-seat sanctuary at present location. Education Complex added April, 1985. Known as "The Lilly," church was active in Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-56). Noted for its music, the church has seven choirs which recorded albums in 1974 and 1984. 500 members of congregation participated in nationally . . . — Map (db m71088) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Lincoln Cemetery / Rufus Payne, 1884-1939
Side 1 Lincoln Cemetery 1907 In 1907 the American Securities Company opened Lincoln Cemetery for African Americans and Greenwood Cemetery for whites, the first commercial cemeteries in the city. Landscape design indicates Olmstead influences with curving drives and two circular sections. Space allotted for 700 graves with first interment in 1908. Most graves are simple concrete slabs with evidences of African-American funerary art and late-Victorian motifs. Marble markers . . . — Map (db m71342) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Loveless School/Henry Allen Loveless
(side 1) Loveless School Montgomery's first junior and senior high schools for African American students began in Loveless School. Built in 1923 and enlarged in 1930, this building first housed seven grades; the opening of Carver Elementary School and the reduction in enrollment made possible additional classes at Loveless. Under Principal T.H. Randall, the first seniors graduated in May, 1940. In 1948, George Washington Carver Senior High organized and had first classes here, . . . — Map (db m71082) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Marshall J. Moore House
In 1900, Marshall Moore and his wife, Agnes V. McClain commissioned Joseph G. Nesbitt,Sr., an African- American contractor/builder, to construct this Victorian period cottage. The Moores, among the first graduates and early faculty members of Lincoln Normal School in Marion (Perry County), moved to Montgomery in 1887 when the school was relocated here. It was re-named the State Normal School for Colored Students (now Alabama State University). From 1936 until 1993, the house remained in the . . . — Map (db m38918) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Minister's Home / Dr. Martin Luther KingDexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church
Side A House built circa 1912. It has been the home of the ministers of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church since 1919. Its most famous occupant, Dr. Martin Luther King , lived here from Sept. 1954-Feb. 1960. During this time he lead the Bus Boycott launching an outstanding career as a world leader for civil rights and humanitarian causes. When a bomb damaged the house on January 31, 1956, Dr. King returned from a Boycott meeting and calmed an angry crowd from the porch, averting possible . . . — Map (db m61095) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Montgomery’s Slave Markets / First Emancipation Observance - 1866
Side A The city’s slave market was at the Artesian Basin (Court Square). Slaves of all ages were auctioned, along with land and livestock, standing in line to be inspected. Public posters advertised sales and included gender, approximate age, first name (slaves did not have last names), skill, price, complexion and owner’s name. In the 1850s, able field hands brought $1,500; skilled artisans $3,000. In 1859, the city had seven auctioneers and four slave depots: one at Market Street . . . — Map (db m28187) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Montgomery's Panel Project
Montgomery's Cotton Slide The history of Montgomery Panel Project is place on top of the remains of Montgomery's Cotton Slide. The Cotton Slide was used to transport heavy cotton bales from the streets above to the waiting steamboats below. Before Montgomery Before the arrival of the first Europeans, Montgomery was inhabited by Native Americans known as the Alibamu Creeks. They lived in small towns and villages throughout the River Region, and relied on the river for their . . . — Map (db m78145) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Montgomery's Slave Depots/Montgomery's Slave Traders
(side 1) Montgomery's Slave Depots Montgomery slave traders operated depots where enslaved men, women, and children were confined. The slave depots functioned as active trading sites and as detention facilities where the enslaved were held captive until they were auctioned at Court Square. The city had four major slave depots. Three of the depots lined Market Street (now Dexter Avenue) between Lawrence and McDonough and were owned by Mason Harwell, S.N. Brown, and E. Barnard & . . . — Map (db m71227) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Mount Zion African Methodist Episcopal AME Zion Church
