|Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 9 (North Peninsula)), Flower's Cove — Thrombolites or Living Rocks|
|These are critically endangered microbial structures. Thrombolites-building micro-organisms resemble the earliest form of life on Earth. These organisms were the only known form of life from 3.5 billion to 650 million years ago. These are some of the earth’s most primitive life forms. Thrombolites (meaning clotted structure) are large bun shaped Cambrian mounds weathering out of flat lying dolostones. They were the growth form of millions of tiny algae and bacteria. These structures are not . . . — Map (db m79656) HM|
|Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 9 (North Peninsula)), Sally's Cove — Green Point — Cambrian-Ordovician Boundary / La limite Cambrien-Ordovicien|
In 2000, the global stratotype for the boundary between the Cambrian and Ordovician systems was designated here at Green Point by the International Commission of Stratigraphy. It is located within a bed of shale and limestone (Bed 23) exposed in the southwest facing cliff and shore platform. The level is marked by the first appearance of the conodont fossil Iapetognathus fluctivagus, 4.8 meters below the oldest known planktic graptolite fossils.
The site lies . . . — Map (db m79654) HM|
|Ontario (Toronto, Municipality of Metropolitan), Toronto — William Arthur Parks 1868-1936|
|The first Director of the Royal Ontario Museum of Palaeontology, Parks was born in Hamilton and educated at the University of Toronto, from which he received a Doctorate in 1900. Initially known as an expert on "stromatoporoids", a unique group of invertebrate fossils, he later turned his attention to the study of vertebrate palaeontology. The expeditions Parks organized to the Canadian and American West between 1918 and 1935 provided most of the material for the Museum's extensive . . . — Map (db m83663) HM|
|El Salvador, San Salvador — The American Hippopotamus — El Hipopótamo Americano|
| Toxodonte o Hipopotamo americano Mixotoxodon larensis Se originaron en Sur America y logran llegar hasta el sur de Mexico cuando se consolida el puente centroamericano, que origino el gran intercambio biótico centroamericano, hace unos tres millones de años. Estos herbívoros son conocidos en la actualidad solamente por sus fosiles, ya que todo el grupo al cual pertenecian se extinguio completamente sin dejar descendencia alguna en el planeta, hace ya 10 mil años. Se movían en manadas y . . . — Map (db m93000) HM|
|El Salvador, San Salvador — The Giant Sloth — Perezoso Gigante|
| Perezoso Gigante Eremotherium laurillardi Este mamifero se extinguio hace unos 10 mil años por causas que aun se desconocen, pero se cree que tuvo mucho que ver el cambio climático que produjo la ultima glaciación. Se originaron en Sur America y logran llegar hasta Norte America aprovechando el puente de tierra que se formo cuando surgio de manera permanente el Istmo de Panama, hace 8.5 millones de años. Eran animals herbivoros, se alimentaban principalmente de frutos y brotes de arboles, . . . — Map (db m93014) HM|
|Nicaragua, León, La Paz Centro — Momotombito Island — Lake Xolotlán|
| Isla Momotombito: Estratovolcán de 350 msnm. cono apagado de basalto. La isla fue llamado por los indígenas "Cocobolo", por la abundancia de ñámbares fue un santuario arqueológico precolumbino. La composición de flora: Bosque latifoliado bajo cerrado: 95.9% Maleza: 4.1% Historia: En 1850 el explorador norteamericano Ephaim Squier descubrió varias estatuas labradas entre sus rocosas laderas que son un atractivo. Pie de dibujo: Isla Momotombito - Isla Rosa: Verdaderos Santuarios de Aves . . . — Map (db m93654) HM|
|Alabama (Elmore County), Wetumpka — Wetumpka Impact Crater|
|The ridges located here are the remnants of a six-mile diameter circular feature created some 85 million years ago by an estimated 1,000-foot diameter asteroid. The area at the time of impact was a shallow sea. The ridges consist of a variety of metamorphic rocks and surround a central area comprised of large jumbled blocks of younger geologic strata. Drilling in the central area of the crater recovered fragments of rocks showing characteristic mineral alteration only associated with impact . . . — Map (db m67939) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Chambers — Painted Desert / Finding Fossils|
|The colorful mesas, buttes, and badlands before you compose a natural work of art--the Painted Desert.
Wind and running water cut these features from the Chinle Formation deposited over 200 million years ago when this area was a vast inland basin near sea level. The colors are due to ancient environmental conditions in which the sediments were originally deposited as well as the type of minerals present in the rocks.
Besides being colorful, the Chinle Formation contains a valuable . . . — Map (db m72925) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Dinosaur Tracks|
| The imprints were made by a one ton, twenty foot long, meat-eating dinosaur. The slab of sandstone came from a nearby side canyon.
When Dilophosaurus tracked through the silt 170 million years ago, this was a different landscape. Shallow streams meandered across a marshy plain.
Throughout Glen Canyon the red-orange layer of Kayenta sandstone appears - a lost world turned to stone, then river-cut and weathered into view. — Map (db m40326) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Saurischia Dinosaur Tracks|
| These tracks were made by a three-toed dinosaur known as a Saurischia therapod. It lived here about 170 million years ago during the Jurassic era when the environment was tropical. The footprints are raised natural sandstone castings of the original dinosaur tracks. After the dinosaur walked through sandy mud, its dried tracks were filled by more mud which eventually hardened into rock of the Kayenta formation. Later, the Kayenta layer tilted and spalled revealing the castings as well as the . . . — Map (db m40321) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Holbrook — Agate Bridge|
|Centuries of scouring floodwaters washed out the arroyo, or gully, beneath this 110-foot (34 meter) petrified log to form Agate Bridge. The stone log, harder than the sandstone around it, resisted erosion and remained suspended as the softer rock beneath it washed away.
