|Ontario, Toronto — Mary Ann Shadd Cary — 1823 – 1893|
| Mary Ann Shadd Cary was an anti-slavery activist, an advocate for the rights of women, and a pioneering woman newspaper editor and publisher. The daughter of a free African American shoemaker and abolitionist, Shadd began a life of teaching at age 16 by founding a school for African American children in the slave state of Delaware. Following the passing of the Fugitive Slave act (1850), many escaped and free African Americans (like Shadd) sought refuge in Canada. Shadd moved to Windsor, . . . — Map (db m57756) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Municipality), Fort Erie — Freedom Park|
|From around 1830 to 1860, thousands of freedom seekers used the Underground Railroad to reach sanctuary in Canada - the “promised land”. Many crossed the Niagara River from the United State to Fort Erie, including Josiah Henson and his family, who arrived on the 28th of October 1830. The book Uncle Tom’s Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe, was patterned after his life.
This park has been created to celebrate their lives and to remind present and future generations of their . . . — Map (db m59329) HM|
|Ontario (Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Chloe Cooley and the 1793 Act to Limit Slavery in Upper Canada|
|On March 14, 1793 Chloe Cooley, an enslaved Black woman in Queenston, was bound, thrown in a boat and sold across the river to a new owner in the United States. Her screams and violent resistance were brought to the attention of Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe by Peter Martin, a free Black and former soldier in Butler's Rangers, and William Grisley, a neighbour who witnessed the event. Simcoe immediately moved to abolish slavery in the new province. He was met with opposition in the . . . — Map (db m66108) HM|
|Ontario (Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Negro Burial Ground 1830|
|Here stood a Baptist church erected in 1830 through the exertions of a former British soldier. John Oakley, who although white, became pastor of a predominantly negro congregation. In 1793 Upper Canada had passed an act forbidding further introduction of slaves and freeing the children of those in the colony at twenty-five. This was the first legislation of its kind in the British Empire. A long tradition of tolerance attracted refugee slaves to Niagara, many of whom lie buried here. — Map (db m66111) HM|
|Ontario (Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — The Upper Canadian Act Against Slavery (1793)|
|Inspired by the abolitionist sentiment emerging in the late 18th century, Lieutenant-Governor J.G. Simcoe made Upper Canada the first British territory to legislate against slavery, which had defined the conditions of life for most people of African ancestry in Canada since the early 17th century. The Act of 1793 did not free a single slave, but prevented their importation and freed the future children of slaves at age twenty-five. Faced with growing opposition in the colonies, slavery . . . — Map (db m66109) HM|
|Ontario (Regional Municipality of Niagara), St. Catharines — BME Church — National Historic Site|
|[Text on left side of marker]:
The Salem Chapel, British Methodist Episcopal Church was the first Black church in St. Catharines. Originally known as the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the name was changed to reflect their loyalty to the British Empire. In 1793, the "Upper Canada Act Against Slavery" was passed, allowing Blacks aged 25 years and older freedom from slavery in Canada. This created a safe haven for African American runaway slaves and made Canada the destination . . . — Map (db m66100) HM|
|Ontario (Regional Municipality of Niagara), St. Catharines — Harriet Ross Tubman c. 1820-1913|
|A legendary conductor on the Underground Railroad, Harriet Tubman became known as the "Moses" of her people. Tubman was born into slavery on a Maryland plantation and suffered brutal treatment from numerous owners before escaping in 1849. Over the next decade she returned to the American South many times and led hundreds of freedom seekers north. When the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 allowed slave owners to recapture runaways in the northern free states, Tubman extended her operations across the . . . — Map (db m66102) HM|
|Ontario (Regional Municipality of Niagara), St. Catharines — Harriet Tubman|
After the passing
of the USA 1850
Fugitive Slave Law
"I wouldn't trust
Uncle Sam with
my people no
longer: I brought
them all clear
off to Canada." — Map (db m66104) HM|
|Ontario (Regional Municipality of Niagara), St. Catharines — Harriet Tubman — (c. 1822-1913)|
|Born on a Maryland plantation, Harriet Tubman escaped slavery to become one of the great heroes of the 19th century. The most famous "conductor" on the Underground Railroad, she courageously led many of the people she rescued from American slavery on dangerous, clandestine journeys to safety and freedom in Canada. Tubman helped these Black refugees settle after their arrival and played an active role in the fight to end slavery. She became the public face of the Underground Railroad in British . . . — Map (db m66106) HM|
|Ontario (Regional Municipality of Niagara), St. Catharines — Richard Pierpoint c.1744-c.1838|
|One of the first Black settlers in this region, Pierpoint was born in Senegal. At the age of about 16 he was imprisoned and shipped to America where he became the slave of a British officer. During the American Revolution he enlisted in the British forces, thereby gaining his freedom, and served with Butler's Rangers. Disbanded at Niagara, "Captain Dick" settled near here. At the outbreak of the War of 1812 he joined the Coloured Corps and in 1821, recalling his militia service, he petitioned . . . — Map (db m66112) HM|
|Ontario (Regional Municipality of Niagara), St. Catharines — Salem Chapel, British Methodist Episcopal Church|
|Salem Chapel, built in 1855, was an important centre of 19th-century abolitionist and civil rights activity in Canada. Harriet Tubman, the famous Underground Railroad "conductor", lived near here from 1851 to 1858 and is traditionally associated with Salem Chapel. Many of those aided to freedom became church members and put down roots in the local community. The auditory-hall design typifies the style associated with the Underground Railroad-related churches in Ontario. — Map (db m66107) HM|
|Yukon Territory, Carcross — Carcross during World War II — Alaska-Canada Highway, 50 Years: 1942-1992|
| During World War II, Carcross played an important role in Alaska Highway construction. The connection here between the White Pass rail and water transportation systems gave the U.S. Army access to the Yukon’s interior.
By early 1942, Carcross residents were well aware of the war. Many young men had joined the armed forces, and their families anxiously followed the news from Europe. That spring, however, the war moved much closer to home when 1200 Black troops of the 93rd Engineers stepped . . . — Map (db m68899) HM|
|U.S Virgin Islands, St John, St. John — Slave Quarters|
|Primarily used for sleeping and household storage, typical “wattle and daub”’ huts with woven stick walls (wattle), dirt floors, and tyre palm roofs comprised Annaberg’s slave quarters on the slope below. The exteriors were plastered (daubed) with fresh cow dung, clay, or a mixture of sand, lime, and water.
The bedding was made of sacks stuffed with coconut husks. Cooking and chores were done in the surrounding yard. — Map (db m60777) HM|
|Alabama (Barbour County), Eufaula — Old Negro Cemetery / Fairview Cemetery|
| Front Interred on this gently sloping hillside are the remains of many of Eufaula’s early black citizens. Their names are known only to God because the wooden grave markers which located the burials have long since vanished. This burying ground was used until about 1870 when black interments were moved to Pine Grove Cemetery. In addition to the “Old Negro Cemetery”, there are at least five other graveyards including the Jewish, Presbyterian, Masonic Odd Fellows and Public . . . — Map (db m27987) HM|
|Alabama (Bullock County), Midway — First Baptist Missionary Church 1875|
|The Macedonia Baptist Church, located between the communities of Midway and Mt. Coney, was constructed by freedmen after the American Civil War, replacing the brush arbors used by the area’s antebellum slaves as sites for religious worship. Four separate congregations grew out of the original church: Antioch Baptist Church; Oak Grove Baptist Church; Mt. Coney Baptist Church; and Second Baptist Colored Church of Midway. |
First organized in 1875, Second Baptist was built on a one-acre site . . . — Map (db m60947) HM
|Alabama (Bullock County), Midway — Old Merritt School Midway Community Center|
|Margaret Elizabeth Merritt of Midway sold two acres for $5 to the state of Alabama in 1921 as a site for an elementary school for African-American children. Built in 1922 with matching Rosenwald funds, the Midway Colored Public School featured oak and pine construction and two classrooms divided by a partition. The building is one of the few surviving of the more than 5,000 rural black schools built with contributions from the Julius Rosenwald Fund. Enlarged twice, then renovated in 1978, it is . . . — Map (db m60910) HM|
|Alabama (Bullock County), Midway — 1998 — St. James C.M.E. Church — Railroad Street Midway, Alabama|
|St. James Christian Methodist Episcopal Church founded by Reverend Jack McMillan, a former slave of Midway’s Daniel McMillan. Initially meeting outdoors under a brush arbor, ex-slaves and their children constructed a wood-frame church building soon after this lot was purchased in December 1882. A storm subsequently damaged the building which was rebuilt in 1896. Gable-roofed, the structure’s original steeple church bell was enclosed in a cupola. Additional rooms have been added and the main . . . — Map (db m60909) HM|
|Alabama (Bullock County), Union Springs — Union Springs, Alabama|
| In the early 1800s, settlers coming from the Carolinas and Georgia received land grants and some purchased land from the Indians. The settled and cleared the forest for new farms and plantations in what would become a newly formed State of Alabama (1819). This same area would become Macon County in 1832. African men, women, and children were brought in as slaves tending fields, doing carpentry work, becoming brick masons, and serving in the homes of their owners in various capacities. . . . — Map (db m60950) HM|
|Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — Freedom Riders|
|On May 14, 1961, a Greyhound bus left Atlanta, GA carrying among its passengers seven members of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), a.k.a. the “Freedom Riders,” on a journey to test interstate bus segregation. The bus was met by an angry mob at the bus station in Anniston, AL where tires were slashed and windows broken. Upon leaving Anniston, the bus was followed by the mob to this site where the driver stopped to change the tire. The crowd set the bus on fire and attacked . . . — Map (db m35737) HM|
|Alabama (Calhoun County), Ohatchee — Janney Furnace|
|The furnace was constructed by Montgomery businessman Alfred A. Janney, reportedly using slaves brought from Tennessee by a "Dr. Smith." The furnace was completed and ready to produce pig iron when, on July 14, 1864, a Union cavalry raiding force of 2,300 men, led by Major General Louvell H. Rousseau, crossed the Coosa River at Ten Islands Ford in route to destroying the railroad between Montgomery and West Point, Georgia. Learning of the location of the furnace, Rousseau dispatched his . . . — Map (db m25544) HM|
|Alabama (Clarke County), Grove Hill — Colored and White Soldiers of World War I|
| This is a replica of the original tablet from the 1924 World War I monument located in front of the Clarke County Courthouse. The monument was the first memorial ever erected to honor county war dead. It cost $1,650 and was paid for with donations.
This tablet has historical significance. It is unique in that it shows racial tolerance for the time by honoring Blacks and Whites on the same stone. Tolerant though it may have been, it is a relic of a segregation era and a reminder that all . . . — Map (db m57385) HM|
|Alabama (Coosa County), Rockford — Peace & Goodwill Cemetery|
Peace & Goodwill Cemetery is Coosa County's first African American Cemetery to be placed on the prestigious Alabama Historic Cemetery Register. It provides powerful insights about the diligence and commitment of our African Ancestors. Family lineages interred here include former slaves, sharecroppers, educators, preachers, soldiers, and successful businessmen and women. These graves mark the journey of entire generations born in the 1840s and buried in the early 1900s. Most notably, Rev. . . . — Map (db m64587) HM|
|Alabama (Dallas County), Beloit — The Beloit Industrial Institute|
|Marker Front: The Beloit Industrial Institute was founded in 1888 by Industrial Missionary Association, an area subdivision of the American Missionary Associations. The President of the Association, Dr. Charles B. Curtis, was a Presbyterian missionary and educator from Wisconsin who established the school and founded the Beloit community. Dr. Curtis named the community for his Alma Mater, Beloit College in Wisconsin. The Beloit Industrial Institute gained recognition as the first . . . — Map (db m22142) HM|
|Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — Dallas County Courthouse|
|The grassed over mound of brick before you was once Dallas County's courthouse. This courthouse was built in 1834. It was dismantled prior to 1905 by brick salvagers.
Cahawba was the county seat from 1818 to 1866. This brought a lot of people, business and money into town. When the county seat was moved to Selma in 1866, most of Cahaba's residents moved also.
After the Civil War, the abandoned courthouse became a meeting hall for freedman seeking new political power. Cahaba was known . . . — Map (db m23010) HM|
|Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — Kirk-View Farm|
|In 1866, shortly after the Civil War and a severe flood, the county seat was moved from Cahaba to Selma. Residents rapidly abandoned the town. Many homes were dismantled and reassembled elsewhere.
Despite this trend, returning Confederate veteran Samuel McCurdy Kirkpatrick and his wife Sarah purchased a large brick house and outlying structures here on the northern edge of town. They acquired many of the vacated town lots and consolidated them into a large farm. For nearly seventy years, . . . — Map (db m22362) HM|
|Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — I Had A Dream — Dr. Martin L. King Jr.|
|The demonstration that led to the most important advance in civil rights for millions of Black Americans began here March 21, 1965. It was the 50-mile march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, the State Capital.
Defying threats of death, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., led 400 Black and White Americans on the longest, largest, most dramatic march of his 13-year career.
It gave southern Blacks the right as citizens to cast a ballot and help determine and help operate the government under . . . — Map (db m38693) HM|
|Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — The Selma Movement — (The Beginning) / (The Prize)|
The major civil rights protest, which focused national attention on the issue of racial discrimination in voting & led to the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, was centered in Selma.
In January of 1963 local citizens organized a voter registration class & by February others were in Selma to assist with registration. Local law officials & blacks seeking to register to vote soon clashed & this received widespread news coverage.
Dr. Martin . . . — Map (db m37662) HM|
|Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — 1965 — Valley Creek Presbyterian Church — One of state’s first Presbyterian churches|
|Established in 1816 by eight families form Rocky River Presbyterian Church in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina.
In 1859 this two-story brick building replaced original wooden structure.
Sanctuary and former slave gallery are on second floor.
Other meetings held on first floor.
In nearby cemetery lies heroes of America’s wars since 1776. — Map (db m37619) HM|
|Alabama (Elmore County), Wetumpka — Elmore County Training School|
|Constructed in 1924 on five acres, this building was one of nine schools constructed in Elmore County with funding assistance from the Julius Rosenwald Fund. Between 1912-32, Julius Rosenwald, a Jewish philanthropist and CEO of Sears, Roebuck and Company teamed up with Booker T. Washington and Tuskegee Institute to provide matching grants for the construction of school buildings for African Americans in mostly rural areas of the South. This collaborative effort produced more than 5,000 of these . . . — Map (db m70548) HM|
|Alabama (Elmore County), Wetumpka — Wetumpka's Bridges|
In 1834, the Wetumpka Toll Bridge Co. built the first of four bridges spanning the Coosa River at this site. It was destroyed in a flood in 1844. A second toll bridge was completed the same year by John Godwin whose slave, Horace King, designed and supervised construction of this covered bridge. Emancipated in 1846, King built numerous bridges in the South and his services were much in demand by the CSA during the Civil War. After the war, he was elected to the state . . . — Map (db m69449) HM|
|Alabama (Hale County), Gallion — Freetown|
| Side A
In 1867 a group of African American men and women laid the foundations for Freetown. William, John, Albert, George, Richard, and Peter Collins; Susan and Lawrence Moore; Thomas Jeffries; the children of John Jeffries; and Louisa Conway and her children received over six hundred acres of land in the will of John Collins, a local planter who had migrated from Virginia to Alabama in 1837. The early residents included former slaves and free people of color.
