|Australia, New South Wales, Lithgow — The Great Zig Zag — Lithgow|
|A railway zig zag is a series of reversing ramps used to avoid very steep grades. John Whitton, Engineer in Chief NSW Government Railways 1856-90, chose this as the economical method for the descent from Clarence to Lithgow. Built during 1866-69 by contractor Patrick Higgins, it involved massive rock excavations, a tunnel and three stone arch viaducts. During its 41 years of operation it accelerated the development of western New South Wales and achieved world renown as a major engineering work. — Map (db m59808) HM|
|Australia, New South Wales (Inglis), Tamworth — Electric Street Lighting|
|Tamworth N.S.W. was the first town in Australia to introduce electric street lighting by means of two 18kw steam driven Crompton dynamos. Electricity was supplied to 52 street lights using 140 Swan incandescent lamps and 7 Crompton carbon arc lamps.
9th November 1888 — Map (db m70695) HM|
|Australia, New South Wales (Northumberland), Morpeth — Historic Arnott Bakehouse — circa 1851|
|This historic Bakehouse was built by Richard Chapman during 1851. Chapman was a property owner, butcher and businessman of Morpeth whose residency extended from at least 1850 to his death in 1867. The building has technical value as a rare, authentic trade industrial building providing evidence of early bakehouse design and technology. It also provides intact evidence of an early colonial workplace and represents an aspect of trade and occupation in a regional area that has direct links with . . . — Map (db m70687) HM|
|Australia, Tasmania, Latrobe — Edwin Maw — 1858|
|The Lucas Platypus Experience is housed in a classified building on the register of the National Trust Estate. In 1858 George Atkinson built a licensed hotel “The Royal Charter Inn” on the present site. At the time he imported from Liverpool UK a prefabricated iron store as a warehouse.
Constructed of cast-iron columns, trusses, girts, window frames, it was clad with corrugated iron sheeting the walls and roof, the building stands on stone a foundation.
The columns have . . . — Map (db m70668) HM|
|Australia, Tasmania, Launceston — Launceston Gasworks|
|Lighting up Launceston
First established in 1858, the Launceston Gasworks charts the growth of the gas industry in Tasmania and the development of the city of Launceston itself.
The site was purchased in 1858 by the Launceston Gas Company with construction starting on the gasworks one year later. The primary purpose of the site was to supply gas to the township of Launceston for industrial engines and public lighting 30 years before electricity became available. At it’s peak, the . . . — Map (db m70667) HM|
|Australia, Victoria, Port Fairy — SS Casino|
This memorial was unveiled
July 8 1934 by Mrs. C.A. Melhuish
Captain Thomas Boyd
first master of the S.S. Casino.
Borough of Port Fairy
This commemorative plaque is to mark the 100th anniversary of the registration of the S.S. Casino as part of the Belfast and Koroit Steam Navigation Company and the 50th anniversary of the sinking of the S.S. Casino at Apollo Bay on 1oth July, 1932. Unveiled by his Worship the Mayor . . . — Map (db m52484) HM|
|Australia, Victoria (Campaspe (Shire)), Echuca — The Only Classified Brothel in Victoria|
|This Establishment Built About 1878 Is The Only Classified Brothel in Victoria
The house consists of 3 small rooms on each floor, the upper rooms being reached by a staircase leading into a sheltered lane running off Little Hopwood street, making it possible for even the most respectable citizen to visit the scarlet ladies undetected.
After the nearby Murray Hotel was built in 1879, the Brothel was run in conjunction with the pub and became known for its ‘honky tonk’ dancing and . . . — Map (db m70630) HM|
|Australia, Victoria (Mount Alexander (Shire)), Maldon — Porcupine Flat Dredge|
|This bucket dredge was operated here by George Heywood, Eric Baumann and others, for about 30 years, until it was abandoned in 1984. It was one of the last dredges operated in Victoria.
It is a relatively small bucket dredge, but is one of few to have survived more or less intact. The crane nearby cleared trees in the dredge’s path.
Since the 1930s, electric power had allowed the construction of very large dredges, some employing up to 60 workers.
Dredging for gold dates back to the . . . — Map (db m70631) HM|
|Austria, Tyrol, Innsbruck — "Golden Eagle" — “Goldener Adler”|
|Errichtet im Zuge des Wiederaufbaues nach dem Brand von 1450 zählt der Goldene Adler am Unteren Stadtplatz zu den ältesten und –durch seinen Laubenvorbau – auch stattlichsten Gasthäusern von Innsbruck. Die spätgotischen Fassadenfresken wurden 1957/64 wiederentdeckt. Als Vorbild für das Wirtshausschild diente der schwarz Doppeladler des Heiligen Römischen Reiches und seiner Kaiser. Marmortafeln unter den Lauben künden von zahlreichen Persönlichkeiten, die hier abgestiegen sind. . . . — Map (db m68141) HM|
|Austria, Tyrol, Innsbruck — Goethe Stayed Here — Hier weilte Goethe|
|Hier weilte Goethe, diese Tatsache wird wohl jeden Fremden, der Innsbruck besucht, in die Goethe-Stube sühren. Hier weilte Kaiser Josef II. Hier weilte Andreas Hofer: Mehr zu sagen ist unnötig.
In der Goethe Stube verkehren die Tiroler Künstler und Schriftsteller. In der Goethe Stube ist manch alt Bild, Geschrift und Gewassen sowie ein Künstlerbuch zu sehen. Auch eine Quittung von Andrä Hofer ist hier zu erschauen Des Etschlands edle Weinlein fliessen hier und Goethe schaut auf die Zechenden . . . — Map (db m68182) HM|
|Brazil, Amazonas, Manaus — Praça São Sebastião — Monumento Comemorativo a Abertura dos Portos — Monument to the Opening of the [Amazon] Ports|
| [Panel 1] Mandado Construir em MDCCCXCIX pelo Exmo Senr. Jose Cardoso Ramalho Júnior, Governador do Estado do Amazonas.
[In English: Construction Ordered, 1899, by His Excellency, Mr. Jose Cardoso Ramalho Junior, Governor of the State of Amazonas.]
15 de Novembro de MDCCCLXXXIX.
[November 15, 1889.]
Monumento Levanta do em substitução ao que foi erguido n’esta praça em XII de Setembro de . . . — Map (db m26407) HM|
|Alberta, Devon — Leduc-Woodbend Oil Field — Le Site Pétrolifière Leduc-Woodbend|
|The development of this field in 1947 marked a turning point in the history of the Alberta petroleum industry. After the drilling of Leduc No. 1, the geographical focus of the industry shifted from Turner Valley northward to the central plains area, where vast oil reserves were uncovered. Oil production, which has been in decline, expanded dramatically and the Edmonton area became a petrochemical and distributing centre. The boom in output enable Alberta to become, for the first time, a major . . . — Map (db m8856) HM|
|Alberta, Turner Valley — Turner Valley Gas Plant|
|This plant, which was critical to the development of the Turner Valley oil field, is the earliest gas processing facility built in Canada and the only survivor of its type. The present complex was begun in 1921 after a fire destroyed the original plant, built in 1914. The many modifications and additions made to it since the 1920s reflect the evolution of refining technology. The buildings. Machinery and equipment together illustrate the production process required to extract marketable gas and . . . — Map (db m8825) HM|
|British Columbia (Alberni-Clayoquot Regional District), Port Alberni — Forest Industry in British Columbia — L’Industrie Forestiere en Colombie-Britannique|
|Harvesting of the forest has long been an important aspect of life on the Pacific Coast. The native people were the first to utilize this valuable resource in the construction of dwellings, canoes, and implements. In the nineteenth century, spars masts, and timber were exported. In 1860 the first export sawmill was constructed near this site. From these beginnings the forest industry has expanded to become a very important element of the economy of British Columbia. In this century considerable . . . — Map (db m9192) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Leiser Building — Built 1896|
|Simon Leiser & Co., Wholesale Grocers, was the largest business of it kind in British Columbia when this warehouse was built. The building featured a central electric elevator with tracks radiating from the elevator on each floor for ease of handling merchandise.|
Designed by architect A.C. Ewart, the building cost $35,000 in 1896. The brick structure has stone dressing and sheet metal decoration. It was renovated in 1972 as the headquarters for Capital Regional District.
This . . . — Map (db m49101) HM
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — S.J. Pitts, Importer — Built 1882|
|This is one of the earlier brick warehouse in the area, replacing previous wooden construction.
Sidney Pitts, like other businessmen on Yates Street, operated a wholesale grocery, provision and produce business.|
Stuccoed for may years, the building was restored in 1990 by the Canadian Hostelling Association, revealing windows and other details that had long been covered.
[Photo credits] c1890 Victoria City Archives, c1975 Hallmark Society photograph — Map (db m49102) HM
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Shop/Warehouse — Built 1883|
|This two-story brick building in the Italianate style was one of several shop/warehouses in Victoria’s warehouse district. Originally occupied by W.J. Jeffree, pioneer clothier, the building later housed F.R. Stewart & Co. Provisioners.
The historic photograph shows boxes and local produce waiting on the sidewalk for delivery by F.R. Stewart’s horse-drawn delivery wagon.
Splendid cast iron columns, made at the Albion Iron Works in Victoria support the building and are dated on their . . . — Map (db m49124) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Bank Building — First Opened for Business on April 19, 1886 — Project Architect: Mr. W.H. Williams|
|When the building opened, it was the second largest in Victoria with a total area 5,230 square feet. The original drawings came from London, England.
Using brick on a stone foundation, Mr. Williams combined cast iron columns, lintels, and sills with moulded cement renderings; cornices of heavy galvanized iron sheet metal; and elaborate, hand carved entrance doors and interior trim. The roof was edged with a decorative cast iron cresting depicting the floral emblems of the United Kingdom, a . . . — Map (db m48522) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Bell Tower|
|You are standing in Bastion Square. The Hudson’s Bay Company, whose legacy continues at the store on Government Street, established Fort Victoria here in 1843.|
Acting on behalf of the British Columbia Government, the company sold the surrounding land to pioneers but kept the area around here for itself.
During The Fraser River Gold Rush of 1858, thousands of new settlers, including many immigrants, arrived in Victoria. The Hudson’s Bay sold the Fort Victoria land to these new arrivals in . . . — Map (db m49227) HM
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Majestic Theatre — Built c1860 — Alterations: 1885; 1909; 1917|
|This building first housed Moore’s Music Hall (Victoria’s earliest existing theatre) upstairs, above Nathanial Moore’s dry goods store.
