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Hispanic Americans Markers
286 markers matched your search criteria. The first 250 markers are listed. Next 36
Arizona (Apache County), Springerville — 22 — Baca Home
Gregorio Baca bought this house from G. Becker in 1907 for his bride, Chona Ortega. It's walls are 16" thick adobe. The wealthy Bacas & Ortegas ran large herds of cattle & sheep on vast tracts of land in Concho, St. Johns & The R.V. area. — Map (db m36383) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Marble Canyon — Dominguez y Escalante Expedition1776 - 1976 — Treacherous Descent
Text from: Historical Markers with The Arizona Department of Transportation right of way. Prepared by: Roadside Development Section April 1, 1997 Fatigued by a thirty mile ride, the padres picked their way down the rocky north slope of the Kaibab Plateau toward the light of Paiute campfires near what is now Coyote Spring, 15 miles north. The timid natives fled the approaching Spaniards. No white man had ever been in this region before. Coaxed to return, the Indians brought . . . — Map (db m39917) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Crossing of the FathersDominguez y Escalante Expedition 1776-1976
Within sight of this place the Franciscan priests Dominguez and Escalante and their ten companions experienced two of the most difficult challenges among many along the 1,800 miles of their epic journey from the Spanish presidio at Santa Fe, New Mexico to Utah Lake and return. The first white men to enter what is now "Lake Powell Country" the explorer-priests made an all but impossible ascent of the Paria River gorge via Dominguez Pass, then descended into Wahweap Basin and Padre Canyon . . . — Map (db m40324) HM
Arizona (Gila County), Miami — Bullion Plaza School
This property has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places By the United States Department of the Interior Bullion Plaza School 1923 — Map (db m67493) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Littlefield — The Old Spanish Trail1829 - 1848
The Old Spanish Trail, the main trade route between Santa Fe and Los Angeles, passed this way beginning in 1829. At the end of the Mexican-American War this portion of the route evolved into what was variously known as the Salt Lake Road, the Mormon Trail, the California Road, and eventually U.S. Hwy. 91. The original pack trail descended Utah Hill, passed through Beaver Dam, then followed the Virgin River toward Las Vegas. As wagon traffic increased in the 1850s the route veered westward near . . . — Map (db m22729) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — August 20th Park
This park is a memorial to the founding of Tucson. On August 20, 1775, Lt. Col. Don Hugo Oconor, Commandant Inspector of the Frontier Provinces of New Spain, in the company of Fr. Francisco Garces and Lt. Juan Carmona officially established the location of a Spanish Presidio on the site of a very old Indian village. As part of a reorganized frontier defense plan, he ordered the transfer of the Spanish garrison from Tubac to the new presidio, San Agustin del Tucson – the northernmost . . . — Map (db m26435) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Carlos Ygnacio Velasco House
This house dating from the 1870s was purchased by Carlos and Beatriz Velasco in 1878. In the same year, Velasco began publication of the newspaper "El Fronterizo," which continued until his death in 1914. This building was the office and print shop. The house at the rear was the Velasco residence. Prominent in civic affairs, Velasco was a principal founder of Alianza Hispano Americana, a national fraternal insurance society. This site is on the National Register. Spanish . . . — Map (db m26388) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Chapel of San Pedro at Fort Lowell
A tiny chapel, built here in 1915, served the Barriada del Rillito, a community now called El Fuerte. The fifteen immigrant Mexican families of this village gathered outside under mesquite trees to hear Mass. In 1917, Senora Josefa de Mule donated land for a larger building. The second chapel, Santo Angel de la Guarda, was destroyed by a tornado in 1929. The present structure, also built by the men of El Fuerte, was dedicated in 1932. Carmelite fathers from Tucson's Holy Family church served . . . — Map (db m26195) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — El Parque de Orlando y Diego Mendoza
English In 1981, two young brothers, Orlando and Diego Mendoza, died when a drunk driver ran a stop sign at this intersection hitting the car in which the two children were riding. Orlando was 2 years old; Diego was 17 months. The accident left behind their heartbroken parents, Frank and Mary Mendoza. This rock and concrete shrine was built by neighbors in memory of these two young children. Today this park serves as a quiet respite and a reminder of how precious life is. The . . . — Map (db m57758) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — El Tiradito(The Wishing Shrine)
This is the only shrine in the United States dedicated to the soul of a sinner buried in unconsecrated ground. It is affectionately called "El Tiradito"- the castaway. The many legends about its origin all involve a tragic triangle love affair in the early 1870s. The mysterious powers of "El Tiradito" are still an important part of local Mexican lore and culture. This site is on the National Register of Historic Places. — Map (db m55227) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Garcés Footbridge
Memorial to Francisco Garcés, explorer and first Franciscan missionary to the Pima village at the foot of Sentinel Peak. In 1770 Garcés and the Pimas constructed at that site the first substantial building in Tucson, a mission residence with two rounded towers for defense. On August 20, 1775, he led Lt. Col. Hugo Oconor to this present site, designated for the founding of the Royal Spanish Presidio of Tucson. Garcés and the Pimas helped in the construction of the new presidio. A principal . . . — Map (db m55224) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Jácome’s
[ Four markers are mounted to a four sided kiosk. ] Side A: Jácome’s Department Stores, Inc. 1896 – 1980 This area was the final location of Jácome’s Department Store from 1951 to 1980. For twenty-nine years the people of Tucson and our neighbors in Mexico frequented this site. The concept of retail clustering began in the Tucson area when business rival, Harold Steinfeld agreed to build and lease a store to Jácome's in order to create a retail hub downtown. . . . — Map (db m40049) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Leonardo Romero House
This house is named for its first known residents, living here in 1868. Although construction dates are not known, the Washington Street wing lies along the course of the Presidio wall, completed in 1783. Leonardo Romero, a carpenter whose shop was located on the Meyer Street side, was well-known for his work on such landmarks as San Augustine Cathedral, the Convent of the Sisters of St. Joseph, and early restoration at San Xavier Mission. The house, much altered, has variously served as . . . — Map (db m55231) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Ochoa Street
Named during Arizona’s Territorial period to honor Estevan Ochoa (b.1831 – d.1888), whose ancestors arrived in Mexico with the Cortez expedition. He was born in Chihuahua, Mexico to a wealthy mining and ranching family. Before settling permanently in Tucson in 1860, he lived in Mesilla, New Mexico. He was a prominent Tucson businessman, politician, and philanthropist, helping fund the construction of the city’s first schools. — Map (db m70211) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — One Story from the Barrio ViejoThe History of Room 6
1914 Room 6 (originally addressed 202 W. 18th Street, and later 709 S. 8th Avenue), on the southeast corner of the excavated row house on Lot 10 (see map), housed several businesses throughout its history. In 1914, it was a blacksmith shop, while around 1919 it became a store and residence. 1951 By 1951, Room 6 was a secondhand shop owned by Bruce and Suzie Draper, who had lived in Tucson since 1929. The Drapers were among the many African Americans who have played an . . . — Map (db m57789) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Plaza de la Mesilla
One of the few remaining sites which recall the Mexican heritage of Tucson, it acquired its name after the Gadsden Purchase (1854) as the terminus of the wagon road joining Tucson to the territorial capital, then at Mesilla. When San Agustin, the first cathedral church in Arizona, was erected just east of the plaza, it became known as La Placita de San Agustin. It is now called "La Placita." Spanish Translation: Plaza de La Mesilla Uno de los pocos sitios restantes que . . . — Map (db m55225) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Plaza de las Armas
The largest plaza within the Spanish presidio of San Agustin del Tucson, founded in 1775, this area was originally used for military formations and drill. After construction of the first Pima County courthouse (1870), the name was changed to Court Plaza. Here traditional fiestas, circuses and other public events have been held since the 18th century. — Map (db m26241) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Plaza Militar
Once an open space, this area was within the original Spanish presidio. The plaza was probably named in the Mexican years (1821-1854), when soldiers drilled here. Saddle horses for the troops were stabled along the north side, next to the presidio wall. Houses were built over the site beginning in the 1860's. — Map (db m26165) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Presidio Wall
This marker locates the northwest corner of the adobe wall which surrounded the Royal Spanish Presidio San Agustin del Tucson, In 1776 the new outpost was garrisoned by seventy Spanish cavalry troopers and Indian scouts, transferred from Tubac under the command of Lt. Col. Juan Bautista de Anza. The first fort, a crude wooden palisade, was replaced by adobe walls begun about 1778 and completed in 1783. For 80 years presidial soldiers provided protection for San Xavier mission and for settlers who farmed the Santa Cruz valley. — Map (db m26466) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Presidio Wall Camino Real
Near this site was the southwest corner of the adobe wall that surrounded the Spanish Presidio, an enclosure of 11 ¼ acres which included most of the present city – county governmental complex and the Art Museum block. Tucson was the largest fort in a chain of Spanish frontier posts extending from the Gulf of Mexico to the Gulf of California., designed to protect the northern border of New Spain. Main Street, originally the "Camino Real," paralleled the west side of the presidio and . . . — Map (db m26465) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Sosa-Carillo-Frémont House
The earliest documents for this property indicate that the pioneering Sosa family lived here in the 1850s. In 1878, Manuela Sosa and her husband, Michael McKenna, sold the property to Jesus Suarez de Carrillo, wife of businessman Leopoldo Carrillo, who completed this house in 1880. In 1881, the daughter of Territorial Governor John C. Fremont lived here. Carrillo family members occupied the house until 1968, when the city cleared the area for a community center. The Tucson Heritage Foundation . . . — Map (db m55226) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Teatro Carmen
Named for its founder, Carmen Soto Vásquez, this was one of the first theaters in Tucson devoted exclusively to the presentation of dramatic works in Spanish. From the opening night, May 20, 1915, with a performance of "Cerebro y Corazón" by the Mexican playwright Teresa Farias de Isassi, Teatro Carmen served as an important cultural center. Hundreds of performances were staged by local and internationally known companies from Spain and Mexico. After 1922, it became a cinema, meeting hall, . . . — Map (db m55229) HM
Arizona (Pinal County), Kerny — Sonora, Arizona
Immigrant Mexican miners working for the Ray Consolidated Copper Company named the town of Sonora, built near here in 1911. It boomed as a thriving, dynamic community. Rich in Mexican culture, language and traditions, in the mid -1950's. The company began to expand its open pit operation, gradually advancing upon the town from the east. By 1965, it became necessary to close Sonora and relocate the miners to a new town named Kearny. Sonora was demolished in 1966. Sonora's close-knit . . . — Map (db m34133) HM
Arizona (Pinal County), Picacho — Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail / Camp 21: El Aquituni
Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail While the American Revolution brewed on the Atlantic Coast, Spain expanded its New World empire to protect California against the British and Russians. In 1774, Juan Bautista de Anza, commander of the Royal Presidio of Tubac, successfully explored an overland route from Sonora, Mexico into Alta or Upper California. This route made possible the transport of livestock, goods, and people to sustain the new settlements. The viceroy . . . — Map (db m38928) HM
Arizona (Santa Cruz County), Nogales — Montezuma Hotel
The Montezuma Hotel, sixty feet east of here, built in 1886, rebuilt twice, and closed in 1965, was the center of Nogales business and social life for more than half a century. The Office of owner George Christ, First U.S. Customs Collector of the Arizona District, was in the building (1890-1893). Important transactions in mining, cattle, and Mexican produce were concluded at the Montezuma and it was a meeting place for notable Military and Political figures from both sides of the border. — Map (db m27082) HM
California (Alameda County), Livermore — Joaquin Murrieta and Murrieta's Well
The legend of Joaquin Murrieta is one of the most enduring and fascinating of chapters in California history. Facts, fiction and romantic tales entangle to create a legend of unique aura that had become part of California's folklore, especially in the Livermore Valley where Joaquin was a frequent visitor. In the early 1850's Joaquin Murrieta roamed this land. Most famous as an avenging outlaw or a Robin Hood, Joaquin Murrieta and his men were above everything else horsemen, and of the best . . . — Map (db m17944) HM
California (Alameda County), San Leandro — Casa Peralta
Three descendants of land grant recipient Luís Maria Peralta lived in this home. In 1926, Herminia Peralta Dargie (pictured above) remodeled the home in the style of a Spanish villa. Tiles depict the story of Don Quixote, and adobe bricks saved from the 1821 Peralta home were placed in the front wall. Just as Don Quixote longed for the romantic chivalry of the past, Mrs. Dargie was looking back to the lost world of her grandfather’s and great-grandfather’s Spanish California. Luís Maria . . . — Map (db m26398) HM