Many of the men were . . . — Map (db m38192) HM|
|Alabama (Henry County), Abbeville — Rosa Parks Lived Here|
| Front Civil rights pioneer Rosa McCauley Parks was born on February 4, 1913 in Tuskegee, Alabama. Shortly after her birth her parents James and Leona McCauley, moved here to a 260 acre farm owned by her grandparents, Anderson and Louisa McCauley. Her father, a builder, designed and constructed the Henry County Training School for black students in 1914. After a few years in Henry County, Rosa and her mother moved to Pine Level, Alabama, to live with her maternal grandparents, while her . . . — Map (db m60681) HM|
|Alabama (Jackson County), Paint Rock — The History of Paint Rock, Alabama / Paint Rock Arrests in 1931 Began 'Scottsboro Boys' Cases|
The History of Paint Rock, Alabama
Originally Camden circa 1830, the post office was renamed Redman in 1846 and became Paint Rock on May 17, 1860. After the Memphis and Charleston Railroad Co. built a depot and water tower in 1856, the village thrived as a farm to market center. Four battles were waged nearby during the Civil War and Union troops guarded the railroad.
Early industries included a mill to grind corn and wheat, a pencil mill, and two mills made . . . — Map (db m69756) HM|
|Alabama (Jackson County), Scottsboro — Jackson County Courthouse And The Scottsboro Boys|
Constructed in 1911-1912 and designed by architect Richard H. Hunt, the Jackson County Courthouse is a Neo-Classical, brick building situated on a town square in Scottsboro, the county seat of Jackson County. The front, two-story portico is supported by four stone columns of the Doric order. A cupola on the top contains a Seth Thomas clock.
This courthouse was the site of the first of the Scottsboro Boys trials. Two white women accused nine black teenagers of rape on . . . — Map (db m22264) HM|
|Alabama (Jackson County), Scottsboro — Scottsboro Railroad Depot|
|The Memphis and Charleston Railroad Company constructed the Scottsboro Railroad Depot in 1860-1861 as a passenger and freight facility. The rail line ran throughout the Confederacy and the Union considered its capture vital to cutting off supplies to the south. On January 8, 1865, the Depot was the site of an intense battle between 101st U.S. Colored Infantry and the 110th U.S. Colored Infantry, who held the Depot, and Confederate soldiers led by Brigadier-General H. B. Lyon. The out-numbered . . . — Map (db m22258) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 1963 Church Bombing Victims|
|This cemetery is the final resting place of three of the four young girls killed in the September 15, 1963 church bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church. Addie Mae Collins, Cynthia Wesley and Carol Robertson are buried here. The fourth victim, Denise McNair, is buried elsewhere.
The tragic loss of these lives led to the end of the era of massive resistance to social change in Birmingham and the release of the city from the fear which long paralyzed progress in human relations. — Map (db m61197) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 4th Avenue District|
|The Fourth Avenue "Strip" thrived during a time when downtown privileges for blacks were limited. Although blacks could shop at some white-owned stores, they did not share the same privileges and services as white customers, so they created tailor shops, department stores, cafeterias, billiard parlors, fruit stands, shoe shine shops, laundry service, jewelry and record shops, and taxicab stands. These businesses were distinctively geared toward and managed by blacks. When darkness fell, the . . . — Map (db m26985) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Alabama Veterans Memorial — Liberty Park|
| Pearl Harbor
May 31, 1941
I hope all is well with you. I am doing well but due to the present state of emergency the Pacific Fleet is held in a place known as Hawaiian Territory.
Would you do me a great favor? Whenever you are in town get me some info on our class ring. I missed out on getting one due to the lack of funds. Now that I am away from everything that reminds me of the good old days I would like very much to have that ring. I would be . . . — Map (db m27409) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Arthur D. Shores — "Dean of Black Lawyers in The State of Alabama."|
|During the first 30 years of his 54-year-old practice, Attorney Shores practiced all over the State of Alabama - from the Tennessee line to the Gulf of Mexico at Mobile Bay, and from the Mississippi borders to the Georgia limits. During the period roughly between 1940 and 1950 he was the only lone voice in the wilderness defending the civil rights of black people. Mr. Shores practiced civil rights law all over the state of Alabama during an era in which his life was in constant jeopardy. He . . . — Map (db m26720) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Brock Drugs Building|
|The Brock building was established in 1915, located at the intersection of Fourth Avenue and 18th Street North, was built while the area was residential. The three-story building housed a hotel upstairs that catered to professional musicians and athletes. The drug store served as the "gathering place" for black patrons during the early 1920's through the early 1960's. The building was demolished in the 80's. The most notable businesses included:
1928 - 1977 Palm Leaf Hotel
. . . — Map (db m26723) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Carrie A. Tuggle — 1858 - 1924|
|In Tribute to
Carrie A. Tuggle
1858 - 1924
Scholar, Teacher and Christian.
A life of unselfish service
to the troubled and the
homeless black boys and girls.
In 1903, she founded
a school and orphanage,
the Tuggle Institute. — Map (db m27391) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Civil Rights Freedom Riders — May 14, 1961|
|On Mother's Day, May 14, 1961, a group of black and white CORE youth on a "Freedom Ride" from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans arrived by bus at the Birmingham Greyhound terminal. They were riding through the deep south to test a court case, "Boynton vs. Virginia", declaring segregation in bus terminals unconstitutional. Here they were met and attacked by a mob of Klansmen. The riders were severely assaulted while the police watched, yet the youth stood their grounds. — Map (db m26698) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dr. Ruth J. Jackson — 1898 - 1982|
Dr. Ruth J. Jackson
This woman of strength and vision graduated from the Poro School of Cosmetology, the first black registered school in the State of Alabama. At the vanguard of the Civil Rights Movement, she was unwavering in her devotion to the Birmingham Community. She inspired both children and adults to complete their education. Members of the Southern Beauty Congress and the Alabama Association of Modern Beauticians, Organizations to which she rendered . . . — Map (db m27090) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — East Birmingham|
Founded in 1886 on 600 acres of land, East Birmingham was the agricultural area consisting primarily of dairy farms extending to the present Birmingham airport. The East Birmingham Land Company that developed the area was formed by local industrialist who proposed sites for manufacturing plants, employee housing , and a streetcar line linking them to Birmingham. East Birmingham was annexed to the city in 1910.
In the decades after 1886, Industrial enterprises and . . . — Map (db m26633) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Eddie James Kendrick — December 17, 1937 - October 5, 1992|
|Eddie James Kendrick, nicknamed "cornbread", was born the eldest of five children to Johnny and Lee Bell Kendrick in Union Springs, Alabama.
After attending Western-Olin High School in Ensley, Alabama, Eddie was persuaded by his childhood friend Paul Williams to move to Detroit, Michigan. It was there they formed a singing group called "The Primes". While in Detroit, the duo met Otis Williams of the music group "The Distants". The two groups merged forming the legendary "Temptations". . . . — Map (db m26724) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Foot Soldier Tribute — Ronald S. McDowell, Artist I.B.J.C.|
|This sculpture is dedicated to the Foot Soldiers of the Birmingham Civil Rights Movement.
With gallantry, courage and great bravery they faced the violence of attack dogs, high powered water hoses, and bombings. They were the fodder in the advance against injustice. Warriors of a Just Cause: They represent humanity unshaken in their firm belief in their nation’s commitment to liberty and justice for all.
We salute these men and women who were the Soldiers of this Great Cause.
. . . — Map (db m27394) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Fourth Avenue Historic District.|
Prior to 1900 a "black business district" did not exist in Birmingham. In a pattern characteristic of Southern cities found during Reconstruction, black businesses developed alongside those of whites in many sections of the downtown area.
After the turn of the century, Jim Crow laws authorizing the distinct separation of "the races" and subsequent restrictions placed on black firms forced the growing black business community into an area along Third, Fourth, and Fifth . . . — Map (db m26702) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Fraternal Hotel Building|
|The Fraternal Hotel Building was built in 1925. Some of the businesses that were located in this building included:
1925 - 1980 Fraternal Hotel
1925 - 1970 Fraternal Café
1950 - 1966 Monroe Steak House
1985 - 1994 Grand Lodge Knights of Pythians
1928 - 1931 Mabry Brothers Department Store
1952 - 1985 Hill Photo Studio
1950 - 1985 Central Barber Shop
Famous persons such as: Dr. Martin L. King, Jr., Rev. Jesse Jackson, Jackie Robinson, Monroe Kennedy and many others were . . . — Map (db m27518) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Green Acres Café — 1705 - 4th Avenue, North|
|Businesses that occupied this building between 1908 - 1970
1908 - 1913 Southern Bell Telephone Company Stockroom
1915 - 1926 OK French Dry Cleaning Company
1927 - 1938 George Kanelis Billiards
1940 - 1945 Alex’s Steak House
1946 - 1971 OK Cleaning Company
Historically, this building has been identified as the OK Cleaners building. During the early 1970’s until 1989 this building remained vacant. Green Acres Café was established in 1959 and was located at 1600 - 6th Avenue, . . . — Map (db m27521) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Julius Ellsberry|
|In dedication to Julius Ellsberry, the first Black Alabama man to die in World War II; born Birmingham, Ala, 1922.
Enlisted in the U.S. Navy, 1940; First Class Mate [sic] Attendant aboard battleship Oklahoma in the Battle of Pearl Harbor, did sacrifice his life to save his shipmates, December 7, 1941. — Map (db m63761) HM WM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Julius Ellsberry Memorial Park|
| In honor of Julius Ellsberry of Birmingham
World War II Hero
First Jefferson County Citizen
to die for his country at Pearl Harbor while serving aboard the U.S.S. Oklahoma December 7, 1941 — Map (db m70261) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Pauline Bray Fletcher — 1878 - 1970|
|In Tribute to
Pauline Bray Fletcher
1878 - 1970
The First Black Registered Nurse of Alabama
Through self-sacrifice, perseverance founded in 1926 Camp Pauline Bray Fletcher.
Renewing the faith and the good health of all black children. — Map (db m27393) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Rev. Fred Shuttleworth Bethel Baptist Church|
|Rev. Fred Shuttleworth's tenure as pastor of Bethel Baptist Church (1953-1961) was marked by demonstrations, bombings and passionate sermons critical of segregation laws. His activism earned him a house bombing, frequent beatings, arrests, and threats to his family. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. called Shuttleworth “one of the nation's most courageous freedom fighters.”Shuttleworth organized lunch counter sit-ins and encouraged Blacks to apply for civil service jobs. The church was . . . — Map (db m50398) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Rickwood Field|
|Built by local industrialist A. H. "Rick" Woodward, this park opened on August 18, 1910. It is the oldest surviving baseball park in America. Rickwood served as the home park for both the Birmingham Barons (until 1987) and the Birmingham Black Barons (until 1963). It was also a favorite site for barnstorming Major League teams. Many greats of the game thrilled crowds here, including Babe Ruth, Jackie Robinson, Ty Cobb, Burleigh Grimes, Ted Williams, Stan Musial, Walt Dropo,and Reggie Jackson. . . . — Map (db m22526) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Sixteenth Street Baptist Church — Has Been Designated a National Historic Landmark.|
|This property possesses National Significance in commemorating the history of the United States. In 1963 it was the staging ground for the Birmingham Campaign Civil Rights Youth Marches and the place where a bomb killed four young girls, "Martyred Heroines of a Holy Crusade for Freedom and Human Dignity." — Map (db m63733) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Smithfield|
This residential area was carved from the Joseph Riley Smith plantation, a 600 acre antebellum farm, one of the largest in 19th century Jefferson County. Smithfield lies to the west of Birmingham's city center on the flat land & hills north of Village Creek & has the city's earliest & most substantial concentration of black, middle-class residences, small commercial enclaves & churches. The neighborhood illustrates the lifestyles of a wide spectrum of black Birmingham . . . — Map (db m26990) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Tuxedo Junction|
|"Tuxedo Junction" was the street car crossing on the Ensley-Fairfield line at this corner in the Tuxedo Park residential area. It also refers to the fraternal dance hall operated in the 1920's and 1930s on the second floor of the adjacent building, and to the 1939 hit song "Tuxedo Junction", written by Birmingham musician-composer Erskine Hawkins, who grew up nearby and became a well known big band leader in New York City.
"Co-ome on down, forget your care,
Co-ome on . . . — Map (db m25623) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Wilson Chapel And Cemetery — ("The Little Brown Church in the Wildwood")|
|Wilson Chapel was built in 1916 as a memorial to James and Frances Wilson by their daughters, Rosa Wilson Eubanks and Minerva Wilson Constantine. At the time of its construction the area was developing into a community of country homes known as Roebuck Springs. Styled after the architecture of English parish churches, the chapel marks and protects the site of one of the oldest cemeteries in Alabama.
Frances Wilson's father, Audley Hamilton, was granted this land in 1818 and the cemetery . . . — Map (db m26681) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Zion Memorial Gardens|
|Mt. Zion Baptist Church began burying here in the mid-1800s. On June 2, 1970, New Grace Hill Cemetery, Inc., a subsidiary of the Booker T. Washington Insurance Company in Birmingham, purchased this cemetery and officially named it Zion Memorial Gardens. Dr. A. G. Gaston (1892-1996) organized the Booker T. Washington Burial Society in 1923, responding to the lack of burial insurance available to African Americans. Gaston believed, “a proper funeral is of immense importance….it’s the very . . . — Map (db m35602) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Leeds — John Henry — Ledgendary 'Steel Drivin' Man'|
|The story of "steel driving' man" John Henry is one of America's most enduring legends. The strong ex-slave became a folk hero during construction of the Columbus & Western Railroad between Goodwater and Birmingham. He drilled holes for explosives used to blast tunnels. According to legend, he was involved in a race against a steam-powered drill that its manufacturer claimed could do the job faster than a man. Witnesses said after the all-day contest that he and his heavy hammer cleared . . . — Map (db m22207) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Bennett Walker Smith|
|Rev. Dr. Bennett W. Smith, as president of the Progressive National Baptist Convention, expanded the organization internationally. Active in Civil Rights in America and South Africa, he counseled President Bill Clinton on racial equality.