In 1885, a new facade was constructed to match the new building next door, with identical cast iron columns.
Various commercial uses followed, which included supplying miners preparing for the Klondike. In 1898 miners’ equipment was piled high on this sidewalk.
In 1909 architect Thomas Hooper renovated the building to house the Majestic Theatre, . . . — Map (db m49125) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Signing Post|
|You are standing in Bastion Square. The Hudson’s Bay Company, whose legacy continues at the store on Government Street, established Fort Victoria here in 1843.
This area has always been an important public space. All visitors had to gain permission from a gatekeeper to enter Fort Victoria and they were required to provide letters of introduction to . . . — Map (db m49080) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Thomas Earle Warehouse — Built 1900|
|Thomas Earle was a local wholesale grocer and provision merchant whose business dated back to 1869.
This building, constructed for $10,000 and designed by architect Thomas Hopper, features a large brick arch and two finials flanking a central pediment and date plaque|
The building was used for many years by Smith, Davidson and Lecky, paper wholesalers. After a major fire, the building was renovated in 1979 for the Capital Regional District.
c. 1900 Victoria City Archives.
British Columbia Heritage Trust — Map (db m49099) HM
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Waddington Alley|
|Built by B.C. pioneer Alfred Waddington, this alley was intended to maximize access to, and use of, three privately-owned lots during the Fraser River gold rush of 1858.|
Initially, “a number of cheap shops” were erected which, by 1863, included a fishmarket, a bakery, a blacksmith, a bowling saloon, the Sacramento Restaurant and the Pioneer Wholesale and Retail Variety Store.
Alfred Waddington retained private ownership of the alley until his death of smallpox in 1872. Both . . . — Map (db m49100) HM
|British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), 150 Mile House — To the Goldfields!|
|In the 1860s, the fabulous Cariboo goldfields were a lure to thousands. Miners, traders, and adventurers, many afoot, some with wheelbarrows, shared the pioneer route with mule trains, plodding oxen, freight wagons, and swaying stage-coaches.
Havens for man and beast were the road-houses and stables every 12-14 miles along the way. — Map (db m8857) HM|
|British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), Barkerville — Cariboo Gold Fields — Districts Aurifères de Cariboo — Barkerville - Historic Town|
A search for the source of placer gold found on lower parts of the Fraser River led to discoveries of lode mines in the Cariboo, of which Williams Creek, is said to have yielded $19,000,000. As a centre of population in the 1860’s, the gold fields were the catalyst for the economic and political development of colony of British Columbia. They attracted miners from around the world and stimulated the growth of trade and agriculture. Economic difficulties resulting from the . . . — Map (db m42712) HM|
|British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), Barkerville — Cornish Wheel & Pump|
|This overshot water wheel is 16 feet in diameter. It is modeled after wheels and pumps used in the tin mines of Cornwall. The early miners found that the pay gravel often lay 40 to 100 feet under the surface. The wheels were used to pump the water from these deep workings and also lift gravel to the surface. — Map (db m42710) HM|
|British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), Quesnel — Cottonwood House|
|For over half a century the Boyd family operated this haven for man and beast. Here weary travellers found lodging, food, and drink. Here fresh horses were hitched to stage-coaches and miners bought supplies.
This historic road-house, built in 1864 stood as an oasis of civilization on the frontier of a rich new land. — Map (db m42766) HM|
|British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — BC Permanent Building — City of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architects: Hooper and Watkins|
|This small scale but well-executed example of Beaux-Arts classicism was designed by Thomas Hooper (the architect of Shaughnessy's Hycroft Mansion) and Elwood Watkins. Built in 1907 for Thomas Talton Langlois' BC Permanent Loan Company, after 1935 it housed offices of the Bank of Canada. The impressive open interior features a large Tiffany-style stained glass dome, mosaic tile floors, and a series of fine windows displaying the Yukon, Great Britain and eight provincial coats-of-arms. After new . . . — Map (db m54523) HM|
|British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Deutschesland Café — City of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: Max B. Downing|
|This unusual building is one of the few surviving Art Deco buildings in downtown Vancouver. Its roofline an exuberant crenelated cornice built in cast concrete and designed in a curvilinear waterfall theme. Downing is best known as the architect of the Art Deco Federal Buildings in Prince Rupert and Powell River. The original owner of this was the nearby Hudson's Bay Company, and it was tenanted by the Deutschesland Café until 1939. — Map (db m41926) HM|
|British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Flack Block — City of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: William Blackmore|
|Thomas Flack commissioned this landmark commercial building in 1898, following his return from a prosperous venture to the Klondike gold fields. Completed in 1900, it framed one of the city's most prominent intersections, facing the first provincial Court House across the street in what is now Victory Square. Conceived as a prestige project in a prime location, this was one of the largest structures designed by prolific local architect William Blackmore (1842-1904). The Romanesque Revival . . . — Map (db m53619) HM|
|British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Power Block — City of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architects: N.S. Hoffar, 1888, Townley & Matheson, 1929|
|This rare example of an art deco exterior employing colourful terra cotta with Egyptian overtones was designed by the architects of Vancouver's city hall as part of a 1929 building renovation. The interior structure dates from built in 1888 for Captain William Power, then known as the "Mayor" of North Vancouver's Moodyville. It was expanded and renovated by owner Dominic Burns of the meat-packing family in 1911, the year he also built the nearby 14-storey Vancouver Block with its huge landmark clock. — Map (db m42010) HM|
|British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Randall Building — City of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: Richard T. Perry|
|Built in 1929 for the brokerage firm S.W. Randall Company, this commercial building is a good example of the design of the city's downtown office development at the time of the Great Depression. The brick cladding is enriched by the terra cotta paneling on the lower levels of the important Georgia Street facade. Sam Randall was also a thoroughbred race promoter who operated racetracks at Hastings Park in the 1920s and Lansdowne Park in Richmond (1924-45). In 1991 the building was rehabilitated . . . — Map (db m54834) HM|
|British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — St. Regis Hotel — City of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: W.T. Whiteway|
|Of the turn-of-the century hotels built in the downtown area before World War I, this is the last one that has survived as a hotel. Noted architect W.T. Whiteway designed it in 1913. He was the architect of the Sun Tower, the original 1903 Woodard's store, as well as notable buildings in Victoria, Halifax, St. John's and Port Townsend, Washington. The builder, E.J. Ryan, constructed the existing Hotel Vancouver. The St. Regis is a good example of the Edwardian Commercial style. Part of the . . . — Map (db m41988) HM|
|Manitoba, Inglis — Inglis Grain Elevators|
|This impressive grouping of five standard-plan wooden grain elevators is a rare survivor of the long rows that once dominated Prairie towns. The row was built between 1922 and 1941, Manitoba's golden age of elevators, by a cross-section of grain-handling firms, including cooperatives and large companies backed by Canadian and American investors. Located in a town typical of many that dot the West, these slope-shouldered sentinels are surrounded by their outbuildings, rail line and fields of . . . — Map (db m8491) HM|
|New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Campobello — Campobello's Resort Hotels|
|In 1881, a group of American businessmen (called themselves the Campobello Company) purchased most of Campobello Island. In an era of summer-long vacations and great summer resorts, the company hoped, by promoting Campobello's charms, to attract, well-to-do people with extensive leisure time to its hotels. Both the Canadian and American press promoted Campobello as a summer resort. Built in 1881 on the northern end of Friar's Bay, the Owen was the first and most luxurious of the company's three . . . — Map (db m25467) HM|
|New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Lubec, Maine|
| About 1840, a canal connecting Johnson and South Bays was dug in North Lubec and a dam constructed there to harness tidal energy to power plaster mills. Gypsum (the raw product used to make plaster) and grindstones from the Maritimes were important trade goods. Lubec’s mills manufactured plaster as late as 1858. In 1874, shipping traffic to and from Lubec was so extensive that the U.S. Coast Guard constructed a life-saving station at West Quoddy Head.
About that time, passenger ferries . . . — Map (db m54995) HM|
|New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Lubec, Maine|
| Lubec's known history began at a Passamaquoddy Indian encampment at Mill Creek in what came to be called Seward's Neck (now North Lubec). French settlers later came to those shores in the early 1700s, but shortly afterward were driven away by the British. Resettlement occurred around 1776 when squatters settled Seward's Neck and Moose Island, both incorporated into the town of Eastport in 1798 and having a population of 244. Many of the settlers were Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and western . . . — Map (db m55023) HM|
|Ontario, Niagara Falls — Niagara Falls Park and River Railway Powerhouse|
|The Niagara Falls Park and River Railway Powerhouse, built on this site in 1892, was the first hydraulic powerhouse to use water from the Canadian side of the Niagara River. It generated 2100 hp of direct current electricity for the electric railway. Power generation ceased in 1932 and the building was demolished in 1985. — Map (db m66409) HM|
|Ontario, Ottawa — By Ward Market Heritage Conservation District — District de Conservation du Patrimoine du Marché By|
The dense cedar bog that became the site of the By Ward Market was drained and cleared in 1827 by Lieutenant-Colonel John By of the Royal Engineers to accommodate the workers building the Rideau Canal. The area rapidly became the commercial core of Bytown and later served the region's farming communities and the Ottawa Valley lumber industry, whose itinerant lumbermen gave the town its rowdy reputation. Over the next century the By Ward Market housed the businesses and institutions that . . . — Map (db m63692) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The Commissariat Office|
|The office for the Commissariat Department was built in 1831 near the government wharf and storehouse. Commissary officials purchased from local contractors the flour, beef, straw and firewood used by troops. They also managed Fort Malden's finances, including the soldiers' pay which was issued daily from this office. — Map (db m37356) HM|
|Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Detroit River|
|The Detroit River is unique in Canada, the United States and indeed, the world. Its shores embrace the largest metropolitan area on any international border - but rather than separating communities, the river connects them culturally and economically.