California (Alameda County), San Leandro — 279 — Estudillo Home
Site of the last home of José Joaquin Estudillo, grantee of Rancho San Leandro and his wife, Juana Martínez de Estudillo. It was built about 1850. The family founded San Leandro, built a hotel, and donated several lots, including the original site of St. Leander’s Church. California Registered Historical Landmark No. 279 Plaque placed by the California State Park Commission In Cooperation with St. Leander’s Parish Centennial June 7, 1964 — Map (db m31390) HM
California (Contra Costa County), Concord — Dedicated to the Founders of Todos Santos1994
{pictured above on the marker (left to right), Don Fernando Pacheco, 1818-1884; Don Salvio Pacheco, 1793-1876; Don Francisco Galindo, 1820-1891} In 1868 Don Salvio Pacheco; his son, Don Fernando Pacheco; and his son-in-law, Don Francisco Galindo had 20 acres of land, adjacent to the old Pacheco-Clayton road, surveyed for the village they called Todos Santos. It contained 19 residential and commercial blocks and a public plaza. In 1869 building lots were offered at no cost to former . . . — Map (db m17440) HM
California (Contra Costa County), Concord — Francisco Galindo Home
Concord Historical Landmark Built in 1856 — Map (db m56583) HM
California (Contra Costa County), Martinez — 511 — The Vicente Martinez Adobe - 1849
Vicente Martínez was born in Santa Barbara on August 18, 1818, the second son of Don Ygnacio and Martina de Arellano Martínez who were married in the Presidio Chapel at Santa Barbara 1802. Don Ygnacio Martínez was a Spanish officer at San Diego and Santa Barbara 1788-1819 and became Comandante of the Presidio of San Francisco 1822-1831 and in 1837 was the third mayor of San Francisco. Rancho Pinole was granted to him in 1823 and he moved his family there in 1836 naming his home Nuestra Senora . . . — Map (db m50827) HM
California (Contra Costa County), Martinez — 511 — Vicente Martinez Adobe
In 1849, Vicente Martinez built a two-story adobe ranch house on his portion of the Rancho Pinole. This land was inherited from his father, Don Ignacio Martinez, a Spanish officer who became Comandante of the San Francisco Presidio and later Alcade of San Francisco. In 1966 the National Park Service acquired the adobe and it is now open to the public. — Map (db m50821) HM
California (Fresno County), Fresno — Honoring the Ex-Braceros and Their ContributionsHonoramos los Ex-Braceros y Sus Contribuciones — 1942 - 1964
During and after World War II, nearly 5,000,000 contracted braceros came to work in agriculture and on the railroads, the majority in California and the San Joaquin Valley, under U.S. and Mexican Treaty, demonstrating their patriotism during the great labor shortage. "Soldiers of Democracy" "Soldados de Democracia" Braceros de los Ferrocarilles WWII - Valle de San Joaquin Railroad Braceros WWII - San Joaquin Valley - 2,733 ——————— . . . — Map (db m41067) HM
California (Imperial County), Imperial — 944 — Site of Fort Romualdo Pacheco(1825 - 1826)
In 1774, Spain opened an overland route from Sonora to California but it was closed by Yuma Indians in 1781. In 1822, Mexico attempted to reopen this route. Lt. Romualdo Pacheco and soldiers built an adobe fort at this site in 1825-26, the only Mexican fort in Alta California. On April 26, 1826, Kumeyaay Indians attacked the fort, killing three soldiers and wounding three others. Pacheco abandoned the fort, removing soldiers to San Diego. — Map (db m50589) HM
California (Imperial County), Ocotillo — De Anza Overlook
Juan Bautista De Anza led two groups of Spanish explorers and settlers across this portion of the Colorado Desert from Northern Mexico to San Francisco Bay. During each tortuous passage, the Spanish camped below here in Yuha Wash. The passage in 1774, which explored and pioneered the first overland route into upper California, consisted of only a small group of soldiers and two missionaries, Father Garces and Diaz. A second trip in 1775 brought settlers to the coast of California. Spain felt . . . — Map (db m50683) HM
California (Kern County), Delano — The Forty Acres
Has been designated a National Historic Landmark. This property possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America. Forty Acres embodies and conveys multiple layers of national significance associated with César Chávez. The Farm Worker Movement that thrived under his leadership, and a wider range of civil rights and social reform movements that helped define Twentieth Century American history. — Map (db m54836) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Compton — 152 — Domínguez Ranch House
[The arch way leading to the grounds is flanked by two markers:] Right Marker: Domínguez Ranch House Central portion built in 1826 by Manuel Domínguez. Rancho San Pedro Ten square leagues granted, provisionally by Governor Fages to Juan José Domínguez in 1784. Regranted by Governor Sola to Cristóbal Domínguez in 1822. Battle of Domínguez Ranch Fought on this rancho October 8 & 9, 1846, when Californians led by José Antonio Carrillo repelled United . . . — Map (db m64857) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Culver City — 8 — The Lugo Ranch
The Lugos, a Spanish landgrant family, arrived in the pueblo de Nuestra Senora La Reina de Los Angeles in the 1700's and settled prior to 1900 on this site. This was originally a portion of Rancho La Ballona which was established by the Machados. Mercurial and Rita Reyes Lugo raised eight children here and remained until their deaths. Mercurial farmed, acted as water-overseer and was the unofficial lawman prior to the incorporation of Culver City in 1917. This marker is dedicated to . . . — Map (db m51869) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Long Beach — 978 — Rancho Los Cerritos
The 27,000-acre Rancho was once part of an 18th-century Spanish land grant to soldier Manuel Nieto. The Monterey-style adobe was constructed in 1844 and served the Temple and Bixby families as headquarters for large-scale cattle and sheep ranching operations in the 19th century. In the 1880s the land was subdivided for farming and city development. — Map (db m50988) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Long Beach — Ranchos
Los Alamitos • Los Cerritos This plaque marks the dividing line between the two ranchos on which Long Beach was subsequently built. Originally a part of a Spanish land grant to Manuel Nieto in 1784. They were partitioned between the heirs by government in 1834. — Map (db m72706) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Long Beach — Ranchos Los Alamitos - Los Cerritos - Los Coyotes
[Upper Marker - as seen in 2001] This monument marks the intersection of three original California Ranchos: Rancho Los Alamitos Rancho Los Cerritos Rancho Los Coyotes [Lower Marker - as seen in 2002] Ranchos Los Alamitos - Los Cerritos - Los Coyotes This marks the common boundary point of these ranchos established at the death of Manuel Nieto by the partition of his 1784 Spanish land grant. [Editors Note: It is assumed that the lower marker was . . . — Map (db m50231) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — Avila Adobe
This is the oldest existing house in Los Angeles. Built about 1818 by Don Francisco Avila, it was occupied briefly as American headquarters in 1847. Severely damaged in the earthquake of 1971, the house is now restored as an example of California life style of the 1840's. La casa mas antigua en existencia en Los Angeles. Map (db m50943) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — Father Junipero Serra 1713-1784
Upper marker - English Born on the island of Majorca, off the coast of Spain, Father Serra was ordained in Palma where he taught for fifteen years before being sent to Mexico as a missionary in 1749. In 1769 he became Padre Presidente of the Franciscan missions in Baja California. That same year he accompanied Gaspar de Portola on a colonization expedition to San Diego where he founded the first of the nine missions he established in Alta California. Despite an injured leg and . . . — Map (db m54556) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — In Honor
Homage to Our Mexican-American Heroes Veterans of America's Wars. Covered with glory, their ideals of service provide power to America, for peace and for human dignity. Long live America during this time of such power. Homenaje a nuestros heroes Mexicano-Americanos veteranos de las guerras de Los Estados Unidos de America para la paz y dignidad humana. Viva America durante el tiempo de tal poder! — Map (db m54554) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — Latino Blood, American Hearts
This site is dedicated to the Latino-American Heroes who received the Congressional Medal of Honor, our nation's highest award for bravery. For love of country, they performed above and beyond the call of duty. Heroes y compatriotas, con orgullo y honor los saluda nuestro pueblo! Translation: Heroes and countrymen, greet our people with pride and honor! To all Medal of Honor Recipients Courage and Gallantry graced their deeds and their guide . . . — Map (db m74096) WM
California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — 156 — Los Angeles Plaza
This site was part of the lands originally granted to El Pueblo de la Reina de Los Angeles in 1781 by the King of Spain, Carlos III, under the Spanish Law of the Indies. The first plaza of the pueblo had been located to the southeast, closer to the Rio Porciuncula (Los Angeles River). When the river flooded, the pueblo was moved to higher ground. Shortly after the dedication of the Plaza Church in December 1822, the plaza's location was changed again to the present site. — Map (db m50945) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — Main StreetEl Pueblo de Los Angeles
Main Street is one of the oldest streets in Los Angeles. Originally called by its Spanish name, Calle Principal, it was included in the first survey map of Los Angeles, drawn by Lt. E. O. C. Ord in 1849. The street ran from south of First Street to the north side of the Plaza. In 1883 the City Council passed an ordinance declaring that Bath Street would be widened to become an extension of Main Street. The work was carried out in 1886. In 1890 the portion of Main Street that ran from . . . — Map (db m64219) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — Merced TheatreEl Pueblo de Los Angeles
The Merced Theatre was built in 1870 and is one of the oldest structures erected in Los Angeles for the presentation of dramatic performances. It served as the center of theatrical activity in the city from 1871 to 1876. The theatre was built by William Abbot, the son of Swiss immigrants who settled in Los Angeles in 1854. In 1858, he married the woman for whom he would name the theatre, Maria Merced Garcia, the daughter of Jose Antonio Garcia and Maria Guadalupe Uribe, who were long-time . . . — Map (db m50952) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — 159 — Pico HouseEl Pueblo de Los Angeles
The Pico House was built by Pio Pico, last Governor of California under Mexican rule, who lived almost the entire length of the nineteenth century from 1801 to 1894. This was the first three story building and the first grand hotel in Los Angeles. Pico chose architect Ezra F. Kysor to design the "finest hotel in Los Angeles." To raise funds for the building and furnishing of the hotel, Pio and his brother Andres sold most of their vast landholdings in the San Fernando Valley. Construction began . . . — Map (db m50949) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — The Old Spanish TrailEl Antiguo Camino Español — 1829 - 1848
This plaque marks the end of the Old Spanish Trail, an historic pack trail from Santa Fe to the Pueblo of Los Angeles. This trail was used by Mexican traders who brought woolen goods from New Mexico to trade for highly prized California mules and horses, and by emigrants to California. The trail originated as a trade route between New Mexico and Utah during the Spanish colonial era and then extended west to California during the Mexican period. Spanish Translation Esta . . . — Map (db m54874) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Mission Hills, Los Angeles — Mission Dam
Rubble masonry water storage dam built by San Fernando Mission Indians in 1808. Water Flowed to the mission via a tiled pipe. Marked by El Camino Real Parlor No. 324 Native Daughters of the Golden West March 11, 1972 — Map (db m72610) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Montebello — 385 — Battle of the Rio San Gabriel
. . . — Map (db m51042) HM
California (Los Angeles County), San Fernando — Casa de Lopez
Erected by Valentine Lopez - 1882 Occupied by Geronimo Lopez - 1884 Purchased by City of San Fernando - 1971 Survived Major Earthquake - 1971 Restored by San Fernando - 1974-75 — Map (db m48392) HM
California (Los Angeles County), San Fernando — César Chávez Memorial — March 31, 1927 - April 23, 1993
Panel 1: “Show me the suffering of the most miserable So I will know my people’s plight.” “Free me to pray for others For you are present in every person.” “Help me take responsibility for my own life So that I can be free at last.” “Grant me courage to serve others For in service there is true life.” “Give me honesty and patience So that I can work with other workers.” “Bring forth . . . — Map (db m73575) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Whittier — 127 — Casa de Governor Pío Pico
Following the Mexican War, Pío Pico, last Mexican governor, acquired 9,000-acre Rancho Paso de Bartolo and built here an adobe home that was destroyed by the floods of 1883-1884. His second adobe casa, now known as Pío Pico Mansion, represents a compromise between Mexican and American cultures. While living here the ex-Governor was active in the development of American California. — Map (db m50933) HM
California (Mariposa County), Hornitos — Hornitos
Started in 1850 by outcast Mexicans from nearby Quartzburg and given the name Hornitos, meaning “little ovens”, from the dome like rock and mud bake-ovens being used here by some Germans. The whites soon gained predominance, the population grew to many thousands, and it became one of the richest and toughest of early mining camps. Here Juaquin Murietta noted bandit chief had a hide-out and many friends. Wells Fargo and Co. established an office as early as 1852 to handle the . . . — Map (db m46904) HM
California (Mariposa County), Hornitos — Hornitos“Little Ovens of the Mother Lode”
Historic Jail Museum • History of 1849 • Relics Gold Rush Day Displays One of the Nations Most Famous Ghost Towns early population 15,000. Here was the first Wells Fargo Express Office in county. $40000 in gold sent to Mint daily by armed stage coach. Joaquin Murietta’s playground. California’s most colorful bandit. Mariposa County biggest county in the world during greatest Gold Rush of all time. Hornitos Spanish for “Little Ovens,” so named because of the Mexican . . . — Map (db m46936) HM