Side 1 Located at the heart of Montgomery's historic African-American neighborhoods. Mount Zion A.M.E. Zion Church was constructed in 1899 and heavily remodeled in 1921. It served as a significant Center for religious, political, and social life for blacks in Montgomery throughout most of the twentieth-century. The seeds of protest were growing in Montgomery long before the arrest of Rosa Parks on December 1, 1955, and the bus boycott. Rev. Solomon Seay, pastor of Mt. Zion from . . . — Map (db m43619) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Old Ship A.M.E. Zion Church
This congregation was organized by the Court Street Methodist Church in the early 1850s. The latter group offered their 1835 wood frame building to the black members if they would relocate it. In 1852 the church was moved to this site under the supervision of freedman Thomas Wilson, who was assisted by Sol Brack, Solomon Hannon, Emanuel Nobel and others. White ministers served the congregation until 1862 when Allen Hannon assumed the duties. The building was remodeled in 1888 and in 1918-1920 . . . — Map (db m72170) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Percy Lavon JulianScientist and Humanitarian — 1899-1975
Born on the west side of Holt Street, April 11, 1899, Percy Lavon Julian entered Depauw University in 1916; graduated in chemistry with Phi Beta Kappa honors. Earned master's from Harvard, Ph.D. at the University of Vienna. His studies led to a synthetic drug for glaucoma. Experiments with soybean oils resulted in Compound S, an affordable synthetic form of cortisone for arthritis treatment. Julian's work included developments in production of artificial hormones and a foam for fighting fires . . . — Map (db m71087) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Louise McCauley Parks / The Bus Stop
Side A A Lady of Courage Born in Tuskegee, AL on February 4, 1913, to James McCauley, a carpenter, and Leona Edwards, a teacher. Moved with mother and brother to Pine Level, AL after parents' separation. Enrolled in Mrs. White's School for Girls at age 11 and received her high school diploma from Alabama State Teachers College Laboratory High School. Married Montgomery barber Raymond Parks in 1932; both became active in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored . . . — Map (db m36503) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Parks Branch Library / Bertha Pleasant Williams
Side 1 Rosa Parks Branch Library Second public library for blacks in City of Montgomery, this building opened in 1960 as Montgomery Branch Library on Cleveland Avenue. Designed by architect James Miller Davis, it served the black population at a time the main facility on High Street prohibited their patronage. Planned to contain 15,000 volumes, this structure has meeting rooms and areas for adults, teen-agers and children. Judge Frank Johnson ordered desegregation of . . . — Map (db m71388) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Parks Montgomery Bus Boycott / Hank Williams Alabama Troubadour
Side A At the bus stop on this site on December 1, 1955, Mrs. Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to boarding whites. This brought about her arrest, conviction, and fine. The Boycott began December 5, the day of Parks’ trial, as a protest by African - Americans for unequal treatment they received on the bus line. Refusing to ride the buses, they maintained the Boycott until the U. S. Supreme Court ordered integration of public transportation one year later. Dr. Martin Luther . . . — Map (db m28176) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Selma-to-Montgomery March
Side A The Selma-to-Montgomery March ended here on March 25, 1965, when 25,000 civil rights marchers arrived at the Alabama State Capitol to demand the right to vote for African Americans. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and other civil rights leaders addressed the marchers and the nation, culminating a series of demonstrations that began in Selma on March 7 - "Bloody Sunday" - when some 600 peaceful protesters were savagely beaten by lawmen as they tried to cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge. . . . — Map (db m62747) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Sherman W. White, Jr.(1919 - 1943) — First Lieutenant, 99th Fighter Squadron
Side 1: Sherman, Sr. and Nettie White lived at this address on W. Jeff Davis Ave. Both teachers, they taught their children Sherman Jr., Willa, James, and Samson to love their country and value education. Willa, James, and Samson would graduate from college. Sherman, Jr. left school at the U. of Chicago to enlist as an Army Air Forces aviation cadet at Tuskegee, Alabama. At Tuskegee were trained the first African-American military aviators in the history of the U.S. Armed Forces. In the third . . . — Map (db m71084) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — South Jackson Street / Victor Hugo Tulane
Side 1 South Jackson Street Long a home to African-American professionals, politicians, and businessmen, South Jackson Street is in the heart of Centennial Hill, a neighborhood which developed in the 1870s. One block north at No. 309 is the house where Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. lived during the Bus Boycott; No. 341 was the home of John W. Jones, Lowndes County senator in the Reconstruction legislature. Building on NE corner is former Ben Moore Hotel, site of many Civil . . . — Map (db m71354) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Swayne College / Booker T. Washington School