Archaeological finds date First Nations communities at the river as early as 400 A.D. while French settlers reached the area by the mid-1600's. The river and its watersheds represent the history of North America in a way that is not . . . — Map (db m37378) HM|
|Ontario (Middlesex County), London — The British Garrison in London|
|In one of several concentrations of British troops in Upper Canada various infantry and artillery units were stationed on a military reserve here during the mid-19th century. The garrison, which contributed significantly to the economic growth of London, was first established in 1839 to guard against border raids following the Rebellion of 1837. Although its troops were withdrawn in 1853 to serve in the Crimean War and military duties were assumed by pensioners, it was re-occupied by British . . . — Map (db m18918) HM|
|Ontario (Middlesex County), London — The Petition of John Ewart|
| The Petition of John Ewart of the Town of York:
That while your Petitioner was performing his contract for building the Court House and Gaol in the town of London, in the London District, he was located by Colonel Talbot upon two lots in the said Town of London liable to settlement Duties and upon which he has made the following...improvements -- that is to say, a framed House, 50 feet long by 30 feet wide, and 23 feet high, with a wing, 30 by 16 feet, and a back Kitchen . . . — Map (db m18974) HM|
|Ontario (Middlesex County), London — The Ridout Street Complex|
|This streetscape includes several of London's earliest buildings and provides a capsule view of the appearance of mid-19th century Ontario cities. These buildings, the earliest of which was begun in 1835, include residential, industrial and commercial premises all intermingled on one of the city's main streets. The group of structures soon became known as “Bankers' Row” because of the presence of five branch offices here. After years of neglect and deterioration, they were . . . — Map (db m18972) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Municipality), Fort Erie — Bertie Street Ferry Landing — c. 1796 - 1950|
|Over the centuries there have been many ferry landings along the Niagara River. Some were built by local merchants and some as government licenced landing points.
The longest operating ferry dock was here, near the foot of present-day Bertie Street. It was licenced to Henry Windecker c. 1796.
This hub of activity was not only a crossing point to and from the United States, but was also the location of customs, immigration, vehicle registration, and a railroad terminus.
During the . . . — Map (db m59332) HM|
|Ontario (Niagara Municipality), Niagara Falls — Zimmerman Fountain Pond|
|This beautiful fountain takes its name from Samuel Zimmerman who came to Canada from Pennsylvania in 1842. He amassed a fortune through a series of lucrative contracts involving the building of the second Welland Canal and various Railway Lines, allowing him to begin construction of a large estate in what is now Queen Victoria Park. The estate was unfinished when he was killed in a railway accident in March of 1857. This fountain pond, which dates back to 1856, is the last remaining remnant of his estate. — Map (db m59372) HM|
|Ontario (Regional Municipality of Niagara), Allanburg — The Old Welland Canal|
|Originally conceived in 1818 by its promoter, William Hamilton Merritt, to divert trade from the Erie Canal and New York and built under private auspices, the canal was opened to traffic in 1829. After additional work in 1833, the canal with its 40 wooden locks linked Port Colborne on Lake Erie and Port Dalhousie on Lake Ontario and brought prosperity to its environs by permitting the export of Upper Canadian staples through New York. In 1841 reconstruction was begun by the Canadian government . . . — Map (db m66168) HM|
|Ontario (Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara Falls — Niagara Portage Road|
|Following the cession of the east bank of the Niagara River to the United States in 1783, the British authorities felt compelled to transfer the portage road around Niagara Falls to the west bank of the river. Opened in 1789 by a group of private traders led by Robert Hamilton, the road between Queenston and Chippawa, which passed to the east of this monument, became the official government route in 1791. Until the completion of the Welland Canal in 1829 and the building of railways in the . . . — Map (db m66134) HM|
|Ontario (Regional Municipality of Niagara), St. Catharines — Lock 24 - First Welland Canal|
|A timber lock with inside dimensions of 33.7m (108 ft.) by 6.6m (22 ft.) was constructed on this site between 1824 and 1827. The lock walls consisted of earth filled cribs 5.2m (16 ft) thick and 7.6m (25 ft) deep. This was the 24th lock of 39 that lifted ships from Port Dalhousie on Lake Ontario up the Niagara Escarpment to Port Robinson on the Chippawa Creek. From there they proceeded into the Niagara River and on to Lake Erie. Each lock lifted a ship an average of 3m (10ft). This canal opened . . . — Map (db m66171) HM|
|Ontario (Regional Municipality of Niagara), St. Catharines — The First Welland Canal 1824-1833|
|Lock number 6 of the original Welland Canal lies in the adjacent watercourse about 213 metres southwest of here. This first or "wooden" canal, constructed 1824-33 by the Welland Canal Company, ran from Port Dalhousie on Lake Ontario to Port Colborne on Lake Erie. William Hamilton Merritt was its chief promoter. With the opening of the canal as far as Port Robinson in 1829, lake boats reached Lake Erie via the Welland and Niagara Rivers. When completed in 1833, the 45 km canal enabled vessels to . . . — Map (db m66154) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Chippawa — The Founding of Chippawa|
|In 1792-94 a village grew up near Fort Chippawa on Chippawa Creek at the end of the new portage road from Queenston. In 1793 the creek was renamed the Welland River, but the village, where a post-office was opened before 1801, remained "Chippawa". It was largely destroyed 1813-14 when British and American forces fought for control of the Welland River. Portage traffic revived after the war and continued until Chippawa became an outlet for the original Welland Canal from 1829 to 1833. A . . . — Map (db m54124) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara Falls — Bridgewater Mills|
|In the late 1790's the river flowed swiftly around these islands. The Bridgewater Mills, a water powered saw and grist mill and an iron foundry, where the first bar iron was made in Canada, were located here. The Mills were burned by the retreating American Army after the Battle of Lundy's Lane on July 26, 1814, and were not rebuilt. — Map (db m53402) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara Falls — Nikola Tesla — Inventor — 1856-1943|
|The St. George Serbian Orthodox Church, Niagara Falls, in partnership with the Niagara Parks Commission, have erected this monument to Nikola Tesla. Physicist, inventor, electrical engineer. Tesla developed the world's first hydroelectric system used here at Niagara Falls. — Map (db m40101) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Brown's Point|
|Brown's Inn was located here. Both the Canadian York Militia and the American Army bivouacked near here on separate occasions during the War of 1812. Adam Brown later added a store to his inn, and built a wharf on the river shore below, where sailing ships loaded settlers' produce, potash and lime destined for Montreal and overseas. — Map (db m49166) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Locomotive Turntable|
|For 103 years, beginning in 1854, a train powered by a steam locomotive pulled into the Niagara Dock. At first it only came from Chippawa via Niagara Falls and Queenston but by 1863 the line had been extended as far as Fort Erie and Buffalo. The train met the steamers which arrived from Toronto carrying tourists going to the Falls and soldiers bound for Camp Niagara. In late summer these ships returned to Toronto filled with baskets of peaches brought to the dock by the train. Riverbeach Drive . . . — Map (db m54079) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Niagara Harbour and Dock Company|
|Formed by local businessmen in 1831, the Niagara Harbour and Dock Company created a shipping basin here on the Niagara River by hiring hundreds of labourers to excavate a riverside marsh. By the late 1830s the company employed close to 400 workers and was operating one of the busiest ports and shipyards in Upper Canada. The local economy boomed as the business prospered, then lapsed into recession after financial problems crippled the company in the late 1840s. The company's industrial complex . . . — Map (db m54049) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Thorold — DeCou House Monument|
|DeCou's Stone House
This house of Captain John DeCou (the name was variously spelled by his relatives and descendants and latterly as DeCew) was the Headquarters of the British outpost under Lieut. James Fitzgibbon to which came Laura Secord through the woods and swamps below the Niagara Escarpment from Queenston on June 24, 1813 to warn of the American advance. Thus warned, the small British force with its Indian allies captured, by bold strategy, at . . . — Map (db m56826) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Thorold — The Founding of Thorold|
|During the construction of the original Welland Canal, 1824-1829, a number of communities sprung up along its length. Here, on land belonging to George Keefer, a village known as Thorold had developed by 1828. A large flouring mill was built on the canal and the Thorold Township post office was moved from Beaverdams to the new settlement by Jacob Keefer. By 1831 two sawmills were in operation and in 1835 the village contained 370 inhabitants. During the 1840's the building of the Welland Mills, . . . — Map (db m54088) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Vineland — Ball's Grist-Mill|
|By 1809 John and George Ball had constructed a four-storey grist-mill here on Twenty Mile Creek. Equipped with two run of stones, the mill provided flour for British Troops during the War of 1812. It was expanded during the 1840's and by the end of the decade was part of a complex which included sawmills and woollen factories. About that time George Peter Mann Ball laid out a village plot named Glen Elgin. His plans for an industrial community were thwarted, however, when the Great Western . . . — Map (db m57064) HM|
|Quebec, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu — First Railway in Canada|
|Canada's first steam railway, the Champlain and St. Lawrence, was opened in 1836 to better facilitate trade with the United States. It was built by promoters led by brewer John Molson and merchant-forwarder Jason C. Pierce. This 23-kilometre line expedited the movement of passengers and freight between Montréal and New York by linking La Prairie, on the St. Lawrence River and Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu. The wooden rails were replaced with iron in 1847, and the line was extended in 1851 to Rouses . . . — Map (db m43636) HM|
|Quebec (Ville-Marie Borough), Montréal — L’Ancien Édifice de la Douane / The Old Custom House|
|Construite entre 1836 et 1838, l’ancienne douane est l’œuvre de John Ostell, l’un des plus importants architectes de ces années à Montréal. L’édifice de style palladien se distingue par son élégante façade ornée de pilastres et d’un large fronton. Situé face au fleuve, sur la vieille place du Marché, il soulignait l’essor commercial de Montréal et le nouveau rôle de la métropole. Le bâtiment abrita le service des douanes jusqi’en 1871 et conserva son harmonieuse apparence d’origine après . . . — Map (db m72899) HM|
|Yukon Territory, Dawson City — 3rd Avenue Complex — Le complexe de la 3e avenue|