Enthusiastic visitors fascinated by Agate Bridge worked to preserve it through the establishment of Petrified Forest National Monument in 1906. Conservationists felt this ages old natural bridge needed architectural support . . . — Map (db m68872) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Canyons in Time — Navajo National Monument|
|The maze of canyonlands stretching before you is the continuing work of millions of years of powerful and pervasive geological forces.
Water scours and down-cuts channels in the soft sandstone plateau. The process is augmented by forces of frost, plants, and alternating expansion and contraction of the rock due to temperature changes. A gradual uplift of the land further promotes canyon-cutting by increasing the speed and cutting force of water. Flowing water is the . . . — Map (db m71515) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Dinosaur Footprint — Navajo National Monument|
|Footprints of a small dinosaur that walked on his hind legs. About 180 million years ago, he left a lasting signature by walking through the mud. The print then filled with sediment, and both print and cast (upside-down here) eventually turned to stone. Tracks of these three toed Jurrassic reptiles are very common in the limestone formations of the Navajo Country. — Map (db m71516) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Sweathouse — Navajo National Monument|
|This miniature forked-stick hogan without a smoke hole is actually a highly effective bath — an ancient solution to the problem of keeping clean in a land where water is scarce.
Here’s how it works: Stones are heated in a fire, then rolled in, or carried in on a wooden fork. The bathers undress outside, and then crawl inside. A blanket is hung over the door opening. Now all it takes is patience while the radiant heat does its work. This is the time for relaxing tired . . . — Map (db m71517) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Upside-down Mountain — Navajo National Monument|
|Hidden away in Tsegi Canyon’s wilderness of bare rock, sand, and sparse vegetation are surprising pockets of luxuriant growth. Betatakin Canyon—home to a village of prehistoric cliff-dwellings farmers—is one of these oases. Fir Canyon, over to your right, is another.
The deeper and narrower the canyon, the less sunshine reaches into its depths. Less sunshine means less evaporation of rainwater, so plant life flourishes. You could say that the climate of Fir Canyon is like an . . . — Map (db m71514) HM|
|California (Contra Costa County), El Cerrito — El Cerrito Hills|
|The hills to the east began rising less than two million years ago. As they rose, small creeks like Cerrito Creek, just sound of here, carried sediment from their eroding slopes downhill and formed a flood plain - today's "flatlands." — Map (db m94102) HM|
|California (Contra Costa County), Walnut Creek — Blackhawk Ranch Quarry — A Paleontological Treasure|
|The Blackhawk Ranch fossil quarry is located south of Rock City on the lower slopes of Mount Diablo. During the Late Miocene, approximately 9-10 million years ago, this region was a rolling lowland. It represented the first evidence of emergence of the land around Mount Diablo after a long history of burial under the ocean.
Sycamore, elm, poplar and willow were common in the streamed forests, where animals such as Gomphotherium, a relative of the elephant, browsed among the trees, . . . — Map (db m93648) HM|
|California (Kern County), McKittrick — 498 — McKittrick Brea Pit — California Historical Landmark|
|Located one-eigth mile west of here is ancient asphaltum seepage in which hundreds of Pleistocene (15,000 - 50,000 years ago) birds and animals were trapped. Site first explored in 1925 by the University of California, with excavation completed in 1949 by Los Angeles and Kern County Museums.
State Registered Historical Landmark No. 498
Marker placed by Kern County Historical Society, Miocene Parlor No. 228 N.D.G.W., El Tejon Parlor No. 238 N.D.G.W., and Kern County Museum. — Map (db m42707) HM|
|California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — Chester Stock, Ph.D. - Observation Pit — Hancock Park — Rancho La Brea|
| Panel 1: Chester Stock, Ph.D. January 28, 1892 - December 7, 1950 Paleontalogist
Chief curator of science - Los Angeles County Museum Chairman of the Division of Geological Sciences California Institute of Technology who, encouraged by the foresight and generosity of G. Allan Hancock, inspired his many co-workers in developing and preserving the treasures of Rancho La Brea Presented by the Los Angeles County Museum Association. Panel 2: Observation Pit . . . — Map (db m51436) HM|
|California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — 522 — Tongva Sacred Springs|
Home of the
Gabrielino Tongva People
— Map (db m74387) HM|
|California (Los Angeles County), Pearblossom — The Devil's Punchbowl — Department of Parks & Recreation — County of Los Angeles|
|The hills where you stand are a part of one the world's geological wonders, The San Andreas Rift -- A great fault and earthquake zone.
Because of the movements along this fault zone, the pink and tan colored punchbowl rocks seen below have been compresses and folded broken and faulted since they were deposited during miocene time about 13 million years ago.
Fossil remains of extinct animals discovered and collected in the surrounding punchbowl rocks include a . . . — Map (db m79148)|
|California (Orange County), Laguna Beach — 28 — Fossil Reef|
|Before you are the white limestone remains of an 18,000,000 year old tropical shell reef. Formed in a shallow bay. It contains fossils of scallops, clams, and tube worms. Mudstones of the same age, found nearby, held fossil whales and shark teeth. Later, as the Santa Ana Mountains rose, the rigid limestone buckled and broke along small faults. We can now see evidence that tropical seas once covered the spot where you stand. — Map (db m50013) HM|
|California (Orange County), Mission Viejo — Fossil — Whale Exhibit|
|The main exhibit displays a fossil right whale skull in profile. It was recovered from the marine siltstone member of the Capistrano Formation (3.5 to 5 million years old) in the 1970's right here in Mission Viejo. It is a fossil skull from the family Balaenidea (Bowhead Whales and Right Whales).
The vertebral column on exhibit behind the whale skull although not associated with the skull, was also discovered in the city of Mission Viejo.
This fossil, which unearthed by the Mission . . . — Map (db m72036) HM|
|California (Orange County), Mission Viejo — Whale Fossil|
| Originally dedicated on June 4, 1977 by the Mission Viejo Cultural and Heritage Association.