California (Merced County), Los Banos — San Luis Camp Adobe
Oldest building in Merced County built in 1848 by Francisco Perez Pacheco and his son on Rancho San Luis Gonzaga. Later a stopping place for vaqueros while driving cattle to the gold fields. Eventually became part of Rancho Santa Rita. Long owned by Henry Miller, now property of Wolfsen Land and Cattle Company — Map (db m68940) HM
California (Merced County), Los Banos — The Old Adobe of Rancho San Luis Gonzaga
At a watering hole on the east side of Pacheco Pass, Juan Pacheco built this adobe for his rancho in the early 1840’s. The gun ports in the walls are visible reminders of the dangers from Yokuts Indians, marauding bands of ex-Mission Indians, and bandits emerging from the San Joaquin Valley. This was the frontier of Mexican California. Paula Fatjo Paula Fatjo (fah-tcho),descendent of the Pachecos and the Malarins and heir to Rancho San Luis Gonzaga, restored the adobe as her home . . . — Map (db m63503) HM
California (Merced County), Santa Nella — 829 — Pacheco Pass
On June 18, 1805, Lieutenant Gabriel Moraga, on his first exploratory journey into the San Joaquin Valley traversed this pass and recorded it. Since then it has been trail, toll road, stagecoach road, and freeway -- the principal route between the coastal areas to the west and the great valley and mountains to the east. Calfornia Registered Historical Landmark No. 829 Plaque placed by the State Department of Parks and Recreation in cooperation with the Merced County Historical Advisory . . . — Map (db m70493) HM
California (Monterey County), Jolon — First Marriage in California
First Marriage in California took place at this Mission between Juan Maria Ruiz of El Fuerte, Sonora, Mexico, 25 years of age, and Margarita de Cortona, 22, a Salinan woman of Mission San Antonio, on the sixteenth of May in the year of Our Lord 1773 — Map (db m51561) HM
California (Monterey County), Monterey — Royal Presidio Chapel
The Royal Chapel of San Carlos de Borromeo, founded June 3, 1770, is the only remaining Presidio chapel in California. Madariaga Adobe * Follow Church St. to Abrego Cell Phone Tour (831) 718-9123 enter 710 — Map (db m63569) HM
California (Monterey County), Soledad — Cesar Chavez ParkIn Commemoration and Appreciation — Dedicated on March 31, 2008
"Preservation of one's own culture does not require contempt or disrespect of other cultures." Cesar E. Chavez (1927-1993) Cesar Chavez was a Mexican American Labor leader & cofounder of the United Farm Worker (UFW). Cesar Chavez was born in Yuma, Arizona. Cesar was raised in migrant worker camps and left school after 8th grade to work in the fields. He joined the U.S. Navy from 1939-1945. From 1952 until 1962, Chavez worked for the Community Service Organization and in 1962 . . . — Map (db m26874) HM
California (Monterey County), Soledad — One Voice Murals ProjectArts & Leadership Program
[1998] With the Santa Lucia, Gabilan mountain ranges and Pinnacles National Monument as the backdrop, Soledad has a rich history rooted in the original Spanish Mission land grants of early California. Soledad's original agricultural base was in cattle, wheat and barley until the 1890's when an influx of Swiss and Swedish immigrants established dairy operations in the area. A historical timeline of cultural diversity is also depicted. Supervising Muralist: Carlos Ramos Asst. . . . — Map (db m41124) HM
California (Monterey County), Soledad — Site of Original Church
Dedicated October 9, 1791 and destroyed by floods in 1828 — Map (db m41127) HM
California (Orange County), Brea — Don Gaspor Portola
Don Gaspor Portola with 60 men camped here July 31, 1769 on his first exploring route from San Diego to Monterey. — Map (db m76454) HM
California (Orange County), Costa Mesa — 227 — Diego Sepúlveda Adobe
This home of early Spanish Californians, erected in the 1820's, once served as an "estancia" or station for mission herdsmen. It was dedicated in 1963 for public use by the Segerstrom Family and restored by the City of Costa Mesa. It is jointly maintained and operated by the Costa Mesa Parks Department and the Costa Mesa Historical Society. — Map (db m50306) HM
California (Orange County), Fountain Valley — 6 — Colonia Jaurez
Established in 1923 with six streets on lots sized 50 by 300. A complete community with stores, recreation facilities, and churches. (Holy Family Mission still exists). — Map (db m59056) HM
California (Orange County), Fountain Valley — 28 — Rancho Lucero
In 1944, Frank and Dolores Lucero purchased 40 acres at this intersection. They previously farmed in Seal Beach. Dolores didn't want to leave the house so it was moved to this location while Dolores and a few kids were inside. — Map (db m59554) HM
California (Orange County), Lake Forest — 199 — The Serrano Adobe
State of California Historic Landmark No. 199 La Casa de Adobe de Jose Serrano Home of Jose Serrano, original grantee of Rancho Canada de los Alisos Restored A.D. 1932 — Map (db m50117) HM
California (Orange County), Mission Viejo — 44 — Aliso Creek Adobes
This spring and the sycamore trees mark the area of an adobe house and outbuilding built in the 1840s by Jose Serrano, whose Rancho Canada de los Alisos stretched to the north. Within a short distance were the two adobes of Juan Avila's Rancho Niguel, which extended to the south. The stage road, following the old Spanish "El Camino Real," passed between the two haciendas. This glen was a welcome stop for travelers. — Map (db m50038) HM
California (Orange County), Orange — 45 — Grijalva Adobe Site
Juan Pablo Grijalva, a Spanish soldier, came to California with the Anza Expedition in 1776. On this hill he built one of the first adobes in what is now Orange County. In 1801 he petitioned for use of the land that became the Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana. He died in 1806. His son-in-law Jose Antonio Yorba and grandson Juan Pablo Peralta repetitioned and were given use of the rancho in 1810. — Map (db m50040) HM
California (Orange County), Orange — 204 — Old Santa Ana
Portola camped on bank of Santa Ana River in 1769. Jose Antonio Yorba, member of expedition, later returned to Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana. El Camino Real crossed river in this vicinity. Place was designated Santa Ana by travelers, and known by that name until present town of Santa Ana was founded. — Map (db m50302) HM
California (Orange County), San Juan Capistrano — "El Adobe de Capistrano"
An historic landmark uniting the "Miguel Yorba Adobe" 1778 "Juzgado" (Court and Jail) 1812 — Map (db m51945) HM
California (Orange County), San Juan Capistrano — "Oliveras Home"
Circa 1890-1900 Restoration 1980 In memory of Delfina Olivares Matriarch of the San Juan Capistrano Historical Society — Map (db m51944) HM
California (Orange County), San Juan Capistrano — Blas Aguilar Adobe
May date back to 1794. It was part of two buildings known as Hacienda Aguilar. This adobe is associated with Don Blas Aguilar, the last Alcalde (Mayor) of the Mexican period. — Map (db m51943) HM
California (Orange County), San Juan Capistrano — Domingo Yorba Adobe
This 1830 structure is typical of San Juan Capistrano adobes of this period; thick walls and a wood shingle roof. The house was purchased by Domingo Oyharzabal in 1880 and occupied by his family for over 100 years. — Map (db m51939) HM
California (Orange County), San Juan Capistrano — Garcia Adobe
Built in the 1840's by Manuel Garcia, it originally had a second story over only half of the ground floor. In 1880 the remaining space was covered by a second floor and a balcony was added. It was a post office in the 1870's, a hotel from 1880 to 1903, and a general store from 1903 to 1918. — Map (db m51938) HM
California (Orange County), San Juan Capistrano — Historic Town Center Park / The Mendelson Inn
[Eastern Side] Historic Town Center Park Today the San Juan Capistrano down town and Mission San Juan Capistrano are situated on the site of the Juaneño village of Acjachema. History explains that in 1769 the first Spanish exploratory expedition, led by Gaspar de Portola, traveled north in California passing about seven miles east of here. A site for the seventh California mission was selected in 1775 and Mission San Juan Capistrano was believed to have been founded three . . . — Map (db m51947) HM
California (Orange County), San Juan Capistrano — Mission San Juan Capistrano
"Jewel of the Missions" founded on November 1, 1776 by father Junipero Serra, most renown and most beautiful of the California Missions, Quaint little Serra Chapel is California's oldest building still in use. The magnificent ruins of the Great Stone Church are considered the "American Acropolis". — Map (db m51942) HM
California (Orange County), San Juan Capistrano — Montanez Adobe
Constructed in 1794 as one of forty adobes built to house mission Indians. Named for Polonia Montanez, a nineteenth century resident. Owned by Mr. and Mrs. Forrest Dunivin. Preserved by San Juan Capistrano Historical Society. Restored in 1981 by City of San Juan Capistrano and County of Orange. — Map (db m51935) HM
California (Orange County), San Juan Capistrano — Site of the Valenzuela Adobe
Antonio Valenzuela, early pioneer of the town of San Juan Capistrano, built the adobe in the early 1840s, probably on the ruins of a mission Indian adobe dating to the 1790s. Later Valenzuela family members worked as local cowboys or vaqueros. The adobe was damaged by fire in 1879; rebuilt ca. 1900, some portions endured until the 1960s. This site was also occupied by several thousand years ago by ancestors of the Juaneno (Acagchemen) Indians, as shown by artifacts recovered during 1988 excavations. — Map (db m51934) HM
California (Riverside County), Anza — 17 — Juan Diego Flats
In this valley a conflict between the culture of the Indian and the white man resulted in the death of Juan Diego (Alessandro of the play Romona) by the hands of Sam Temple. — Map (db m50638) HM
California (Riverside County), Corona — 224 — Site of Third Serrano Adobe
Nearby, an adobe house was built about 1867. It was occupied until 1898 by Leandro Serrano's widow, Josefa. Under Spanish law, she owned the surrounding 20,000-acre Rancho Temescal; but her ownership was denied by the US Supreme Court. — Map (db m50645) HM
California (Riverside County), Corona — Tanning Vat
Tanning Vat Built in 1819 by Leonardo Serrano Site Restored by TR 172 El Capitan Dist. BSA — Map (db m51463) HM
California (Riverside County), Riverside — 943 — Jensen-Alvarado Ranch
Danish sea captain Cornelius Jensen sailed to San Francisco during the Gold Rush to sell his cargo. In 1854 he settled in Agua Mansa, established a store, and married Mercedes Alvarado, a descendant of a pioneer Californio family. The Jensens purchased this ranch in 1865 and began planting vineyards and orchards. They used local materials to build their house which is of Danish vernacular design. The Jensens made this ranch an important civic, social, business and agricultural center. — Map (db m50685) HM
California (Sacramento County), Sacramento — California Mexican-American War Memorial
In memory of the American Servicemen of Hispanic descent and all others who sacrificed their lives to protect the freedoms we enjoy. — Map (db m15474) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Loma Linda — 95 — Guachama Rancheria
"Guachama Rancheria, lying along this road, was named San Bernardino May 20, 1810, by Francisco Dumetz. In 1819 it became the San Bernardino Rancho of Mission San Gabriel. The adobe administration building stood about 70 yds. north of this spot, an enramada serving as chapel. The Zanja was constructed to convey water from the mountains for irrigation. Control by mission fathers ended in 1834." — Map (db m51015) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Rancho Cucamonga — Red HillCity of Rancho Cucamonga Historic Point of Interest
This site sits at the base of the prominent Red Hill Landmark. The early historic importance of the property stems from its proximity to a reliable water source, Cucamonga Creek, and to its location on the major roadway between Los Angeles and San Bernardino. By about 1200 AD, the Kukumonga Native Americans, part of the Gabrielino Culture, established a village near Red Hill in 1839. Tiburcio Tapia, a wealthy merchant and former Alcalde (Major) of Los Angeles, was granted 13,000 acres of land . . . — Map (db m53036) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Yucaipa — 528 — Yucaipa Adobe
Consructed in 1842 by Diego Sepulveda, nephew of Antonio Maria Lugo, this is believed to be the oldest house in San Bernardino County. The land, formerly controlled by San Gabriel Mission, was part of Rancho San Bernardino, granted to the Lugos in 1842. Later owners included John Brown, Sr., James W. Waters, and the Dunlap Family before acquisition by San Bernardino County in 1955. — Map (db m51018) HM
California (San Diego County), Anza-Borrego Desert State Park — 639 — Palm Spring
Here was a palm-studded desert resting place, 1826-1866, for Mexican pioneers, mountain men, the Army of the West, Mormon Battalion, Boundary Commission, Forty-Niners, Railway Survey, Butterfield Overland Mail stages, and California Legion. It was the site of the Butterfield Stage station buit in 1858 by Warren F. Hall. — Map (db m51578) HM
California (San Diego County), Carlsbad — 1020 — Leo Carrillo Ranch(Rancho de Los Kiotes)
Between 1937 and 1940, these adobe and wood buildings were built by actor Leo Carrillo as a retreat, working ranch, and tribute to old California culture and architecture. The Leo Carrillo Ranch, with its Flying "LC" brand, originally covered 2,538 acres and was frequented by Carrillo and his friends until 1960. Leo Carrillo was a strong, positive, and well-loved role model who sought to celebrate California's early Spanish heritage, through a life of good deeds and charitable causes. — Map (db m51105) HM
California (San Diego County), Escondido — 533 — San Pasqual Battlefield
While marching to the conquest and occupation of California during the Mexican War, a detachment of 1st U.S. Dragoons, under the command of Brig. Gen. Stephen W. Kearny, was met on this site by native California lancers under, the command of Gen. Andres Pico. In this battle, fought on December 6, 1846, severe losses were incurred by the American forces. The native Californians withdrew after Kearny had rallied his men on the field. Gallant action on the part of both forces characterized the . . . — Map (db m51095) HM
California (San Diego County), Lakeside — 425 — Mexican GrantCommemorating Cañada de Los Coches Rancho, — Smallest Mexican Land Grant in Calif.