| [English] In Dawson City’s history, permafrost ranks second only to fire as the bane of buildings. These three structures, dating from 1901, illustrate what can happen when heated buildings are placed on frozen ground; the frost melts, mixing water with the soil to form a very fluid muck into which the different footings settle at different rates. No restoration measures have been taken with these buildings so that visitors may see history as it naturally unfolds.|
Dans l’histoire . . . — Map (db m49305) HM
|Yukon Territory, Dawson City — Bank of British North America/La Bank of British North America|
The BNA, which opened Dawson City’s first bank in a tent in 1898, moved into these premises in 1899. By providing the essential services of assaying, buying and shipping gold, it helped integrate the local currency of dust and nuggets into a cash economy. As larger gold companies with their own assayers and capital took over mining, the bank (since 1918 the Bank of Montreal) became a more peripheral service, providing a payroll service for the dredges. It closed in 1968 after the . . . — Map (db m44857) HM|
|Yukon Territory, Dawson City — Billy Bigg’s Blacksmith Shop — La forge de Billy Bigg|
| [English] This building stands as a testament to the way frontier businesses changed and adapted to new realities. It began life in 1899 as the two storey Great Northern Hotel, to service the needs of a rapidly growing population. By 1907, as the population settled, it was converted into a blacksmith shop. In 1913, with the increasing mechanization of mining, a machine shop was added. Each change in business came with an addition to the building. In the 1940’s, then-owner Billy Bigg removed . . . — Map (db m49304) HM|
|Yukon Territory, Dawson City — Discovery Claim — Concession de la Découverte|
The names Robert Henderson, Skookum Jim, Tagish Charlie and George Carmack are inextricably linked to the discovery of gold on Bonanza Creek. Henderson was first to systematically explore the gold bearing potential of the region, only to have the major find elude him. Then on 17 August 1896 Jim struck gold, and with his companions Charlie and Carmack staked the first claims. A few day later at Forty Mile, Carmack in his own name registered the Discovery Claim where this monument . . . — Map (db m44702) HM|
|Yukon Territory, Dawson City — Harrington’s Store — Le magasin Harrington|
| [English] Like other grocers at the turn of the century, Harrington provided a cosmopolitan clientele with every conceivable foodstuff, from beans to truffles. This was made possible by the coincidence of improved transportation systems with new food storage technologies, such as evaporation, canning, and artificial cold storage. Linked to the rest of the world during summer by rail and steamer, Dawson City merchants provided perishable foods year-round, all at a price of 2 to 3 times that . . . — Map (db m49303) HM|
|Yukon Territory, Dawson City — K.T.M. Company — La compagnie K.T.M.|
| [English] Built in 1899, this warehouse was taken over by the Klondike Thawing Machine Company 1n 1913. The growing hardware company was it the process of buying out other firms and expanding its line of goods even as Klondike gold claims were being consolidated by larger mining companies. The warehouse was necessary to store the company’s varied merchandise stock because for 8 months of the year it was cut off from “outside’ sources of supply.|
Construit en 1899, cet . . . — Map (db m49302) HM
|Yukon Territory, Dawson City — Madame Tremblay’s Store/Le magasin de Madame Tremblay|
While this building dates from 1899, it did not become Mme. Tremblay’s, a dry goods and novelty shop, until 1913. Émillie Tremblay had first come to the territory as a young French Canadian bride in 1895 with her husband Jack. After 15 years on Eldorado Creek, and with the era of the individual miner on the wane, they moved to Dawson City. There they completed the transition from miners to merchants by investing their earnings from the creeks in the store. Mme. Tremblay ran the store until . . . — Map (db m44933) HM|
|Yukon Territory, Dawson City — Northern Commercial Co. Warehouse — L’entrepôt de la Northern Commercial Co.|
| [English] One of the complex of four warehouses that covered an entire city block in 1898, this and numerous other warehoused like it provided the life blood of Dawson City. For four months a year, the river was open for shipping and in the ensuing flurry of activity, the warehouses were loaded with every conceivable item of merchandise. Over the next 8 months, virtually cut off from the rest of the world, Dawson City drew on these supplies to satisfy the needs and wants of a modern . . . — Map (db m49346) HM|
|Yukon Territory, Dawson City — Ruby’s Place/La maison de Ruby|
Opened as a boarding house and laundry in 1902, the building was taken over by Mathilde “Ruby” Scott in 1935. For over 27 years, this former Paris Madame operated a brothel here, finding a ready clientele in the seasonal workers from the gold dredge camps. She operated with the tacit approval of local officials until 1961. With both gold mining and her business in decline, Ruby was charged with keeping a bawdy house. For the next 8 years, Ruby’s was simply a boarding . . . — Map (db m44887) HM|
|Yukon Territory, Dawson City — The B.Y.N. Co. Ticket Office/La billettetereie de la compagnie B.Y.N.|
|[English:] This structure, built in 1900, is all that remains of a larger complex that included a warehouse and dock. At the time of the gold rush and for years afterwards, the riverfront was the transition point between Dawson City and the rest of the world. Riverside facilities were developed until they stretched in a solid line across the city’s length. For most people, it was the first thing that greeted them as the arrived in Dawson City – and the last thing they saw as the . . . — Map (db m44859) HM|
|Yukon Territory, Dawson City — Yukon Hotel|
| [English] When it was built in the fall of 1898, the Binet Block stood at the southern end of the business district extending north to King Street. A two-storey log building with a facade of milled lumber, it was typical of commercial structures built at the height of the gold rush. The lower floor with its large windows was meant for commercial use, the upper for residential. Between October 1898 and October 1900, the Federal Government rented it for offices. During the next fifty-seven . . . — Map (db m49306) HM|
|Yukon Territory, Dawson City — Yukon Saw Mill Office Historic Site|
|The Yukon Saw Mill Company was one of the first to cut timber in the Klondike, registering its first timber lease in March of 1898. At its peak, the company’s machine shop was the largest north of Vancouver, and its lumberyard stretched over three city blocks. The economic impact from these operations was far-reaching, not only for local workers, but also for the First nations and non-First Nations contractors who cut the timber and rafted huge log booms down the Yukon River to the Dawson . . . — Map (db m44761) HM|
|Yukon Territory, Whitehorse — SS Klondike|
The largest vessel ever to ply the Canadian portion of the Yukon River, this sternwheeler was built by the British Yukon Navigation Co. and launched at Whitehorse in 1937 to replace her namesake, which sank the year before. Klondike No. 2 was designed to expedite the movement of silver-lead ore on the Yukon River. A combination freight and passenger boat, she operated primarily between Whitehorse and Dawson. In 1954-55 the vessel was placed in cruise service after an . . . — Map (db m42699) HM|
|Estonia, Harjumaa MaakondTallinn — Mustpeade Maja — [Tallinn House of Black Heads] — PIKK 26|
| Text in Estoninan: ...
Text in English:
The Tallinn Brotherhood of Black Heads, established in 1399, leased the Pikk Street building in 1517 and added a big festive hall to it in 1531-32, the initial ornament paintings of which can still be seen in the windows.
In 1597, the façade was renovated by the builder-stonecutter Arent Passer. In addition to the coat of arms of the brotherhood that bears the picture of St. Mauritius, the stone décor also represents the portraits . . . — Map (db m57007) HM|
|Estonia, Harjumaa MaakondTallinn — Suurgildi Hoone — [The Great Guild] — PIKK 17|
| Estonian Text : …
English Text :
The Great Guild, which was an organisation for major merchants and dealt with international trade, had an official building built in 1407-17. The basements and walls of the dwelling that was situated there in the 14th century was partially used. A double-naved festive hall was vaulted in 1410. The hall had air heating and a balcony for musicians, as well as a staircase that led to the bridal chamber. The front door knockers are lion heads . . . — Map (db m56996) HM|
|France, Aquitaine (Gironde), Saint Emilion — L’ancienne Halle — [The old Covered Market]|
|Ce bâtiment du XVIIIème siècle abrite, jusque bien après la Révolution Française, l’Hôtel de Ville, sa prision et sa halle où se tenaient certains marchés.|
[English translation by Google Translate with modifications:
The old covered market
This 18th century building housed, until well after the French Revolution, the Town Hall, its prison, its covered market or stood some markets.] — Map (db m60518) HM
|France, Île-de-France (Paris), Paris — Le Moulin de la Galette — Histoire de Paris|
|Plus qu’une institution, l’ancien “Blute-fin” est un monument, avec sa légende héroique; en 1814, lors du siege de Paris par les Cosaques, le dernier de quatre frères d’une dynastie de meuniers attestée depuis 1621, les Debray, finit dépecé et cloué sur les ailes de son moulin au terme d’une défense désespérée. Sous la Restauration, son fils transforme le bâtiment en salle de bal, à la décoration essentiellement composée de treillis de jardin peints en vert. L’ambiance y est . . . — Map (db m60876) HM|
|France, Île-de-France (Paris), Paris — Tribunal de Commerce — (Commerce Court)|
|A l’emplacement de l’actuel tribunal de commerce s’élevait l’église Saint-Barthélemy. Le vétuste édifice médiéval fut reconstruit à partir de 1772 et doté d’un portail classique, oeuvre de Cherpitel. A peine achevée, l’église fut détruite en 1791, et l’architecte Lenoir édifia à sa place une salle de spectacles, le théâtre de la Cité. En 1810, ces lieux furent aménagés en salle de bal, le Prado, où une clientèle d’assez mauvaise réputation dansait la polka. En 1860, le tribunal de commerce, . . . — Map (db m61455) HM|
|France, Île-de-France (Paris Département), Paris — Bureau de Gustave Eiffel — Gustave Eiffel’s office|
|Gustave Eiffel, en compagnie de sa fille Claire, s’était aménagé un petit appartement au sommet de la Tour où il accueillait de hôtes de marque dans le cadre de réceptions intimes. Cette scène évoque la viste que lui fit Thomas Edison le 10 septembre 1889. A cette occasion, le physicien et inventeur américan, offre à Gustave Eiffel un modèle de son fameux phonographe qu’il vient présenter é l’Exposition Universelle de 1889.|
Gustave Eiffel’s office
Accompanied by his daughter Claire, . . . — Map (db m60918) HM
|France, Languedoc-Roussillon (Bouches-du-Rhône), Arles — Le Forum Romain et Les Cryptoportiques — The Roman Forum and the Cryptoportiques|
|L’implantation du Forum romain contre le flanc Ouest de la colline d’Arles a necéssité la construction d’importantes substructions destinées à établir solidement une vaste terrasse.
La partie Nord de ces galeries sousterraines, appelées Cryptoportiques passe sous la place du Forum actuelle, la partie Sud sous l’Hôtel de Ville.
Autour l’esplanade ainsi constituée, fut édifié dès l’installation de la colonie romaine, fondée en 46 av. J.C. par Jules César, un grand portique de colonnes encadrant . . . — Map (db m60964) HM|
|France, Languedoc-Roussillon (Hérault), Beziers — Les Halles — [The Covered Market]|
|Sur cet emplacement etait un eglise romane (XIe siecle) dediee a St. Felix. Au pied de cette eglise : le cimetiere des pauvres. C’est le lieu que choisit Raymond Trencavel, dernier Vicomte de Beziers, pour annoncer a la population qu’il faisait cession de Roi de France de sa vicomte (1247).