Side A Named for Union General and Freemen’s Bureau Agent Wager Swayne, Swayne College was dedicated 21 April 1869. The Bureau appropriated $10,000 for the building and the local black community purchased 3.5 acres for the site. Future officeholder Elijah Cook submitted the winning location of Union and Grove Streets. The building stood three stories high and was constructed by Henry Duncan with ventilation by Isaac Frazier. George Stanley Pope became the first principal of the school . . . — Map (db m28171) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Capital City Guards1885 - 1905
In July 1885, the state Adjutant General authorized the organization of a black infantry company known as the Capital City Guards. Joseph L. Ligon was elected captain. Over the next 20 years, the Capital City Guards were a source of tremendous civic pride in the African-American community. They participated in formal inspections, drills, and encampments, as well as in Emancipation Day parades and annual commencement exercises at Tuskegee Institute. Drill meetings were held at Dorsette Hall at . . . — Map (db m71260) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Domestic Slave Trade/Slave Transportation to Montgomery
Side 1 The Domestic Slave Trade Beginning in the seventeenth century, millions of African people were kidnapped, sold into slavery, and shipped to the Americas as part of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. In 1808, the united States Congress banned the importation of slaves from Africa. At the same time, the high price of cotton and the development of the cotton gin caused the demand for slave labor to skyrocket in the lower South. The Domestic Slave Trade grew to meet this demand. . . . — Map (db m70714) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The E. L. Posey Parking Lot
This site, known as “Posey’s Parking Lot,” served the black community as one of two major transportation centers during the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Mrs. Rosa Parks’s December 1, 1955 arrest following her refusal to surrender her seat at the order of the white bus driver sparked protests against segregation on the Montgomery City Bus Lines. After city authorities outlawed the use of black taxis as an alternative form of transportation for boycotters, the parking lot, operated by . . . — Map (db m71261) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Hon. Rufus A. Lewis1906 - 1999
Lewis began an earnest voting rights drive in the early 1940s. Credited with registering 4 generations of Montgomery voters. He established Citizenship School that tutored prospective black voters to fill out the literacy text. A barrier before the passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act. Lewis opened, in 1952 the "Citizens' Club,” a night club for African Americans who were registered voters and who helped others to become voters. Lewis was a graduate of Fisk University and served as . . . — Map (db m28286) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Jackson-Community House/The Montgomery City Federation of Women’s Clubs
(side 1) The Jackson-Community House In 1853, Jefferson Franklin Jackson, a native Alabamian and U.S. Attorney for the Alabama Middle District, built this two-story clapboard home originally with a dogtrot pattern. A Whig Party member, by 1862, Jackson was a wealthy land and slave owner who lived here with his wife and four children. By 1900, Jackson’s descendants had added a rear wing to the house and enclosed the back porch. In 1943, the Montgomery City Federation of . . . — Map (db m71236) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Montgomery Slave Trade/Warehouses Used in the Slave Trade
Side 1 The Montgomery Slave Trade Montgomery had grown into one of the most prominent slave trading communities in Alabama by 1860. At the start of the Civil War, the city had a larger slave population than Mobile, New Orleans, or Natchez, Mississippi. Montgomery attracted a growing number of major slave traders whose presence dominated the city’s geography and economy. The Montgomery probate office granted at least 164 licenses to slave traders operating in the city from 1848 . . . — Map (db m70715) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church
Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church was organized in 1918 at this location by ministers of what later became the American Lutheran Church under whose auspices the congregation organized a day school on the property across the street. That school served the children in the area and was an integral part of the church's ministry. In 1959 the congregation became part of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod. In 2003 Trinity merged with Grace Lutheran Church to become United Evangelical Lutheran . . . — Map (db m43622) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Pike Road — Georgia Washington School