City of Florence
Walk of Honor — Map (db m38645) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Burrell Normal School — Burrell High School — Burrell-Slater High School 1903~1969|
|This school named Burrell Academy,formerly in Selma, Alabama, was given to Florence by the American Missionary Association. In 1903, Burrell Normal School opened and served African ~American students in grades 1-12. In 1937, the Florence City Board of Education assumed its operation and changed the name to Burrell High School. In 1951, it was moved to the Slater Elementary School Building on South Court Street and its name was changed to Burrell Slater High School. That building burned in 1958. . . . — Map (db m56356) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Capture of John A.Murrell — Natchez Trace Outlaw — 1834|
|John A. Murrell, known as the "Great Western Land Pirate," was captured near this site in the winter of 1834. He was said to have killed over 400 people, including many kidnapped slaves. His arrest was brought about thought the clever maneuvering of Tom Brannon, a local African~American slave. An attempt had been made by the outlaw to recruit Brannon as a contact man for his far~reaching empire of crime. Brannon was awarded $100 for his bravery and his name was publicized across the country. — Map (db m28463) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Church Spring and School — (Circa 1840-1895)|
|About 1849, African-Americans began holding religious services in a brick cow shed overlooking the town spring near the site. It was purchased in 1857 by the local Methodists for this congregation, with Robin Lightfoot, a slave as its pastor. In 1879, it was organized as St. Paul's African-American Methodist Episcopal Church. Children of slaves and freemen were taught here in early years. In 1866, the Freedmen's Bureau established a school for the children of African-Americans, probably at this location. — Map (db m45812) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Dr. Hicks Boulevard|
|This boulevard was named in honor of Dr. Leonard Jerry Hicks by the City of Florence in 1981. Dr. Hicks was a prominent Black leader of the community and was recognized for his skills as a physician across the State of Alabama. He was born September 20, 1899, at Plant City, Florida, and died September 27, 1973, at Florence. Dr. Hicks' medical office was located near this site. — Map (db m35257) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Dred Scott — (In Florence 1820 -1830)|
|Dred Scott, whose name is associated with the landmark U.S. Supreme Court Dred Scott Decision of 1857, was born in Virginia between 1795~1809. In 1818 he was in Madison County, Alabama. He came to Florence with the Peter Blow family in 1820. About 1827 the Peter Blow Inn was established at this site, Scott served as the hostler here until the Blows relocated to St. Louis, Missouri, in 1830. Afterwards, Scott was sold to Dr. John Emerson. It was under Emerson’s service that Scott based his legal . . . — Map (db m35183) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Dred Scott|
|Dred Scott, a slave who served as the hostler in Peter Blow's Florence Hotel, waged a 14-year legal fight for freedom that resulted in the U.S. Supreme Court's Dred Scott Decision of 1857, a pivotal event in American history. — Map (db m56375) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Florence Bethel Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America|
|The "Mother Church" of the Presbytery, Florence Cumberland Colored Presbyterian Church originated in 1898 on property deeded by the city. Led, in 1918, by Rev. Holt Smith, it bought property on Alabama Street and build a frame structure. In 1948 Rev. Earl McDonald led in the construction of the annex named for him and the Jerome Robinson Education building. In 1997, the name became Florence Bethel Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America. The church continually proclaims the compassion of Christ throughout the world. — Map (db m32767) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — James Thomas Rapier|
|Lawyer and statesman James T. Rapier, a son of free African-American parents in Florence, holds the distinction of being just the second African-American from Alabama to be elected, in 1873, to the U.S. Congress.
City of Florence Walk of Honor — Map (db m28887) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — John Thomas Bulls, Jr|
|For 21 years following the end of World War II, John Bulls served as Agricultural Extension Advisor for the U.S. Dept. in India, Nigeria, Tunisia and Uganda, assisting farmers and organizing community development programs. — Map (db m38642) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Patton Elementary School — (1891-1958)|
|First school in Florence Public school system built 1890 on land given by Governor Robert M. Patton. It was occupied in 1891. Designed originally to serve all white elementary school children of Florence. Usually served six grades divided into nine sections. The building was remodeled several times and also housed the Superintendents Offices. Cloakrooms, safety doors, fire escapes were added, and the third floor was removed in 1921.
Ada Coffee, leading Alabama educator, joined the facility . . . — Map (db m29272) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — St Paul African Methodist Episcopal Church — (Organized 1879 from earlier 1840 Congregation)|
|In early 1840s about 14 African-American members from First Methodist formed own congregation “Church Springs” near South Court Street. In 1857, a nearby brick cow shed was converted for its use under Rev. Robin Lightfoot who became a martyr during the Civil War. Site of American Missionary School after Emancipation. Organized as St. Paul AME in 1879. Relocated to Court and Alabama Streets in 1895. Charles B. Handy was early pastor and William W. Handy was early leader (father and . . . — Map (db m56357) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — The Greater Mount Moriah — Primitive Baptist Church — ~1896~|
|The congregation first met in home of Mrs. Betsy Key. Organized as "Fairgrounds Church" in 1896 at nearby site of early Florence Racetrack and Fairgrounds, with Andy Sloss as pastor. Later, the church was moved to Irvine Avenue (formerly Fish-Trap Road). Mrs. Mary Ola Key was given honor of naming the church "Mount Moriah." The adjoining lot was purchased and church rebuilt in 1924, with C.A. Crump as pastor. In 1924, the building was remodeled and another addition erected under David Tolbert . . . — Map (db m56355) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Weeden Heights — early 1900s|
|This Twentieth century business and residential area was developed by John D. Weeden Jr. during the building of Wilson Dam and the World War I Defense Plants. Weeden Heights was carved from 3,800-acre Sweetwater Plantation, the former home of his grandfather, Governor Robert M. Patton. The slave village, with its 23 small cabins facing a community square, was located north of the Broadway Recreation Center. An unmarked slave cemetery is nearby. In 1871 the Pattons gifted a 25-acre farm in this . . . — Map (db m35632) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — William Christopher Handy|
|Born in Florence in 1873, W.C. Handy wrote some of the country's most recognizable blues music such as the "St. Louis Blues." He became internationally known as the "Father of the Blues."
City of Florence
Walk of Honor — Map (db m28890) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Wilson Family Cemetery 19th Century / Slave Cemetery 19th Century|
| Side A
In 1818 three Wilson brothers John, Matthew and Samuel, came from Virginia to purchase large farms in this area. The plantations of John and Matthew joined near this cemetery. All three brothers and their families are buried here. Inscriptions on two gravestones tell of a Civil War atrocity when, on April 30, 1865 two local Union guerrilla gangs tortured and murdered John Wilson and his nephew, Matthew Jr.
Two others in the house were shot, yet lived to tell the story.
The . . . — Map (db m28160) HM|
|Alabama (Lawrence County), Courtland — The African ~ American Experience|
African~Americans played a very significant role in the early history of Courtland. Most came as slaves from the older southern states to help clear the land, to plant crops of cotton and corn, and to serve as household domestics. President Thomas Jefferson’s great~grandson, William S. Bankhead, brought his personal servant and valet, Jupiter, from Monticello when he settled near Courtland in the 1840s. Skilled slave craftsmen also assisted in constructing many Courtland . . . — Map (db m29009) HM|
|Alabama (Lawrence County), Danville — James Cleveland "Jesse" Owens|
|Born near this site 12 September 1913 to Henry Cleveland and Emma (Fitzgerald)Owens, who were sharecroppers and the offspring of freed slaves, Jesse was destined to attain immorality in the 1936 Olympic Games at Berlin, Germany. Although he moved to Cleveland, Ohio, at age 9, his early years here in Lawrence County, Alabama, helped mold his noble character. After high school, he enrolled at Ohio State where on 25 May 1935 at a Big Ten Conference meet, he broke and tied various world track and . . . — Map (db m37465) HM|
|Alabama (Lee County), Auburn — Noble Hall|
The Greek Revival rock and mortar house was built by Addison Frazer (1809-1873) between 1852 and 1854 and served as the center for a 2,000 acre cotton plantation. Frazer owned 100 slaves and was on the Board of Trustees of Auburn Masonic Female College and East Alabama Male College. The contractor from Kentucky used slave labor to build the eight rooms with 12 foot high ceilings and 18 inch exterior walls, two cantilever balconies and eight Doric columns. In the rear . . . — Map (db m25988) HM|
|Alabama (Limestone County), Athens — Fort Henderson / Trinity School - 1865-1970|
| Fort Henderson Built on this site in 1863 by federal forces occupying Athens. It was a five-sided earthen fort with some frame buildings and underground bomb-proofs. Abatis lined the fifteen-foot deep perimeter ditch, a small portion of which is still visible. On September 24, 1864 after a brief fight and a clever ruse orchestrated by Confederate General Nathan B. Forrest, the fort and its 900 man garrison of mostly the 110th U.S. colored infantry were surrendered. After moving the . . . — Map (db m41787) HM|
|Alabama (Limestone County), Athens — Lucy's Branch/Legacy of The Little Elk Community|
| Lucy's Branch This site is named for Lucy Bedingfield, daughter of a slave and a Cherokee Indian. She was born 1832, and her Indian name was Finch. She married Meredith Bedingfield, a slave and had 9 children. Lucy was an astute and avid storyteller. She purchased 170 acres in June 1888, for $600, recorded by U.S. Paten #43463. One of the last known Indian Chiefs in the area formerly occupied this land. Lucy mortgaged the farm several times by making her mark. She used "Gold Coins of the . . . — Map (db m32776) HM|
|Alabama (Limestone County), Tanner — Oakland United Methodist Church|
|Generations of African~American families have worshiped here, beginning with services held under a brush arbor prior to the Civil War. In August of 1879, the land for the Oakland Methodist church was deeded to parishioners. In a wooden one-room building, they worshiped and operated their own private school, serving the surrounding communities and producing a number of ministers and educators. The Limestone County Board of Education took charge of the school in 1929 until it closed at the end of . . . — Map (db m29094) HM|
|Alabama (Macon County), Franklin — Franklin's Educational Legacy|
Franklin School, originally constructed on this lot, was in operation as early as the 1890s teaching grades 1-11. By the mid 1930s, it was downsized to grades 1-6. There were northern and southern classrooms adjoined by a common auditorium. The school's original water source was a spring near the building, later a dug well in the front yard with a hand pump provided water. Heat was provided by a wood-burning pot belly stove. Each student brought a stick of wood every morning . . . — Map (db m68028) HM|
|Alabama (Macon County), Shorter — Prairie Farms Resettlement Community|
Beginning in the mid-1930s during the Great Depression, the federal New Deal promoted Land Resettlement to move farmers across the nation off worn out soil to new farmland. The Resettlement Administration, and its successor the Farm Security Administration, established one of these experimental planned communities here in west Macon County, the all-African American “Prairie Farms.” With more than 3,100 acres from two plantations purchased by the federal . . . — Map (db m68000) HM|
|Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — Booker T. Washington|
|On this site stood
the "shanty" where
first opened school,
July 4 1881.
Later it became
"State Normal School", next
"Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute",
now "Tuskegee Institute". — Map (db m69096) HM|
|Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — Butler Chapel AME Zion Church|
|Before the mid-1960s, Tuskegee’s black population faced many challenges when attempting to register to vote. Furthermore, the State of Alabama redrew the town’s political boundaries in an effort to prevent registered blacks from voting in local elections. In response to this discrimination, several thousand people gathered at Butler Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church on June 25, 1957 for the first meeting of the Tuskegee Civic Association’s “Crusade for Citizenship.” . . . — Map (db m69048) HM|
|Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site — A Bit to Eat|
Known as the Tea Room, this small lunchroom was built during the initial expansion phase of Moton Field in 1942 and 1943, when amenities such as offices and bathrooms not built into the original hangar were added. Here, personnel stationed at Moton Field could get a bite to eat. Cadets ate at Tuskegee Institute, but they could also buy a snack in the Tea Room if they had the time.
. . . cadets, instructors, and people in the area. . . come and have a snack, a bit to eat, because . . . — Map (db m64362) HM|
|Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site — A Typical Day|
Try to imagine how Moton Field looked and sounded when the cadets trained here. Compare the scene today to the photograph below, taken from your vantage point around 1944. As the pace of training accelerated during the war, Moton Field became a very busy place.
Between the two hangars, aircraft were refueled from one of six fuel tanks, which remain in the ground near where you are standing. Planes in need of maintenance taxied to the hangar. Everywhere, there were flight instructors, . . . — Map (db m64366) HM|
|Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site — Bath and Locker House|
This building was completed in 1941 as a restroom, shower, and locker room for administrative and support personnel. It had facilities for both men and women. Both black and white may have used the building. If so, it almost certainly would have been the only integrated facility of its kind in the South at that time.
The Bath and Locker House was probably not used by cadets, since they were at Moton field only a few hours a day. But mechanics, such as the one shown in this photo, needed . . . — Map (db m64361) HM|
|Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site — FIRE!|
The Fire Protection Shed in front of you was used to store equipment such as hoses, fire extinguishers, and tools for fighting fires. Fire was always a danger at the airfield because of the flammable materials used in airplanes and the fuels stored on site.
[Background photo caption reads] In 1941 a fire damaged the Bath and Locker House. Imagine what could have happened if this fire had spread to the fuel tanks nearby.
[Inset photo caption reads] The Physical Plant Director . . . — Map (db m64364) HM|
|Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site — Hangar No. 1|
In Hangar No. 1 flying became real for the aviation cadet. The hangar housed the main activities of the airfield, including flight debriefings, flight record-keeping, aircraft maintenance, and military and civilian management. Several smaller rooms surrounding the original space were added as the program grew.
The door to your left originally led to the Machine Shop where metal parts for aircraft were repaired. Through those doors you will now find an orientation and information area, . . . — Map (db m64365) HM|
|Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site — The Control Tower|
From Moton Field’s Control Tower, controllers directed flight operations and signaled landing instructions to pilots through a system of flashing colored lights. Dispatchers called cadets for their flights. The tower overlooked the busy – and noisy – flow of aircraft, pedestrian, and vehicle traffic between two hangars.
The tower was where the dispatcher would look out on the field and call the cadets over the loudspeaker to tell them about their flight assignments. Also . . . — Map (db m64363) HM|
|Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — The Tuskegee Airmen's Plaza|
|This plaza is dedicated to the memory of the Tuskegee Airmen, including General Daniel "Chappie" James, whose training at Tuskegee University and the Tuskegee Army Air Field enabled them to prove for all time the competence and bravery of Black Americans in the U.S. Air Force.