L’eglies St. Felix est detruite en 1815. Sur l’emplacement du cimetiere sera elevee en 1855 un colonne surmontee d’une statue de l’Immaculee Conception (apres les apparitions de Lourdes).
Elles sera . . . — Map (db m60261) HM|
|France, Languedoc-Roussillon (Hérault), Capestang — La maison vigneronne — [The Winemaker's house]|
|Exemple de maison vigneronne: Celle du propriétaire exploitant (première moitié du XIXe). La partie résidentielle est bien séparée de la cave surmontée d’un étage auquel la poulie (la carrela) permettait de monter le matériel viticole et la récoite.|
[Translation by Google Translate (with modifications): The Winemakers Home
Example of a vintner's house: owner-operator (first half of the nineteenth century). The residential portion is separated from the winemaking room which is topped . . . — Map (db m60175) HM
|France, Languedoc-Roussillon (Hérault), Capestang — Le Domaine CASTRES|
|Une “campagne” au coeur du village. Malgré le patronage officiel de Rouget de Lisle, pour les gens du cru, le “plan de Castres” sert toujours à designer la place et tour le quartier.
[Translation by Google Translate (with modifications):
A "campaign" in the heart of the village. Despite the official patronage of Rouget de Lisle, for the locals, the "plan Castres" is still used to designate the place and in turn the neighborhood.] — Map (db m60084) HM|
|France, Midi-Pyrénées (Tarn), Albi — Les Moulins albigeois — Albi Mills|
|Une dizaine de moulins s’égrenaient autrefois sur les deux rives du Tarn. Quatre subsistèrant après la Révolution: les moulins de Gardes, de Lamothe, du Chapitre et le Moulin-Neuf, appele par la suite «Moulins de l’Albigeois» .
Un moulin existant déjà sur ce site au XIIIe siècle. Transformé aux XVIIIe et XIVe siècles, il devint le siège d’une minoterie après 1828, complétée par une vermicellerie en 1845.
Après avoir connu une période florissante, la Société des Moulins des l’Albigeois cessa . . . — Map (db m60335) HM|
|France, Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur (Vaucluse), Bonnieux — 14 — Place du Moulin a Huile — (Place of the Olive Mill)|
|Les moulins à huile (appelés «a bras ou a sang», c’est-à-dire à traction animale) étaient nombreux et situés à l’intérieur des remparts. Il est très difficile de les dater, car la technique a peu èvolue au cours des siècles.
Dans plusieurs maisons, on retrouve meule et pressoir. Ceux-ci, très bien conservés dans ce moulin, sont de précieux témoins de leur fonctionement.
La première pression à froid était pour l’usage de la table, la deuxième pression à chaud pour l’usage domestique, la . . . — Map (db m61758) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria, Bamberg — The Old Tollhouse — Alte Mauth|
[Marker text in German:]
Hier stand die
1944 - 1945
[Marker text translated into English:]
Here stood the Old Tollhouse. Destroyed by the effects of war, 1944-1945. — Map (db m58411) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria, Munich — Miesbach to Munich Power Transmission|
|Im Oktober 1882 wurde hier anlässlich der internationalen Elektrizitätsaustellung von Miesbach nach München erstmals in der Welt eine Kraftűbertragung mit hoch gespannten Strőmen durchgefuhrt. Die Schőpfer des Werkes Oskar von Miller und Marcel Deprez bahnten da mit den Weg zur Ausnűtzung entlegener Energiequellen. Der Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker im September 1952. Leitung Telegraphendraht 2x57 km. Spannung 1350 bis 2000 Volt Gleichstrom.
Translated, the . . . — Map (db m22477) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria, Würzburg — Old Cranes — Alter Kranen|
|In den Jahren 1767-1773 errichtete Fürstbischof Adam Friedrich von Seinsheim ein Hebewerk am Mainufer, das unter dem Namen “Alter Kranen” bekannt ist. Dieser Kran diente den Binnenschiffern bis 1846 zum entladen ihrer Schiffe. Der ausführende Architekt war Franz Ignaz Neumann, der Sohn des berühmten Barockmeisters Balthasar Neumann. Franz Ignaz Neumann hat mit diesem Bauwerk eine noch heute in der Fachwelt bestaunte Anlage geschaffen.
Translated, the marker reads: In the . . . — Map (db m22687) HM|
|Germany, Bavaria, Würzburg — The Lower Main Mill|
|Hier stand erbaut von Fürstbischof Iohann Philipp von Schönborn die Untere Mainmühle 1644-1921. An ihrer Stelle wurde in den Jahren 1921-1923 dieser Bau errichtet als erstes Kraftwerk der Grosschiffahrtstrasse Rhein-Main-Donau.
Translated, the marker reads: From 1644-1921 here stood the Lower Main Mill, built by Prince-bishop Johann Philipp von Schoenborn. In its place this building was built in the years 1921-1923 as the first power plant of the Greater Rhine-Main-Danube Navigational Route. — Map (db m22827) HM|
|Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Mansfeld-Südharz District), Lutherstadt Eisleben — City Seat of the Counts of Mansfeld-Hinterort — Stadtsitz der Grafen von Mansfeld-Hinterort|
Built in 1500 by Count Albrecht IV, 1570-1616 seat of the Superintendent Office and the Office of the Upper Eisleben, in 1609 abandoned as City Palace, from 1671 to 1992 the seat of important administrative institutions of the Mansfeld mining and smelting industry (Markt 56-58)
1500 unter Graf Albrecht IV. erbaut, 1570-1616 Sitz des Oberaufseheramtes und des Oberamtes Eisleben, 1609 als Stadtschloß aufgegeben, 1671 . . . — Map (db m70242) HM|
|Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Mansfeld-Südharz District), Lutherstadt Eisleben — Markt 54 Birthplace of Alwin Sörgel — Markt 54 Geburtshaus von Alwin Sörgel|
Spokesman for the Democrats 1848/1849 and co-founder of cooperative banking
• 26 May 1815
Alwin Sörgel was the son of merchant Ernst August Sörgel. He immigrated to Texas in 1845, but returned after two years and took over his father's business in Eisleben.
In the wake of the German Revolution in 1848/49 he was the spokesman of the Eislebener Democrats and co-founder of the Liberal People's Association. As editor of the "People's sheet for the county of Mansfeld," . . . — Map (db m70244) HM|
|Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Mansfeld-Südharz District), Lutherstadt Eisleben — Residence of Richard Wagner — Aufenthalt von Richard Wagner|
In this home, Richard Wagner stayed with his step-uncle, Master Goldsmith Carl Geyer, from 19 September 1822 for some time.
In diesem Hause hielt sich Richard Wagner ab 19. September 1822 bei seinem Stiefonkel Goldschmiedemeister Carl Geyer eine Zeitlang auf. — Map (db m70213) HM|
|Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Mansfeld-Südharz District), Lutherstadt Eisleben — Residence of Richard Wagner — Aufenthalt von Richard Wagner|
In this house there was the goldsmith's workshop by Carl Geyer, the step-uncle of Richard Wagner, in which the great German composer stayed from early October 1821 until September 1822.
In diesem Haus befand sich die Goldschmiedewerkstatt von Carl Geyer, dem Stiefonkel Richard Wagners, bei dem sich der groß deutsche Komponist von Anfang Oktober 1821 bis September 1822 aufhielt. — Map (db m70240) HM|
|Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Mansfeld-Südharz District), Lutherstadt Eisleben — The Eisleber Mining School in the Katharinenstift 1817 - 1844 — Die Eisleber Bergschule im Katharinenstift 1817 – 1844|
• The development of mining in the town of Eisleben is connected closely with the “Bergschule”, or Mining School. At the start of the 18th century new scientific discoveries necessitated the education of specialists to ensure the long-term sustainability of mining in the area.
• In 1719 at a “General Meeting of the Trades of Eisleben and Hettestedt” it is decided that young miners should be taught higher mining and engineering knowledge. This . . . — Map (db m70311) HM|
|Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Mansfeld-Südharz District), Mansfeld-Lutherstadt — Scherren — (original nach / by C. Spangenberg)|
Im Volksmund später auch Murre genannt.
Als Scherren bezeichnete man im Mittelalter
Verkaufsstände an denen frische Lebensmittel gehandelt wurden.
Dies waren vorwiegend Fleisch und Brot.
Daher werden sie in der Chronik auch als Fleisch und Brotbänke bezeichnet.
In the vernacular, later also called Murre.
As one called Scherren in the Middle Ages
Stalls, selling fresh food being traded.
These were mainly . . . — Map (db m70363) HM|
|Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Wittenberg District), Lutherstadt Wittenberg — Christian Döring — (unbek. - 1533)|
Goldschmied, Verleger, Stadtkämmerer
verlegte 1522 das Neue Testament
Goldsmith, Publisher, City Treasurer
in 1522 published the New Testament — Map (db m69783) HM|
|Germany, Saxony-Anhalt (Wittenberg District), Lutherstadt Wittenberg — Lucas Cranach d. Ältere — (1472 - 1553)|
Maler und Unternehmer
1537 - 1544 Bürgermeister
Artist and Entrepreneur
1537 - 1544 Mayor — Map (db m69739) HM|
|Ireland, Connacht (County Galway), Inishmore, Aran Islands — Welcome to Port Corrúch Seal Colony — Failte go Port Corrúch|
| Welcome to Port Corrúch Seal Colony
[First part of the marker is about the seal colony along the coastline and is not transcribed]
As you look across the North Sound you can see the Coast of Connemare and the Twelve pins of Connemara. Near by the factory ruins represents an out post of Victorian industianlism [sic] in the 19th Century. One of the earliest attempts to mechanige [sic] the kelp industry was sited just here for the topography of the area makes this Aran's most favoured . . . — Map (db m22928) HM|
|Ireland, Connacht (County Mayo), Moneen — Lime Kiln, Moneen, — Clew Bay Archaeological Trail site 11 — Slí Seandálaíochta Chuan Módh|
| Móinín - Small Bog
Lime Kilns date from the 18th century and were used until the 1940s in some areas. By lighting fires in these kilns and adding crushed limestone, lime was produced for use as fertiliser in the fields and also for whitewashing cottages. Most of the lime kilns around the country have been destroyed and only rare examples survive. This site survives in its entirety and is as fine an example of its type to be found in the area.