Miss Georgia Washington founded the Peoples Village School for black students on this site in 1893. Georgia Washington was born a slave November 23, 1851 in Virginia. As a student at Hampton Institute, Virginia, she met Dr. Booker T. Washington who later recruited her to teach here in Mt. Meigs. The first year the enrollment grew from four to 100 students. She retired in 1936, after 43 years of service, and the school was deeded to Montgomery County. A new school building was dedicated in . . . — Map (db m72010) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Pike Road — The Oaks Plantation
House built ca. 1830s by Alexander Carter on small land holding. Increasing fortunes led to a 1780-acre diversified and innovative plantation. Oak trees planted on either side of front drive led to its name. During WWII, an auxiliary landing strip, called Mt. Meigs Field, was built on the land by Army Corps of Engineers, and was used for training by American, French, and British aviation cadets from Gunter Field, as well as by “Tuskegee Airmen” from Moton Field. Prominent families . . . — Map (db m72014) HM
Alabama (Morgan County), Decatur — 9 — “Captain, We’ve Got It At Last” - The Charge of the 14th U.S. Colored Infantry“A Hard Nut To Crack” — The Battle For Decatur
As sharp shooting and artillery fire continued throughout the morning of October 28, Granger and Doolittle determined to launch an attack upon the Confederate battery at the edge of the Tennessee River, whose fire threatened the critical pontoon bridge. Chosen to make this assault was the 14th USCT. Colonel Thomas Jefferson Morgan recorded the preparations for this charge, “The men were stripped of all extra load, carrying only gun, accouterments, and canteen of water. They were cautioned . . . — Map (db m28266) HM
Alabama (Morgan County), Decatur — First Missionary Baptist Church
Led by first pastor Alfred Peters, 21 members organized this church on April 22, 1866, in the home of Sister Jane Young. Services were first held in a storefront building on the banks of the Tennessee River. In 1873 First Missionary purchased a church building from a Methodist congregation on the corner of Market and Canal Streets, NE and used the building as their place of worship until 1919. At this time Dr. Sterrs, S.S. Sykes, and G.F. Oliver secured a $1460 loan to purchase the present . . . — Map (db m27765) HM
Alabama (Morgan County), Decatur — 7 — Two Bridges Across The Tennessee River“A Hard Nut To Crack” — The Battle For Decatur
In 1860, the Memphis and Charleston Railroad was the only east-west route through the United States south of the Mason-Dixon Line. Maintaining control of this rail line was essential to Confederate strategy. Union Brigadier General Ormsby Mitchell occupied Decatur on April 13, 1862. Confederate defenders attempted to destroy this bridge, but failed. Union troops would destroy the bridge themselves on April 27, 1862. Union troops would occupy Decatur briefly in the summer of 1862 and the fall of . . . — Map (db m28262) HM
Alabama (Perry County), Marion — First Congregational Church of MarionEstablished 1869
Organized in Lincoln School by freed slaves & representatives of the American Missionary Association, an auxiliary of the Congregational Churches of America. Wherever a school was operated by the A.M.A. a church soon followed. Religion and education were viewed as a means of improving the conditions of former slaves & as a solution for many problems. Through the years the church has been a strong advocate of freedom & justice for all. In 1931 the Congregational & Christian Churches merged . . . — Map (db m70087) HM
Alabama (Perry County), Marion — Lincoln Normal School
Side 1: On July 17, 1867, nine ex-slaves (James Childs, Alexander H. Curtis, Nicholas Dale, John Freeman, David Harris, Thomas Lee, Nathan Levert, Ivey Pharish and Thomas Speed) formed and incorporated the “Lincoln School of Marion.” They soon found it difficult to recruit and pay teachers. On September 10, 1868, the trustees entered into an agreement with the American Missionary Association (AMA), an auxiliary of the Congregational Churches. The Reverend A. W. Steward, the . . . — Map (db m70096) HM
Alabama (Perry County), Marion — St. Wilfrid's Episcopal Cemetery
From October 24, 1855 through December 17, 1877, the Parish records of St. Wilfrid's Episcopal Church states that people of color, both slave and free, were buried here in St. Wilfrid‟s cemetery. — Map (db m70067) HM
Alabama (Perry County), Uniontown — Green Gables1928-1983