Mexican Grant Commemorating Cañada de Los Coches Rancho Smallest Mexican Grant in Calif. -------- Granted in 1843 to Apolinaria Lorenzana -- by -- Governor Manuel Micheltorena -- Site of Old - Gristmill -- — Map (db m25923) HM
California (San Diego County), San Diego — 74 — Casa de Carrillo
Presidio Comandante Francisco Maria Ruiz built this house next to his 1808 pear garden late in 1821 for his close relative and fellow soldier, Joaquin Carrillo, and his large family. From this adobe dwelling, in April 1829, daughter Josefa Carrillo eloped to Chile with Henry Delano Fitch. When Ruiz died in 1839 and Joaquin soon afterwards, son Ramon Carrillo sold this property to Lorenzo Soto. It was transferred several times before 1932, deteriorating gradually, until George Marston and . . . — Map (db m51082) HM
California (San Diego County), San Diego — 52 — Mission Dam and Flume
After many attempts dated back to 1774 to provide a reliable source of water for crops and livestock for Mission San Diego de Alcala, a dam and flume system was finished between 1813 and 1816 by Indian laborers and Franciscan Missionaries to divert waters of the San Diego River for a distance of 6 miles. The aqueduct system continued in existence until 1831 when constant flooding caused the dam and flume to fall into disrepair. They were not repaired due to secularization of the missions. — Map (db m51074) HM
California (San Diego County), San Diego — Original Foundation Casa de Aguirrec. 1853
The stone pilings seen in this archaeological excavation unit are part of the original foundation of the Casa de Aguirre built circa 1853. The original adobe mansion extended ten feet to the east of where the current building ends. The 21st century re-creation of the Aguirre house follows the footprint of the historic structure, except for these sections of the foundation that were preserved for viewing. — Map (db m71058) HM
California (San Diego County), San Diego — 891 — Spanish Landing
Near this point, sea and land parties of the Portola-Serra Expedition met. Two ships, the San Antonio and San Carlos, anchored on May 4-5, 1769. The scurvy-weakened survivors of the voyage established a camp, where on May 14 and July 1 they greeted the overland parties coming overland from Baja California. Together, they began the Spanish occupation of Alta California. — Map (db m51104) HM
California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — 784 — El Camino Real
This plaque is placed on the 250th anniversary of the birth of California’s apostle, Padre Junípero Serra, O.F.M. to mark the northern terminus of El Camino Real as Padre Serra knew it and helped to blaze it. 1713 - November 24 - 1963 California Registered Historical Landmark No. 784. — Map (db m32169) HM
California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — CHL 1024 — Juana Briones Y Tapia de Miranda1802 – 1889 — North Beach Pioneer
Juana Briones, born in Hispanic California, was a preeminent woman of her time. In the 1830s and 1840s she transformed an isolated cove in the then Mexican hamlet of Yerba Buena into her rancho. At the site of this park she raised cattle and grew vegetables for sale to ship crews. She gave sanctuary to refugees and was revered as a healer and care-giver. She is honored as a humanitarian, astute businesswoman, community builder, and devoted mother of eight children. — Map (db m58383) HM
California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Little Chile
The area bounded by Montgomery, Pacific, Jackson and Kearny streets was known as “Chilecito” or “Little Chile” & was established during the gold rush period by Chilean settlers. — Map (db m58384) HM
California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Pioneer Monument / California Native Americans
[Panel 1:] Pioneer Monument Sculptor, Frank Happersberger (1859-1932) Dedicated to the City of San Francisco on November 29, 1894, the Pioneer Monument was a gift of philanthropist James Lick. Lick, who died in 1876, left $100,000 to the City for the creation of “statuary emblematic of the significant epochs in California history” dating back to the missions’ early settlement. The monument stood in Marshall Square facing Market Street in front of the Old City . . . — Map (db m32183) HM
California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — 327-1 — Site of Original Mission Dolores Chapel and Dolores Lagoon / Rammaytush
[FrontLargo de los Dolores (Lake of the Sorrows), and offered the first mass. The first mission was a log and thatch structure dedicated on October 9, 1776 when the necessary church documents arrived. The present Mission Dolores was dedicated in 1791. California Registered Historical Landmark No. 327-1 Plaque placed by the . . . — Map (db m32067) HM
California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Vallejo Street
This marker consists of six plaques arranged in a 2 X 3 pattern. The top left plaque is the title plaque and may contain some text. The top right plaque displayed an arrow which points in the direction of the named street. Other plaques contain biographical information on the person for whom the street is named, appropriate quotation(s) and relevant illustrations, cast in bronze. Soldier, land-owner, and diplomat; General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo started life as the son of a Spanish . . . — Map (db m73083) HM
California (San Luis Obispo County), San Miguel — Cross of El Camino Real
El Camino Real, the Royal Highway, connected the California missions. At the beginning it was a trail, and a cross carved into the bark of trees showed the right path. This was such a tree, and the cross was lost until the day the tree fell (near Paso Robles), and the cross was found on the inside. — Map (db m64680) HM
California (San Mateo County), Redwood City — Soledad O. de Arguello1897 - 1874
Left Side - English She donated 59,000 acres of land for the benefit of all people. Right Side - Spanish Donadora de 59,000 acres par beneficio de la comunidad — Map (db m62575) HM
California (Santa Barbara County), Carpinteria — 535 — La Carpinteria (1769)
The Chumash Indian Village of "Mishopshnow," discovered by Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo, August 14, 1542, was located one-fourth of mile southwest of here. Fray Juan Crespi of the Gaspar de Portola expedition named it "San Roque," August 17, 1769. Portola's soldiers, observing the Indians building wooden canoes, called the village, "La Carpinteria"--the Carpenter Shop. — Map (db m50555) HM
California (Santa Barbara County), Santa Barbara — 308 — Casa Covarrubas
Built by Indian labor in 1817 for Don Domingo Carrillo, whose daughter married Don Jose Maria Covarrubias in 1838. Descendants of these families, many of them leaders in public affairs, occupied this house for over a century. Don Jose Maria was the first Federal Elector from California in 1852. John R. Southworth moved and rebuilt the historic adobe here in 1924 as part of a civic program of historic preservation. Los Adobes De Los Rancheros acquired the property in 1938 as headquarters . . . — Map (db m50550) HM
California (Santa Barbara County), Santa Barbara — 307 — De La Guerra Plaza1850 - 1950
Near this site August 26, 1850, two weeks before California Statehood, duly elected common council, City of Santa Barbara, held first official meeting. Here in 1875, first City Hall erected and area still center of city's governmental activities. Plaza scene early Santa Barbara fiestas, and De La Guerra House set standards for Santa Barbara hospitality. — Map (db m50548) HM
California (Santa Barbara County), Santa Barbara — 721 — Hill-Carrillo Adobe
Built in 1826 by Daniel Hill of Massachusetts for his bride Rafaela Luisa Ortega Y Olivera, granddaughter of Jose Francisco Ortega, founder and first Commandante of the Royal Presidio of Santa Barbara. Later occupied by the family of Guillermo Carrillo, Here in 1850, the first City Council met. Preserved and presented to Santa Barbara Foundation by Major and Mrs. Max C. Fleischmann, — Map (db m50559) HM
California (Santa Barbara County), Santa Barbara — Jose Lobero's Opera House1873
On this site, February 22, 1873, Jose Lobero, impressario and musician, opened the first legitimate theatre in southern California. The Lobero continues to serve the cultural interests of Santa Barbara one hundred years later. — Map (db m50920) HM
California (Santa Barbara County), Santa Barbara — 361 — Old Lobero Theatre
Jose Lobero opened the region's first legitimate theatre on this site February 22, 1873. For many years the old theatre was the center of social life in Santa Barbara. A new Lobero Theatre, opened in 1924 on the same site, continues to serve the cultural interests of the area. — Map (db m50553) HM
California (Santa Barbara County), Santa Barbara — 636 — Site of Royal Spanish Presidio
This presidio was established under orders of King Carlos III, April 19-21, 1782, by Governor Felipe De Neve, Padre Junipero Serra and Lieutenant Jose Francisco Ortega, to provide the benefits of government for the inhabitants of the Santa Barbara Channel region of California. — Map (db m50557) HM
California (Santa Barbara County), Solvang — Mission Santa Ines
Has been designated a NATIONAL HISTORIC LANDMARK This religious complex possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America. Mission Santa Ines, founded in 1804, is one of the finest examples of a Mission complex containing buildings, structures, archaeological sites, ruins, and artwork important to understanding the Hispanic and Native American heritage of California. The fulling mill, built in 1821 by Joseph Chapman, is one of the earliest . . . — Map (db m11673) HM
California (Santa Clara County), Cupertino — 800 — Arroyo de San Joseph Cupertino
This arroyo honoring San Joseph, patron saint of flight and students, was first discovered and traversed by Spanish explorers in 1769. On March 25-26, 1776 Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza made it his encampment No. 99 as mapped by his cartographer Padre Pedro, before continuing on to the San Francisco Bay Area where he initiated steps to found a colony, a mission and a presidio. — Map (db m54025) HM
California (Santa Clara County), Palo Alto — 524 — Site of Juana Briones de Miranda Home on Rancho La Purisima Concepcion
In 1844 Juana de Briones de Miranda, a pioneer Latina property owner, businesswoman and humanitarian, purchased the 4,439 acre Rancho La Purisima Concepcion from Indian grantee Jose Gorgornio. The grant extended two miles south, encompassing Foothill College and most of Los Altos Hills. The site of the home that was constructed of earth inside a wooden crib is located up this street at 4155 Old Adobe Road. In addition to raising her seven children, Juana managed a large cattle ranch and was a noted curandera. — Map (db m54016) HM
California (Santa Clara County), San Jose — De Anza Expedition 1775 - 1776
Lt. Juan Bautista de Anza and party crossed this area in March 1776. en route to select sites for the Presido and the Mission of San Francisco In the center of the marker is a circular motif, designed by Doris Birkland Beezley, of a rider superimposed upon a sun-like set of compass points, with the "De Anza Expedition 1775 1776" written above the rider. Map (db m38342) HM
California (Santa Clara County), San Jose — 433 — First Site of El Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe
Within a year after the opening of the first overland route from Mexico to Alta California, Governor Filipe de Neve authorized the establishment of the first civil settlement in the state on lands including and surrounding the present Civic Center. Lieutenant Jose Joaquin Moraga, with 14 settlers and their families arrived in the Santa Clara Valley to found El Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe on November 29, 1777. — Map (db m52937) HM
California (Santa Clara County), San Jose — 898 — Roberto – Suñol Adobe
This historic adobe was built in 1836 by a native Californian, Roberto Balermino, on Rancho de los Coches. The property was officially granted to him by Governor Micheltorna in 1844. A larger one-story dwelling was built in 1847 by the new owner, Antonio Suñol. The second-story frame structure and balcony were added in 1853 by Captain Stefano Splivalo. — Map (db m52119) HM
California (Santa Clara County), San Jose — SpanishTown
Established in December, 1845, Spanishtown developed as Indians, Californios and immigrants from Peru, Argentina and Mexico built their homes on the hill above Deep Gulch. Cinnabar was first mined from a nearby cave known to local Indians. Later in 150, Mine Hill’s Main Tunnel was built about 200 feet below this cave.

As Spanishtown grew, the Catholic Church, general store and boarding houses occupied the top of the hill. All buildings were company-owned though many families embellished . . . — Map (db m50750) HM

California (Santa Clara County), San Jose — The Bernal Adobe Site and Bear Tree
This parcel, known as the Bernal Adobe Site, is part of the Rancho Santa Teresa Historic District of Santa Clara County. Ancestors of Mowekma Ohlone Indians used this area as a large permanent cemetery and village site as long ago as 3,000 years due in part to the existence of nearby Santa Teresa Springs. In 1776, the Spanish Expedition of Juan Bautista de Anza passed near this area, bringing 14 year old Poblacore (Populator) Jose Joaquin Bernal (1762-1837). In 1826 Jose Joaquin returned to the . . . — Map (db m52767) HM
California (Santa Clara County), San Jose — The Juan Bautista de Anza Trail
The Juan Bautista de Anza National HistoricTrail marks a 1,200 mile route that brought settlers to California from Tubac, in present-day Arizona, to what is now San Francisco. The Spanish planned a system of Presidios, or military forts, and missions to strategically secure Alta California for the Spanish Empire, amidst competing claims by Russia, France and England. However, it was not easy to deliver food and supplies. Trips by sea were lengthy and dangerous, and many ships . . . — Map (db m30147) HM
California (Santa Clara County), Santa Clara — Luis Arguello HomeSanta Clara and Main Streets — Point of Historical Interest
Two story classic Georgian Colonial Revival rests on solid redwood foundation. Built before 1870 by Luis Arguello, son of first governor of California under Mexican Rule. 1901 residence and office of Dr. George H. Worrall, DDS., long time member and president of Santa Clara Board of Education. Converted to apartments 1946 — Map (db m52899) HM
California (Santa Clara County), Santa Clara — Mission Corral Site
This site is what remains of the original Mission Santa Clara corral, which once covered about 6 acres and was enclosed by an adobe wall. In 1847, marking the transition from Spanish/Mexican mission to American town, William Campbell mapped the Mission land, designating the corral as a “Public Square”. The Town’s first official survey in 1866 reconfirmed this use, although the area had been reduced in size. By the late 1800s it was called Plaza Park. A bandstand had been . . . — Map (db m52900) HM
California (Santa Clara County), Santa Clara — The Berryessa AdobeThis Adobe House — Culture and Structure Together
The Berryessa Adobe was built at a crossroad in California history. When constructed in the 1840s, Spanish colonial building traditions were blending with American influences. The builders constructed adobe walls on stone foundations and used soil plaster – all Hispanic influences - while using milled wood and carpentry details from the American Greek Revival style. The Location of the Adobe – 1873 Thirty years after the Berryessa Adobe was built, Mission Santa Clara had . . . — Map (db m52932) HM
California (Santa Cruz County), Watsonville — Where Strawberries are SweeterBienvenido! Welcome! — Mural by Alvaro 6/96
Watsonville, where strawberries are sweeter, apples are crisper and produce plentiful, is a friendly place of diverse people who share a strong sense of community and optimism. Don Sebastian Rodriquez owned the grant, Bolsa de Pajaro, on which the city of Watsonville now rests. Watsonville was settled in 1852, incorporated in 1868 and came under charter in 1903. The city was named after Judge John H. Watson who lived in the area from 1851 to 1862. Just as workers cultivate the land . . . — Map (db m54880) HM
California (Sonoma County), Petaluma — 18 — Vallejo's Petaluma Adobe
Petaluma Adobe served as the center for General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo’s 66,000-acre working rancho from 1836-1846. It was once the largest privately owned adobe building in northern California; Vallejo sold the building and surrounding acres in 1857. The Native Sons of the Golden West Acquired the adobe in 1910 and the State of California obtained it in 1951. — Map (db m71981) HM
California (Tuolumne County), Columbia — A Cosmopolitan SocietyWith a Dash of Gold!