Tornóg Aoil - Móinín
Tosaíodh ag . . . — Map (db m27989) HM|
|Ireland, Connacht (County Mayo), Murrisk — Murrisk Fisherman's Monument|
Ag Criost an muir
Ag Criost an t-iasc
_liontaib de go gcastar sinn
This monument was erected to honour the
contributions of the traditional seafaring
fishing community in Murrisk.
We celebrate their memory and ask you to remember
all those who lost their lives in Clew Bay
Names of boats associated with sea fishing in Murrisk up to mid 1960's
Officially unveiled by
Cathaoirleach of Mayo County Council
Gerry Coyle &
Most Rev. Michael Neary DD
Archbishop of . . . — Map (db m27575) HM|
|Ireland, Connacht (County Roscommon), Strokestown — Strokestown Brewery|
Brewery here in
early 18th century — Map (db m27548) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Fingal), Howth — Howth The Village / Binn Éadair ______ — The Fingal Way / Sli Fhine Gall|
| A Fishing Village
References to the fishing industry in Howth can be found from the twelfth century, although in the seventeenth century the port was also known in the area as a base for pirates roaming Dublin Bay. In Elizabethan times a wooden quay was built but as vessel size increased the importance of Howth for goods and passenger traffic declined. In the nineteenth century various plans were put forward for a harbour at Howth and in 1807 construction commenced using stone quarried . . . — Map (db m27057) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Fingal), Howth — Lost At Sea|
| The monument was erected by
The Howth Fishermens Association
and commemorated the lives
of all persons lost at sea,
no matter where or no matter how.
[Representative memorial plaques follow]
Brian Faherty and Michael McDonogh
of The Lively Lady, Inís-More, Aran Islands
Lost at Sea, March 1st 1982 in Rossaveal.
Sadly missed by their families & friends
Ar dheis dé go raibh a nanam
In loving memory of the crew of
‘The . . . — Map (db m26806) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Longford), Lanesborough — fáilte go Lanesborough|
Brief History of Longford
Longford is a focal point of the northern midlands where the provinces of Leinster, Ulster and Connaught all converge. Longford, where history and literature, tradegy and triumph are all woven together, takes its name from the ancient stronghold of the O'Farrell family (Long Fort - Fort of the O'Farrells) who ruled from the 11th Century. Bordered to the west by the majestic River Shannon, Longford is a county of rolling plains and picturesque stretches of . . . — Map (db m27498) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Fordstown — Girley / Fordstown — Meath Villages|
| An introduction to Fordstown
Fordstown is named after the Norman-Irish Ford family, who lived in the area. One part of the townland is sometimes referred to as Ballaghboy. Today, Fordstown is a growing, vibrant community. ‘Fordstown Street Fair’ is an old world fair, hosted by Fordstown in October each year since 2004. Fordrew Rovers
Fordrew Rovers Football Club was formed in 1997 and play in Drewstown. They progressed from Division 4A to Division 1 in four years. They won . . . — Map (db m27318) HM|
|Ireland, Munster (County Kerry), Listowel — Maid of Erin|
| Work of local man
1846-1921 — Map (db m23698) HM|
|Ireland, Ulster (County Donegal), Slieve League — Fishing /Iascaireacht — Walking Through Donegal — Ag Siúl Tríd Dhún na nGall|
The sea has always been a central part of the lives of the people who live in this area. Fishing once provided an important source of income for many local families. However, today the industry is in steady decline. Donegal Bay, once busy with boats of all sizes, now supports only minimal fishing activity.
Is páirt lárnach do shaol na ndaoine a chónaíonn sa cheantar seo an fharraige. Chuidigh an teacht isteach ó thionscal na h-iascaireachta go mór le mórán de na teaghlaigh áitiúla lá den . . . — Map (db m71644) HM|
|Italy, South Tyrol, Bolzano — Mercantile Palace — Palazzo Mercantile — Merkantilgebäude|
|The text of this marker is in three languages; Italian (top), German (middle) and English (bottom).
Antica sede del Magistrato Mercantile, organo giurisdizionale dell’atività fieristica di Bolzano intituito nel 1635 dall’arciduchessa Claudia de’ Medici. L’attuale edificio (1708-1731) è opera dei fratelli Delai su progetto dell’architetto veronese F. Perotti. Già sede della Camera di Commercio, ospita oggi il Museo Mercantile con collezioni di documenti, dipiti e arredi dei secoli XVII . . . — Map (db m68724) HM|
|Netherlands Antilles, Sint Maarten, Philipsburg — Dr Albert Claudius ("Claude") Wathey — July 24, 1926 - January 8, 1999|
|Albert Claudius Wathey, simply "Claude" to everyone, was no doubt the most dominant political figure on the island in the last century. The legendary leader was in power for almost 40 years, during which time St. Maarten was
transformed from a sleepy backwater island whose inhabitants had to emigrate elsewhere to find work, into one of the leading tourist destinations in the Caribbean, attracting over a million visitors annually, including a very significant number of cruise passengers as . . . — Map (db m40384) HM|
|Netherlands Antilles, Sint Maarten, Philipsburg — John Philip Frederick Craane — a.k.a. Boechi|
|This building is dedicated to John P.F. Craane, affectionately known as "Boechi." Born November 24,1913. Boechi spent most of his life working on or around boats. His love for boats was greatly influenced by his father, who was a well-known boat builder on the island of Bonaire.
As a young boy, Boechi worked with his father, helping to build boats after school. As a young man, he captained several of the boats his father had built, including the Endeavour and Rainbow.
In 1954 Boechi was . . . — Map (db m40591) HM|
|Netherlands Antilles, Sint Maarten, Philipsburg — St. Maarten Gingerbread Market Stalls — Historic Sint Maarten Remembered|
|The gingerbread surroundings for the Harbor Point Village market stalls are a typical feature of the St. Maarten/ St. Martin homes of the past. Lovingly crafted by hand, often with improvised tools, gingerbread designs took on folk art appeal on their own at the turn of the 19th century. Many of the smaller holmes were constructed with the help of family and friends whose only pay would be a plate of food and a hearty drink at the end of the day. These buildings were gaily painted in bright . . . — Map (db m40518) HM|
|Switzerland, Bern (Interlaken-Oberhasli (District)), Interlaken — Hotel Beau Rivage|
|Dieser französischen geprägte Neurenaissance-Palast wurde nach einem Brand 1899/1900 durch Josef Döpfer aus Luzern und den Architekten Bernhard Hauser erstellt. Der beeindruckende Baukörper mit dem Mittalrisalit in der Hauptfront und dem polygonalen Eckturm beherrscht selbst-bewusst das Bild an der Strassenkreuzung. Trotz diverser Erweiterungen mit Speisesaal und Hallenbad ist das Beau Rivage in seinem Erscheingungsbild weitgehend erhalten geblieben und gehört nach wie vor zu den besten . . . — Map (db m67954) HM|
|Switzerland, Lucerne (Lucerne (District)) — "The Little House" — Kleinhäuslein|
|Spätgotisches Bürgerhaus aus dem 16. Jahrhundert mit Holzdeckenkonstrucktionen aus der Bauzeit.
1723 – 1909 Weinschenke.
Nach Brand von 1905 umgebaut.
Unter Denkmalschutz seit 1979.
1978 – 1979 im Innern restauriert.
Late Gothic town house dating from the 16th Century, with a wooden ceiling dating from the time of construction. 1723 - 1909 a wine tavern.
Rebuilt after a fire in 1905.
A protected monument since 1979.
1978 . . . — Map (db m67700) HM|
|Switzerland, Lucerne (Lucerne (District)) — Bakers Guildhall — Zunfthaus zu Pfistern|
|1408 erwarb die Pfisterngesellschaft die Liegenschaft, in deren Haus sie, seit 1421 nachweisbar, ihre Pfisterstube einrichtete.
Das heutige Haus, erbaut 1573 – 1578, diente bis 1874 als gesellschaftshaus der Pfister. Die Zunft bestand aus Bäckern und Müllern, denen sich 1595 die Schiffleute des Pfisternauen anschlossen.
1875 löste sich die Zunft auf.
1910 wurden das Haus um ein Stockwerk erhöht. Im Innern vollständig umgebaut und als Gasthaus eingerichtet.
Die . . . — Map (db m67539) HM|
|Switzerland, Lucerne (Lucerne (District)) — Butchers’ Arch — Metzgerbogli|
| Metzgerbogli or Butchers’ Arch is a tunnel between Kornmarktgasse and Brandgässli. The marker is composed of four inscriptions on glass, each inscription is in German, English and Chinese. Only the English text is printed here. Click on the images to enlarge them and read the German and Chinese texts.
In the year 1458 the corporation of butchers together with the corporation of Balenherren (: guild of fishermen and drum-netters) built their guild-house on the Wine Market. The . . . — Map (db m67543) HM|
|Switzerland, Lucerne (Lucerne (District)) — Fishermens Point — Fischerstatt|
|Mittelalterliche Schifflände. Um 1550 wurden die Bögen erstellt und darunter der Fischmarkt eingerichtet, welcher vorher am untern Weinmarkt abgehalten worden war. An die Fischerstatt schloss sich reussabwärts seit 1479 – 81 die stadtische Metzg an.
Medieval docking point. Around 1550 the arches were erected, with the fish market set up beneath, which had previously been held at the lower wine market. Since 1479-81 the meat . . . — Map (db m67512) HM|
|Switzerland, Lucerne (Lucerne (District)) — Grain Market — Kornmarkt|
|1356 erstmals erwähnt. Bis ins 19. Jahrhundert Kornmarkt, der zuerst in privaten Kaufhäusern, seit 1438 in der Kornschütte des Rathauses stattfand. 1447 wurde das Rathaus vom Fischmarkt hierher verlegt. Seitdem ist der Platz politischer Mittelpunkt der Stadt.