Site of the road-house, Green Gables, built in 1928, which became the social center of the Black Belt. It was known for its lively but restrained atmosphere provided by a dance floor, juke box, and excellent T-bone steaks. Mr. Walter Kemp was the Manager for many years. The facade of the white board-and-batten building featured a very large gable as its center section. The roof tile and shutters were green. Two cabins built on the premises were later attached as rear rooms to the main . . . — Map (db m70064) HM
Alabama (Pickens County), Carrollton — Pickens County CourthouseErected 1877-78
Pickens County, named for General Andrew Pickens of South Carolina, was established December 19, 1820. First County Site was Pickensville. On March 5, 1830, the government awarded 80 acres of land at Carrollton for the County Site. The first courthouse erected at Carrollton was burned on April 5, 1865, by troops of Union General John T. Croxton. A freedman, Henry Wells, was accused of burning the second on November 16, 1876. He was arrested in January, 1878, and held in the garret of this . . . — Map (db m22178) HM
Alabama (Pike County), Linwood — Mt. Pleasant Cemetery
Founded prior to 1850, at the same time as the original church near Fryer's Bridge, which became the village of Linwood in the late 1850s. Original cemetery included the graves of both black and white parishioners of the early church. In the 1870s, black communicants established their own congregation and cemetery while the remaining white congregation continued to use the original cemetery. Earliest marked grave site is dated 1858. Among the headstones are those identifying Confederate soldiers. — Map (db m76746) HM
Alabama (Pike County), Troy — Academy Street High School
Side 1 On May 9, 1921, S.B. Innis, C.L. Jenkins, James Henderson, Pres Thomas and C.B. Brooks, the “colored school committee,” entered into a school mortgage for the construction of a building for “colored school purposes” on East Academy Street. The debt of $3,028.89 was "satisfied in full" on July 18, 1922, whereupon the City of Troy assumed ownership. Beginning with two grades, one teacher, and a term of seventy-two days in a two-room dwelling, by . . . — Map (db m76755) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Phenix City — Allen Temple A.M.E. Church / Grant Chapel A.M.E. Church
(obverse) Allen Temple A.M.E. Church In 1879, under the pastorate of Reverend George Wesley Allen, the Allen Temple African Methodist Episcopal Church had its humble beginning in Phenix City, Alabama as Grant Mission. The Russell County Housing Authority's renewal project of 1940 caused the relocation of the congregation. Under the administration of Reverend E.W. Cook, in 1941, the new church was built and renamed Allen Temple A.M.E. Church. The Church has continued to serve . . . — Map (db m69082) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Phenix City — Horace King
(side 1) Horace King a slave of John Godwin was construction foreman for the First Dillingham Street Bridge in 1832, when he and Godwin introduced the “town lattice” bridge design into the Chattahoochee Valley. King built most of the early wooden bridges spanning the river, including those at West Point, Eufaula and Fort Gaines-Franklin. After Godwin’s death in 1859, he raised a monument inscribed: “In lasting remembrance of the love and gratitude felt for his lost . . . — Map (db m69064) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Seale — Mitchell-Ferrell-Powell House
Built in Glennville, Alabama by slave artisans in the early 1840's for James Billingslea and Rebecca Stone Mitchell. Moved by ox-cart and reassembled by free citizens at the present site in 1867 or 1869. Purchased in 1895 by Hugh Bennett and Jessie Elvira Screws Ferrell. Purchased and restored in 1978 by Vernon H. and Minnie D. Powell. — Map (db m69409) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Seale — St. Peter A.M.E. Church CemeteryRussell County
Old St. Peter A.M.E. Church Cemetery is one of Russell County's oldest African-American cemeteries. Established in the early 1880s by former slaves, the church became a central institution to many families in the Seale community. Records indicate that Peter and Rose Merritt Chadwick donated a part of their land to build a church, and community members contributed funds, materials and labor to erect the church. Members of the Bellamy, Drake, Holmes, Mabry, Newsome, Osborn, Pitts, Simpson, . . . — Map (db m78116) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Alexander City — Needmore 1873
Freedmen moving to the new market town of Youngsville in the early 1870s occupied homes along a street they called Needmore Street. They relocated their house of worship from near the present junction of South Central Avenue and Cherokee Road to the Needmore neighborhood where Methodists and Baptist shared a building. Missionaries from the Methodist Episcopal Church formed a congregation in Alexander City and, in 1873, Bishop Gilbert Haven appointed Rev. George Scott pastor of the new . . . — Map (db m45740) HM
Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Camp Hill — Lyman Ward Military Academy