Columbia was a boomtown. The discovery of gold in 1850 attracted thousands of miners here. As more people arrived, the demand for goods, services and entertainment soared. In the gold rush, Columbia stores and other businesses thrived. The town served people from South America, Central America, Mexico, Europe, Asia, and Australia. They brought to Columbia their energies and skills, as well as their cultural traditions. The north side of town became a bustling melting pot of . . . — Map (db m53301) HM
California (Ventura County), Piru — 553 — Rancho Camulos
Rancho Camulos has been designated a National Historic Landmark This residential complex possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America Ygnacio del Valle established Rancho Camulos in 1853, on part of a Mexican land grant of former mission lands. Rancho Camulos was the setting for Ramona, an 1884 novel that generated national interest in the history of Hispanic settlement in California. August Rubel purchased the . . . — Map (db m51033) HM
California (Ventura County), Simi Valley — 979 — Rancho Simi (1795)
This is the site of the headquarters of the Spanish Rancho San Jose de Nuestra Senora de Altagarcia y Simi. The name derives from "Shimiji," the name of the Chumash village here before the Spanish. At 113,000 acres, Rancho Simi was one of the state's largest land grants. Two prominent Spanish and Mexican family names are connected with the Rancho: Santiago Pico who first received the grant, and Jose de la Guerra who purchased the Rancho in 1842. Two rooms of original adobe remain, part of the Strathean home built in 1892-93. — Map (db m51040) HM
California (Ventura County), Ventura — 115 — Olivas Adobe
This adobe is the only early two-story adobe in the Santa Clara River Valley. A small one-story adobe, built in 1837 was enlarged in 1849 by Don Raimundo Olivas: a prosperous cattle rancher. Continuous use has preserved the adobe for public viewing. — Map (db m51032) HM
California (Ventura County), Ventura — Olivas Adobe1837
The original small adobe on this site was built by Don Raimundo Olivas and his son, Nicolas, in 1837. The present structure was begun in 1847, with roof beams from the Santa Paula Canyon, and tiles made from native soil. Don Raimundo lived in this adobe until his death on February 24, 1879. The last owner of this property was Major Max C. Fleischmann. Two hundred and fifty acres were given to the City of Ventura by the Fleischmann Foundation of Nevada in 1963 for public use. — Map (db m51424) HM
Colorado (Pueblo County), Pueblo — Teresita Sandoval(1811–1894)
Teresita Sandoval was one of the daring souls that arrived at the Pueblo settlement in 1841. Like other women of that time, she would witness and be partner to changes in her country. She departed from her traditional life as the wife of Manuel Suazo and followed her heart and Mathew Kinkead to the Arkansas River, where her extended family endeavored to establish life at El Pueblo Trading Post (1842). Described as “pretty as a peach,” Teresita captivated another Englishman, . . . — Map (db m64751) HM
Colorado (Sedgwick County), Julesburg — 223 — Welcome to Colorado
Colorado's vast plains, rugged mountains, and grand plateaus, so magnificent in their beauty and variety, seem at times to overshadow the state's history and people. But look closely. The story of Colorado is every bit as dramatic as the physical terrain. Many peoples have helped sculpt Colorado's past; the ancestral Puebloan peoples, whose civilization dates back thousands of years; the Utes, who occupied the Rockies for centuries; the numerous other native peoples who lived in this region; . . . — Map (db m47324) HM
District of Columbia, Washington — 8 — Mount Pleasant: The Immigrants' Journey
Low cost housing in Mount Pleasant in the decades following World War II made it an ideal place for immigrants to the area. Refugees fleeing World War II and the Cold War in Eastern Europe were the first group to arrive. A small Czech community lived along Park Road until the 1990s. In the 1980s refugees from wars in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua found a home in Mount Pleasant. Good wages -- often ten times as high as in their native countries -- continue to lure immigrants from Central . . . — Map (db m68731) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Adams-Morgan — 6 of 18 — The Latino CommunityRoads to Diversity — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail
This is the heart of Washington’s Latino community. Once centered here and in nearby Mount Pleasant and Columbia Heights, the community now extends throughout the region. As early as the 1910s, the Mexican, Ecuadoran, Cuban, and Spanish embassies clustered nearby on 16th Street. Spanish-speaking diplomats and staff called this area home and often remained after their terms ended. In the 1950s, political turmoil and economic hardship brought Puerto Ricans and Cubans, followed later by . . . — Map (db m17167) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — 16 — Cesar Chavez1927 - 1993
Led by his desire to secure a better quality of life for migrant farm workers, Cesar Chavez helped found the United Farm Workers of America, the first effective farm workers' union in the United States. Under his leadership of nonviolent protest, the UFW was able to secure improved wages and benefits, more humane living and working conditions, and better job security for some of the poorest workers in America. Through his life of service, Chavez provided inspiration to countless others. . . . — Map (db m15471) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Foggy Bottom — Ysabel I, La Catolica[Queen Isabella of Spain and the Americas]
Panel 1, east side of pedestal, facing 17th St.: Ysabel I La Catolica Reina de Castilla de Aragon de las Islas y Tierra Firme del Mar Oceano Panel 2, upper west side of pedestal, facing OAS Hdqts.: Esta estatua fue restaurada con el patrocinio de la Spain-USA Foundation e inaugurada en presencian de S.A.R. Doña Cristina de Borbón, Infanta de España, el 15 de Octubre de 2010. -------------------------- This statue was restored with the patronage of the Spain-USA . . . — Map (db m65257) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Mount Pleasant — 1 of 17 — Fashionable 16th StreetVillage in the City — Mount Pleasant Heritage Trail
Today's 16th Street from the White House to Silver Spring, Maryland is one of the city's key gateways. But through the 1890s it jogged left where Mt. Pleasant Street runs today and then dead-ended at the edge of today's Rock Creek Park. After decades on the city's wish list, in 1903, 16th Street was straightened and extended to Spring Road, several blocks north of here. This improvement, coupled with the arrival of the electric streetcar, made airy Mount Pleasant an attractive location for . . . — Map (db m17138) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Shaw — Marlon Francisco MoralesLaw Enforcement Officer, Husband, Father and Friend — December 26, 1968 - June 13, 2001
In honor of Metro Transit Police Officer Marlon Francisco Morales, who was mortally wounded at the U Street/African American Civil War Memorial/Cardozo Metrorail Station on June 10, 2001. — Map (db m15473) HM
Florida (Escambia County), Cantonment — Vacaria Baja
Home and ranch of Don Manuel Gonzalez was one-half mile east. Consisted of 1600 arpents conceded by Spanish Governor, Jose Mascot, Dec. 22, 1817. On route of Andrew Jackson 1814, 1818 and in 1821, when General and Mrs. Jackson spent three weeks as guests of Gonzalez, awaiting transfer of Florida to United States. Due to yellow fever in Pensacola, became temporary seat of government September 1822. — Map (db m72234) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — F-383 — Centro Español de Tampa
Chartered on September 7, 1891, El Centro Español was the first Latin club organized in Ybor City. As a mutual aid society, it provided early Spanish immigrants with a framework by which they maintained their identity and culture while supplying social privileges and death and injury benefits. Financed by stock pledges of $10 each by the original 186 Charter Members, the society opened the first club building in June 1892 on land purchased by Ignacio Haya at 16th Street and 7th Avenue. . . . — Map (db m31711) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — Columbia RestaurantFounded 1905
The Columbia is the oldest and largest Spanish restaurant in the United States. It was opened as a cafe for cigarmakers by Casimiro Hernandez, Sr. When he died in 1930 his son Casimiro Hernandez, Jr. then brought it to its present glory. The Columbia has helped popularize Spain's exotic cuisine in America, and through the years has played host to celebrities and world figures. The restaurant has always been under the management of the founding family. — Map (db m31702) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — F-386 — El Centro Asturiano de Tampa
Spanish immigrants from the province of Asturias formed El Centro Asturiano de Tampa in 1902 as a mutual aid society to meet the recreational, social, educational, and medical needs of its members. In an effort to broaden the concept of cooperative medicine, the club operated a hospital El Sanatorio del Centro Asturiano from 1905 until its closing in 1990. The society built the present three-story yellow brick and stone building on the corner of Palm and Nebraska Avenues in . . . — Map (db m32185) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — F-382 — El Circulo Cubano(Cuban Club)
Late 19th and early 20th century Cuban immigration to the United States was impressive for the craft talents brought to the country. Along with their Spanish counterparts, skilled Cuban cigarmakers made Tampa's hand-rolled cigars world-famous. As early as 1899 Cuban immigrants formed recreational societies with varying degrees of success, and in 1902 Cuban workers founded El Circulo Cubano as a mutual aid society to "bind all Cuban residents of Tampa into a fraternal group, to offer . . . — Map (db m31710) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — First Lt. Baldomero LopezTampa Native — Awarded Congressional Medal Of Honor
During the Inchon invasion in Korea, September 15, 1950, Marine 1st Lieutenant Lopez's platoon was engaging the enemy. Exposing himself to hostile fire he attempted to hurl a grenade into the pillbox whose fire was pinning them down. Wounded, he fell and dropped the grenade. Dragging his body forward, critically wounded and unable to grasp the grenade, he sacrificed himself rather than endanger the lives of his men. With his wounded right arm, he cradled the grenade under him absorbing the full . . . — Map (db m31703) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — F-39 — Founding of the Cigar Industry in Tampa
In 1886 two cigar factories were completed at Tampa signaling the founding of the industry in the area. Pioneer manufacturer was Vincente Martinez Ybor, a native of Spain, who had made cigars at Havana and Key West. Ybor's move to Tampa was prompted by better transportation and favorable terms offered by Tampa's Board of Trade. Due to the efforts of Ybor and his associates. Tampa became a world tobacco manufacturing center. — Map (db m31704) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — Gary
  The name Gary was officially recognized with the establishment of the Gary post office in 1898. The official plat of "Gary-Town" was recorded in May 1903. The Gary neighborhood included both Gary-Town and Spanish Park, located to its east. The neighborhood's boundaries extended from 26th Street on the west to 40th Street on the east. The population included Anglos, Italians, Spaniards and Cubans. Celery farming played a prominent role in Gary. The neighborhood also included cigar factories, . . . — Map (db m33926) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — Historic Emilio Pons Cigar Factory
Emilio Pons, a pioneer Tampa cigar manufacturer, and an outstanding public servant, established the first cigar factory of local origin on this site in 1887. Here on October 12, 1894, Jose Marti, the Cuban liberator, delivered his last Ybor City revolutionary speech from the readers' pulpit amidst the wild acclaim of the Cuban cigar-makers. The final words of his prophetic speech were: "We shall triumph! Their hammer blows will be met by a destructive file of steel." — Map (db m32828) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — La Casa de Pedroso1893
  Paulina Pedroso was one of the great women patriots of Cuba. After an attempt on the life of Jose Marti, the Pedroso House became his refuge.   Whenever Marti stayed here the flag of the budding Republic of Cuba fluttered outside. Evenings, the Cubans formed groups outside the little house to watch the Apostle of Freedom through the windows. Marti's room remained lighted until late at night, and at times, in the silence, the scratching of his pen could be heard. An intruder would have found Ruperto, Paulina's husband, on guard duty. — Map (db m31931) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — La Casa de Pedroso1893
Paulina Pedroso fue insigne patriota Cubana. Tras el atentado contra Jose Marti, la Casa Pedroso se hizo refugio del Apostol. Siempre que aqui se hospedara Marti desplegabase en la fachada la bandera de la naciente Republica Cubana. De noche grupos de Cubanos se congregaban frente a la casita para observar al Apostol a traves de las ventanas. La habitacion de Marti permanecia alumbrada hasta altas horas y a veces en el silencio se podia escuchar el rascar de su pluma. Cualquier intruso . . . — Map (db m31935) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — La Liga Patriotica De InstruccionEst. 1889 — (The Patriot League Instruction)
On this corner was located the famous night school which was established for the welfare of the Cuban emigres of the flourishing cigar center. Classes were conducted by Don Jose Guadalupe Rivero. To these compatriots who worked with tabacco leaves in the day and book leaves at night, Josi Marti, praising their revolutionary efforts confessed, "I thought I was coming to do something, but I find that everything has been done". — Map (db m31709) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — Our Lady of Perpetual HelpEstablished 1890
Situated on land purchased from Vincente Martinez-Ybor with a donation from Henry Flagler, Father Philippe de Carriere, S.J. purchased this land for the local diocese to minister to the influx of Spanish speaking immigrants. In September 1890 a small wood-frame church named Our Lady of Mercy opened on this site. The following year the Sisters of St. Joseph opened St. Joseph's Academy next door. By 1922 a separate church, Most Holy Name, was started about 8 blocks away to care for the growing . . . — Map (db m43997) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — Roland M. ManteigaJanuary 16, 1920 – September 25, 1998
Roland Manteiga chronicled events and politics that shaped Tampa and Ybor city and championed human rights for more than 40 years through his weekly column “As we heard it.” From his private table at La Tropicana Restaurant, where he broke bread with presidents and locals alike, this formidable owner and publisher of La Gaceta newspaper served as a conduit between power brokers and the powerless. As the conscience of the community, Manteiga became a legend in his own time. — Map (db m49927) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — F-387 — Sociedad La Union Marti~Maceo
When local segration forced the withdrawal of Afro-Cubans from El Club Nacional Cubano, an organization of black and white Cubans involved in Cuban independence, Afro-Cuban cigarmakers founded a society in 1900 as Los Libres Pensadores de Marti y Maceo. Ruperto Pedroso, well known Afro-Cuban patriot, was among the 23 original founders. The club merged with La Union in 1904, resulting in the new name, La Union Marti-Maceo. In 1909 members completed construction of a two-story . . . — Map (db m31708) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — Tampa's Oldest Restaurant1890
Las Novedades was founded on this site when Ybor City was a tiny village. Its proprietor was Manuel (Canuto ) Menendez. The coffee shop was a favorite rendezvous for the pioneer cigarmakers of Sanchez y Haya Cigar Factory located across the street. In November 1891 Las Novedades was destroyed by fire. It reopened in 1892. During the Spanish - American War the Rough Riders gained local fame when they gayly galloped into the small restaurant, and the Latin inhabitants termed the escapade "The Charge Of The Yellow Rice Brigade." — Map (db m31705) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — The Beginning of the Cigar Industry in West Tampa