The Fossil was unearthed in the southern part of the city in 1976, and is a partial skull of a Baleen whale belonging to the Bowhead or right whale family.
Alive over 3.5 to 5 million years ago, this whale would have been over 58 feet long and weighed 50 tons with a skull 9 feet across and 14.5 feet long. This is the only fossil skull of this type on scientifically display in California. — Map (db m72035) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Zzyzx — A Lost Lake|
|The dry lake bed before you was once part of ancient Lake Mojave. During the last ice age, a cooler and wetter climate produced the Mojave River. It flowed inland about 150 miles from the San Bernardino Mountains, until its waters became trapped here in this basin. An abundant animal and plant community thrived in and around the ancient lake.
As the climate became warmer and drier, the rivers and lakes eventually dried up, exposing the remaining sediments to the wind. Sand and dust began . . . — Map (db m83467) HM|
|California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — 20,000 Years Ago|
|San Francisco was an ancient river valley were creatures who grazed and browsed and stalked their prey, left their bones. (text on the horizontal surface)
20,000 years ago you could have walked to the Farallon Islands...
When the sea was more than 300 feet below its present level, a marshy delta extended to the coastline 30 miles west, past the Farallon Islands. The great basin that would hold San Francisco Bay evolved from a valley carved by an ancient river . . . — Map (db m92829) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Morrison — Dinosaur Ridge — Designated as part of the Dakota Hogback Natural Area|
|Designated a Colorado Natural Area in 2002, the Dakota Hogback/Dinosaur Ridge Natural Area in Jefferson County is a crown jewel of statewide, national and international importance. The Dakota Hogback/Dinosaur Ridge Natural Area exemplifies all the qualities of a Colorado Natural Area. The array of dinosaur tracks, bones and fossils provide a window into a lost world for scholars, kids, and everyone in between. The Hogback delights bird lovers with it's raptor migratory pathways. There are often . . . — Map (db m80464) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Morrison — Front Range Foothills|
|You are looking out over the edges of tilted and eroded layers of sandstone and shale that lie upon much older rocks in the mountains behind you. If the eroded layers were restored to where you stand they would be more than two miles thick. The sandstone and shale were deposited as flat layers of sand and mud in streams, lakes and shallow seas during a time that began about 300 million years ago and ended about 70 million years ago. Later, the flat layers were bent upward during the rise of the . . . — Map (db m57932) HM|
|Connecticut (New Haven County), New Haven — Othniel Charles Marsh|
|Othniel Charles Marsh
Born at Lockport, N.Y. October 29, 1831. Died at New Haven, March 18, 1899
Professor of Paleontology in Yale University 1866 – 1899
President of the National Academy of Sciences 1883 – 1895
Eminent as Explorer, Collector and Investigator in Science
To Yale University he gave his services, his collections and his estate — Map (db m50917) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Foggy Bottom — GW's River Horse — [Lisner Auditorium]|
| Legend has it that the Potomac was once home to these wondrous beasts.
George and Martha Washington are even said to have watched them cavort in
the river shallows from the porch of their beloved Mount Vernon on summer evenings.
Credited with enhancing the fertility of the plantation, the Washingtons believed
the hippopotamus brought them good luck and children on the estate often attempted
to lure the creatures close enough to the shore to touch a nose for good luck.
So, too, . . . — Map (db m46980) HM|
|Florida (Brevard County), Titusville — F-486 — Windover Archaeological Site|
|Discovered by accident in 1982, the Windover site is a burial place of Early Native Americans who inhabited this region 7,000 to 8,000 years ago. The burials were placed underwater in the peat of the shallow pond. This peat helped to preserve normally perishable artifacts and human tissues. The site contains the largest skeletal sample in the New World and the oldest bottle gourd found north of Mexico - two features that add to its significance. It also includes the largest and most complex . . . — Map (db m60342) HM|
|Florida (Hernando County), Bayport — F-788 — The Bayport Area Before Human Occupation/Bayport's First People|
The Bayport Area Before Human Occupation
The fossilized remains of many prehistoric animals and plants are buried in the Bayport area. During the Eocene Period, 45 million years ago (MYA), the Gulf covered this region. Local Ocala limestone deposits contain marine remains of shells, plants, and mammal bones, including those of early shark toothed whales, now-extinct sea boas, and sea turtles. By the late Oligocene Period, 30 MYA, the shallow sea over west Florida began . . . — Map (db m93296) HM|
|Florida (Orange County), Lake Buena Vista — Tyrannosaurus Rex — “Sue”|
|This fossil cast is an exact replica of “Sue”, the most complete Tyrannosaurus Rex skeleton ever found. Named for her discoverer, Sue was found in South Dakota on August 12, 1990. Sue is 90% complete, a fossil find of enormous importance to the study of dinosaurs. During her lifetime in the Late Cretaceous Period (67-65 million years ago) Sue weighed seven tons and measured 42 feet in length, making her the largest T. rex yet discovered. In partnership with the Field Museum of Chicago. — Map (db m76896) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), Switzerland — William Bartram Scenic Highway|
| Within a mile and a half of this marker are numerous prehistoric sites, several of which date from 2000 BC Native Americans occupied the Northern river section from about 4000 BC until the arrival of Europeans after 1500 AD.
Riverbank settlements, permanent villages, and small seasonal campsites were common prehistoric site types. Abundant natural resources provided inhabitants with opportunities to hunt, fish and collect shellfish and plants.
By the 1770's, when William . . . — Map (db m61973) HM|
|Florida (Sarasota County), Venice — 1926 Article From "Venice News"|
|"It's a mammoth," voiced Dr. J. W. Gidley, Paleontologist of the Smithsonian Institute, 15 minutes after he first saw the fossil tusks and jaw bone of the prehistoric monster found in Venice. The size of the tusks indicates that it probably stood 14 feet high and was probably 20 feet long. Found at the same time were bones of horses, bison, mastodon, sloths and camels.