Lyman Ward Military Academy was founded in 1898 as the Southern Industrial Institute by Dr. Lyman Ward, a Universalist minister from New York. Dr. Ward established SII to educate the poor children of Alabama, many of whom had few opportunities due to the devastation caused by the Civil War and subsequent Reconstruction. With donations received from the citizens of Camp Hill and assistance from fellow reformers like Booker T. Washington, founder of Tuskegee Institute, Ward began his school with . . . — Map (db m25501) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Brown Memorial Presbyterian Church
Oldest existing Black Presbyterian Church in Alabama. Organized by Dr. Charles A. Stillman as Salem Church in December, 1880. First church building erected 9th Street and 30th Avenue in 1882. First pastors were Reverend B. M. Wilkinson (1889-90) and Reverend I. C. H. Champney (1894-98). In 1915 relocated at 11th Street and 25th Avenue. In 1931 moved to present site. Name changed to Brown Memorial (1932) honoring Dr. R. A. Brown, Superintendent of Home Mission Work, PCUS. Present sanctuary built . . . — Map (db m40390) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Castle Hill - Daly Bottom Community
In 1883 the Castle Hill Real Estate and Manufacturing Company began the first eastern expansion of the original 1821 Tuscaloosa city limits. Hoping to stimulate development in the area, the company created a popular amusement park centered around and artificial lake. Portions of this property had belonged to Delaware Jackson, a freed slave who had been given the land for courage and loyalty. In 1881 Jackson organized the Bethel Baptist Church and, in 1917, he donated nearby land for the Baptist . . . — Map (db m35467) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — First African Baptist ChurchTuscaloosa, Alabama
Organized November 1866, with 144 members. The Rev. Prince Murrell, first pastor, served until 1885. A church building located at corner of 4th Street and 24th Avenue was purchased and became place of worship during pastorate of the Rev. James Mason, 1885-1891. Resolution passed in this church 1873 resulted in establishment of Selma University, Selma, Alabama. Present structure erected 1907 under leadership of the Rev. J. H. Smith. Church annex completed and adjoining property purchased . . . — Map (db m40408) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Horace King
Born a slave in South Carolina in 1807, Horace King became a master bridge builder while working with John Godwin. With the aid of Tuscaloosa Robert Jemison, King was freed by act of the Alabama legislature in 1846. He went on to build many bridges and other structures across the South. Revered and respected for his organizational abilities, building skills and personal integrity, he formed the King Brothers Bridge Company with his family after the Civil War. After serving two terms in the . . . — Map (db m28913) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — John MurphyGovernor 1825 - 1829
He initiated construction of the Capitol, the University of Alabama, and the State Bank. The legislature passed laws, known as slave codes, to severely restrict the rights of slaves, while citizens began to press for the removal of Alabama's remaining Indians. — Map (db m29020) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Stillman College
Founded as Tuscaloosa Institute 1876 by Presbyterian Church U.S. under leadership of Dr. Charles Allen Stillman, pastor of First Presbyterian Church, Tuscaloosa, to train Black ministers. Renamed Stillman Institute 1894 for Dr. Stillman, first superintendent. Became co-educational 1899. Past programs included seminary, high school, vocational school, junior college, school of nursing and hospital services for Blacks. Four year program begun, renamed Stillman College 1948. Accredited senior college 1953. — Map (db m35676) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — The Little Round House
Constructed as a guard house for the Alabama Corps of Cadets during the early 1860's, the Little Round House provided shelter from inclement weather for cadets on sentry duty. Until 1865, it also housed the University Drum Corps, which was composed of rented slaves. One of the few University buildings not destroyed by Union forces when the campus was burned in 1865, this building became the office of the University surgeon in 1871, and was used later by non-military students as a residence. In . . . — Map (db m25387) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — University of Alabama’s Slavery Apology
Buried near this plaque are Jack Rudolph and William “Boysey” Brown, two slaves owned by University of Alabama faculty, and William J. Crawford, a University student who died in 1844. Rudolph was born in Africa about 1791 and died May 5, 1846, from “Bilious Pneumonia.” Brown was born April 10, 1838, and died November 22, 1844, from “Whooping Cough.” Jack Rudolph and Boysey Brown were among the slaves owned by the University of Alabama and by . . . — Map (db m40389) HM