This plaza commemorates their courageous service in the air and on the ground--both women and men--in defense of the United States of America. Without their commitment and daring, America's victories over her enemies would have been much more difficult. — Map (db m20076) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Fifth Avenue School — Site of Alabama's First Public School Integration|
|Opened in 1944, the Fifth Avenue School became the focal point for major educational change on September 9, 1963, when Sonnie Hereford IV became the first African-American student to integrate public schools in Alabama. Following a lengthy court battle, Dr. Sonnie Hereford III enrolled his son in the first grade at the school. Veronica Pearson (Rison School), David (Piggee) Osman (Terry Heights School) and John Anthony Brewton (East Clinton School) enrolled in other Huntsville City Schools . . . — Map (db m55722) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Oakwood College — Founded 1896|
|Oakwood College, which began as an industrial school, was founded by the Seventh-day Adventist Church in 1896 to educate African Americans in the South. The school was erected on 380 acres purchased during the previous year for $6,700. Additional property secured in 1918 nearly tripled its land holdings. The school underwent several name changes over its history: 1896: Oakwood Industrial School 1904: Oakwood Manual Training School 1917: Oakwood Junior College 1943: Oakwood College In 1958, . . . — Map (db m34953) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Oakwood College — Founded 1896|
|Oakwood College, which began as an industrial school, was founded by the Seventh-day Adventist Church in 1896 to educate African Americans in the South. The school was erected on 380 acres purchased during the previous year for $6,700. Additional property secured in 1918 nearly tripled its land holdings. The school underwent several name changes over its history: 1896: Oakwood Industrial School 1904: Oakwood Manual Training School 1917: Oakwood Junior College 1943: Oakwood College In 1958, . . . — Map (db m34955) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Original Site of Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University|
| (Front) Original site of Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University (now located at Normal, Alabama) Legislature approved 9 December 1873 "a normal school for the education of colored teachers" in Huntsville. Ex-slave William Hooper Councill founder and first president. Classes began May 1875 with sixty-one pupils and two teachers; held in rented buildings until moved 1891 to this site - the first school-owned property. Land-grant funds received 1891 for training of Negroes in . . . — Map (db m39825) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Rev. Dr. Joseph E. Lowery Boyhood Home Site — (Dean of Civil Rights Movement)|
| Side A
Dr. Joseph Echols Lowery was born in Huntsville on Oct 6, 1921, to Dora and Leroy Lowery. He grew up in Lakeside (Methodist) church. He began his education in Huntsville, spent his middle school years in Chicago, and returned to complete high school. He attended Alabama A&M University. Knoxville College, Payne College and Theological Seminary. He served as pastor of United Methodist churches in Mobile, Birmingham and Atlanta for 45 years, retiring from the pulpit in 1997. He . . . — Map (db m27901) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Saint Bartley Primitive Baptist Church — Located here 1872-1964 — Oldest Negro congregation in Alabama|
|Organized 1820 by William Harris, a slave, who was minister more than 50 years. Original church, called Huntsville African Baptist, stood 4 blocks south in Old Georgia Graveyard. In 1870, this church and 3 others formed Indian Creek Primitive Baptist Association. Congregation occupied brick church on this site 1872-1964. In 1965, moved to new building, 3020 Belafonte Ave., N.W. Present name honors Bartley Harris, saintly second minister. Other pastors: Felix Jordan, Eli Patton, Richard Moore, Amos Robinson. — Map (db m35960) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Site of the Huntsville Slave Cemetery|
|On September 3, 1818, the Huntsville City Commissioners purchased two acres of land from LeRoy Pope for a "burying ground" for slaves. This cemetery was located within the NE quarter of Section 1, Township 4, Range 1 West of the Base Meridian. It was affectionately known as "Georgia" within the black community. The cemetery continued to be used from 1818 until 1870 when Glenwood Cemetery was designated as the city's burial ground for African Americans. No known records have survived. — Map (db m35214) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Slave Cemetery — 1800s|
|This cemetery site was used as a burial ground for slaves who lived on both the Peter Blow and Job Key plantations from 1811 to 1865. Dred Scott's first wife and their two children are believed to have been buried here. The cemetery continued to be used through the early 1900s. — Map (db m31562) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — William Hooper Councill High School Site — 1892-1966|
|The first public school for African-Americans in the city of Huntsville was named for the founder of the Alabama A&M University. The site, selected by a committee headed by the Rev. W.E. Gaston, was donated by the Davis-Lowe family. Founded in 1867 in the basement of Lakeside Methodist Episcopal Church on Jefferson Street, the school was moved to a frame building on this site in 1892. The first diplomas were granted in 1912. A brick structure replaced the original building in 1927. The school . . . — Map (db m36065) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Madison — Pension Row|
|Pension Row is representative of many small town African American neighborhoods. Once a thriving community with its own schools, churches, businesses, lodges, and recreation areas, it has been a part of Madison since Madison was incorporated in 1869. for much of the 19th and 20th centuries, it was home to most of Madison's black citizens, including businessmen, teachers, preachers, farmers, housekeepers, and workers in the town's gins and warehouses. The narrow streets, designed for horse-drawn . . . — Map (db m44264) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Normal — Alabama A&M University former names / Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University — Normal, Alabama|
| Alabama A&M University former names 1873 - Colored Normal School at Huntsville 1885 - The Huntsville State Colored Normal and Industrial School 1896 - The State Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes 1919 - The State Agricultural and mechanical Institute for Negroes 1948 - Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical College 1969 - University status achieved Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University Legislature approved 9 December 1873 "a normal school for the education of . . . — Map (db m39760) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Normal — Councill Training School — (1919 - 1970)|
| Side A In 1919, the first building was erected nearby with funds provided locally and supplemented with a Julius Rosenwald Foundation grant. Named for William H. Councill, Alabama A&M University founder, the three-room structure was built for black students in grades 1-6. Traditionally county black students were taught in churches and lodge halls. Many would continue their education at the University's Laboratory School. The second school was erected on this site in 1948. This structure . . . — Map (db m39761) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Normal — William Hooper Councill — Founder — Alabama A&M University|
| "...A tower of knowledge, of strength, of power ...Let us build..." Dr. William Hooper Councill served as President of Alabama A&M University and was the catalyst for its early development from its founding in 1875 until his death in 1909. Born a slave, Dr. Councill emerged as a man of vision, conviction, and stamina, driven by a quest to further others through the promise of education. The Founder's Memorial Project was conceived and executed through the leadership of Dr. Dorothy . . . — Map (db m39763) HM|
|Alabama (Mobile County), Mt. Vernon — Mount Vernon Arsenal and Barracks/Searcy Hospital|
Mount Vernon Arsenal and Barracks
Established 1828 by Congress to store arms and munitions for U. S. Army. Original structures completed 1830's.
Arsenal appropriated by Confederacy 1861; equipment moved to Selma facilities. After Civil War used as U. S. Army barracks; from 1887-1894 served as holding ground for Apache Indian prisoners. Deeded to State of Alabama 1895.
Josiah Gorgas, later Chief of Ordnance of Confederacy, stationed here 1850's; Dr. Walter . . . — Map (db m70593) HM|
|Alabama (Monroe County), Perdue Hill — Perdue Hill Industrial School|
|The Perdue Hill Industrial School was founded by Patrick J. Carmichael after he moved to this area in 1918. Carmichael acted as both the principal and teacher during the early years of the school, which was originally a one-room structure serving eleven students. The State of Alabama provided $75 annually towards school operating costs, and students paid a tuition of $.25 each year. When money ran short for the African-American children that the school served, tuition was often paid with . . . — Map (db m47643) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Mathews — The Jonesville Community — (Honoring Mr. Prince Albert Jones Sr.)|
The Jonesville Community on Old Pike Road in Mathews, named for wealthy landowner George Mathews from Olgethorp County Ga.
was designated by the Montgomery County Commission on October
16th, 2007 to honor the life and legacy of Prince Albert Jones Sr.
(April 25, 1916 - January 13, 2008) and his family to the community.
Jones was born and reared in the area and devoted much of his
nearly 92 years of life to helping others in Mathews and the
surrounding communities of . . . — Map (db m68716) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama State University / Tullibody|
| Side A Founded 1866 as the Abraham Lincoln Normal School in Marion. Alabama by nine former slaves. Operated from 1868 until 1874 by the American Missionary Association. The school began to receive state funding in 1874, making it the first state-assisted normal school and university for blacks in Alabama. Moving from Marion to Montgomery in 1887, the school's classes initially were held in black churches. The institution had several name changes. Finally becoming Alabama State . . . — Map (db m28638) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Bernard Whitehurst and the Whitehurst Case / Montgomery: Learning From the Past|
Bernard Whitehurst and the Whitehurst Case
On December 2, 1975, Bernard Whitehurst was shot to death by a police officer in Montgomery, Alabama. He died behind a house on Holcombe Street, running from police officers who mistakenly believed he was the suspect in a robbery of a neighborhood grocery store.
The facts were slow to emerge in this shooting of a black man by a white police officer. But investigations urged by the Whitehurst family, the city’s daily . . . — Map (db m69366) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Black Members of the Alabama Legislature Who Served During The Reconstruction Period of 1868-1879|
|1868-1869: Senate: Benjamin F. Royal, Bullock; House: Benjamin Alexander, Greene; James H. Alston, Macon; Samuel Blandon, Lee; John Carraway, Mobile; George Cox, Montgomery; Thomas H. Diggs, Barbour; Joseph Drawn, Dallas; Ovide Gregory, Mobile; James K. Greene, Hale; Daniel H. Hall, Bullock; George Houston, Sumter; Benjamin Inge, Sumter; Columbus Jones, Madison; Shandy Wesley Jones, . . . — Map (db m46414) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church — Organized 1877|
|The second black Baptist Church in Montgomery. First pastor was Rev. C. O. Boothe. Present structure built 1885. Designed by Pelham J. Anderson; built by William Watkins, a member of the congregation.
Many prominent black citizens of Montgomery have been members, Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. served as pastor (1954-1960). Montgomery bus boycott organized here December 2, 1955. — Map (db m25128) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Elijah Cook / City of Montgomery v. Rosa Parks|
Born a slave in Wetumpka in 1833, Elijah Cook became a leader in Montgomery’s African American community. Credited with helping to establish the city’s first school for blacks in the basement of the Old Ship AME Zion Church in 1865, he also selected the site for Swayne College (later Booker T. Washington School) that opened in 1868. In 1887, he assisted in posting the $10,000 surety bond to relocate the Lincoln School of Marion (later Alabama State University) to . . . — Map (db m69222) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — First Baptist Church (Brick-A-Day Church)|
|Organized in 1866, this pioneering congregation grew out of First Baptist Church, now on Perry Street, where early parishioners had worshipped as slaves. The first building, facing Columbus Street, was erected in 1867. Nathan Ashby served as first pastor (1866-70) to over 700 members and as first president of the Colored Baptist Convention of Alabama, now known as the Alabama Baptist State Convention, which was organized here in 1868. The Baptist Foreign Mission Convention, later part of the . . . — Map (db m36499) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Georgia Gilmore — February 5, 1920 - March 3, 1990|
|Georgia Gilmore, cited as a “solid energetic boycott participant and supporter.” Lived in this house during the days of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Once arrested on a bus, Gilmore was ardent in her efforts to raise funds for the Movement and organized “Club From Nowhere” whose members baked pies and cakes for sale to both black and white customers. Opening her home to all, she tirelessly cooked meals for participants including Dr. Martin Luther King and Dr. Ralph . . . — Map (db m28197) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Harris House|
| Front Between May 20-24, 1961 Dr. Harris opened this home to a group of 33 students from Nashville, Tennessee, who were challenging interstate bus segregation. Known as the Freedom Riders, the group was attacked at the historic Montgomery Greyhound Bus Station upon arrival and harassed by rioters. In the days following attack, martial law was declared and Harris' home served as a haven for the Freedom Riders. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.,Dr. Ralph D. Abernathy, James Farmer, John Lewis, . . . — Map (db m28134) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Marshall J. Moore House|
|In 1900, Marshall Moore and his wife, Agnes V. McClain commissioned Joseph G. Nesbitt,Sr., an African- American contractor/builder, to construct this Victorian period cottage. The Moores, among the first graduates and early faculty members of Lincoln Normal School in Marion (Perry County), moved to Montgomery in 1887 when the school was relocated here. It was re-named the State Normal School for Colored Students (now Alabama State University).
From 1936 until 1993, the house remained in the . . . — Map (db m38918) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Minister's Home / Dr. Martin Luther King — Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church|
| Side A House built circa 1912. It has been the home of the ministers of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church since 1919. Its most famous occupant, Dr. Martin Luther King , lived here from Sept. 1954-Feb. 1960. During this time he lead the Bus Boycott launching an outstanding career as a world leader for civil rights and humanitarian causes. When a bomb damaged the house on January 31, 1956, Dr. King returned from a Boycott meeting and calmed an angry crowd from the porch, averting possible . . . — Map (db m61095) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Montgomery’s Slave Markets / First Emancipation Observance - 1866|
| Side A The city’s slave market was at the Artesian Basin (Court Square). Slaves of all ages were auctioned, along with land and livestock, standing in line to be inspected. Public posters advertised sales and included gender, approximate age, first name (slaves did not have last names), skill, price, complexion and owner’s name. In the 1850s, able field hands brought $1,500; skilled artisans $3,000. In 1859, the city had seven auctioneers and four slave depots: one at Market Street . . . — Map (db m28187) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Mount Zion African Methodist Episcopal AME Zion Church|
Located at the heart of Montgomery's historic African-American neighborhoods. Mount Zion A.M.E. Zion Church was constructed in 1899 and heavily remodeled in 1921. It served as a significant Center for religious, political, and social life for blacks in Montgomery throughout most of the twentieth-century.
The seeds of protest were growing in Montgomery long before the arrest of Rosa Parks on December 1, 1955, and the bus boycott. Rev. Solomon Seay, pastor of Mt. Zion from . . . — Map (db m43619) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Louise McCauley Parks / The Bus Stop|
| Side A A Lady of Courage Born in Tuskegee, AL on February 4, 1913, to James McCauley, a carpenter, and Leona Edwards, a teacher. Moved with mother and brother to Pine Level, AL after parents' separation. Enrolled in Mrs. White's School for Girls at age 11 and received her high school diploma from Alabama State Teachers College Laboratory High School. Married Montgomery barber Raymond Parks in 1932; both became active in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored . . . — Map (db m36503) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Parks Montgomery Bus Boycott / Hank Williams Alabama Troubadour|
| Side A
At the bus stop on this site on December 1, 1955, Mrs. Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to boarding whites. This brought about her arrest, conviction, and fine. The Boycott began December 5, the day of Parks’ trial, as a protest by African - Americans for unequal treatment they received on the bus line. Refusing to ride the buses, they maintained the Boycott until the U. S. Supreme Court ordered integration of public transportation one year later. Dr. Martin Luther . . . — Map (db m28176) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Selma-to-Montgomery March|
| Side A The Selma-to-Montgomery March ended here on March 25, 1965, when 25,000 civil rights marchers arrived at the Alabama State Capitol to demand the right to vote for African Americans. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and other civil rights leaders addressed the marchers and the nation, culminating a series of demonstrations that began in Selma on March 7 - "Bloody Sunday" - when some 600 peaceful protesters were savagely beaten by lawmen as they tried to cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge. . . . — Map (db m62747) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Swayne College / Booker T. Washington School|
| Side A Named for Union General and Freemen’s Bureau Agent Wager Swayne, Swayne College was dedicated 21 April 1869. The Bureau appropriated $10,000 for the building and the local black community purchased 3.5 acres for the site. Future officeholder Elijah Cook submitted the winning location of Union and Grove Streets. The building stood three stories high and was constructed by Henry Duncan with ventilation by Isaac Frazier. George Stanley Pope became the first principal of the school . . . — Map (db m28171) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Hon. Rufus A. Lewis — 1906 - 1999|
|Lewis began an earnest voting rights drive in the early 1940s. Credited with registering 4 generations of Montgomery voters. He established Citizenship School that tutored prospective black voters to fill out the literacy text. A barrier before the passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act. Lewis opened, in 1952 the "Citizens' Club,” a night club for African Americans who were registered voters and who helped others to become voters. Lewis was a graduate of Fisk University and served as . . . — Map (db m28286) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church|
Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church was organized in 1918 at this location by ministers of what later became the American Lutheran Church under whose auspices the congregation organized a day school
on the property across the street. That school served the children in the area and was an integral part of the church's ministry. In 1959 the congregation became part of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod. In 2003 Trinity merged with Grace Lutheran Church to become United Evangelical Lutheran . . . — Map (db m43622) HM|
|Alabama (Morgan County), Decatur — 9 — “Captain, We’ve Got It At Last” - The Charge of the 14th U.S. Colored Infantry — “A Hard Nut To Crack” — The Battle For Decatur|
|As sharp shooting and artillery fire continued throughout the morning of October 28, Granger and Doolittle determined to launch an attack upon the Confederate battery at the edge of the Tennessee River, whose fire threatened the critical pontoon bridge. Chosen to make this assault was the 14th USCT. Colonel Thomas Jefferson Morgan recorded the preparations for this charge, “The men were stripped of all extra load, carrying only gun, accouterments, and canteen of water. They were cautioned . . . — Map (db m28266) HM|
|Alabama (Morgan County), Decatur — First Missionary Baptist Church|
|Led by first pastor Alfred Peters, 21 members organized this church on April 22, 1866, in the home of Sister Jane Young. Services were first held in a storefront building on the banks of the Tennessee River. In 1873 First Missionary purchased a church building from a Methodist congregation on the corner of Market and Canal Streets, NE and used the building as their place of worship until 1919. At this time Dr. Sterrs, S.S. Sykes, and G.F. Oliver secured a $1460 loan to purchase the present . . . — Map (db m27765) HM|
|Alabama (Morgan County), Decatur — 7 — Two Bridges Across The Tennessee River — “A Hard Nut To Crack” — The Battle For Decatur|
|In 1860, the Memphis and Charleston Railroad was the only east-west route through the United States south of the Mason-Dixon Line. Maintaining control of this rail line was essential to Confederate strategy. Union Brigadier General Ormsby Mitchell occupied Decatur on April 13, 1862. Confederate defenders attempted to destroy this bridge, but failed. Union troops would destroy the bridge themselves on April 27, 1862. Union troops would occupy Decatur briefly in the summer of 1862 and the fall of . . . — Map (db m28262) HM|
|Alabama (Perry County), Marion — First Congregational Church of Marion — Established 1869|
|Organized in Lincoln School by freed slaves & representatives of the American Missionary Association, an auxiliary of the Congregational Churches of America. Wherever a school was operated by the A.M.A. a church soon followed. Religion and education were viewed as a means of improving the conditions of former slaves & as a solution for many problems. Through the years the church has been a strong advocate of freedom & justice for all.