A cigar factory built on this site in June 1892 by Hugh C. Macfarlane brought the first industry to the community of West Tampa. First operated by A. Del Pino and Company, it failed financially. In 1894 the O'Halloran Cigar Company occupied the building. On May 18, 1895, a bill passed Florida's legislature creating the municipality of West Tampa. Its first mayor was Fernando Figueredo, a prominent figure in the Cuban revolution. Sponsored by the Tampa Historical Society - June 15, 1990 Map (db m46945) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — TP 91 — The Krewe of the Knights of Sant' Yago
In 1175, Pope Alexander III, authorized "La Orden Real Sant' Yago" to protect the Pilgrims' Way to the shrine of Santiago (St. James), at Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain. Among the Spanish conquerors of America, Ponce De Leon, Panfile De Narvaez and Hernando De Soto were members. In 1972, Ybor City civic leaders, Dr. Henry Fernandez, Cesar Gonzmart, Joe Granda, Joe Lopex, and Daniel Martinex obtained the first charter of the Order in America. The Krewe is dedicated to the . . . — Map (db m33058) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — Vicente Martinez-YborPioneer of the Cigar Industry in Florida and Founder of Ybor City
Born in Valencia, Spain on September 7, 1818 and died in Ybor City on December 14, 1896 and buried at Oaklawn Cemetery in downtown Tampa. In 1853 at an early age the adventurous Spaniard left his native land and traveled to Cuba which was under the dominance of Spain and where he established his first cigar factory and produced ths world renowned "El Principe De Gales" ("The Prince of Wales") brand. Due to his support for Cuban independence from Spain in 1868 he had to flee Cuba and . . . — Map (db m31706) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — Ybor City's First Fire Station1888
The Mirta Hook and Ladder Volunteer Fire Station was established on this site. The station was named in honor of the youngest daughter of Don Vicente Martinez Ybor, founder of Ybor City. Capt. Frank Puglisi headed the fire fighters. Volunteer firemen from Havana, Cuba took part in the colorful dedication ceremonies. — Map (db m31887) HM
Florida (Miami-Dade County), Florida City — F-739 — Operation Pedro PanOperación Pedro Pan
On this site, which was officially known as the Florida City Shelter of the Catholic Welfare Bureau’s Children’s Program, thousands of Operation Pedro Pan children found refuge from Communist Cuba between 1961 and 1966. Operation Pedro Pan was conceived and organized by Monsignor Bryan O. Walsh of the Archdiocese of Miami and James Baker, headmaster of Ruston Academy in Havana, Cuba, at the request of parents who sought to prevent Communist indoctrination of their children. It was financed . . . — Map (db m71917) HM
Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — The Tower of SnowEnrique Martínez Celaya — American (born in Cuba, 1964)
2012, Bronze 132 x 89 x 64 in. The Tower of Snow by distinguished Cuban-born artist Enrique Martínez Celaya honors the 50th anniversary of Operation Pedro Pan, which brought thousands of Cuban children, without their parents, to the United States in pursuit of freedom and stability. “For years, feelings of displacement and foreignness had seemed specific to my experience, then I began to read about the ‘Operación Pedro Pan’ and I found my story in many of their accounts. This . . . — Map (db m71941) HM
Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — Fernandez-Llambias House
This house was already extant in 1763, when Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain. It was then a one-story, two-room, shingle-roofed coquina stone structure owned by Pedro Fernandez. A British owner added the loggia. In 1784, when the Spanish returned, the Minorcan settlers brought to Florida by the British stayed. Their descendants too remained in 1821, when Florida became American. Two Minorcan brothers, Joseph and Peter Antonio Manucy, owned the house in 1838, adding the second story and . . . — Map (db m77290) HM
Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — Fort Matanzas National Monument
The Spanish built Fort Matanzas in 1740-42 to control Matanzas inlet, the "back door" to St. Augustine. Much earlier, in 1565, Spain had bloodily crushed here a French challenge to her control of Florida by killing the remnants of a French colony from Fort Caroline, 40 miles to the north. Fort Matanzas became a National Monument in 1924, preserving this unique specimen of a vanished style of military architecture and engineering. — Map (db m27271) HM
Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — Los FloridanosFlorida's First European Families 1565-1763
"Los Floridanos" referred to the children born to the Spanish settlers of St. Augustine during the First Spanish Period (1565-1763). Translated it means "The Floridians" and record of this title can be found in many Spanish Government documents, including Spanish censuses of the time. In 1565, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, along with 600 soldiers and colonists, arrived in "La Florida" to explore and colonize for Spain. The settlers who arrived during the First Spanish Period, whose last names . . . — Map (db m46633) HM
Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — Old Spanish Trail Zero Milestone
Old Spanish Trail Zero Milestone St Augustine Fla to San Diego Calif — Map (db m39787) HM
Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — F-804 — Solla-Carcaba Cigar Factory
The Solla-Carcaba Cigar Factory, completed in 1909, is the last remnant in St. Augustine of the cigar industry, whose local origins date to the 1830s. Political unrest drove many Cuban cigar makers to Florida after 1868. Their numbers in St. Augustine were enough by 1892 to attract a visit by revolutionary leader Jose Marti. One Cuban, P.F. Carcaba, born in Oviedo, Spain, brought his cigar-making business from Cincinnati to St. Augustine in 1893, selling pure Havana "Caballeros" in boxes . . . — Map (db m77391) HM
Georgia (Glynn County), St. Simons Island — A Clash Of Cultures
The skirmish at Bloody Marsh was more than a battle. It was a clash of cultures - each vying for control of what is now the southeastern United States. Soldiers from Hispanic colonies in the New World fought under the Spanish banner, with the help of Indians and emancipated blacks from Florida. British defenders included English and Scottish immigrants and friendly Southeastern Indians. The British coalition fought effectively, and defeated the invading Spanish army of St. Simon Island. — Map (db m63869) HM
Kansas (Lyon County), Emporia — Emporia's Mexican American Veterans Memorial
In honor of the Mexican American men and women of Emporia, Kansas, who proudly served their country Killed in Action WWII Jesse Garcia • Robert Ramirez — Map (db m49836) HM
Kansas (Lyon County), Emporia — World War II Memorial at St. Catherine's Church
Honoring those who served us in World War II [Honor Roll of Names] — Map (db m50020) HM
Kansas (Rice County), Lyons — Fray Juan de Padilla
This Cross is erected to the memory of Father Padilla, Franciscan Missionary, who stood with Coronado at the erection of the first Christian Cross on these prairies. Father Padilla devoted his life to the service of the Cross and to the Indians of Quivira and suffered a martyr's death in that service in the year of our Lord 1542. The symbol on the Cross is inscribed, Jesus Christ, Victor, and expresses the victory of faith and sacrifice. The square, quartered by the Cross, denotes the four . . . — Map (db m53320) HM
Kansas (Shawnee County), Topeka — Mariachi Divina!Mariachi Estrella de Topeka Musical Tribute
In 1977, seven women from Kansas banded together to share with America, the traditions, culture and music of Mexico - and Mariachi Estrella de Topeka was born. Originally a choir of Our Lady of Guadalupe Church, the group rose to become regional performing artists. In the male-dominated world of mariachi, these pioneering women became the first all-female mariachi in Kansas and one of the first groups of its kind in the U.S. Their success, however, was cut short on July 17, 1981, when four . . . — Map (db m48492) HM
Louisiana (Natchitoches Parish), Natchitoches — El Camino RealKing's Highway — Old San Antonio Trace
Traveled by St. Denis in 1714 from Natchitoches to the Rio Grande Natchitoches, the oldest town in La., was established in 1714 — Map (db m69237) HM
Louisiana (Orleans Parish), New Orleans — Lower Pontalba Building — Pontalba Buildings National Historic Landmark
[Logo of the Orleans Parish Landmarks Commission] Erected 1850 - 1851 by Micaela Almonster Baroness De Pontalba working first with James Gallier, architect, and then with Henry Howard, architect. Samuel Stewart, builder. Bequeathed by William Ratcliffe Irby to the Louisiana State Museum in 1927. ---- This corner was the site of the French colonial Government House, residence of Gov. Etienne De Perier from 1727 until 1731 and of Gov. Jean Baptiste LeMoyne, Sieur de . . . — Map (db m34846) HM
Maryland (Prince George's County), College Park — Juan Ramón Jiménez — (1881-1958)
Spanish Poet, 1956 Nobel Laureate Member of the former Department of Foreign Languages of the University of Maryland (1943-1951) “This is my liberty: smelling the rose, Cutting the cold water with my crazy hand, Plucking the grove bare, Snatching the sun’s eternal light!” From Poetry, 1923 “İEsta es mi libertad, oler la rosa, cortar el agua fría, con mi mano loca, desmudar la arboleda, cojerle al sol, su luz . . . — Map (db m61308) HM
Missouri (Cape Girardeau County), Cape Girardeau — Don Louis Lorimier / El Camino Real
Don Louis Lorimier On this site stood the home of Don Louis Lorimier first commandant of the Spanish Military Post established here in 1793

Erected by the Nancy Hunter Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution 1917

El Camino Real New Madrid Cape Girardeau Ste. Geneviene St. Louis

Erected by the Missouri Daughters of the American Revolution A. D. 1917 — Map (db m52042) HM

Nebraska (Platte County), Columbus — 305 — The Villasur Expedition1720
In June 1720 a Spanish military force led by Sir Pedro de Villasur left Santa Fe, New Mexico, to gather information on French activities near the Missouri River. The force included 45 veteran soldiers, 60 Pueblo Indian allies, some Apache scouts, and a priest. Indian trader Juan L'Archeveque, and Jose Naranjo, a black explorer who had reconnoitered Nebraska's Platte River, accompanied the expedition. Near present Schuyler, Nebraska, Villasur's command met large numbers of Pawnee and Oto . . . — Map (db m53143) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Cuarto Centenario Memorial
La Jornada (The Journey), the bronze sculptural grouping on the corner along with the adjacent earthen work Numbe Whageh (Our Center Place) make up the City of Albuquerque's 1% for the Arts Funds Cuarto Centenario Memorial. The memorial commemorates New Mexico's early peoples and their contribution to the present. Numbe Whageh (Our Center Place) 2005 Nora Naranjo Morse Earthen Work La Jornada (The Journey 2005 Betty Sabo & Sonny Rivera bronze. Rick Borkovetz Landscape . . . — Map (db m71142) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Don Francisco Cuervo Y ValdesFounder of Albuquerque — April 23, 1706
Illustrious son of the Province of Asturias Spain, Governor of New Mexico. Sculpture funded by the City of Albuquerque 1% for Arts Program as per City Council Resolution 57, 1984. Buck McCain, Artist, Santa Fe Bronze, Inc. Foundry. Dedication Ceremonies held April 23, 1988 • El dia 23 de abril de 1706... "Certifico a su Majestad...a sus Virreyes...como funde una Villa en las Orillas y Vegas del Rio del Norte en buen paraje de tierras, aguas postos y lena...llamandola y . . . — Map (db m70364) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Graciela Olivárez(1928-1987) — New Mexico Historic Women Marker Initiative
Side A: Attorney, public servant, and activist, Graciela Olivárez was a high school dropout who became the first woman graduate of Notre Dame Law School where an award is presented each year in her name. She led national anti-poverty efforts and ensured equal representation of men and women on the National Council of La Raza's Board of Directors. In 1980, she started the nation's first Spanish-language television network. Side B: New Mexico Historic Women Marker . . . — Map (db m45225) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — La Doctora María Dolores Gonzáles(1917-1975)
Side A: Dr. Gonzales was a pioneer in bilingual and bicultural education. She developed educational materials for students in New Mexico and Latin America and trained teachers in the curriculum. Born in Pecos, “Lola” taught in the area for many years and at the University of New Mexico. She held a master's degree from Columbia University and a doctorate from Pennsylvania State University. Dolores Gonzales Elementary School in Albuquerque is named in her honor. . . . — Map (db m45227) HM
New Mexico (Catron County), Reserve — Elfego Baca1865-1945
"I will show the Texans there is at least one Mexican in the county who is not afraid of an American cowboy" Elfego Baca - 1884 In October 1884, seven drunken cowboys committed horrific acts against two Mexican men in Upper Frisco, (modern day Reserve). Just a stone's throw from where you now stand, in Milligan's Saloon, a man known as El Burro was brutally tortured and Epitacio Martinez, coming to the aid of his friend, was bound and shot for target practice. Both men lived. The . . . — Map (db m55914) HM
New Mexico (Catron County), Reserve — Reserve
Population 600 — Elevation 5765 ft. Located in the San Francisco Valley, Reserve was named upper San Francisco Plaza by its original Hispanic settlers in 1874. The name was later changed to Reserve in recognition of the U.S. Forest Service headquarters located here. Apaches made frequent attacks on the community, which lay within Apache hunting lands. — Map (db m36258) HM
New Mexico (Catron County), Reserve — Reserve
Population 600 — Elevation 5765 ft. Located in the San Francisco Valley, Reserve was named upper San Francisco Plaza by its original Hispanic settlers in 1874. The name was later changed to Reserve in recognition of the U.S. Forest Service headquarters located here. Apaches made frequent attacks on the community, which lay within Apache hunting lands. — Map (db m36261) HM
New Mexico (Curry County), Melrose — Estella García/Fabric Artists: Women of the WPA
This is a two sided marker Side A: Estella García Estella García taught colcha embroidery at Melrose, New Mexico, for the Federal Arts Program in the 1930s. Anglo and Hispana women in Garcia's class collaborated to design and produce embroidered theater curtains, wall hangings, and seat coverings for institutions across the state including the Albuquerque Little Theatre. Garcia is one of the few Hispanic women artists recorded in FAP documents. Unfortunately, few . . . — Map (db m73703) HM
New Mexico (Guadalupe County), La Loma — Mela Leger-Bilingual Education Pioneer(1928-2006)
Side A: At four, Manuelita de Atocha (Mela) Lucero Leger read Spanish language newspapers to her blind grandfather in Colonias. Although New Mexico's constitution protects Spanish-speaking students, school children were often punished for speaking Spanish. As a pioneer in bilingual education, Mela changed that by founding one of the nation's first bilingual multi-cultural schools, developing curriculum, training teachers and helping write the historic 1973 Bilingual Education Act. . . . — Map (db m45893) HM
New Mexico (Mora County), Mora — Curanderas — Women Who Heal — New Mexico Historic Women Marker Initiative
In New Mexico, women blessed with special knowledge of herbs, household remedies, human health and strong faith are trusted to cure real or imaged maladies. Known as Curanderas, these women have been an integral part of the Hispanic fabric in Mora County and in the remote communities around the state. They oversee the well-being of their respective villages where medical doctors and clinics are scarce. — Map (db m73273) HM