Alabama (Wilcox County), Catherine — Prairie MissionA United Presbyterian Mission — Prairie, Alabama 1894-1968
Prairie Mission was established in 1894 by the Freedmen’s Board of the United Presbyterian Church of North America to educate the children of ex-slaves. The Mission consisted of a church, school building, dormitories for male and female students, a teachers’ home and a cemetery. The school, also known as Prairie Institute during its history, was discontinued in the late 1960’s. The church still maintains an active congregation. Prairie Mission was entered into the National Register of Historic Places in 2001. — Map (db m38496) HM
Alabama (Wilcox County), Snow Hill — Snow Hill Normal and Industrial Institute1893
(obverse) Snow Hill Institute was founded in 1893 by William James Edwards, a graduate of historic Tuskegee Institute established by Booker T. Washington in 1881. Snow Hill’s lineage extends back to Hampton Institute where Washington and many of Snow Hill’s faculty graduated. The founding of Snow Hill Institute was greatly facilitated by the planter R. O. Simpson who gave Snow Hill Institute its first 100 acres of land in increments of seven (7), thirty-three (33), and sixty . . . — Map (db m68185) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — Buffalo Soldier Legacy Plaza
Dedicated 23 April 2009 Honoring the stamina, courage, and tenacity of soldiers assigned to the 9th Cavalry Regiment • 10th Cavalry Regiment • 24th Infantry Regiment • 25th Infantry Regiment • 92nd Infantry Division • 93rd Infantry Division • 372nd Infantry Regiment (NG) Who Served with Distinction at Fort Huachuca 1892 – 1946 — Map (db m28201) HM
Arizona (Maricopa County), Phoenix — Eastlake Park
Peace Eastlake Park has served the inhabitants of Phoenix since the late 1880's. Originally known as Patton's Park, it was developed by the Phoenix Railway Company to serve as a recreational area for patrons of the city's trolley system. The park eventually became a place where people of color could meet to relax and celebrate special events without violating separatist laws which existed in the nation and state during the first half of the 20th century. Eastlake Park's history is one . . . — Map (db m55058) HM
Arizona (Santa Cruz county), Nogales — Grand Ave - Frank Reed School1928 - 1952
Grand Ave. School was founded in 1928 as a grammar school, grades one through eight, for the African American children of Nogales. In 1943 the school's name was changed to Frank A. Reed in honor of a former student, Frank A Reed, who died in action during World War II. Frank A. Reed School was closed in September 1952 due to desegregation of the Arizona school system. Teachers were: Lena Martin (Principal) 1928-1952, Florence Mills 1928-1942, Willa Hudson 1942-1943 and 1945-1947, Mildred . . . — Map (db m27113) HM
Arkansas (Jefferson County), Pine Bluff — Joseph Carter Corbin1833-1911
In 1875, Joseph Corbin the son of former slaves, became the founder and principal of Branch Normal College (now UAPB) where he served until 1902. A profound mathematician, outstanding musician, linguist, and holder of bachelor and masters degrees from Ohio University, Corbin was elected State Superintendent of Public Instruction and served as Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Arkansas Industrial University (now the UA system). He served as principal of Merrill School in Pine Bluff until the time of his death in 1911. — Map (db m70701) HM
Arkansas (Ouachita County), Chidester — 25 — 1st Kansas Colored Infantry
The 1st Kansas Colored Infantry, a regiment that included many former Arkansas slaves, was formed in August 1862, the first black unit recruited during the war. Ist Kansas troops were the first black men to see combat, losing 10 killed and 12 wounded in a victory at Island Mound, Mo., Oct. 28, 1862. Victories at Cabin Creek and Honey Springs, Indian Territory, followed in 1863. The 1st Kansas lost 117 dead and 65 wounded at Poison Spring, Ark., April 18, 1864; many men were slain as they lay . . . — Map (db m56624) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — The Blues Trail: Mississippi to Helena
Helena has played a vital role in blues history for artists from both sides of the Mississippi River. Once known as a “wide open” hot spot for music, gambling, and nightlife, Helena was also the birthplace of “King Biscuit Time,” the groundbreaking KFFA radio show that began broadcasting blues to the Arkansas-Mississippi Delta in 1941. The program had logged over 15,000 broadcasts by 2009 and inspired Helena to launch its renowned King Biscuit Blues Festival in 1986. . . . — Map (db m51907) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — The Right to Vote
The State of Arkansas is Dissolved In 1867, the state of Arkansas ceased to exist. It was dissolved, as were all states still in rebellion when the Confederate government surrendered in 1865. Readmission to the Union required that the states meet two conditions set by the U.S. Congress.