In 1931 the Congregational & Christian Churches merged . . . — Map (db m70087) HM|
|Alabama (Perry County), Marion — Lincoln Normal School|
On July 17, 1867, nine ex-slaves (James Childs, Alexander H. Curtis, Nicholas Dale, John Freeman, David Harris, Thomas Lee, Nathan Levert, Ivey Pharish and Thomas Speed) formed and incorporated the “Lincoln School of Marion.” They soon found it difficult to recruit and pay teachers. On September 10, 1868, the trustees entered into an agreement with the American Missionary Association (AMA), an auxiliary of the Congregational Churches. The Reverend A. W. Steward, the . . . — Map (db m70096) HM|
|Alabama (Perry County), Marion — St. Wilfrid's Episcopal Cemetery|
From October 24, 1855 through December 17, 1877, the Parish records of St. Wilfrid's Episcopal Church states that people of color, both slave and free, were buried here in St. Wilfrid‟s cemetery. — Map (db m70067) HM|
|Alabama (Perry County), Uniontown — Green Gables — 1928-1983|
|Site of the road-house, Green Gables, built in 1928, which became the social center of the Black Belt. It was known for its lively but restrained atmosphere provided by a dance floor, juke box, and excellent T-bone steaks. Mr. Walter Kemp was the Manager for many years.
The facade of the white board-and-batten building featured a very large gable as its center section. The roof tile and shutters were green. Two cabins built on the premises were later attached as rear rooms to the main . . . — Map (db m70064) HM|
|Alabama (Pickens County), Carrollton — Pickens County Courthouse — Erected 1877-78|
|Pickens County, named for General Andrew Pickens of South Carolina, was established December 19, 1820. First County Site was Pickensville. On March 5, 1830, the government awarded 80 acres of land at Carrollton for the County Site. The first courthouse erected at Carrollton was burned on April 5, 1865, by troops of Union General John T. Croxton. A freedman, Henry Wells, was accused of burning the second on November 16, 1876. He was arrested in January, 1878, and held in the garret of this . . . — Map (db m22178) HM|
|Alabama (Russell County), Phenix City — Allen Temple A.M.E. Church / Grant Chapel A.M.E. Church|
Allen Temple A.M.E. Church
In 1879, under the pastorate of Reverend George Wesley Allen, the Allen Temple African Methodist Episcopal Church had its humble beginning in Phenix City, Alabama as Grant Mission. The Russell County Housing Authority's renewal project of 1940 caused the relocation of the congregation. Under the administration of Reverend E.W. Cook, in 1941, the new church was built and renamed Allen Temple A.M.E. Church. The Church has continued to serve . . . — Map (db m69082) HM|
|Alabama (Russell County), Phenix City — Horace King|
Horace King a slave of John Godwin was construction foreman for the First Dillingham Street Bridge in 1832, when he and Godwin introduced the “town lattice” bridge design into the Chattahoochee Valley. King built most of the early wooden bridges spanning the river, including those at West Point, Eufaula and Fort Gaines-Franklin. After Godwin’s death in 1859, he raised a monument inscribed: “In lasting remembrance of the love and gratitude felt for his lost . . . — Map (db m69064) HM|
|Alabama (Russell County), Seale — Mitchell-Ferrell-Powell House|
|Built in Glennville, Alabama by slave artisans in the early 1840's for James Billingslea and Rebecca Stone Mitchell. Moved by ox-cart and reassembled by free citizens at the present site in 1867 or 1869. Purchased in 1895 by Hugh Bennett and Jessie Elvira Screws Ferrell. Purchased and restored in 1978 by Vernon H. and Minnie D. Powell. — Map (db m69409) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Alexander City — Needmore 1873|
| Freedmen moving to the new market town of Youngsville in the early 1870s occupied homes along a street they called Needmore Street. They relocated their house of worship from near the present junction of South Central Avenue and Cherokee Road to the Needmore neighborhood where Methodists and Baptist shared a building.
Missionaries from the Methodist Episcopal Church formed a congregation in Alexander City and, in 1873, Bishop Gilbert Haven appointed Rev. George Scott pastor of the new . . . — Map (db m45740) HM|
|Alabama (Tallapoosa County), Camp Hill — Lyman Ward Military Academy|
|Lyman Ward Military Academy was founded in 1898 as the Southern Industrial Institute by Dr. Lyman Ward, a Universalist minister from New York. Dr. Ward established SII to educate the poor children of Alabama, many of whom had few opportunities due to the devastation caused by the Civil War and subsequent Reconstruction. With donations received from the citizens of Camp Hill and assistance from fellow reformers like Booker T. Washington, founder of Tuskegee Institute, Ward began his school with . . . — Map (db m25501) HM|
|Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Brown Memorial Presbyterian Church|
|Oldest existing Black Presbyterian Church in Alabama. Organized by Dr. Charles A. Stillman as Salem Church in December, 1880. First church building erected 9th Street and 30th Avenue in 1882. First pastors were Reverend B. M. Wilkinson (1889-90) and Reverend I. C. H. Champney (1894-98). In 1915 relocated at 11th Street and 25th Avenue. In 1931 moved to present site. Name changed to Brown Memorial (1932) honoring Dr. R. A. Brown, Superintendent of Home Mission Work, PCUS. Present sanctuary built . . . — Map (db m40390) HM|
|Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Castle Hill - Daly Bottom Community|
|In 1883 the Castle Hill Real Estate and Manufacturing Company began the first eastern expansion of the original 1821 Tuscaloosa city limits. Hoping to stimulate development in the area, the company created a popular amusement park centered around and artificial lake. Portions of this property had belonged to Delaware Jackson, a freed slave who had been given the land for courage and loyalty. In 1881 Jackson organized the Bethel Baptist Church and, in 1917, he donated nearby land for the Baptist . . . — Map (db m35467) HM|
|Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — First African Baptist Church — Tuscaloosa, Alabama|
|Organized November 1866, with 144 members. The Rev. Prince Murrell, first pastor, served until 1885. A church building located at corner of 4th Street and 24th Avenue was purchased and became place of worship during pastorate of the Rev. James Mason, 1885-1891. Resolution passed in this church 1873 resulted in establishment of Selma University, Selma, Alabama.
Present structure erected 1907 under leadership of the Rev. J. H. Smith. Church annex completed and adjoining property purchased . . . — Map (db m40408) HM|
|Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Horace King|
|Born a slave in South Carolina in 1807, Horace King became a master bridge builder while working with John Godwin. With the aid of Tuscaloosa Robert Jemison, King was freed by act of the Alabama legislature in 1846. He went on to build many bridges and other structures across the South. Revered and respected for his organizational abilities, building skills and personal integrity, he formed the King Brothers Bridge Company with his family after the Civil War. After serving two terms in the . . . — Map (db m28913) HM|
|Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — John Murphy — Governor 1825 - 1829|
|He initiated construction of the Capitol, the University of Alabama, and the State Bank. The legislature passed laws, known as slave codes, to severely restrict the rights of slaves, while citizens began to press for the removal of Alabama's remaining Indians. — Map (db m29020) HM|
|Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Stillman College|
|Founded as Tuscaloosa Institute 1876 by Presbyterian Church U.S. under leadership of Dr. Charles Allen Stillman, pastor of First Presbyterian Church, Tuscaloosa, to train Black ministers. Renamed Stillman Institute 1894 for Dr. Stillman, first superintendent. Became co-educational 1899. Past programs included seminary, high school, vocational school, junior college, school of nursing and hospital services for Blacks. Four year program begun, renamed Stillman College 1948. Accredited senior college 1953. — Map (db m35676) HM|
|Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — The Little Round House|
|Constructed as a guard house for the Alabama Corps of Cadets during the early 1860's, the Little Round House provided shelter from inclement weather for cadets on sentry duty. Until 1865, it also housed the University Drum Corps, which was composed of rented slaves. One of the few University buildings not destroyed by Union forces when the campus was burned in 1865, this building became the office of the University surgeon in 1871, and was used later by non-military students as a residence. In . . . — Map (db m25387) HM|
|Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — University of Alabama’s Slavery Apology|
|Buried near this plaque are Jack Rudolph and William “Boysey” Brown, two slaves owned by University of Alabama faculty, and William J. Crawford, a University student who died in 1844.
Rudolph was born in Africa about 1791 and died May 5, 1846, from “Bilious Pneumonia.” Brown was born April 10, 1838, and died November 22, 1844, from “Whooping Cough.”
Jack Rudolph and Boysey Brown were among the slaves owned by the University of Alabama and by . . . — Map (db m40389) HM|
|Alabama (Wilcox County), Catherine — Prairie Mission — A United Presbyterian Mission — Prairie, Alabama 1894-1968|
|Prairie Mission was established in 1894 by the Freedmen’s Board of the United Presbyterian Church of North America to educate the children of ex-slaves. The Mission consisted of a church, school building, dormitories for male and female students, a teachers’ home and a cemetery. The school, also known as Prairie Institute during its history, was discontinued in the late 1960’s. The church still maintains an active congregation. Prairie Mission was entered into the National Register of Historic Places in 2001. — Map (db m38496) HM|
|Alabama (Wilcox County), Snow Hill — Snow Hill Normal and Industrial Institute — 1893|
Snow Hill Institute was founded in 1893 by William James Edwards, a graduate of historic Tuskegee Institute established by Booker T. Washington in 1881.
Snow Hill’s lineage extends back to Hampton Institute where Washington and many of Snow Hill’s faculty graduated.
The founding of Snow Hill Institute was greatly facilitated by the planter R. O. Simpson who gave Snow Hill Institute its first 100 acres of land in increments of seven (7), thirty-three (33), and sixty . . . — Map (db m68185) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — Buffalo Soldier Legacy Plaza|
Dedicated 23 April 2009
Honoring the stamina, courage, and
tenacity of soldiers assigned to the
9th Cavalry Regiment • 10th Cavalry Regiment • 24th Infantry Regiment • 25th Infantry Regiment • 92nd Infantry Division • 93rd Infantry Division •
372nd Infantry Regiment (NG)
Who Served with Distinction
at Fort Huachuca
1892 – 1946 — Map (db m28201) HM|
|Arizona (Maricopa County), Phoenix — Eastlake Park|
Eastlake Park has served the inhabitants of Phoenix since the late 1880's. Originally known as Patton's Park, it was developed by the Phoenix Railway Company to serve as a recreational area for patrons of the city's trolley system. The park eventually became a place where people of color could meet to relax and celebrate special events without violating separatist laws which existed in the nation and state during the first half of the 20th century.
Eastlake Park's history is one . . . — Map (db m55058) HM|
|Arizona (Santa Cruz county), Nogales — Grand Ave - Frank Reed School — 1928 - 1952|
Grand Ave. School was founded in 1928 as a grammar school, grades one through eight, for the African American children of Nogales. In 1943 the school's name was changed to Frank A. Reed in honor of a former student, Frank A Reed, who died in action during World War II. Frank A. Reed School was closed in September 1952 due to desegregation of the Arizona school system. Teachers were: Lena Martin (Principal) 1928-1952, Florence Mills 1928-1942, Willa Hudson 1942-1943 and 1945-1947, Mildred . . . — Map (db m27113) HM|
|Arkansas (Ouachita County), Chidester — 25 — 1st Kansas Colored Infantry|
|The 1st Kansas Colored Infantry, a regiment that included many former Arkansas slaves, was formed in August 1862, the first black unit recruited during the war. Ist Kansas troops were the first black men to see combat, losing 10 killed and 12 wounded in a victory at Island Mound, Mo., Oct. 28, 1862. Victories at Cabin Creek and Honey Springs, Indian Territory, followed in 1863. The 1st Kansas lost 117 dead and 65 wounded at Poison Spring, Ark., April 18, 1864; many men were slain as they lay . . . — Map (db m56624) HM|
|Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — The Blues Trail: Mississippi to Helena|
|Helena has played a vital role in blues history for artists from both sides of the Mississippi River. Once known as a “wide open” hot spot for music, gambling, and nightlife, Helena was also the birthplace of “King Biscuit Time,” the groundbreaking KFFA radio show that began broadcasting blues to the Arkansas-Mississippi Delta in 1941. The program had logged over 15,000 broadcasts by 2009 and inspired Helena to launch its renowned King Biscuit Blues Festival in 1986. . . . — Map (db m51907) HM|
|Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — The Right to Vote|
| The State of Arkansas is Dissolved
In 1867, the state of Arkansas ceased to exist. It was dissolved, as were all states still in rebellion when the Confederate government surrendered in 1865. Readmission to the Union required that the states meet two conditions set by the U.S. Congress.|
Congress demanded that the former state write new constitutions that included universal manhood suffrage, ensuring that former slaves had the right to vote. They were also required to ratify the . . . — Map (db m51927) HM
|Arkansas (Sebastian County), Fort Smith — Bass Reeves - Lawman on the Western Frontier|
|Bass Reeves, a slave born in Arkansas and reared in Texas, rose to become one of the best known and effective deputy U.S. marshals to ride out of Fort Smith for Judge Isaac C. Parker. Recognized as one of the first African Americans commissioned as a federal lawman on the western frontier, Reeves was a master of disguise, expert with firearms, and over a thirty year career, arrested thousands of felons, including his son and minister. Newspapers reported that he killed over twenty men in the . . . — Map (db m58046) HM|
|Arkansas (Sebastian County), Fort Smith — Defending Freedom|
|I never saw such fighting done as was done the negro regiment…The question that negroes will fight is settled; besides they make better soldiers in every respect than any troops I have ever had under my command. ~General Blunt after the Battle of Honey Springs, July 17, 1863.