"A fair estimate of the date when this mammoth perished would be about half a million years ago," Dr. Gidley said. The . . . — Map (db m32747) HM|
|Florida (Volusia County), Port Orange — Bongoland|
|Several attempts were made to operate Dunlawton Plantation as a tourist attraction in the the 1950's Dr. Perry Sperber leased the premises from J. Saxon Lloyd for a park to display prehistoric monsters and had a number of replicas, molded in concrete on wire frames constructed. The park was called "Bongoland" in honor of a large baboon housed on the grounds an Indian village was also reproduced and a small train carried visitors around. But the day of the theme parks had not yet come and . . . — Map (db m34878) HM|
|Florida (Volusia County), South Daytona — Giant Ground Sloth|
|On this site in 1975 was found the best preserved and most complete giant ground sloth ever found in North America.
The sloth weighed three to five tons, stood thirteen feet tall and was a vegetarian.
An estimated fifty species of animals were unearthed approximately twelve feet below the surface of the ground. The age of these findings is estimated to be 130,000 years old. — Map (db m45449) HM|
|Idaho (Jerome County), Hunt — 276 — Prehistoric Hunters|
|Bone fragments of extinct species of ground sloth, horse, camel, and elephant found in a nearby cave mingle with weapons and radiocarbon dates from Idaho’s earliest hunters.|
Archaeologists have confirmed that people camped here at least 10,000 years ago, some suspect they might have arrived 6,000 years earlier. The youngest occupation layer began at 1300 A.D. and it includes figurines, baskets, moccasins and pottery---and bones of much smaller animals than those hunted by the Paleoindian pioneers. — Map (db m62963) HM
|Indiana (Franklin County), Brookville — 24.1995.2 — Brookville's Carnegie Library|
|Dedicated in 1912, starting with approximately 600 books; collections and services have expanded to meet needs of local patrons. One of 1, 679 libraries built in U.S. with funds from philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. Indiana built more Carnegie libraries than any other state. — Map (db m44694) HM|
|Kansas (Logan County), Oakley — The Monument Rocks — One of the Eight Wonders of Kansas|
Over 100 million years ago, during the cretaceous era, Kansas was covered by a vast ocean. Dramatic natural features, such as the Monument Rocks, are remains of that ancient seabed.
Since the 1870s, fossil hunters have searched the chalk beds and limestone hillsides of the Smoky Hill River region for the remains of ancient creatures. They have made some of the most significant discoveries in North American paleontology. Among the most astonishing finds were flying reptiles with a 30-foot . . . — Map (db m66099) HM|
|Kansas (Marshall County), Blue Rapids — Gigantic Glaciers — The Monument to the Ice Age — Blue Rapids, Kansas|
Huge continental glaciers, hundreds of feet thick, came from the north to northeastern Kansas in at least two different episodes carrying rocks, gravel, sand, and a special clay called loess to the Blue Rapids area. Our fertile soils and sand & gravel industries came from these glaciers.
Glaciers bulldozed the previous soils, grasses, trees and other plants, chilled the climate, lowered the Earth's sea level, then washed our landscape with meltwater, and charged the atmosphere . . . — Map (db m78960) HM|
|Kansas (Marshall County), Blue Rapids — Ice Age — The Monument to the Ice Age — Blue Rapids, Kansas|
The age of ice made great changes in the Earth's climate. From 1.6 million to 10,000 years ago the climate chilled, glaciers formed and advanced and retreated at least twice. Advancing glaciers squeezed zones where plants, people and other animals lived -- and influenced who would survive.
Before the Ice Age there were elephant-like mammoths and mastodons, giant armadillos, huge ground sloths, super bison, horses, saber-toothed cats, rhinoceroses, and camels living here in Kansas. After . . . — Map (db m78957) HM|
|Kansas (Marshall County), Blue Rapids — Oldest Rocks in Kansas — The Monument to the Ice Age — Blue Rapids, Kansas|
The oldest rocks in Kansas can be found right here in Blue Rapids. They are called Sioux Quartzite, a metamorphosed red sandstone originally deposited as sand in riverbeds, buried, and made extremely hard by heat and pressure. This quartzite was formed over 1.5 billion years ago in what is now southern Minnesota. In Kansas, only meteorites are older.
Glaciers picked up pieces of Sioux Quartzite near Pipestone, Minnesota and brought them nearly 300 miles to northeastern Kansas.
Sioux . . . — Map (db m78958) HM|
|Kansas (Riley County), Manhattan — Geology at Konza|
The image on this plaque depicts your view of the Konza Prairie and the Kansas River Valley. Looking from west to southwest, the view is typical of the Flint Hills in their natural state. Due west is the floodplain of the Kansas River and to the southwest, along the horizon, are two low rounded hills. The difference in elevation from the grass covered hilltops to the wooded stream valleys is about 400 feet. Given the opportunity to explore the landscape of the image, you would find clues . . . — Map (db m80813) HM
|Kentucky (Boone County), Florence — 1253 — Boone County, 1798|
Formed by legislative act from a part of Campbell County. Names for Daniel Boone, renowned Kentucky pioneer-explorer.
Big Boone Lick, graveyard of the mammoth, was discovered in 1729 by Capt. M. de Longueil. In 1756, Mary Inglis was brought here by Shawnees, the first white woman in Kentucky. In 1765-66, extensive bone collection sent to England. — Map (db m61867) HM|
|Kentucky (Boone County), Union — Big Bone Lick — Marker # 1 — Pre- Historic Site in Boone County, Kentucky|
|Discovered in 1739, by the French
Capt. Charles Lemoyne de Longueil
this famous saline- sulphur spring
was frequented for thousands of
years byIndians and vast herds of
buffalo, deer and other animals.