New Mexico (Otero County), La Luz — La Luz
In 1719, Spanish Franciscan missionaries built a chapel here dedicated to Nuestra Señora de la Luz, Our Lady of the Light. The naming of the village is also attributed to the will o’wisp light in the canyon, a perpetually burning lamp in an elderly woman’s home and a signal fire left by the male settlers, which when seen by the female settlers exclaimed "La Luz! Allà està la luz !, The Light, there is the light!" Settlement of the village did not begin until around 1860, when settlers . . . — Map (db m46073) HM
New Mexico (Rio Arriba County), Chimayo — Chimayo
Indians occupied the Chimayo valley centuries before the arrival of the Spaniards. The village of Chimayo, founded in the early 18th century, shortly after the reconquest of New Mexico, has been a center of the Spanish weaving tradition for over 250 years. The village retains the historical pattern of settlement around a defensible plaza. — Map (db m32819) HM
New Mexico (Rio Arriba County), Chimayo — Santuario de Chimayó
In 1816, Bernardo Abeyta and the other residents of El Potrero, then a separate community, finished this massive adobe chapel honoring Nuestro Señor de Esquípulas. It is noted for its 6-foot crucifix and its tradition of healing the sick. The Santuario remained in the Abeyta family until the 1920's — Map (db m32817) HM
New Mexico (Rio Arriba County), Medanales — Agueda S. Martinez (1898–2000)“You Will Find Me Dancing On the Loom”
Agueda is the matriarch of Hispanic weaving in New Mexico. From a very young age, she was known for her complex designs and natural dyes. She was the subject of the Academy Award-nominated documentary film, “Agueda Martinez: Our People, Our Country.” Her weaving is carried on by fifty-two direct descendants and can be seen today in many museums, including the Smithsonian. — Map (db m73393) HM
New Mexico (Rio Arriba County), Ohkay Owingeh — Shrine of Our Lady of LourdesConstructed 1889-1890
[ Panel 1: ] San Juan Parish's Shrine of Our Lady of Lourdes was conceived as place of pilgrimage for those faithful wishing to honor Our Lady and to be given a glimpse of her place of apparition to St. Bernadette Soubirou in the Pyrenees Mountains of southern France beginning February 11, 1838. In 1888, 15 years after Lourdes was declared an official Marian apparition by the Church, Fr. Camillo Seux (born in Lyon, France), our pastor from 1868-1922, erected the statue of . . . — Map (db m32794) HM
New Mexico (San Miguel County), Pecos — Pecos Pueblo Mission
The largest of the mission churches at Pecos Pueblo, ca. 1625 La Iglesia mas grande de la mission de Pecos, ca. 1625 — Map (db m60272) HM
New Mexico (Santa Fe County), Agua Fria Village — Agua Fria
Caravans entering and leaving Santa Fe on the Camino Real wound their way through scattered agricultural settlements south of the capitol. Although this section of the Santa Fe River Valley was initially utilized as pasture for livestock, in the 17th century farmers were attracted to it’s arable lands and to the fresh water springs from which the community derives it’s name. — Map (db m40451) HM
New Mexico (Santa Fe County), Agua Fria Village — San Isidro Catholic Church
This 19th century adobe church is dedicated to San Isidro, ploughman, patron saint of farmers and protector of crops. Christian tradition maintains that in order to allow San Isidro time for his daily prayers an angel plowed his fields. Agua Fria annually observes this fifteenth day of May as “His Day of Goodwill” to honor his role in this agricultural community along El Camino Real. — Map (db m40452) HM
New Mexico (Santa Fe County), Cerrillos — Welcome to the Cerrillos Hills State Park
… where you will experience the tri-cultural story of New Mexico, a history of the Indians, the Spanish, and the Anglos each altering this landscape in their efforts to obtain turquoise, lead, silver, and more. Indians mined nearby deposits of turquoise since at least A.D. 900. Most of the turquoise uncovered at area archaeological sites as well as some discovered in Chaco Canyon probably came from the Cerrillos Hills. For almost 400 years starting in the early 1300s, the people from . . . — Map (db m70565) HM
New Mexico (Taos County), Taos — Padre Antonio José Martínez1793 – 1867
Born in Abiquiu, New Mexico, on January 17, 1793 to Don Severino Martínez and María del Carmen Santistevan (Martinez Hacienda), the life of the Presbyter Don Antonio José Martínez extended through the Spanish (1793-1820), Mexican (1821-1846), and American periods of New Mexico’s turbulent nineteenth-century, and in each he made enduring contributions in education, religion, and politics, becoming the most influential Hispano nineteenth-century New Mexico figure. As an educator and . . . — Map (db m66666) HM
New Mexico (Taos County), Trampas — Las Trampas
The village of Las Trampas was established in 1751 by 12 families from Santa Fe, led by Juan de Argüello, who received a land grant from Governor Tomás Vélez Cachupín. The church of San José de Gracia is one of the finest surviving 18th-century churches in New Mexico. (reverse) La población de Las Trampas fue establecida en el año 1751 con doce familias de la Villa de Santa Fe, conducidas por Juan de Argüello. Los pobladores recivieron una merced para este lugar del . . . — Map (db m32123) HM
New York (Erie County), Buffalo — 65th Infantry Regiment, The BorinqueneersGabriel A. Rodriguez American Legion Post 1928
65th Infantry Regiment, The Borinqueneers The 65th Infantry was created in 1899 by the U.S. Congress as an active unit composed primarily of Puerto Ricans. It went on to serve meritoriously in World War I, World War II and the Korean War. Nicknamed “The Borinqueneers”, the men of the 65th performed valiantly during the Korean War participating in nine major campaigns and even earning praise from General Douglas MacArthur. The 56th Infantry is credited with the . . . — Map (db m77448) HM WM
New York (Monroe County), Rochester — Samuel Torres1910-1980 — (South Marker)
Samuel Torres arrived in Rochester in 1950 and was instrumental in building Rochester's Hispanic community. He spoke out against discrimination in housing and employment practices and was dedicated. to encouraging Hispanics to vote and to seek public office. He headed the Puerto Rican Democratic Committee and was a founder of the Puerto Rican Affairs Committee. This park was dedicated in his honor, June 9, 1984 — Map (db m64558) HM
New York (Monroe County), Rochester — Samuel Torres1910-1980 — (North Marker)
Samuel Torres arrived in Rochester in 1950 and was instrumental in building Rochester's Hispanic community. He spoke out against discrimination in housing and employment practices and was dedicated. to encouraging Hispanics to vote and to seek public office. He headed the Puerto Rican Democratic Committee and was a founder of the Puerto Rican Affairs Committee. This park was dedicated in his honor, June 9, 1984 — Map (db m64559) HM
New York (New York County), New York City — None — Gramercy Gym Site
For more than half a century, the Gramercy Gym stood on this site. Legendary boxing trainer and teacher, Cus D'Amato, trained world champions Floyd Patterson and Jose Torres along with countless other boxers who were champions in their own right. P.C. Richard and Son salutes them all. — Map (db m72082) HM
New York (New York County), New York City — Simon Bolivar StatueCentral Park South
One of a trio of bronze equestrian sculptures representing Latin American leaders, the Simon Bolivar statue commemorates a military general and advocate of Pan-Americanism. Bolivar (1783-1840) is credited with the liberation from Spanish domination of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Panama. R. De Las Cora designed the first statue of Simon Bolivar that was installed in Central Park in 1891 on a knoll near West 83rd Street, dubbed “Bolivar Hill.” Critics of the . . . — Map (db m42569) HM
New York (Orange County), Woodbury — Tomas Estrada Palma
First President of Cuba. lived here 1879-1902 while he headed a junta which financed the Cuban revolution. was Cuban President 1902-1906 — Map (db m47835) HM
Pennsylvania (Bucks County), Bristol — Replica of the Spanish Garitas
This monument is a replica of the Spanish Garitas, or guardhouses, that lined the forts of San Juan, Puerto Rico, and is dedicated to the Puerto Rican people who have made their homes in Bristol. In March of 1509 a ship carrying Juan Ponce de Leon arrived in San Juan. With him was the West African Juan Garrido. They landed and were met by Agueybana chief Taino. Briefly there was harmony. The mixing of cultures that form Puerto Rico had begun. En Marzo de . . . — Map (db m31315) HM
Puerto Rico (San Juan Municipality), San Juan — Francisco de Miranda1750–1814
Precursor de la independencia hispanoamericana. General en Jefe del Ejército del Norte en la revolución Francesa. Luchó por la independencia de los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica. Estuvo preso en esta ciudad por sus ideales liberales. Forerunner of Latin American independence. General in Chief of the Northern Army in the French Revolution. He fought for the independence of the United States of North America. He was imprisoned in this city for his liberal ideals. The Coat of . . . — Map (db m74223) HM
Texas (Aransas County), Aransas Pass — 11686 — Cementerio San Antonio de Padua
According to local lore, George Lewis (1859–1895) donated one-half acre of land at this site to the Hispanic citizens of the area for use as a cemetery, provided that he be buried in the center of the land. Handmade stones indicate burials dating from the 19th century; the first recorded deed was signed in 1933. Years of wind and rain have rendered many stones illegible. A number of children who died in an influenza epidemic in 1940 and many veterans of U.S. and international conflicts . . . — Map (db m53744) HM
Texas (Atascosa County), Poteet — 4819 — Site of Jose Antonio Navarro Ranch Headquarters(2.3 Mi. SSE)
This land had once been allocated in the 1700s as a ranch for Mission San Jose in San Antonio (20 mi. N), but in the 1820s was left unsettled. In 1828 prominent San Antonio resident Jose Antonio Navarro (1795-1871) beseeched the Governor of the Mexican state to grant him four leagues of land for pasture. Navarro officially received his grant for this land on the Atascosa River in 1831, though he might have occupied the ranch earlier. In 1836, Navarro signed the Texas Declaration of . . . — Map (db m56598) HM
Texas (Bastrop County), Smithville — Smithville
In 1691 missionaries on the expedition of Don Domingo Teran De Los Rios sighted a lagoon which the Indians called Nenocadda. The lagoon, known today as Shipp's Lake, is on the southern edge of present Smithville. Frederick W. Grasmeyer operated a ferry here on the Colorado River in 1836. Steamboats plied the river from 1845 to about 1865.

The village of "old Smithville" was laid out on 640 acres of land granted to Thomas J. Gazley and Lewis Lomas. The town was located on the Colorado . . . — Map (db m41902) HM

Texas (Bexar County), San Antonio — San Antonio: The Flavor of Its Pastby Donald Everett, San Antonio Express, June 3, 1879 — Main Plaza
In years gone by, the southern portion of Main Plaza was devoted to the restaurant purposes of the Mexicans, and there one could obtain at any time a plate of chili-con-carne, frijoles, tamales, or whatever his taste might crave in the way of Mexican cooking, including pastry and cakes and Mexican candies. — Map (db m30206) HM
Texas (Bexar County), San Antonio — 141st Infantry Regiment"Remember the Alamo" — Oldest Militia Unit in Texas
Texas Revolution - 1836 Spanish-American War - 1898 Cuban Occupation - 1898 Mexican Border Serivce - 1916 World War I - 1918 World War II 1940-1945 Campaigns Naples-Foggia • Anzio Rome-Arno • Southern France Ardennes • Alsace Rhineland • Central Europe To the men who died at the Alamo: All Texans acclaim both in song and in story The days of your youth - the days of your glory. May they also remember, wherever they go, The men left behind at some far Alamo. . . . — Map (db m32656) HM
Texas (Bexar County), San Antonio — Bexar County Under Nine Governments
The administrative government of Bexar County, besides being the oldest in Texas, is distinguished by having served under nine governments. The community served under Spanish rule from May, 1718, until January, 1811, when it was taken over by the revolutionary Casas regime. Only five weeks later, the counter-revolutionary Junta of Bexar overthrew the Casas government and eventually restored Spanish rule. In April, 1812, however, the Republican Army of the North deposed the provincial . . . — Map (db m53972) HM
Texas (Bexar County), San Antonio — Comanche Lookout
At an elevation of 1340 feet, Comanche Hill is the fourth highest point in Bexas County. The hill lies on the southeastern edge of the Edwards Plateau and makes up the western edge of the Blackland Praire. Throughout history this site has provided a location for commerce as well as a site from which raids were performed on Spanish and Mexican mule trains and pioneer travellers. The tower atop the hill was built by Colonel Edward R. Coppock, Sr, U.S.A. retired. In addition to the tower, Colonel . . . — Map (db m60328) HM
Texas (Bexar County), San Antonio — Congressman Henry B. Gonzalez(1916 - 2000)
Native San Antonian Henry B. Gonzalez spent 45 years in elective public office (city, state, federal) doing what he liked most - serving the people of San Antonio. As his seniority in Congress grew, he developed a greater role in serving the entire country through a number of important committees, culminating in his election as Chairman of the House Committee on Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs - the only San Antonian in history to serve as a major congressional committee chairman. Although . . . — Map (db m31890) HM
Texas (Bexar County), San Antonio — Justice's CourtSan Antonio Ledger, June 23, 1853 — Main Plaza
We strolled into a Justice’s Court the other day, and were reminded of the time when God smote the children of men with a confusion of tongues. A German was complained of by a Mexican, and a Frenchman was the witness. Each spoke his native tongue only, and yet there were no interpreters. Both Justice and Attorneys understood the four languages. — Map (db m30208) HM
Texas (Bexar County), San Antonio — Mission San José / La Misión de San José
"It is truthfully the best of the Americas, and not in the like of the others; nor in all the frontier does the King have an outpost better constructed and easier to defend..." Fr. Juan Agustín de Morfi, 1777-78 Mission San José and its surrounding fields, called labores, sustained a thriving community of Indians and Spaniards. Within the walls Indians lived, worshipped, and attended classes. They learned to blacksmith, to weave on European looms, to cut stone, and to make . . . — Map (db m33997) HM
Texas (Bexar County), San Antonio — Rose Window / Ventana de Rosa
No one knows why this intricate carving is now called "the Rose Window." Possibly dedicated to Saint Rose, its baroque beauty is entangled in many San Antonio legends that whisper of its mystery. The artistry lavished on the church wall facing you hints that it served as a portal to important events. Perhaps once a year, on the feast day of Saint Rose, a priest displayed the Eucharist to the congregation gathered outside. Church records, however, are silent as to both whose hands . . . — Map (db m34069) HM
Texas (Bexar County), San Antonio — San Antonio Missions / Las misiones de San Antonio
The missions of San Antonio were far more than just churches, they were communities. Each was a fortified village, with its own church, farm, and ranch. Here, Franciscan friars gathered native peoples, converted them to Catholicism, taught them to live as Spaniards, and helped maintain Spanish control over the Texas frontier. The Franciscans established six missions along the San Antonio River in the early 1700s. Five of them flourished and, with the Villa de San Fernando, became the . . . — Map (db m33990) HM
Texas (Bexar County), San Antonio — San Fernando Cathedral 200th Anniversary
To commemorate the two hundredth anniversary of the laying of the corner stone of San Fernando Cathedral First place of worship for Texans. Built through the generosity and zeal of the Canary Islanders, founders of San Antonio Dedicated May 11, 1938 by His Excellency Most Rev. Arthur J. Drossaerts Archbishop of San Antonio — Map (db m30333) HM