Black infantry drilled on the parade ground in front of you. At various times during the Civil War, Fort Smith housed four regiments of U.S. Colored Troops (USCT). One was organized locally. Drills increased after . . . — Map (db m59021) HM|
|Arkansas (Sebastian County), Fort Smith — Deputy U.S. Marshal Bass Reeves|
|This statue was erected in 2012 as a result of growing awareness of the extraordinary service of Bass Reeves, an African-American former slave who became a highly respected Deputy U.S. Marshal. The deeds of African-American and Native American lawmen and citizens were often overlooked in standard history accounts for much of the 20th century. A fuller picture of the diversity of the people who contributed to the development of the United States is available at the Fort Smith National Historic . . . — Map (db m58047) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Frances Albrier — (1898-1987) — Champion of Equal Rights and Social Justice|
|It was just automatic for me to stand up and tell a person, “You’re wrong. You’re mistreating me. You’re discriminatory. Why don’t you give me a chance?”
Great generosity coupled with anger at injustice guided the life of Frances Albrier. In 1920 she moved from Alabama to Berkeley. She had left the highly segregated South with a college education, but still faced discrimination in housing and jobs. She worked as a maid and union organizer on the Pullman trains, married and . . . — Map (db m54814) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Site of Napoleon Bonaparte Byrne House — 1868 — City of Berkeley Landmark|
|In 1858, prosperous farmer Napoleon Bryne sold his Missouri land and journeyed west with his wife Mary Tanner Byrne, four children and other relatives. Two freed slaves, Pete and Hannah Byrnes, came with the family and became Berkeley’s first known African-American residents. |
Bryne bought 827 acres of hillside land here beside Codornices Creek for $25 to #35 an acre and built a formal Italianate-style house. The land proved unproductive for farming, so the Byrnes moved to the Sacramento . . . — Map (db m54728) HM
|California (Alameda County), Oakland — 48 — Charles S. Greene Library — African-American Museum and Library at Oakland — Oakland Landmark Number 48|
|Dedicated in 1902 as the Oakland Public Library, this was the first Carnegie Library built in Oakland. Designed in the American Beaux Arts style by architects Bliss and Faville (who later designed the Hotel Oakland), it was Oakland's main library until 1951.
Oakland had outgrown its first public library, a wooden structure built in 1878 on the site of today's City Hall. Charles S. Greene, City Librarian from 1889 tp 1926, began a campaign to construct a new one. Andrew Carnegie's . . . — Map (db m18670) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Oakland — John "Alex" Alexander — 1924-1993|
|John "Alex" Alexander spent his entire working life at Naval Supply Center Oakland. Symbolic of the many dedicated civilians who worked on the base, Alex inspired others through his tireless work on behalf of the community at large and promoted public service among his coworkers. He received many awards and citations, including Father of the Year Award from the Institute of Black Studies in Oakland and the Civilian Meritorious Service Medal, the United States Navy's highest civilian award. Alex . . . — Map (db m63171) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Oakland — St. Augustine's Episcopal Church — Oakland Landmark Number 29|
|St. Augustine's, originally Trinity Episcopal Church, is one of the oldest Episcopal church buildings in continual use in the city of Oakland today. It was built on land donated by Reverend John Bakewell, D.D., beginning in 1892 and was consecrated on Easter Sunday in 1893. Dr. Bakewell went on to become the first rector of the church, and his name is commemorated by John Bakewell Memorial Hall. constructed in the rear of the church on 29th Street in 1925 for recreational activities. Designed . . . — Map (db m50215) HM|
|California (El Dorado County), Coloma — Dukehart’s Barbershop and Bathhouse — Site of|
|In the 1850s a black man known only as “Dukehart” operated a barbershop that straddled the creek at this location. Typical of many barbershops of this period, Dukehart’s establishment also provided hot baths for his customers. The water was carried through a trough or pipe into the building and heated. Then the water was poured over the bather, and the used water returned to the creek. — Map (db m17166) HM|
|California (El Dorado County), Coloma — Monroe Family Homestead|
|The home of the pioneer Monroe family stood here for more than a century. The family matriarch, Nancy Gooch, came across the plains from Missouri as a slave in 1849. She gained her freedom in 1850 when California joined the Union as a “free” state. Later, she bought the freedom of her son, Andrew Monroe and his family, who joined her in Coloma.
Begun as a cabin, the home was enlarged as the family grew. Andrew and his son Pearley raised fruit and other crops. Their 80 acres of . . . — Map (db m17455) HM|
|California (El Dorado County), Coloma — Monroe House|
|Perly Monroe was the grandson of Peter and Nancy Gooch, who were freed from slavery here when California became a state in 1850. The Monroe family became successful fruit farmers and prominent property holders in Coloma. Built in 1925, this house is tangible evidence of their success. The Monroe orchard, located elsewhere in the park, still produces pears and apples. — Map (db m17205) HM|
|California (Los Angeles County), Compton — PFC James Anderson — Vietnam War Congressional Medal of Honor Recipient|
| PFC James Anderson Jr. was born in Los Angeles California on Jan. 22, 1947. While living in the Carson area, he attended Los Angeles Harbor College for a year and a half before joining the United States Marine Corps in February of 1966.
PFC James Anderson Jr. was assigned as a rifleman in Company F, 2nd Battalion Third Marine Division in the Quang Tri Province in the Republic of Vietnam. In an intense fire fight with enemy troops on Feb. 28, 1967, PFC. Anderson was mortally wounded when . . . — Map (db m62660) WM|
|California (Los Angeles County), Lancaster — Tuskegee Airmen|
|"....the privileges of being an American" belong to those brave enough to fight for them."
Gen. Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.
In our tradition of honoring American aviators who have flown into the pages of history, the City of Lancaster dedicates this monument to the Tuskegee Airmen of World War II, America's first black fighter pilots. The sacrifices and triumphs of the "Red Tailed Angels" proved not only that they were worthy of their wings, but that the human spirit cannot be bound by . . . — Map (db m53030) HM|
|California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — Apex / Club Alabam — Historic Central Avenue Jazz Corridor — 42nd St. [sic] and Central Av.|
| Curtis Mosby, the conductor of the Dixieland Blue Blowers, opened the Apex on Thanksgiving 1928. The classy nightclub was home to revues featuring beautiful showgirls in extravagant costumes. Johnny Otis led the house band, but Alabam was the most popular stage for known jazz musicians who were on Central Avenue. — Map (db m51175) HM|
|California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — The Downbeat Club — Historic Central Avenue Jazz Corridor — 4201 Central Avenue|
| The Down Beat was part of what was known during the War years as “Little Harlem”. It was a popular destination for Hollywood celebrities and the upper-class residents of Beverly Hills. Buddy Collete created his Stars of Swing in 1946 at the Down Beat. The show featured Collette on saxophone and clarinet, Charles Mingus (bass), John Anderson (trumpet), Oscar Bradley (drums), Spaulding Givens (piano), Lucky Thompson (tenor saxophone), and Britt Woodman (trombone). — Map (db m51234) HM|
|California (Marin County), Tiburon — CHL 529 — Angel Island|
In 1775, the packet San Carlos, first known Spanish ship to enter San Francisco Bay, anchored in this cove while her commander, Lieut. Juan Manuel de Ayala, directed the first survey of the bay. Ayala named this island Isla de los Angeles. The island has been a Mexican rancho, U.S. Military post, bay defense site and both a quarantine and immigration station.
Historical Landmark No. 529
Plaque placed by the State Department of Parks and Recreation in . . . — Map (db m69207) HM|
|California (Plumas County), Beckwourth — James P. Beckwourth|
|This monument dedicated to the memory of
James P. Beckwourth
Born in Virginia, the son of a Southern planter and a negro slave, Beckwourth was a trapper, scout and mountain man. He explored the west with Jim Bridger, Kit Carson and Peter Lassen. James discovered the Beckwourth Pass and explored the Feather River to Marysville.
He built this cabin in 1852 — Map (db m56409) HM|
|California (Riverside County), Anza — 63 — Hamilton School, Anza|
|Until the 1880s, James Hamilton was among the very first homesteaders in the Cahuilla Plains or Hamilton Plains, now Anza, and was a highly respected pioneer who overcame many obstacles in his life, including prejudice. The Hamilton School District was formed in 1913 and this schoolhouse was constructed in 1914. Used as a classroom for 50 years, serving grades 1-8, the school, named in honor of James Hamilton, also functioned as a polling and meeting place and continues to serve this community today. — Map (db m50709) HM|
|California (Sacramento County), Folsom — Leidesdorff Plaza|
|Dedicated to the memory of
WILLIAM ALEXANDER LEIDESDORFF
Early California pioneer, civic
leader, merchant, trader, and
owner of 35,000 acre rancho
“Rio de los Americanos” in the
Born 1810 in Danish West Indies
of Negro and Danish parents
Died 1848 in San Francisco — Map (db m15617) HM|
|California (Sacramento County), Sacramento — Daniel Blue — 1811 - 1899 — In Memory of|
in whose house St. Andrews African Methodist Episcopal Church the oldest African-American congregation on the Pacific Coast was organized in 1850
other members of the Sacramento area African-American community laid to rest on this site.
Built upon the foundation laid by the apostles and prophets, the cornerstone being Christ Jesus, himself"
Ephesians 2:19:20 — Map (db m18872) HM|
|California (Sacramento County), Sacramento — 1013 — Site of First African Methodist Episcopal Church on the Pacific Coast|
|This is the site of the first church building associated with an African American religious congregation on the Pacific Coast. The church was the Methodist Church of Colored People of Sacramento City, formally organized in 1850. In 1851 the congregation was admitted into the African Methodist Episcopal Church, becoming the first African Methodist Episcopal Church on the Pacific Coast. First known as Bethel, the name was later changed to St. Andrews. The original 1850 wooden church building was . . . — Map (db m4327) HM|
|California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — 1010 — Original Site of Third Baptist Church — The First African American Baptist Church West of the Rocky Mountains|
|In August 1852, Abraham Brown, Thomas Bundy, Thomas Davenport, Willie Denton, Harry Fields, George Lewis, Fielding Spotts, and Eliza and William Davis organized the church in the Davis home. The congregation purchased the old First Baptist Church and moved it to this location in 1854. The present church is now located at 1399 McAllister Street.
California Registered Historical Landmark No. 1010
Plaque placed by the State Department of Parks and Recreation in cooperation with Third . . . — Map (db m52644) HM|
|California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Vernon Alley — Legendary San Francisco Jazzman|
|The legendary jazz bassist Vernon Alley was born May 26, 1915, in Winnemuca, Nevada. His father was a barber, a railroad man, and a laborer. His mother was a hotel worker. He came to San Francisco as a child and has always called The City his home.
As a young man, his parents took him to see the jazz great Ferdinand "Jelly Roll" Morton. From that moment, jazz was to become his first love in a magical life that touched many people and broke many barriers.
Vernon Alley's life as a . . . — Map (db m20985) HM|
|California (San Joaquin County), Stockton — 22 — Moses Rogers Home — 1890|
|One of California’s leading Black citizens build and resided in this home with his wife, Sara, and five daughters until his death in 1900. Born a slave in Missouri, he participated in the California Gold Rush and earned a statewide reputation as a mining engineer. The home is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Stockton Historical Landmark No.22
Designated by the Stockton City Council 1978 — Map (db m23973) HM|
|California (Santa Cruz County), Santa Cruz — Louden (London) Nelson|
|Born a slave May 5, 1800 on a North Carolina plantation, Louden (London) Nelson worked the cotton fields until his master, Matthew Nelson brought him to the 1849 California Gold Rush. After securing his freedom, he arrived in Santa Cruz in 1856. Nelson worked as a cobbler. He also rented a small plot where he grew and sold produce. Nelson purchased land near the corner of River and Front Streets where he enjoyed hearing children at play at the school on nearby Mission Hill.
The school was . . . — Map (db m62439) HM|
|California (Tuolumne County), Sonora — Sugg House|
|In 1857, William Sugg, a freed slave, built this three-room brick-faced adobe house. The adobe blocks were made in the front yard. The walls are up to 18 inches thick. A wood frame kitchen was at the rear. As Sugg’s family eventually grew to 11 children, it became necessary to construct the wood frame addition. It was completed in the 1880’s. The rooms were occasionally rented out as “overflow” to the City Hotel. State law changes, in 1921, requiring hot and cold running water in . . . — Map (db m31861) HM|
|Colorado (Summit County), Breckenridge — Barney L. Ford — 1822 - 1902|
|In memory of an escaped slave who became a prominent entrepreneur and black Civil rights pioneer in Colorado. In 1880, Ford opened Ford's Restaurant and Chop House in Breckenridge. — Map (db m57958) HM|
|Connecticut (Fairfield County), Danbury — Black Soldiers Memorial|
| Dedicated to the Memory Of the Black Soldiers of Greater Danbury who Served in the 29th and 30th Regiments, Conn. Volunteer Infantry During the Civil War 1861 – 1865
[ Names inscribed on the back ]
29th Conn Infantry
Pvt James Adams • + Cpl Charles Aray • Pvt William Armstrong • Pvt William Avery • Cpl Allen Banks • Pvt Willis Banks • Pvt Joseph Barker • Cpl James Brewster • + Pvt Elbert Brown • Pvt Jerome Brown • Pvt Thomas Burr • Pvt Henry Butler • Cpl . . . — Map (db m23052) HM|
|Connecticut (Hartford County), Hartford — Prudence Crandall|
Where You Are Standing
on May 24, 1833
The Connecticut General Assembly passes the Black Law expressly forbidding Prudence Crandall from recruiting African-American women for her school in Canterbury. Prudence refuses to obey the Black Law and is arrested and jailed. Her case is taken up by the Abolition Movement to attract nationwide attention to the injustices of slavery and prejudice. After almost two years of legal struggles and harassment of her students, Prudence's . . . — Map (db m43765) HM|
|Connecticut (Hartford County), Hartford — Sacred to the Memory — African Americans|
|Sacred to the Memory of
the Three Hundred or more
Free People, Slaves, and
five Black Governors
Who rest in Unmarked
Graves in Hartford's
Ancient Burying Ground
1640 - 1810
[ back ]
School children in Hartford
conducted the research and
raised the funds to create
this Monument in 1998
[ inscribed on the tablet ]
African Americans Interrred In
Hartford's Ancient Burying Ground
Maid, Mar, 1691 • Child, Apr, 1693 • Negro, Dec, 1693 . . . — Map (db m43803) HM|
|Connecticut (Litchfield County), Watertown — Civil War Monument|
|(Front):In commemoration of the patriotism and valor of the men of Watertown who, in the hour of peril, offered their lives that the republic might live, thus winning the gratitude of their fellow-citizens, the admiration of succeeding generations and a place among the nation’s heroes; this monument is erected that their example may serve as an inspiration to heroic deeds in all coming time.
(Right):Fifth Regiment Infantry Co. D. William Gridley Sixth Regiment Co. E. . . . — Map (db m18865) HM|
|Connecticut (New Haven County), Fair Haven — The Connecticut Twenty-Ninth Colored Regiment, C. V. Infantry|
|[Center obelisk, west face:]
Bronze relief depicting soldiers in battle beneath the regimental colors of the "29th Reg't Connecticut Volunteers - QUI TRANSTULIT SUSTINE."