The first English explorers found
here scattered over the lick
countless bones and teeth of the
extinct Pleistocene elephants, the
mammoth and the mastodon.
Society of Colonial Wars in the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1938 — Map (db m79060) HM|
|Kentucky (Boone County), Union — 2124 — Big Bone Lick — Marker #2 - Marker at the Museum - with Lewis and Clark marker|
|Scientists consider William Clark’s
dig at Big Bone Lick in 1807 as
establishing American vertebrate
paleontology. Bones found here
by Clark included mastodon and
mammoth. Prehistoric native
American artifacts found were given
to Dr. Wm. Goforth in Cincinnati.
Sponsered by Friends of Big Bone, Ohio River
Chapter- Lewis & Clark Trail Heritage
Foundation, National Park Service, Kentucky
Lewis & Clark Bicentennial Commission. — Map (db m79062) HM|
|Kentucky (Boone County), Union — 2124 — Lewis and Clark in Kentucky — Big Bone Lick — ( Separate Visits by Both Explorers )|
|In Oct. 1803, while traveling down
Ohio River to meet Wm. Clark for
expedition to Pacific, Meriwether
Lewis visited Big Bone Lick. He
was to gather fossilized bones for
Pres. Thomas Jefferson. In Sept.
1807, clark supervised a 3-week
dig for bones at Jefferson’s request. — Map (db m79088) HM|
|Maryland (Prince George's County), Laurel — Dinosaur Alley|
|Dinosaurs lived during most of the Mesozoic Era (235 to 65 million years ago), on every continent on Earth. In Maryland, each of three Mesozoic time periods in which dinosaurs live is represented in its geology -- Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous. Therefore, it is not surprising that Maryland has produced more dinosaur bones than almost any other state east of the Mississippi River.
Maryland's "Dinosaur Trail" occupies the geologic region that runs parallel to the . . . — Map (db m67139) HM|
|Maryland (Prince George's County), Laurel — Dinosaurs in Maryland!|
|In 1842, English scientist Sir Richard Owen coined the term "dinosaur" to describe a group of ancient reptiles that inhabited the Earth from 230 to 65 million years ago. The discovery of the first dinosaur bones and the knowledge they reveal about the world these creatures lived in has captured the public's interest for nearly 200 years.
In 1858, miners discovered strange fossil bones and teeth in the iron-bearing clays near the Muirkirk iron furnace. Maryland State Geologist Phillip Thomas . . . — Map (db m67193) HM|
|Maryland (Prince George's County), Laurel — Welcome to Dinosaur Park|
| A Walk Through Time
As you enter Dinosaur Park you take a walk through time from the present day into Dinosaur times! Modern plants and trees give way to ginkgoes and ferns reminiscent of the early plants and tree that are fossilized here in the clay deposits. Dinosaur Park is a cooperative project between The Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission and Jackson-Shaw, developer of the The Brick Yard. This joint project has enabled us to preserve these valuable fossil . . . — Map (db m67243) HM|
|Nebraska (Lancaster County), Lincoln — Mammuthus Columbi|
| Mammoths roamed Nebraska's grasslands for more than one million years before mysteriously disappearing between 11,000 and 10,000 years ago. These extinct relatives of today's elephants were the largest mammals ever to walk the Great Plains. Adult males stood more than 13 feet tall at the shoulder and had a weight of over 24,000 pounds. Mammoth bones and teeth have been found in Ice Age deposits in all but three of Nebraska's 93 counties. Bones and tusks were uncovered just 100 yards east of . . . — Map (db m54358) HM|
|Nebraska (Morrill County), Bayard — The Innocent Assassins|
| “Once in the sun-fierce badlands of the west in that strange country of volcanic ash and cones, . . . we found a sabertooth, most ancient cat, far down in all those cellars of dead time.”From The Innocent Assassins by Loren Eiseley The twenty-five-million-year-old cat described in the above passage was found only a few miles from here by a University of Nebraska paleontology crew. One of the more unusual paleontological finds ever made in Nebraska, the sabertooth . . . — Map (db m89174) HM|
|Nebraska (Sioux County), Harrison — Fossil Hills Trail — Agate Fossil Beds National Monument — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior|
|The hills held ancient secrets for paleontologists. The two hills in the distance don’t look like anything special. Even up close the untrained eye will see nothing astounding. But a sandstone layer near the bases of the hills has yielded one of the richest concentrations of fossilized mammal remains ever discovered.|
Since 1904, paleontologists have been uncovering fossil bones here which greatly contribute to our knowledge of prehistoric mammals. Today many of these fossils are studied and . . . — Map (db m62064) HM
|New Hampshire (Coos County), Lancaster — 173 — Lake Coos and the Presidential Range|
| Lancaster, founded in 1763, lies on the bed of glacial Lake Coos, formed as the glaciers receded 14,000 years ago. Today, the Connecticut, an American Heritage River, flows along the bottom of the ancient lake. You stand at a gateway to The Great North Woods Region. To the east, aligned from north to south, are Mounts Madison, Adams, Jefferson, and Washington, the highest peaks of the White Mountains' Presidential Range. Mt. Washington, at 6288 feet, is the highest in the Northeast. The . . . — Map (db m75697) HM|
|New Jersey (Camden County), Haddonfield — Hadrosaurus Foulkii|
|In a marl pit on the John E. Hopkins farm in October 1858, the world’s first nearly complete dinosaur skeleton was unearthed by William Parker Foulke. The find was adjacent to this point. This was also the first dinosaur skeleton to ever be mounted. The bones represented a 25 foot, 7-8 ton herbivorous hadrosaurus (reptile). Its height probably ranged from 6-10 feet at the hips. Some 55 of an estimated 80 bones were discovered. This creature lived 70-80 million years ago during the Cretaceous . . . — Map (db m29239) HM|
|New Jersey (Camden County), Haddonfield — The Hasrosaurus foulkii Sculpture|
|Commemorates the Historic Discovery by William Parker Foulke in Haddonfield, New Jersey, 1858 Historic Fossil The 1858 find was the most complete dinosaur skeleton unearthed anywhere in the world up until that time. It was the first that included enough bones to reconstruct key points of the actual anatomy of a dinosaur. It profoundly changed our understanding of natural history. Scientific Impact In 1868, 26 years after dinosaurs had been recognized as a group of ancient animals, the . . . — Map (db m73253) HM|
|New Mexico (Rio Arriba County), Abiquiu — Coelophysis Quarry — Ghost Ranch|
|In 1881 David Baldwin discovered small fossilized bones
on what is now Ghost Ranch. He mailed the bones to
paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope in Philadelphia. Cope had been through the area in the late 1870s and had urged Baldwin to explore and see what he could collect. In 1889 Cope named the little dinosaur Coelophysis bauri after Georg Baur, a German morphologist. (Coelophysis means “hollow form,” referring to the lightly constructed bones.)