Texas (Bexar County), San Antonio — The Church / La iglesia
"The church...is a large, beautiful gallery of three vaults with a very pretty cupola...for its size and good taste, it could be the parish church of a great town." Fr. Juan Agustín de Morfi, 1777-78 The church was central to the mission community. Missionaries and Indians followed a strict schedule of fast, feast, work, and daily prayer - all regualted by the sounding bells. The ornate carvings and famous Rose Window of this church earned San José its status as "Queen of . . . — Map (db m34077) HM
Texas (Bexar County), San Antonio — The Convento / El convento
"From this roof one can hunt without risk, in comfort and with good success. I saw so many ducks, geese, and cranes in a nearby field that, as I said, they covered the ground, and so close to the house that it would be impossible to miss the shot." Fr. Juan Agustín de Morfi, 1777-78 In front of you are the remains of the convento, which provided housing for missionaries and lay assistants. In 1785, the convento had nine rooms downstairs and five upstairs, covered by a flat roof. . . . — Map (db m34065) HM
Texas (Bexar County), San Antonio — Twin Cypress Mexican Sniper Tree
An old legend describes this twin cypress as a lookout of a Mexican sniper who picked off the Texans as they came to the river for water. — Map (db m30553) HM
Texas (Brewster County), Alpine — Burgess' Water Hole
Called San Lorenzo by Juan Dominguez de Mendoza,1684. Later Charco Alzate in honor of an Apache chieftain. Water hole honoring John W. Burgess, pioneer freighter who here outwitted the Apaches. The emigrant road to California by the way of Chihuahua passed this place. — Map (db m26390) HM
Texas (Brewster County), Big Bend National Park — Luna's Jacal
Here at the edge of Alamo Creek, Gilberto Luna raised a large family in this small house called a jacal (hah-KAHL). Built from rock, earth, and plant fiber, the dwelling was well adapted to desert conditions: notice a dramatic temperature difference as you step inside. Luna irrigated the land he farmed with floodwater diverted from the nearby creek. (photo) Gilberto Luna built this jacal and lived here until 1947, when he died at the age of 108. Luna was well-known and respected . . . — Map (db m53935) HM
Texas (Brewster County), Big Bend National Park — Terlingua Abaja
This deserted farming village supplied produce for miners and ranchers of the area from 1900 until the 1930's. You are welcome to walk across Terlingua Creek into the heart of the rock and adobe ruins. It is hard to believe that the banks of Terlingua Creek were once studded with cottonwoods. Man has taken a heavy toll of this land. — Map (db m53958) HM
Texas (Brewster County), Marathon — Double Mills
A natural watering place in prehistoric time, as evidenced by artifacts found here. Used later by Indians and Spaniards on roads from northern Mexico. As Maravillas Creek developed from a draw into water channel, old water hole vanished. About 1900 a rancher, George Miller, dug two wells and put up twin windmills. After that site was called Double Mills. Became campsite for ranchers driving cattle and horses from Mexico or the Chisos Mountains to the railroad at Marathon. Also for wagon . . . — Map (db m53933) HM
Texas (Cherokee County), Alto — Mound Prairie
Bulging out of the earth a few yards form this point, three prehistoric Indian mounds interrupt the prevailing flat terrain. Long overgrown with grass, the mounds and adjacent village (covering about 100 acres) constitute one of the major aboriginal sites in North America. From about 500 to 1100 A.D., Caddoan Indians inhabited the village, which lay near the southwest edge of a great mound-building culture. Called ""Mississippian,"" this culture once flourished throughout the present eastern . . . — Map (db m21202) HM
Texas (Colorado County), Columbus — Beason's (Beeson's) Crossing
Benjamin Beason, one of Stephen F. Austin's original 300 colonists, settled by a widely used Colorado River crossing near here in 1822. He and his wife Elizabeth proceeded to build a large home (also used as an inn) and established a gristmill, sawmill, gin,and ferry operation at the crossing. His residence and business operations and a scattering of homesteads in the area formed a settlement known as Beason's Crossing. In the early spring of 1836 Beason found his home, family, and complex . . . — Map (db m29691) HM
Texas (Colorado County), Columbus — 973 — Colorado County
A part of Stephen F. Austin's First Colony Created March 17, 1836 Organized in 1837 The river traversing the region was called “"Colorado” (red) by Spanish explorers who mistook it for the reddish Brazos. From the river, the county took its name Columbus, the county seat — Map (db m71994) HM
Texas (Crane County), Crane — 755 — Castle Mountain(2 mi. East)
About 3,000 ft. elevation. Since 17th century, a landmark in travel from Texas points to Mexico and California. According to tradition, named by Spaniards for resemblance to ancient castles. Has associations with stories of lost trains of gold and other treasures. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1966 Map (db m73300) HM
Texas (Crane County), Crane — 2871 — Juan Cordona Lake(11 Miles Southwest)
A natural salt deposit, known and used for the past 300 years. On land grant from Mexico to Juan Cordova; name, misread on maps, is now unique to lake. Apaches were encountered here by explorers in 1683. From days of early settlers, Mexicans and Anglo-Texans relied on this salt deposit. During the civil war, 1861-1865, a 7-family San Saba wagon train traded watermelons and other goods to Indians here for sorely needed salt. In 1912-1914 a 36-burro train hauled salt from here. Recently . . . — Map (db m73302) HM
Texas (El Paso County), El Paso — El Paso del Rio del Norte
On May 4, 1598, Don Juan de Oñate, Adelantado and Capitain-General, Governor of New Mexico, first named El Paso del Rio del Norte. Through this old pass, the lowest snow-free feasible route from the Atlantic to the Pacific through the Rocky Mountains, extend today the great trunk lines of telegraph and railroad. The city of El Paso marks the place and perpetuates the name. — Map (db m24743) HM
Texas (El Paso County), El Paso — La Patria Newspaper
317 South El Paso Street was the site of a leading pro-Villista Spanish language newspaper, La Patria, published by Silvestre Terrazas, a member of the oligarchic Chihuahuan Terrazas family. Terrazas wrote for La Revista Catolica and founded El Correo de Chihuahua in 1899. He originally supported the policies of the Diaz government but in 1907 he was briefly detained by the government after penning an editorial criticizing police handling of a bank robbery. After being . . . — Map (db m60744) HM
Texas (El Paso County), El Paso — LULAC
The League of United Latin Citizens (LULAC) was founded in Corpus Christi, Texas in 1929, dedicated to the betterment of Americans of Mexican descent. The league soon expanded to El Paso with the establishment of LULAC Council 8 in 1933 and council 9 in 1934. The Hilton Hotel, now the Plaza Hotel, played an important role in LULAC history as the site of numerous local, state and national events and meetings. The hotel management provided support for programs such as the "Little School of . . . — Map (db m37911) HM
Texas (El Paso County), El Paso — Victoriano Huerta
Commander of federal forces during the Mexican Revolution, Victoriano Huerta (b. 1854) became President of Mexico in 1913, after the arrest and before the assassination of Francisco Madero. Huerta resigned a year later and went into exile. In 1915, U.S. agents arrested him in Newman, New Mexico, where he was meeting fellow revolutionary Pascual Orozco. For violating U.S. neutrality laws, Huerta was taken to Fort Bliss and confined. Huerta’s health deteriorated before he could stand trial, and . . . — Map (db m68237) HM
Texas (Floyd County), Floydada — Coronado in Blanco Canyon
From 1540 to 1542, Francisco Vazquez de Coronado led the first organized European exploration of the southwest in search of the fabled "cities of gold." With a company of more than a thousand men and women and thousands of horses and mules, cattle and sheep, Coronado trekked north from Culiacan, Mexico, through land that became Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas. The exact route along which their Indian guides led the . . . — Map (db m25292) HM
Texas (Galveston County), Galveston — Near Campsites of Louis-Michel Aury and Francisco Xavier Mina
A bivouac in late 1816 and early 1817 for an oddly mixed group of soldiers from many nations joined in the common purpose of freeing Mexico from Spain. Under two spirited leaders-- Mina (1789-1817), an impetuous young Spanish general, and Aury (about 1788-1821), a French privateer and soldier of fortune--the forces drilled while waiting reinforcements and the best time to strike. For six years Mexico had been trying to wrest power from Spain but lacked military leadership and supplies. These . . . — Map (db m30446) HM
Texas (Galveston County), Texas City — 11890 — Sociedad Mutualista Mexicana in Texas City
In the 1870s native Tejanos organized Sociedades Mutualistas, mutual aid societies designed to protect their interests from the growing Anglo population of Texas. Although most of the early settlers of this area were of English, French, and German descent, increasing numbers of Mexican immigrants arrived in 1893 when construction began on the city's port facilities. In 1910 the Texas City census revealed a significant Hispanic populace. In March 1914, under the auspices of Texas . . . — Map (db m50167) HM
Texas (Gillespie County), Fredricksburg — 10025 — Cross Mountain
This marl and limestone hill, elevation 1,915 feet, was an Indian signal point, advancing news of the intrusions of white settlers. The hill was first recorded and described by the German geologist, Dr. Ferdinand Roemer in 1847. A timber cross found on the hilltop the same year suggests that Spanish missionaries recognized it as a landmark on the path from San Antonio to Mission San Saba. John Christian Durst (1825-1898), arriving with his family in 1847 from Germany, received a town lot and 10 . . . — Map (db m71921) HM
Texas (Goliad County), Goliad — 15677 — Angel of Goliad
Amid the cruelties of the Texas War for Independence, one notable woman committed acts of bravery and compassion. Francisca Alavez (also known by similar names) accompanied Mexican Army Captain Telesforo Alavez to Texas in March 1836. In seven incidents between March and April, she intervened with Mexican troops under command of Gen. José de Urrea to help captured Texian prisoners at Agua Dulce, Copano, La Bahía, Victoria and Matamoros. On Mar. 20, Maj. William P. Miller and 75 men of his . . . — Map (db m36263) HM
Texas (Goliad County), Goliad — Manuel Becerra
Born at Presidio La Bahía del Espíritu Santo in 1762, Manuel Becerra played a significant role in the settlement and politics of the region. Becerra and his wife, Juana María Cadena, and their two daughters, María Josefa and Gertrudis, were leading citizens of La Bahía. In 1820, Antonio María Martínez, the last Spanish governor of Texas, called for the formation of the ayuntamiento of La Bahía as required in the Spanish Constitution of 1812. The ayuntamiento, or town council, included Manuel . . . — Map (db m36335) HM
Texas (Harris County), Houston — 13296 — League of United Latin American Citizens, Council 60
On February 17, 1929, representatives from three organizations met in Corpus Christi to merge and form the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC). The new group sought to unify statewide efforts to challenge racism and inequities toward Texas' Hispanic residents, while also promoting patriotism, education and equality. Although needing only ten members to charter a new council, more than 20 Houston men met in 1934 at a filling station and bookstore at 74th and Navigation to form . . . — Map (db m59590) HM
Texas (Hays County), San Marcos — Col. Ignacio Elizondo’s 1813 Campaign
In 1813 royalist Lieutenant Colonel Ignacio Elizondo led 500 cavalrymen in pursuit of retreating Mexican and Anglo-American insurrectionists along this road. A hacienda owner in Coahuila, Elizondo initially joined Father Miguel Hidalgo’s rebellion against Spanish authority, but soon switched to the royalists. In 1811 he helped lead Hidalgo and other republicans into an ambush near Monclova. In June 1813 Elizondo brought 300 additional royalist soldiers into Texas to oppose the . . . — Map (db m69109) HM
Texas (Hays County), San Marcos — 10256 — Don Felipe Roque de la Portilla
At the request of Antonio Cordero, interim governor of the Province of Texas, Spanish-born Felipe Roque de la Portilla (1768?-1841) established a colony here on El Camino Real. With his own family of eight, he brought 51 persons from the interior of Mexico and founded San Marcos de Neve in April 1808. Titles were issued to 13 lots, and home were built, only to be washed away in June floods. Hardships plagued the colony: the defensive troops departed; no priest arrived; seed and a farm . . . — Map (db m68953) HM
Texas (Hays County), San Marcos — El Camino De Nacogdoches
The gulley seen about fifty yards behind this marker originated from ruts in the El Camino Real (the Royal Road) from San Antonio to Nacogdoches. The road actually had two routes through what is now Hays County, and, creating confusion, both had different names at different times. By the 1790s the main path had changed course from El Camino de los Tejas (today's Hunter Road) to this location (El Camino de Nacogdoches) to align with a new crossing of the Trinity River and a new approach to . . . — Map (db m20273) HM
Texas (Hays County), San Marcos — Gen. Antonio Gaona’s 1836 Campaign
During the War for Texas Independence, Mexican General Antonio Gaona marched his division up this road. Gaona had received his training in the Royal Spanish Army in his native Cuba. During the Mexican Revolution against Spain, however, he transferred his loyalties to those in revolt. Following Mexico’s independence in 1821, he remained in the army of his adopted country and, in 1830, was made a general. Gaona served the Republic of Mexico throughout the Texas Campaign of 1836. Shortly . . . — Map (db m69111) HM
Texas (Hays County), San Marcos — 10293 — McGehee Crossing
The Camino Real, also known as the Old San Antonio Road and the King's Highway, followed a route from Nacogdoches to the Rio Grande. Louis Juchereau de St. Denis (1676-1744) traveled the route to establish trade between the French in Louisiana and the Spanish of Coahuila Province on the Rio Grande in 1714. The first settlement at the San Marcos River crossing of the road was Villa San Marcos de Neve, established by the Spanish in 1808. It was abandoned by 1812 due to the brewing Mexican . . . — Map (db m76901) HM
Texas (Hays County), San Marcos — 10311 — Post San Marcos
The Republic of Texas Congress in Dec. 1838 called for military roads and forts from Red River to the Nueces. A road from Austin, joining El Camino Real near St. Mark's Springs, was designed for rapid communication between San Antonio and the Capital. Post San Marcos was to be constructed at the springs to safeguard travel. Adj. Gen. Hugh McLeod (1814-62) laid out the fort, to be garrisoned by a company of 56 men. Capt. Joseph Wiehl's Co. H, 1st Inf. Regt., in Oct. 1840 completed the road . . . — Map (db m70967) HM
Texas (Hays County), San Marcos — 10325 — San Marcos Springs
Pouring forth millions of gallons of clear, icy water daily, these springs feed the San Marcos River and the 1,380-square-mile area which it drains. The immense springs rise at the Balcones Escarpment, a geologic fault line which slices across the state, separating upland from lowland Texas. The abundance of fresh water made these springs a mecca for the Indians who inhabited Central Texas and later for the European explorers and settlers who followed. The name San Marcos was first given . . . — Map (db m68778) HM
Texas (Hays County), San Marcos — 10319 — Site of the First Town of San Marcos
Known officially as Villa de San Marcos de Neve. Established in 1807 by Mexican settlers. The population on January 6, 1808 was 81. A flood in 1808 and subsequent Indian raids led to its abandonment in 1812 — Map (db m76023) HM
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