New Market Road - October 13, 1864
Darbytown Road - October 13, 1864
Kell House/Fair Oaks - October 27-28, 1864
Chaffins Farm - September 29, 1864
Petersburg - September 24, 1864
Richmond - September 29, 186
Officers Died of Disease - 1
Officer Killed or . . . — Map (db m23085) HM|
|Connecticut (New Haven County), New Haven — "Make Us Free" — Amistad Memorial|
| [ south side ]
"Make Us Free"
This monument is a memorial to the 1839 Amistad Revolt and its leader, Sengbe Pieh, also known as Joseph Cinque. Sengbe Pieh was one of the millions of Africans kidnapped from their homes and transported in bondage to the Americas. Sold into slavery in Cuba, he and forty-eight other men, and four children were bound aboard the schooner La Amistad. During a storm, Sengbe Pieh successfully freed himself and his fellows. The Africans seized the ship, but . . . — Map (db m48428) HM|
|Connecticut (New Haven County), New Haven — Cortlandt Van Rensselaer Creed|
|Cortlandt Van Rensselaer Creed, MD 1857
1833 – 1900
Son of John and Vashti Duplex Creed
Graduate of the New Haven Lancasterian School
First African American Graduate of Yale
First African American to earn an MD from an Ivy League Medical School
1st Lieutenant and Surgeon of the 31st Regiment US Colored Troops 1864
One of nine African American physicians to serve in the Union Army
Physician at the Knight US Army General Hospital, New Haven
Member of the . . . — Map (db m49582) HM|
|Connecticut (New Haven County), New Haven — In Remembrance|
Fa September 3
Tua September 11
Weluwa September 14
Kapeli October 30
Yammoni November 4
Kaba December 31
These Amistad captives who survived the voyage on La Amistad from Cuba to Connecticut, arrived gravely ill from the voyage's privations. They did not live to enjoy freedom and return with their compatriots to Freetown, Sierra Leone, in 1841
Dedicated September 22, 2001
The Amistad Committee Inc. — Map (db m49363) HM|
|Connecticut (New Haven County), New Haven — Yehudi Ashmun|
First Colonial Agent
[ east side ]
Born at Champlain, N.Y. Ap. 21, 1794
Landed in Africa, Aug. 8, 1822
Died at N.H. Aug. 25, 1828
[ north side ]
by the Am. Colon. Soc.
1829 — Map (db m52024) HM|
|Connecticut (New London County), New London — "Do you want to be slave or free?"|
|On this site, September 30, 1858, Police Court Judge Augustus H. Brandegee and Customs Collector John Perkings Mather freed a stowaway slave known as “Joe” by applying Connecticut’s Personal Liberty Law against the federal Fugitive Slave Act. Judge Brandegee asked the stowaway, “Do you want to be slave or free?” The slave replied, “Free”
This plaque was erected to celebrate the blessings of freedom. — Map (db m66445) HM|
|Connecticut (New London County), New London — First Step to Freedom|
|On this site, August 29. 1839, federal investigative inquiry indicted 38 enslaved Mende Africans accused of revolt on the high seas and murder of the Captain and cook of the Spanish slave ship Amistad which was captured and brought into New London by U. S. Revenue Cutter Washington, Lt Gedney Commanding.
This first step to freedom revealed resources which ultimately through trials in Hartford and New Haven and an appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court by former President John Quincy Adams won . . . — Map (db m66444) HM|
|Connecticut (New London County), New London — Hempstead Historic District|
| Free African Americans have lived and worked in this neighborhood since colonial times. In the 1840s both blacks and whites bought home (some still standing) through the efforts of abolitionist and developer, Savillion Haley. Travelers on the Underground Railroad were aided at the nearby Joshua Hempsted House (1678), an abolitionist home. The district has remained an integrated neighborhood with, among other institutions, the Shiloh Baptist Church on Garvin Street; a street named for 20th . . . — Map (db m48364) HM|
|Connecticut (New London County), New London — The Amistad Incident — Galvanizing Abolitionists|
| In the summer of 1839, the Amistad, a Spanish coastal schooner with 39 kidnapped Africans aboard, was found in Long Island Sound and brought to New London. The captives, who had been sold into slavery in Cuba, had taken over the ship and were attempting to sail back to Africa. Following a hearing onboard the Amistad while she lay anchored off Fort Trumbull, the 39 Africans were transported by ship to New Haven for trial on charges of mutiny and murder. After many appeals, in . . . — Map (db m48324) HM|
|Delaware (Kent County), Dover — K-43 — Bishop Richard Allen|
|Richard Allen founded and became the first Bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in 1816. Born into slavery in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on February 14, 1760, Allen and his family were sold to a family near Dover in 1772. While there, he purchased his freedom, became a minister and joined the Continental Army as a non-combatant during the Revolutionary War. After returning to Philadelphia, he and Sussex Countian, Absalom Jones, founded the Free African Society in 1787. He helped . . . — Map (db m39093) HM|
|Delaware (Kent County), Dover — KC-88 — Booker T. Washington School|
|On November 13, 1922, 210 children and 6 teachers marched from two old school buildings located on Slaughter Street and Division Street to a new school for African- American students in Dover. Funding for the building was provided by the Delaware School Auxiliary Association, through the generosity of P. S. duPont. The school was named for Booker T. Washington (1856-1915), a former slave who became the nation’s foremost African-American educator. Originally built for Grades 1-8, this was the . . . — Map (db m39064) HM|
|Delaware (Kent County), Dover — Delaware State College|
|Established May 15, 1891, by an act of the Delaware General Assembly as the State College for Colored Students, by virtue of the 1890 Morrill Land-Grant Act under the provisions of the 1862 Morrill Act of Congress. Incorporated July 1, 1891. Reincorporated March 10, 1911. Name changed to Delaware State College in 1947. — Map (db m39054) HM|
|Delaware (Kent County), Dover — K-60 — Loockerman Hall|
|In 1723 Nicholas Loockerman purchased 600 acres of land known as “The Range.” Following his death in 1771, the property passed to his grandson Vincent Loockerman Jr. Evidence suggests that he built the Georgian-style mansion known today as Loockerman Hall soon after inheriting the property. A member of the early Revolutionary-era Committee of Inspection, and County Militia, Vincent Loockerman Jr. died on April 5, 1790.|
On August 24, 1891, 95 acres of the old plantation . . . — Map (db m39053) HM
|Delaware (Kent County), Magnolia — KC-91 — Warner Mifflin — 1745 - 1798|
|A native of Virginia's Eastern Shore, Mifflin came to Delaware as a young man. Born into a slaveholding Quaker family, he manumitted his own slaves in 1774-75 and later became one of America's foremost abolitionists of the 18th century. As an elder of the Religious Society of Friends, he traveled extensively to convince others to free their slaves as
well. He addressed the legislatures of several states and presented numerous petitions and memorials to the United States Congress opposing . . . — Map (db m39456) HM|
|Delaware (Kent County), Milford — KC-111 — Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church|
|It is believed that parishioners of Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church were worshiping in a private residence on North Street by 1859. The church eventually moved to a site on Church Street to accommodate the growing congregation. On March 2, 1895 Bethel AME Church was formally incorporated. In April of the same year, a lot was acquired on Fourth Street from Amelia Brinkley and a house of worship was built. A second building on Church Street, for use as a parsonage, was conveyed to the . . . — Map (db m69034) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Christiana — NC-184 — Old Fort Union American Methodist Episcopal Church|
|In 1813 a group of African-American Methodists led by Peter Spencer formed an independent denomination that came to be known as the African Union Church. It was the first incorporated religious body in the United States controlled entirely by African Americans. Early meetings of the Christiana Bridge congregation were likely held at private residences until 1850, when a brick structure was built for worship. In 1854 the group was formally incorporated as the African Union Church of Christiana . . . — Map (db m13554) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Delaware City — NC-97 — Delaware City School No. 118C|
|In 1919 Delaware radically altered its state school system, opening a new era in the education of African-American youth. Progress was stimulated by the efforts of the Delaware School Auxiliary Association and its primary supporter, P.S. duPont, who conducted a statewide effort to replace outdated and overcrowded facilities. On March 9, 1922 the State received the deed for a new building to replace a school located in the Polktown section of the community. the facility housed grades 1 through . . . — Map (db m10445) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Newark — Iron Hill School #112C — Preserving History: The African-American Community of Iron Hill|
|The Iron Hill Museum is dedicated to the study of human and natural history of the Iron Hill Area. The Museum is currently engaged in a project to restore the Iron Hill School #112C and document the experiences of African-American students who attended the school between 1923 and 1965.
In order to achieve this, the Museum has embarked on an oral history project to formally interview and record the memories of former students who are now between the ages of 40 and 80. Oral historian Roberta . . . — Map (db m10053) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Newark — NC-129 — Pride of Delaware Lodge #349 IBPOEW|
|The Improved Benevolent Protective Order of Elks of the World was formally organized in 1898. Designed to promote civic improvements, the IBPOEW is one of the largest fraternal organizations of its type in the world. Responding to the request of a group of Newark citizens, the IBPOEW issued a charter for Pride of Delaware Lodge #349 on March 29, 1923. The first Exalted Ruler of the new lodge was W. G. Saunders, a long-time leader in Newark's African-American community. The present Lodge Hall . . . — Map (db m9974) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Newark — NC-167 — St. John African Methodist Church|
|This congregation was organized circa 1848. Early meetings were held in a log cabin at this location on land that was conveyed to trustees of the "Protestant Methodist Church" in 1850. In 1866 the members of the First Colored Methodist Protestant denomination merged with the African Union Church, which had been founded in Wilmington in 1813 and was the first incorporated religious body controlled entirely by African-Americans. The new denomination became known as the African Union Methodist . . . — Map (db m9968) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Odessa — NC-90 — Appoquinimink Friends Meeting House|
|Believed to be one of the smallest Quaker Meeting Houses in the nation, the Appoquinimink Friends Meeting House was built in 1785 by David Wilson and presented to the Friends as a gift. Local tradition identifies this structure as a stop on the Underground Railroad during the years preceding the Civil War. While enroute to destinations north of Delaware, runaway slaves would hide in the loft of the church in order to escape capture. Prominent local Quakers who served as agents on the Railroad . . . — Map (db m10308) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Port Penn — Port Penn Schoolhouse — Symbol of the Community|
|Left Panel State Stewardship: Linking People, Culture and Environment After operating the museum for fifteen years, the Port Penn Area Historical Society transferred the schoolhouse museum to the Division of Parks and Recreation in 1991. It now serves as the cornerstone of the Delaware Folklife Program's mission to document and interpret Delaware's local culture. Port Penn's marshland and ways of life remain a focus of the Division's interpretive programs. Center Panel Eight . . . — Map (db m10430) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Townsend — NC-93 — Taylor's Bridge School — (District No. 66)|
|On April 5, 1923 a frame schoolhouse located nearby was destroyed by a storm. Within two weeks the General Assemble appropriated $5,000 to construct a new school. Although the amount proved to be inadequate, P.S. duPont, through the Delaware School Auxiliary Association, provided the balance necessary to complete the project. On October 27, 1923 the State of Delaware purchased three acres on this site to build the new brick on-room structure. Construction began shortly thereafter. In 1949 the . . . — Map (db m10596) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — African American Medal of Honor Recipients Memorial|
|[Panel 1:]African American Medal of Honor Recipients Memorial The Medal of Honor takes its place in our country as the highest award for military valor. The honor, awarded by the President in the name of Congress, may only be accorded an individual who in action involving actual conflict with an enemy, "distinguished himself conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity in action, at the risk of his life, above and beyond the call of duty." The history of this medal, the deeds for . . . — Map (db m67423) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-102 — Bethel A.M.E. Church|
|On May 10, 1846, a group of African-American residents of Wilmington who had affiliated themselves with the African Methodist Episcopal Church held a meeting for the purposes of electing trustees and organizing as a corporate body. At the time, approximately 15 families were meeting from house to house, worshipping under the direction of ministers from Mother Bethel A.M.E. Church in Philadelphia. The following September, the congregation purchased land at 12th and Elizabeth Streets on which a . . . — Map (db m11010) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-138 — Brown v. Board of Education|
|Delaware remained a racially segregated society until the mid-twentieth century. Though the segregation of public schools was supported by the “separate but equal” doctrine that had been upheld by the nation’s highest court, the facilities and services provided students were hardly equal. Seeking to address this situation, citizens in the communities of Claymont and Hockessin solicited the counsel of Louis L. Redding, the state’s first African-American attorney. In 1951, with the . . . — Map (db m3124) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-143 — Ezion-Mount Carmel United Methodist Church|
In 1805 a group of African-Americans, desiring greater freedom of worship, withdrew from Asbury Methodist Episcopal Church to form a separate congregation. Led by Peter Spencer and William Anderson, they established what was then known as the African M. E. Church at 9th and French Streets. This was Delaware’s first church to be organized by African-Americans. The original house of worship was replaced by a new brick structure on the site in 1870. It was formally renamed Ezion Methodist . . . — Map (db m14757) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-128 — Freedom Lost|
|By the late 1700s the institution of slavery was declining in Delaware. A changing economy and the active efforts of Quakers and Methodists had led to the manumission of many slaves and dramatic growth of the state’s free black population. Though Congress outlawed importation of slaves in 1808, demand for slave labor in the expanding states of the Deep South continued to grow. A nefarious criminal element sought to fill this need by kidnapping free blacks for sale into slavery. Such was the . . . — Map (db m10950) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — N.C.- 84 — Gravesite of Bishop Peter Spencer (1779-1843) — And His Devoted Wife, Annes|
|Born a slave, Bishop Spencer was the father of Delaware’s independent Black church movement. In 1813, he founded the Union Church of Africans, presently known as the African Union Methodist Protestant Church. The mother AUMP church stood on this site from 1813 to 1970. The Union American Methodist Episcopal Church (UAME), formally organized in 1865, traces its origins to Spencer. He was also the founder of “August Quarterly” in 1813, one of the oldest Black folk festivals in America. — Map (db m2607) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-82 — Howard High School — First Secondary School for Blacks in Delaware|
|Founded in 1867 by the Association for the Moral Improvement and Education of Colored People and named for Civil War General Oliver Otis Howard, the original school was located at 12th and Orange Streets.
Pierre S. DuPont was the major benefactor for the new building, opened in 1928 on this site. With the annexation of the adjoining Howard Career Center in 1975. Howard's role as the major education institution for Blacks expanded to include students from the total Delaware community. — Map (db m10914) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-149 — Knotty Pine Restaurant|
|In 1875 the Delaware General Assembly enacted legislation requiring the racial segregation of public places such as train stations, hotels, and restaurants. For most of the next century this practice was strictly enforced. Established at this location in 1959, the Knotty Pine Restaurant was a refuge for African Americans in a city where access to public facilities was still limited. Noted for its “down home cooking” and friendly atmosphere, the Knotty Pine was popular with residents . . . — Map (db m10920) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — Louis L. Redding City County Building|
|Named in honor of Delaware’s first Afro-American attorney, graduate of Howard High School, Brown University, and Harvard Law School, admitted to the Delaware Bar in 1929, pioneer in the struggle for equality and tireless advocate in civil rights cases of national significance.
Successfully representing victims of racial discrimination in a series of landmark cases, he gave new meaning to the concept of equality under the law.