First mentioned in 1356. At first the grain market was held in privately-held stores, and then from 1438 at the grain depot by the Town Hall. In 1447 the city hall was moved here from . . . — Map (db m67541) HM|
|Switzerland, Lucerne (Lucerne (District)) — Johann Baptist Marzohl|
1792 – 1863
1792 - 1863 — Map (db m67731) HM|
|Switzerland, Lucerne (Lucerne (District)) — Metzgerrainli — Corraggionihaus|
Das westliche Metzgerrainli bildete früher einen Zweig der Kramgasse, gehörte somit zum ältesten Marktbereich der Stadt. Am Ende der östlichen Fortsetzung, an der Fischerstatt, war der Zugang zur städtischen Metzg, die 1479 – 1874 an der Reuss lag. Von daher leitet sich der im 17. Jahrhundert entstandene Name ab. Anschliessend an die Metzg befand sich bis 1548 die städtische Sinne, von der aus der grosse Weinumschlag der Stadt und der Urkantone kontrolliert und . . . — Map (db m67500) HM|
|Switzerland, Lucerne (Lucerne (District)) — Mühlenplatz (Mill Place) — Von Mühlerad zur Turbine (From Mill Wheel to Turbine). — Die Nutzung der Wasserkraft am Mühlenplatz (The Use of Water Power on Mühlenplatz).|
Von Mühlerad zur Turbine
Die Nutzung der Wasserkraft am Mühlenplatz
Lange vor der Stadtgründung wird die Wasserkraft der Reuss genutzt. Das seit dem 8. Jh. nachweisbare Kloster im Hof betreibt hier seine Mühlen. Nach der Mitte des 14. Jn. Gelangen die Mühlen unter die Kontrolle der Stadt. Das Bild aus dem Jahr 1513 zeigt den Schiffbruch von Luzerner Kaufleuten an der im Flussbett verankerten Schwelle. Diese staut das Wasser und leitet es dem Mühlard zu. Die einfache, . . . — Map (db m67569) HM|
|Switzerland, Lucerne (Lucerne (District)) — Stammhaus Corragioni D’Orelli|
v. Broglio Maggiatal
Letzter Stammhalter † 1944
Family Headquarters of the
from Broglio, Maggiatal
Granted citizenship in 1669
Last heir died in 1944 — Map (db m67501) HM|
|Switzerland, Lucerne (Lucerne (District)) — The Wine Market — Weinmarkt|
|Bis zum 16.Jahrhundert Fischmarkt. Mit dem Abbruch der mittelalterlichen Schaal, einer zweigeschossigen, hölzernen Markthalle für den Verkauf von Fleisch, Brot und Leder, entstand 1481 der Platz in seiner heutigen Form.
Steinmetz Konrad Lux schuf 1481 den spätgotischen Brunnen (Original im Historischen Museum).
Der Fischmarkt war im Mittelalter politischer Mittelpunkt und Zentrum des Marktbereiches. An seiner Südwestecke stand bis 1447 das erste Rathaus. Der Platz war gesäumt von den . . . — Map (db m67515) HM|
|Switzerland, Valais (Visp (District)), Zermatt — Hotel Monte Rosa|
|Hier stand das Haus, in welchem Josef Lauber seit 1839 die erste Herberge von Zermatt mit drei und später acht Fremdenbetten führte. Alexander Seiler übernahm sie 1853 und errichtete 1855 an dieser Stelle das Hotel Monte Rosa mit urprünglich fünfunddreissig Betten. Das Stammhaus der Seilerschen Hotelbetriebe wurde rasch zu einem Hauptquartier der Alpinisten der Pionierzeit und galt besonders bei den Mitgliedern des Alpine Club als << the mountaineers’ true home >> (C.E. Mathews, 1885). . . . — Map (db m67990) HM|
|Switzerland, Zurich (Zurich) — Bienenhof|
|1907 von den architekten Otto Pfleg-Hard (1869-1958) und Max Haefeli (1869-1941) für die vereinigten chocoladefabriken Lindt & Sprüngli als geschäftshaus erbaut.
Die streng gegliederte pfeilerfassade zeigt in ihrem bauschmuck mit bienenmotiven noch elemente des jugendstils.
Unter denkmalschutz seit 1986
1907 by the architect Otto Pfleg-Hard (1869-1958) and Max Haefeli (1869-1941) for the combined chocolate maker Lindt & Sprüngli . . . — Map (db m67090) HM|
|Switzerland, Zurich (Zurich) — Fountain from Paris|
|Fountain from Paris, 1870 to initiate the
1982 World Convention of Water Experts in Zurich.
The four nymphs personify simplicity, purity, sobriety and charity.
They symbolise international co-operation in providing people
everywhere with pure and salubrious water.
(Plaques in French and German are also found on the fountain) — Map (db m67089) HM|
|Switzerland, Zurich (Zurich (District)) — Hotel Limmathof|
|1570 Anstelle von kleineren mittelalterlichen häuser erbaut.
Als hotel 1858 gegenüber dem neuen bahnhof eröffnet.
1908 Neugestaltung der fassade mit illusionistischer jugendstil-malerei durch die architekten Alfred Choidera (1850-1916) und Theophil Tschudi (1847-1916).
Unter denkmalschutz seit 1985
Built in 1570 instead of smaller medieval houses.
Opened as a hotel in 1858 to the new station.
1908 redesign . . . — Map (db m67256) HM|
|Turks and Caicos Islands, Grand Turk, Cockburn Town — Grand Turk Historic Lighthouse|
|During the colonial days, hundreds of shipwrecks occured off Grand Turk due to the shallow reef off its northern coast. Because shipwrecks were so common, vessels began refusing to call for salt cargoes, the mainstay of the Grand Turk economy. Both shippers and the American Government insisted that a lighthouse be constructed.
The Grand Turk Lighthouse was built in London in 1852 and shipped to Grand Turk, where it was assembled in hopes of saving the salt trade. Standing sixty feet, it was . . . — Map (db m40367) HM|
|Turks and Caicos Islands, Grand Turk, Cockburn Town — Grand Turk Historic Lighthouse|
|During the Lighthouse's first forty years of use, wrecks continued along the northern coast. Ship captains complained that the light was too dim or not lit at all. Some believe that the dimming of the light was done intentionally to cause ship wrecks in order to loot cargo aboard.
In March 1878 Captain Huehl of the S.S. Tybee reported that, on approaching Grand Turk at 2 a.m., he found himself in white water off the Northeast Reef, yet saw no light burning. On May 21st, the brig Lydia . . . — Map (db m40454) HM|
|Turks and Caicos Islands, Grand Turk, Cockburn Town — The History of the West — ( Grand Turk )|
|The western side of Grand Turk is the leeward side of the island. This is the side protected from high winds and storms. Because of this, it was the primary anchorage for the sailing vessels that came and went from Grand Turk for hundreds of years. The west coast is littered with artifacts left by these ships. Anchors, cannons, stone ballast, and even bottles lay sometimes within a few feet of shore. These remnants of our maritime past can be seen almost anywhere you snorkel on the west side . . . — Map (db m40351) HM|
|Turks and Caicos Islands, Grand Turk, Cockburn Town — The Northeast Reef — (Grand Turk)|
|The Northeast Reef is a shallow reef lying to the northeast of Grand Turk and running 2.8 miles into the sea. The Reef lies in the Turks Island Passage, which has been located along trade routes from Jamaica, Cuba and Hispaniola back to Europe since the finding of the New World.
Some estimates indicate that maybe 1,000 shipwrecks in the waters of the Turks and Caicos Islands, and the Northeast Reef is the most infamous cause. It has caused hundreds of shipwrecks.
Shipwrecks off the . . . — Map (db m40602) HM|
|Turks and Caicos Islands, Grand Turk, Cockburn Town — #16 — Todds|
|Todds, which was built in the 1880's, not only is the oldest variety store in the island, but also the only one still trading under its almost-original name and owned by the same family. The store was first owned by the Stubbs family who were the largest landowners in the Caicos Islands and also one of the foremost salt families in the territory. Freddie Todd purchased it in the early 20th century for his daughter, Eva Todd. When she died in the 1960's, her cousins, Olive Wood and Minnie Tatem, . . . — Map (db m31453) HM|
|U.S Virgin Islands, St Croix, Christiansted — Christiansted Wharf — 1830s-1850s|
|Along the wharf you would have heard the creaking of rigging and pulleys as ships unloaded foodstuffs, plantation supplies, and building materials. The scent of sugar and molasses sweetened the air. Down the street plodded oxen, snorting with effort, as they delivered cartloads of rum barrels.|
This was the music of international commerce. Sailors from Denmark, Great Britain, France, and the United States contributed to the blend of languages. Above the clipped Danish of customs officials . . . — Map (db m60815) HM
|U.S Virgin Islands, St John — Boiling Room|
|Intense heat. Steam rising from huge cauldrons. A foreman shouting to watch the last copper. This empty ruin was once the heart of Annaberg’s sugar operation.
Workers ladled the cane juice from kettle to kettle, gradually concentrating and purifying the boiling liquid. They then poured the juice into flat wooden pans where it cooled and crystallized into sugar.
Timing was critical. If juice were removed too soon from the last kettle, it became molasses instead of sugar crystals. — Map (db m60781) HM|
|U.S Virgin Islands, St John — Horse Mill|
|When the breeze died, mules, horses or oxen plodded an endless circle in the sun while slaves fed cane to the rollers. A box at the base caught and held the juice until the factory called for more.|
In the early 1900’s, after the sugar industry declined, a cattle farmer built the cookhouse on the far side of the platform. — Map (db m60780) HM
|U.S Virgin Islands, St John — Windmill|
|If there was a steady breeze, cane was brought to the windmill. Revolving sails turned a central shaft, rotating the rollers and crushing the stalks. Juice ran down the rollers into the gutter and flowed downhill to the factory.
The windmill, as well as the rest of the factory, was built between 1797 and 1805. It could produce more juice than the horsemill, and involved fewer people and no draft animals.
The now-missing turret carried axle and sails, and could be turned into the wind. — Map (db m60779) HM|
|United Kingdom, Angus (Scotland), Arbroath — David Dunbar Buick — September 17 1854 – March 5 1929|
|American motoring pioneer & founder of
the Buick motor company of America.
David Dunbar Buick was born at No. 26
Green Street, Arbroath, which lay approx
90 metres north of this, the only remaining
building to show the line of the original
street. — Map (db m34452) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Antrim), Bushmills — Bushmills History & Heritage|
The natural life cycle of a salmon is one of nature's wonders. A salmon begins its life in the shallow water and gravel beds of the river as eggs then fry. These small fry stay in the river until they mature into par. The next stage of their life is when they mature into smolts and take on the colouring of the mature salmon.