In June 1947, a . . . — Map (db m75212) HM|
|New York (Albany County), Cohoes — Cohoes Mastodon|
Found September 1866
Now in N. Y. State Museum
— Map (db m40818) HM|
|New York (Albany County), Cohoes — The Cohoes Mastodont|
|The Cohoes Mastodont was discovered during the excavation for Harmony Mill #3 in 1866. The mill is sometimes referred to as the "Mastodon Mill" for this reason. When all the bones were recovered, they were kept at the Harmony Mills Office on exhibit, where they were seen by hundreds of people. The discovery was a nationwide sensation, generating considerable press coverage and controversy. In 1867, the skeleton was transferred to state ownership and exhibited in the State Cabinet of Natural . . . — Map (db m41622) HM|
|New York (Albany County), Voorheesville — Thacher Point|
|At this site, on September 14, 1914, this park was formally dedicated in memory of John Boyd Thacher. His widow, Emma Treadwell Thacher, donated the 350 acres to the state of New York to be preserved as a public park. The Thachers, whose summer home was nearby, had a deep appreciation for the area's scenic beauty. In 1906 and 1907, John B. Thacher had purchased several adjacent farms along the cliff to protect it from development at a time when limestone was becoming a valuable building . . . — Map (db m77243) HM|
|New York (Chautauqua County), Irving — Everett R. Burmaster|
|1890-1965 lived in Irving. Historian, Archaeologist, Paleontologist, BMS Curator. Seneca adopted-Gahgewa. Saved Hanover Elm & Sottle Fiddle. — Map (db m64672) HM|
|New York (Orange County), Montgomery — Mastadon Dig 1800|
|1st U.S. Science expedition remains exhibited London & Amer. philosoph. Society, Philadelphia. Dig Painted by Charles W. Peale, 1810. — Map (db m49822) HM|
|Ohio (Lorain County), Sheffield Lake — 12-47 — Jay Terrell and his "Terrible Fish"|
|Around 1867, along the shale cliffs of the lakeshore of Sheffield Lake, Jay Terrell found fossils of a "terrible fish" later named in his honor as Dinichthys Terrelli. This animal, now known as Dunkleosteus terrelli, was a massive arthrodire (an extinct, joint-necked, armor-plated fish) that lived in the Devonian sea, which covered much of eastern North America some 354-364 million years ago. Dunkleosteus was armed with an incredible set of shearing jaws and was clearly the top marine predator in the Devonian Period (the "Age of Fishes"). — Map (db m67502) HM|
|Ohio (Lucas County), Sylvania — 62-48 — Centennial Terrace and Quarry / Fossil Park|
Centennial Terrace and Quarry
In 1931, the France Stone Company ceased operations. Robert Burge leased 19 acres of the site for recreational swimming and opened Centennial Quarry in 1934. Five years later, Burge and associates opened Centennial Terrace, whose centerpiece was "Dancing Under the Stars," an outdoor, 10,000 square-foot Terrazzo dance floor. Centennial Terrace was a regular stop for many big bands of the 1940s and '50s. In 1969, the complex . . . — Map (db m94772) HM|
|Ohio (Mercer County), St. Henry — 1- 54 — The Cranberry Prairie — A Geological Feature of Western Ohio|
|The Cranberry Prairie, southwest of this marker, is a part of Ohio's
natural history. The place was named for the cranberries that
grew in a swamp here prior to drainage of the area. The
Cranberry Prairie was created by centuries of peat accumulation
in a late Ice Age lake that formed at the base of St. John's
Moraine. Paleo-Indian or Early Archaic peoples probably killed
the elk whose skeleton was dug up here in 1981. This elk was
dated at approximately 7400 B.C.|
By the 1860s, . . . — Map (db m94414) HM
|Ohio (Wyandot County), Carey — 4-88 — Sheriden Cave — Ohio Historical Marker|
|Indian Trail Caverns, first opened in 1927, is one of many caves that occur on the dolomite ridge traversed by State Route 568 in Wyandot and Hancock counties. Sheriden Cave, a karst sinkhole associated with the caverns, was discovered in 1989. It has collected a remarkable record of Ice Age animal and human activity in its sediments. Excavations have revealed remains of many extinct Late Pleistocene Epoch animals-giant beaver, stag moose, flat-headed and long-nosed peccary, and short-faced . . . — Map (db m93656) HM|
|Oregon (Wheeler County), Mitchell — Fossils on the Frontier|
|Northern Paiute Indians and a few mountain men were the only residents of the John Day Country before 1860. Cavalry troops passed through the John Day River drainage looking for the best route from the Columbia River to Fort Boise. One company, under the command of Captain John M. Drake, explored along Bridge Creek in 1861. Near this spot, the troopers found the first fossilized bones and leaf-prints to come from the John Day Valley.