In the courts of Delaware, Parker vs. University of . . . — Map (db m5526) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-87 — Mount Olive Cemetery|
|In 1862 the members of Mother AUMP Church, also known as the Union Church of African Members, purchased property at the corner of Lancaster Avenue and Union Street in Wilmington for the purpose of establishing a cemetery. In 1914 the Church sold the property, then known as St. Peter'’ Cemetery, for the construction of Bancroft Parkway. Remains were disinterred and reburied at Mount Olive. Many prominent citizens and community leaders are buried here. In 1980 the Friends of Mount Olive Cemetery . . . — Map (db m43763) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-94 — Saint Joseph Church|
|The cradle of African-American Catholicism in Delaware, St. Joseph Church was organized in 1889 by Father John A. DeRuyter of the Josephites. Services were first held in the basement of St. Mary’s Church on 6th and Pine Streets. Incorporated as St. Joseph’s Society for Colored Missions on March 4, 1890, the first church structure was dedicated in October of the same year. During the next few years, Father DeRuyter expanded the church’s role in the community to include an orphanage, a school and . . . — Map (db m10919) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — Scott AME Zion Church|
|Zion Church in New York City, organized in 1796, was the catalyst by which the African Methodist Episcopal Zion denomination was established in 1821. By the 1870’s a number of Wilmington residents had affiliated themselves with this growing denomination. Formally incorporated as Plymouth AME Zion Church in 1878, the group first held worship services in an old church at 2nd & Washington Streets. Renamed Grace AME Zion in the 1890s, the congregation moved to several locations before purchasing . . . — Map (db m11011) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-152 — Shiloh Baptist Church|
|The origin of this congregation can be traced to 1875, when members of a Sunday School class affiliated with First Baptist Church met to plan the organization of a separate church to serve the needs of the city's African-American residents. Formally organized on May 31, 1876, Shiloh was the first African-American Baptist church in the State of Delaware. The first pastor was Reverend Benjamin T. Moore, who continued to serve in that capacity until his death in 1928. For several years meetings . . . — Map (db m13583) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-86 — South Wilmington — Cradle of African-American Political Leaders|
|William J. Winchester, after serving 16 years on Wilmington City Council, became the first of his race elected to the Delaware House of Representatives. He served from 1948 until his death in 1952. Herman M. Holloway Sr., became the first African-American elected to the State Senate in 1964. Henrietta Johnson was the first African-American female elected to the House of Representatives, serving from 1970-1978. — Map (db m14135) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-125 — Wilmington Friends Meeting — Burial Place of Thomas Garrett|
|The first Meeting House on this site was built in 1738. It was replaced in 1748 when a larger building was constructed. The old Meeting House was then converted into a school. Known as Wilmington Friends School, it was relocated to a new facility in 1937, and is the oldest existing school in the state. The present Meeting House was built in 1816. Wilmington was the last major stop on the East Coast overland route of the Underground Railroad. One of the central figures of this clandestine . . . — Map (db m10941) HM|
|Delaware (Sussex County), Clarksville — SC-119 — Union Wesley United Methodist Church and Campground|
|The roots of African-American Methodism in this area can be traced to the late 18th century when Methodism pioneers such as Francis Asbury and Freeborn Garrettson traveled locally organizing black “classes” for worship. Over time some groups chose to leave the mother church, while others such as this congregation remained affiliated with the Methodist Episcopal faith. By the mid-1800’s members of Union Wesley were gathering regularly for services. Many of the early meetings were . . . — Map (db m37844) HM|
|Delaware (Sussex County), Cross Keys — Carey's Camp|
|Carey's is one of the few campgrounds still in existence on the Delmarva Peninsula. * The Tabernacle where the
Evangelistic services are held each summer is encircled by 47 tents, occupied only during camp. * Many changes
have been made over the years, * but the basic purpose remains the same - to spread the message of Jesus
Christ. The camp is affiliated with the United Methodist Church.
Welcome to the camp, * enjoy your stay, * and share in the spirit of the services.
In . . . — Map (db m49791) HM|
|Delaware (Sussex County), Frankford — SC-93 — Antioch Camp Meeting|
|A " Society of the African Methodist Episcopal Church was established in this area by the 1830's. The first church was purchased in 1857. On February 28, 1890 land was purchased at this site for the purpose of construction of a new church. Annual camp meetings were soon established. Known as “Big Camp”or
“Frankford Camp”, people traveled from miles around
to attend. Covered wagons were used for shelter prior to the construction of wooden “tents”. Cooking . . . — Map (db m37323) HM|
|Delaware (Sussex County), Georgetown — SC-107 — Prospect A.M.E. Church|
|The roots of African-American Methodism in this community can be traced to the organization of a black “class” within the local Methodist society in the 1790’s. By the 1830’s a group of residents had affiliated themselves with Bishop Richard Allen’s African Methodist Episcopal Church. On November 13, 1839, trustees Moses Robinson, Timothy Jacobs, Curtis Jacobs, George Ratcliff, and Isaac Waples, purchased land for the construction of a church and establishment of a cemetery. The . . . — Map (db m49017) HM|
|Delaware (Sussex County), Georgetown — S 80 — William C. Jason Comprehensive High School — First African-American Secondary School In Sussex County|
|Named after the first African-American
president of Delaware State College, the
school opened in October 1950. Funds were
provided in the will of H. Fletcher
Brown a local philanthropist, and by the
State General Assembly. Initially Jason
High School served grades 9 through 12,
but in 1953 it expanded to include students
from seventh and eighth grades.
The desegregation of schools in Delaware
led to the closing of Jason in June, 1967
after which it became part of Delaware
Technical and Community College. — Map (db m49021) HM|
|Delaware (Sussex County), Lewes — SC-214 — Menhaden Fishing Industry|
| The Atlantic Menhaden is a small herring-like fish found in the coastal waters of the Eastern United States. Used by Native Americans to fertilize crops, these oily fish were also used by European settlers to produce fuel for lamps. In the mid-19th century, technological improvements resulted in more efficient processing methods and the menhaden fishing industry was greatly expanded. Products included oil for use in paints and fertilizer to support the growing nation’s agricultural economy. In . . . — Map (db m19428) HM|
|Delaware (Sussex County), Milford — Absalom Jones — 1746-1818|
|Born near this place on a plantation known as “Cedar Town”, Jones moved to Philadelphia in 1762 and in 1784 purchased his freedom. He helped to establish the Free African Society in 1787. A leader of the independent African-American church movement, in 1792 he organized St. Thomas’ African Episcopal Church (Philadelphia) and in 1804 became the first African-American to be ordained an Episcopal Priest. He reverently opposed slavery and other forms of social injustice. — Map (db m38626) HM|
|Delaware (Sussex County), Millsboro — SC 102 — Dickerson Chapel A.M.E. Church|
|On May 2, 1868, the African Methodist
Episcopal Church purchased land west
of Millsboro from John M. Burton and
first church building was soon built.
In 1885, the Church officially changed
its name to Dickersons Chapel to honor
Bishop William Fisher Dickerson. Known
locally as the Old Field Church, the
church building was renovated and rebuilt
several times during the early part of
the 20th century. In 1923, Juba Boyce willed
land at this site to the Church. The . . . — Map (db m48859) HM|
|Delaware (Sussex County), Milton — SC-215 — Rising Sun Lodge #4, F. & A.M., P.H.A.|
|The roots of African-American Masonry in this country
can be traced to the period of the American Revolution,
when founder Prince Hall and others established the
first Masonic Lodge for men of color in Boston,
Massachusetts. By the early 19th century organizational
growth had extended to the port cities of Philadelphia
and Wilmington. where residents of southern Delaware
who were engaged in maritime and other commercial
occupations were exposed to the Masonic Order. In
March 1852, a . . . — Map (db m69807) HM|
|Delaware (Sussex County), Reliance — SC-228 — The Cannon/Johnson Kidnapping Gang|
|In the early 1800s the headquarters of the notorious Cannon/Johnson Kidnapping Gang was located close to this site. After the importation of African slaves was legally outlawed in 1808, demand for slave labor in the expanding states of the Deep South continued to grow. The Cannon/Johnson Gang specialized in the criminal kidnapping of free African-Americans for sale into slavery. Through their secret network that stretched as far south as Alabama and Mississippi, it is believed they abducted . . . — Map (db m67262) HM|
|Delaware (Sussex County), Seaford — SC-147 — Macedonia A.M.E. Church|
|The origin of this congregation can be traced to the organization of a local society of the African Methodist Episcopal Church circa 1852. Desiring a permanent place of worship, the group obtained the old Bochim’s Meeting House and moved it to a lot on the west side of Front Street in 1861. The site was formally conveyed to church trustees the following year. A thorough rebuilding of the church was completed in 1879 during the pastorate of Rev. Heath.
In 1906, the trustees of Macedonia . . . — Map (db m69561) HM|
|Delaware (Sussex County), Seaford — SC-66 — Pilot Town|
|Pilot Town is the section of the Hamlet of Concord where many free black families have lived in harmony with the white families since around 1765. It was so named for the many Negro pilots who lived in the area and piloted vessels down the Nanticoke River to Chesapeake Bay. Two of the best known were Cann Laws and George Laws. — Map (db m38662) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — "Treat Me Refined" — Lift Every Voice — Georgia Ave./Pleasant Plains Heritage Trail|
|The House at 3017 Sherman Avenue once was a boardinghouse for Howard University students. In 1923 a determined and talented young woman from the tiny town of Eatonville, Florida, lived here while earning an Associates Degree at Howard. In a short time she would win international acclaim as novelist and anthropologist Zora Neale Hurston.
Hungry for culture, Hurston devoured Howard's opportunities. She performed in campus theater, played violin, joined Zeta Phi Bet sorority, and co-founded . . . — Map (db m65674) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Billy Simpson's House of Seafood and Steaks — African American Heritage Trail|
| 3515 Georgia Avenue
Billy Simpson's provided DC's African American community with an upscale venue for dining and socializing in the period when segregation was ending and African Americans claimed a larger role in city affairs. The restaurant (open 1956-1978) attracted intellectuals, professionals, entertainers ,and African diplomats. Politicians, government officials, and journalists debated the issues of the day at roundtables hosted here by owner, community activist and . . . — Map (db m66181) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Campus to Army Camps and Back Again — Meridian Hill Park, National Historic Landmark|
|President Monroe singed a charter in 1821 that established Columbian College on a site north of Florida Avenue between 14th and 15th Streets, Columbian College moved to Foggy Bottom in 1912 and became George Washington University, but the original campus area continued to be called "College Hill."
During the Civil War, the Union Army commandeered the farmland on which Meridian Hill Park would eventually be built. The Army built camps there with names like Cameron, Relief, Carver, and . . . — Map (db m63771) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Charles R. Drew and Lenore Robbins Drew — 3324 Sherman Avenue, NW, Apartment 1 — African American Heritage Trail, Washington DC|
|Dr. Charles R. Drew (1904-1950), renowned for his blood plasma research, was associated with Howard University College of Medicine during most of his career. In 1941 Drew joined a national effort to set up a blood banking process but left because U.S. Government policy segregated blood by race of donor. Drew later died after an automobile accident in North Carolina. The story that he died because a white hospital refused to treat him is a myth, although this tragedy did befall others during the . . . — Map (db m65523) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Frederick Douglass — (1817 - 1895)|
|Orator - Publisher - Statesman
Precursor of the Civil Rights Movement
An ex-slave who rose to world renown as an abolitionist and who served in high government posts under presidents Grant through Cleveland, Frederick Douglass resided in this building from 1871 to 1877.
Plaque erected 1966
Capitol Hill Restoration Society — Map (db m69264) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 16 — From Beer Garden to Park View — Lift Every Voice — Georgia Ave./Pleasant Plains Heritage Trail|
|"Innumerable colored Chinese lanterns ... shedding that dim uncertain light which is the delight of lovers and the poetry of beer drinking" -- Washington Post, June 1879
Back when this area was open fields, German Americans created an amusement park. Washingtonians flocked to Schuetzen (marksmanship) Park for target shooting, concerts, dancing, bowling, and picnics. The breezy, hilltop beer garden drew hundreds on hot summer nights. The Schuetzen Verein (Marksmanship . . . — Map (db m66493) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 3 — Hold the Mayo! — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|English, Irish and German settlers, as well as enslaved and free African Americans, were the first non-natives to claim Brightwood. Farmers dominated until the Civil War. Then in the 1890s electric streetcars allowed government workers to live here and ride to jobs downtown. By the 1940s, sons and daughters of Jewish, Greek, and Italian immigrants had arrived, often leaving crowded conditions in older neighborhoods.
Abraham Posin, founder of Posin's Deli and Bakery, was typical of the . . . — Map (db m65606) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Howard Hall — African American Heritage Trail, Washington D.C.|
| 607 Howard Place, NW
Howard Hall was completed in 1869 as the home of white Civil War General Oliver Otis Howard (1830-1909), for whom Howard University was named. As commissioner of the Bureau of Refuges, Freedman and Abandoned Lands (Freedman's Bureau), General Howard led efforts to provide land, education, and legal rights to the formerly enslaved. He was a founder of the university, and its president from 1869 to 1874. After his death, the university purchased the property, using . . . — Map (db m65707) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 7 — If These Mansions Could Talk — A Fitting Tribute — Logan Circle Heritage Trail|
|Over the years most of Logan Circle's Mansions experienced numerous uses and have returned to private occupancy. For example 15 Logan Circle was completed in 1877 for Lt. Cmdr. Seth Ledyard Phelps, a Civil War Veteran appointed by President Ulysses S. Grant to the Board of Commissioners (the body that governed DC from 1874 until 1967). In 1891 the Kingdom of Korea (Joseon Dynasty) purchased number 15 for its first embassy in the United States. Just before Imperial Japan annexed Korea in . . . — Map (db m66750) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Ingrid Bergman|
|Lisner Auditorium was built in 1946, boasting the biggest stage south of New York City. On its opening night, October 29, 1946, the famed 29 year-old actress Ingrid Bergman was starring in Joan of Lorraine. When Ms. Bergman found out that African-Americans could not attend the performance due to the city's Jim Crow laws, she made her displeasure at segregation known to all who would listen. Unable to void her contract, she performed the play but inspired protests and picket lines outside of . . . — Map (db m58111) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Jones-Haywood School of Ballet — African American Heritage Trail, Washington DC|
|1200 Delafield Place, N.W.
The Jones Haywood School of Ballet was founded here by Doris W. Jones and Claire H. Haywood in 1941. Their Capitol Ballet Company, established in 1961, remained the nation's only predominantly African American, professional ballet troupe through the 1960s. Students have included Chita Rivera, who created the role of Anita in West Side Story on Broadway; Louis Johnson, choreographer for Purlie and the movie version of The Wiz; and Sandra . . . — Map (db m65511) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Mansions, Parks, and People — Cultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail - 16|
|On your right is Josephine Butler Parks Center, home of Washington Parks & People, a network of groups devoted to DC and its parks. The network's 1927 mansion, which once housed the Hungarian delegation, was part of an embassy row envisioned by Mary Foote Henderson for this area. Henderson built a "castle" across 16th street for her family, and commissioned important architects to create an enclave worthy of important residents. Meridian Hill Park was also a result of her influence.
In the . . . — Map (db m63849) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Military Road School — 1375 Missouri Avenue, NW — African American Heritage Trail, Washington DC|
|The Military Road School opened in 1864 here along what then was Military Road, an artery linking Civil War forts. The School was one of the first to open after Congress authorized public education for Washington's African Americans in 1862. Students were children of free blacks as well as formerly enslaved men and women who settled near Fort Stevens, a source of employment during the war (1861-1865). Others came from upper Northwest neighborhoods and nearby Montgomery County, Maryland. The . . . — Map (db m70464) HM|