Congress demanded that the former state write new constitutions that included universal manhood suffrage, ensuring that former slaves had the right to vote. They were also required to ratify the . . . — Map (db m51927) HM

Arkansas (Sebastian County), Fort Smith — Bass Reeves - Lawman on the Western Frontier
Bass Reeves, a slave born in Arkansas and reared in Texas, rose to become one of the best known and effective deputy U.S. marshals to ride out of Fort Smith for Judge Isaac C. Parker. Recognized as one of the first African Americans commissioned as a federal lawman on the western frontier, Reeves was a master of disguise, expert with firearms, and over a thirty year career, arrested thousands of felons, including his son and minister. Newspapers reported that he killed over twenty men in the . . . — Map (db m58046) HM
Arkansas (Sebastian County), Fort Smith — Defending Freedom
I never saw such fighting done as was done the negro regiment…The question that negroes will fight is settled; besides they make better soldiers in every respect than any troops I have ever had under my command. ~General Blunt after the Battle of Honey Springs, July 17, 1863. Black infantry drilled on the parade ground in front of you. At various times during the Civil War, Fort Smith housed four regiments of U.S. Colored Troops (USCT). One was organized locally. Drills increased after . . . — Map (db m59021) HM
Arkansas (Sebastian County), Fort Smith — Deputy U.S. Marshal Bass Reeves
This statue was erected in 2012 as a result of growing awareness of the extraordinary service of Bass Reeves, an African-American former slave who became a highly respected Deputy U.S. Marshal. The deeds of African-American and Native American lawmen and citizens were often overlooked in standard history accounts for much of the 20th century. A fuller picture of the diversity of the people who contributed to the development of the United States is available at the Fort Smith National Historic . . . — Map (db m58047) HM
California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Frances Albrier(1898-1987) — Champion of Equal Rights and Social Justice
It was just automatic for me to stand up and tell a person, “You’re wrong. You’re mistreating me. You’re discriminatory. Why don’t you give me a chance?” Great generosity coupled with anger at injustice guided the life of Frances Albrier. In 1920 she moved from Alabama to Berkeley. She had left the highly segregated South with a college education, but still faced discrimination in housing and jobs. She worked as a maid and union organizer on the Pullman trains, married and . . . — Map (db m54814) HM
California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Site of Napoleon Bonaparte Byrne House1868 — City of Berkeley Landmark
In 1858, prosperous farmer Napoleon Bryne sold his Missouri land and journeyed west with his wife Mary Tanner Byrne, four children and other relatives. Two freed slaves, Pete and Hannah Byrnes, came with the family and became Berkeley’s first known African-American residents.

Bryne bought 827 acres of hillside land here beside Codornices Creek for $25 to #35 an acre and built a formal Italianate-style house. The land proved unproductive for farming, so the Byrnes moved to the Sacramento . . . — Map (db m54728) HM

California (Alameda County), Oakland — Black Panther Party Stoplight
Text for this marker is found on both sides of the panel. Side 1 On August 1, 1987 This stoplight was installed as a result of a community initiative spearheaded by the Black Panther Party Side 2 After several children attending the nearby Santa Fe Elementary School were killed and many injured by motorists at this intersection, the demand for a traffic signal by the Anti-Poverty Center and the Black Panther Party began in June, 1967. However, the Oakland City . . . — Map (db m72395) HM
California (Alameda County), Oakland — C. L. DellumsJanuary 3, 1900 – December 6, 1989
I am the Master of my fate / I am the Captain of my soul Sculptor: Carol Tarzier Funded by Federal Transportation Enhancement Activities Grant Commissioned by City of Oakland Public Works Agency encircling the base 1923 - Arrives in Oakland 1925 - Organizes Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters on the West Coast 1929 - Vice President of Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters until 1958 1941 - Begins Battle for Fair Employment Practices 1948 - Chairman of the West . . . — Map (db m71326) HM
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