(Map of The Dalles—Canyon City Military . . . — Map (db m71675) HM|
|Oregon (Wheeler County), Mitchell — Painted Hills Overlook — John Day Fossil Beds National Monument|
|Through this dry land in 1865 rode a pioneer minister and amateur scientist named Thomas Condon. It was the first of his many visits. Imagine his reaction when he discovered the imprints of countless fossilized leaves near these Painted Hills, leaves of plants that could not possibly survive this modern, near-desert environment. These fossils opened a window onto vast changes in climate, plants and animals.
The colorful Painted Hills are part of the lower John Day formations, with layers . . . — Map (db m71698) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Crawford County), Conneaut Lake — Geology|
|Conneaut Lake is a kettle lake formed by the receding glacier during the last Ice Age, about 12,000 years ago. As the glacier melted, a large block of ice partially embedded in accumulated sediment formed the depression, which became the lake. Prehistoric Mastadon and Woolly Mammoth bones have been found preserved in the layers of silt in and around the lake, giving evidence of their existence during this period. The glacier changed the water flow from the north to south, making it a part of . . . — Map (db m74623) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Crawford County), Titusville — Titusvillia Drakei Caster|
|In ancient seabottom rocks exposed in this stream, the Holotype Specimen of a rare fossil sponge was found by Paleontologist Kenneth E. Caster. In 1939 in recognition of the support which brought the sciences of geology and paleontology to such eminence he named this new species in honor of the oil industry's birthplace and its founder. — Map (db m64970) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Monroe County), Minisink Hills — Shawnee-Minisink Archaeological Site|
|Nearly 13,000 years old, this location, near the confluence of the Delaware River and Brodhead Creek, is one of the earliest dated Native American sites in the northeastern US. Archaeological investigations uncovered hundreds of stone tools left by the early inhabitants around a series of campfires. Remains of fish and fruit provided evidence of a more diverse diet than expected for the late Ice Age. — Map (db m86978) HM|
|Pennsylvania (Philadelphia County), Philadelphia — Edward Drinker Cope|
|Internationally renowned vertebrate paleontologist and zoologist, Cope lived and worked here in his later years. He wrote many scientific papers describing hundreds of fossils & living animals and is famous for his long-standing feud with O.C. Marsh of Yale. — Map (db m82812) HM|
|South Dakota (Fall River County), Hot Springs — 680 — The Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, SD|
|Gigantic mammoths, ancestors of the majestic elephants of today, once roamed freely on the High Plains of North America. A repository of their remains, along with other kinds of animals, lay undisturbed until their discovery over 26,000 years later, in June 1974.
Limestone deposits beneath the earth’s surface dissolved in water from underground springs. The land then collapsed and the resulting sinkhole filled with 95 degree water that lured mammoths to drink or feed on vegetation. Once in . . . — Map (db m89376) HM|
|Texas (Fisher County), Sylvester — 82 — Adair - Steadman Site|
|In this vicinity is a prehistoric archeological site discovered in 1969 near the Clear Fork of the Brazos River. Archeologists have conducted extensive scientific excavations and attribute most of the cultural materials to the Paleo-Indian Period. The Adair-Steadman site was a large base campsite for makers of fluted points, who were part of the distinctive Folsom Culture between nine and eleven thousand years ago.
Prehistoric peoples chose to live here because of the availability of . . . — Map (db m81124) HM|
|Texas (Kendall County), Boerne — 749 — Cascade Cavern|
|Probably formed during the Pleistocene epoch by the
underground passage of the Cibolo River, Cascade Cavern presents an interesting mix of geological, archeological,and historical features. It exhibits a combination of the joint and the dip and strike types of caverns, and is the home of a number of unusual animals, including cliff and leopard frogs, Mexican brown bats, and Cascade Cavern salamanders.
Archeological evidence uncovered near the cave indicates the presence of two Indian . . . — Map (db m46924) HM|
|Texas (Roberts County), Miami — 2039 — Fossil Beds — (three miles southeast)|
|Cited as one of most prolific fossil fields of lower Pliocene age at time of discovery, these beds are about 13,000,000 years old. Geologists of Rio Bravo Oil Company found them in 1928 on C.C. Coffee Ranch, and their reports brought specialists from several major institutions to the area.
The fossil bones buried here included (among others) those of a prehistoric camel, a kind of antelope, horse, bone-crushing dog, mastodon and wild pig.
Further studies led scientists in 1941 to . . . — Map (db m55797) HM|
|Texas (Ward County), Monahans — 3434 — Monahans Sandhills State Park and Museum|
|In these shifting seas of sand, rich in stone evidences of primitive men, today's visitors find flint points, sandstone metates and manos of peoples who were here as early as 10,000 years ago and late as the 1870s. Bones of great mammoths and gigantic bison prove that this desert was in post-glacial times a land of lakes and tall grasses.
Cabeza de Vaca in 1535 and Antonio de Espejo in 1583 encountered Jumanos, historic tribe which hunted here. In 1590 Castano de Sosa found a tribe he . . . — Map (db m73307) HM|
|Utah (Grand County), Crescent City — Copper Ridge Dinosaur Trackway|
| Welcome to Copper Ridge. Here, you can see the
tracks of two different dinosaurs. The larger
were probably made by an Allosaurus,
while the smaller three toed tracks were made by
one of a number of smaller bipedal carnivorous
spedies. — Map (db m39259) HM|
|Vermont (Chittenden County), Charlotte — The Charlotte Whale — The Vermont State Fossil|
| In 1849 an 11,000 year old Beluga Whale was found north of this site in what had been the Champlain Sea. Resident J.G. Thorp collected the bones, and naturalist Zadock Thompson assembled the skeleton now displayed in the Perkins Museum of Geology at UVM. — Map (db m75963) HM|
|Vermont (Rutland County), Mount Holly — Mount Holly Railroad History|
|During construction of what became the Rutland Railroad, two important events occurred in Mount Holly. In 1848, a construction crew discovered the tusk and tooth of a woolly mammoth in the nearby wetland. These are on display in the Community Historical Museum in Belmont Village. The second event occurred on December 18, 1849 near this highpoint on the rail line, later called the Summit. The tracks that connected here were being constructed simultaneously from Burlington and Boston. Locomotives . . . — Map (db m94276) HM|
|Virginia (Fairfax County), Great Falls — American Indians of the Potomac River — Riverbend Park — Potomac River Gorge Interpretive Trail|
|Prehistoric people arrived along the shores of the Potomac River some 13,000 years ago. Slowly they transformed from semi-nomadic hunters into farmers and fishermen. Eventually, a group called the Nacotchtanks became the dominant tribe of the Washington D.C. area.
The Potomac River was a heavily traveled trade route by American Indians. In fact the word Nacotchtank translates to mean “at the trading town.” — Map (db m64316) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Stratford — The Stratford Cliffs|
|Approximately 17 million years ago, during the Miocene Epoch, these 150-foot-high cliffs along the Potomac River formed the ancient seashore. Rich Miocene fossil deposits, which exist in the 1 1/2 -mile-long series of Horsehead, Stratford and Nomini Cliffs, can only be found in several locations in the world. Fossil remains of salt-water crocodiles, whales, porpoises, turtles, rays and sharks can be discovered along the shoreline. This overlook is one of a few spots along Stratford's northern . . . — Map (db m34585) HM|
|West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Ronceverte — Organ Cave|
|In this cave, whose beautiful natural formations have long been known, salt petre was manufactured before 1835. When war broke out between the states in 1861, it was a source of powder supply for General Lee's army. — Map (db m76509) HM|
|Wisconsin (Rock County), Beloit — 555 — Roy Chapman Andrews|
Roy Chapman Andrews, one of the most celebrated explorers of the 20th century, was born in Beloit on January 26, 1884. He grew up across the river at 419 St. Lawrence Avenue. Andrews acquired a lifelong passion for the natural world during his childhood explorations of the Rock River Valley. In March 1905, he survived a harrowing boating accident upriver that claimed the life of his companion.
The following year Andrews graduated from Beloit College and talked his way onto the staff . . . — Map (db m86686) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Medicine Bow — Dinosaur Graveyard|
|To the north lies Como Bluff - "The Dinosaur Graveyard" - one of the greatest and well known fossil beds of dinosaur remains in the world. There paleontologist of the 19th century discovered and unearthed many excellent fossil specimens of the world's larges land creatures.
Crew working for paleontologists at Yale University and the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences found a multitude of dinosaur and other prehistoric animal remains in the late 1970s and 1880s, making Como Bluff the . . . — Map (db m89665) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Sundance — Paha Sapa, Black Hills — Geologic History of the Lakotas' Sacred Hills|
|Also known as "Temple of the Sioux," Sundance Mountain rises majestically in the southwest. It belongs to the Bear Lodge Mountain Range, which defines the northwestern edge of the Black Hills. It was named for the Plains Indians' religious ceremony—and in turn it provided the name for the town at its base, which dubbed one of its earliest and most notorious prisoners, the "Sundance Kid." In the Lakota language, the mountain is called Wi Wacipi Paha, which literally means Sun Dance . . . — Map (db m45541) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Sundance — Petrified Trees — Fossils Give Clues to Wyoming's Paleo-Past|
|Giant cypress trees growing today in swamps (or forested wetlands), such as these found in Louisiana's Pointe Lake, used to grow in Wyoming back when it was a warm, subtropical swamp - about 55 million years ago during the Late Paleocene epoch. Some of these ancient trees were buried under sediment and turned to stone. the three petrified trees located here were found during coal mining operations at the Eagle Butte Mine near Gillette. They were generously donated by Alpha Coal West, Inc., and . . . — Map (db m45539) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Sundance — The Vore Buffalo Jump — Hunting Large Bison Took Teamwork and Ingenuity|
|Located a short distance to the east and camouflaged by the red eroded landscape is the Vore Buffalo Jump. This sinkhole served early residents as a slaughterhouse. using the natural pit as a trap, hunters would capture bison in late fall by running a herd over the edge. Once killed, the animals were butchered to provide food and supplies for winter.|
The Coordinated Bison Hunt The hunters camped and made ceremonial preparations downwind and out of sight of the jump. Days before the hunt, . . . — Map (db m45537) HM
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), Kemmerer — Fossil Butte|
|Fossil Butte is a 50 million year old lakebed and one of the richest fossil resources in the world. It is part of the Green River Formation, a layer of rock composed of laminated limestone, mudstone, and volcanic ash. Complete paleo-ecosystems are preserved in the formation, which is the geologic remnant of the Green River Lake System of the Eocene era. Designated on October 23, 1972, Fossil Butte National Monument encompasses a part of land that was once under Fossil Lake.
Fossil Lake was . . . — Map (db m36624) HM|
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), Kemmerer — Kemmerer Founders Monument — Wyoming's Aquarium in Stone|
Mahlon S. Kemmerer
1843 - 1925
Patrick J. Quealy
1857 - 1930 — Map (db m80542) HM|
|Wyoming (Sweetwater County), Green River — All Because of an Ancient Lake — Trona Trail Historic Mine Byway|
|The bed of prehistoric Lake Gosiute (Go-shute) lies hundred of feet below you. This ancient lake set the stage of the world's largest trona and oil shale deposits as well as a significant natural gas reserve.
Lake Gosiute Creates Trona
Around 50 million years ago, Lake Gosiute began to form during the early-to-middle Eocene Epoch. Over 4 million years, the lake expanded and contracted, and changed from freshwater to saline. The lake also experienced tectonic changes and absorbed . . . — Map (db m90093) HM|