The smolts move downstream around May or June to begin their epic migration to feeding grounds in the north Atlantic. Here, they feed on fish, such . . . — Map (db m70892) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Antrim), Bushmills — Giant’s Causeway and Bushmills Railway|
The Giant’s Causeway railway provides a passenger link between the historic town of Bushmills and the famous basalt stone columns of the Giant’s Causeway World Heritage Site.
The Railway is an interesting heritage experience and travels along a panoramic stretch of coast. The Railway was laid to the Irish narrow gauge of three feet and runs for two miles along the track bed of the former Giant’s Causeway Tramway.
From the Bushmill’s Railway Station the line passes through the Bushfoot . . . — Map (db m70850) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Antrim), Bushmills — Hamill Terrace — Causeway Coastal Route|
Welcome to Hamill Terrace
Renowned as the gateway to the Giant's Causeway and for the oldest licensed whiskey distillery in the world, Bushmills has a unique heritage of historic buildings and mills.
Images (clockwise from top):
Bushmills Mills, Bushmills Distillery sign, The Causeway Tram c.1890
[Map and Causeway Coastal Route Journey linear locator]
Among many prizes, Bushmills whiskey was awarded a gold medal at the Paris Exhibition of . . . — Map (db m70873) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Fermanagh), Belleek — The Enamel Grindstone|
Enamel colours have always been used to decorate pottery wares. Today they come processed but in early years of the Belleek Pottery they, along with most raw materials, were processed at the Pottery.
This particular grindstone was used to crush and mix the raw enamel colours. Enamel colours are made from the oxides of metals.
Each metal's oxide gives a different colour, e.g. browns and blacks from Iron oxide, greens from Copper oxide, and blues from Cobalt oxide. — Map (db m72561) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Fermanagh), Belleek — Welcome to Belleek|
Beal Leice, meaning 'the mouth of the flagstone', lies in the most westerly point of Northern Ireland, hidden in the Erne valley between the Sligo mountains and the Atlantic. The village, which was first laid out during the Plantation of Ulster about 1610, originated as a fort standing at the highest crossing point on the River Erne, a river which is part of the most extensive inland waterway in Western Europe. Today it has a population of 790.
Established in 1857, . . . — Map (db m72553) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Artillery Bastion|
A night at Talbot's theatre
Actor/manager Michael Atkins opened the city's first purpose-built theatre at the top of Artillery Street in 1774. It soon became the fashionable place to be seen especially at grand social occasions when the Assize judges were in town. Dashing young military officers scanned the audience to pick out the belles. By 1830, however, polite society had deserted the theatre on the grounds that audiences were rowdy and made up of 'the lower orders'. The building . . . — Map (db m71080) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Austins Department Store|
The World's Oldest
Independent Department Store
Established in 1830
by its founder
(1815-1892) — Map (db m71132) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Butcher Gate|
Two million gallons of whisky
Smoke from illicit poteen whisky stills used to waft over the walls from the Bogside. Legal distilleries opened in the Waterside and in the Bogside in the 1820s. Watt's Abbey Street distillery became the largest in Ireland producing two million gallons of grain whisky a year by the 1880s. The works was as large as two football pitches, its seven-storey high building still being the city's tallest after St Columb's Cathedral. The distillery closed in 1921. . . . — Map (db m70971) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Butcher Gate|
This was one of the four original gates of 1617. It was initially called the 'Nugate' or King's Gate, later being renamed Butcher Gate after the nearby meat market and slaughterhouse. The gate was nearly destroyed by cannon fire during the 1689 siege. The present gate, built in the 1800s, is nearly twice the height of the original. — Map (db m70972) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Newgate Bastion|
The first shot
On 13th April, 1689 the first shot of the siege was fired. Citizens on the walls spotted the vanguard of the Jacobite army approaching under Lieutenant General Richard Hamilton. To make his presence known, Hamilton fired a shot which hit Newgate Bastion. The defenders could not retaliate as they had not yet been issued with arms.
Goods to market
Markets were always a feature of life in the city which served a large agricultural area. Over the centuries there . . . — Map (db m71098) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Newmarket Street|
You are standing on the city walls. Newmarket Street slopes up and over the wall. The street was created in the mid 19th century on the site of the Smithfield Meat Market to allow carts to the new covered market. — Map (db m71100) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — Shipquay Gate|
This was one of the four original 17th century gates to the city. It had a watch tower, battlements and a portcullis. The carvings on the outside of the present gate, built between 1803-5, celebrate the city's wealth. The cornucopia is a symbol of plenty and the caduceus is a magic wand used by the Greek god Hermes to protect merchants. — Map (db m70927) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Derry-Londonderry — The Walled City|
If 'stones could speak', what a story they would have to tell. Their voices still echo on the walls and in the city streets.
According to tradition St. Colm Cille chose the oak grove on top of the hill for his monastery in 546 AD. His community became a beacon of light and learning throughout Europe. Around it grew a settlement with a stronghold, cathedral and port.
In 1610 the City of London Companies agreed to build a new city on the Foyle in return for land in King James I's . . . — Map (db m70928) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Garvagh — Welcome to Garvagh|
The town of Garvagh owes its 17th century origins and subsequent development to the Canning family. George Canning was the first family member to come to Ireland when, in September 1614, he arrived at Agivey on the banks of the Bann as an agent for the Ironmongers' Company of London.
He established the hamlet of Ballinameen to the south of the town in 1620, but this was destroyed during the 1641 rebellion. The hamlet was re-established in subsequent years and is still known as . . . — Map (db m70740) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Garvagh — Welcome to Garvagh|
| Side A
Welcome to the historic town of Garvagh, situated on the banks of the Agivey River.
We hope you enjoy your visit. Please use the information and maps on this sign to find out about the history of Garvagh and to discover its many attractions.
The name Garvagh comes from an old Irish term meaning 'rough place'. The area around the town is steeped in history, and there are many intriguing relics from the past, such as old church ruins, ancient graves and stone circles. . . . — Map (db m70748) HM|
|United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (County Londonderry), Limavady — Limavady Railway — Welcome to the Backburn Path|
In the early 1900s, Northern Ireland Railways were at their peak. They allowed fast and efficient transport of goods, mail and promoted local seaside resorts. They also established standard time.
From the early 1920s, road and air transport began to replace the railways so that by the end of the 1950s the majority of our local lines had been closed.
Rapid growth of the flax industry in the area led to an increasing demand for fast and efficient export of flax and linen to the large . . . — Map (db m70902) HM|
|Alabama (Autauga County), Prattville — Autauga Creek|
Water has always played a significant role in the history of Prattville. Daniel Pratt chose the location for his new town because of the proximity to Autauga Creek and the Alabama River. This area was referred to as an “unhealthy quagmire” in the earliest records; but the location of Prattville proved to be ideal for Daniel Pratt’s new town. He built his gin mill, saw mill, and grist mill on the banks of Autauga Creek in the early 1830’s. In 1847, an article in De . . . — Map (db m70815) HM|
|Alabama (Autauga County), Prattville — Daniel Pratt Cemetery / George Cooke|
|(Front): Daniel Pratt CemeteryFinal resting place of early Alabama industrialist Daniel Pratt, 1799-1873, and wife Esther Ticknor Pratt, 1803-1875. He was from New Hampshire and she, Connecticut. Married 1827 at Fortville, Jones County, Georgia.
The former carpenter’s apprentice practiced his craft in Milledgeville, Ga. Where he gained skill in building and design. In 1832 Pratt came to Alabama to build cotton gins. Esther encouraged Pratt to remain in Alabama in order for him . . . — Map (db m27957) HM|
|Alabama (Autauga County), Prattville — Heritage Park|
|Located within Daniel Pratt Historic District, this park overlooks Autauga Creek and the manufacturing complex around which this New England style village developed. Daniel Pratt founded Prattville in 1839, and patterned the town after those of his native New Hampshire. Pratt chose this site to manufacture cotton gins because of the abundant water power. The many artesian wells gave Prattville the name, "The Fountain City." Some of the buildings in view here have been used continuously since . . . — Map (db m27958) HM|
|Alabama (Autauga County), Prattville — Old Plank Road — Circa 1840's|
|The plank road was constructed of large pine logs, sawed lengthwise and laid round-side down. Daniel Pratt built the road for public benefit and to provide transportation from the Pratt Cotton Gin Factory to Washington on the Alabama River. Over four-miles long, the road cost between eight-and ten-thousand dollars to construct.
Cotton gins from Pratt's factory were shipped all over the globe. Under the name "Continental Eagle," this factory remains the largest cotton gin manufacturer in . . . — Map (db m27983) HM|
|Alabama (Autauga County), Prattville — Pratt Gin Factory — 1 mile|
|Once the world's largest plant manufacturing cotton gins.
Founded 1833 by Daniel Pratt, the greatest industrialist of Alabama prior to 1860. Pratt's many industries were of great aid to Confederacy during Northern blockade. — Map (db m70799) HM|
|Alabama (Autauga County), Prattville — Pratt Homesite — Circa 1842|
|Daniel Pratt, Prattville’s founding father,
constructed an imposing home and garden
within a quarter-mile of this site on
Autauga Creek, near his industrial complex.
The large home was designed and erected by
Pratt himself, a noted architect / builder.
The white frame house featured New England
architectural elements characteristic of
Pratt’s style and incorporated a narrow,
two-story portico and balcony. Pratt also added
An art gallery to the home displaying paintings by
George . . . — Map (db m27985) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Stockton — Kennedy Mill, c.1811|
|Site of one of Alabama’s first sawmills. In 1811, Joshua Kennedy engaged Jesse Ember to build two water-powered sawmills, convertible to grist mills, for a total of $1400. The mills were operated by Kennedy through 1820; were burned twice, once by Indians. The mill dam and site were late used by Byrne Bros., and then by Hastie & Silver Co., until 1906, when they were abandoned — Map (db m66379) HM|
|Alabama (Barbour County), Blue Springs — Pea River Electric Membership Corporation|
|The Pea River Electric Membership Corporation was energized on this site on June 8, 1939. This rural electric cooperative was organized under an executive order signed by President F. D. Roosevelt on May 11, 1935.
Rural members of Barbour, Dale and Henry counties gathered on this bridge to witness the beginning of electric service into their rural areas when 301 homes and businesses received power for the first time. The organizing directors were S.K. Adams, J.G. Sanders, Lloyd Smith, J.Y. . . . — Map (db m71804) HM|
|Alabama (Barbour County), Eufaula — Confederate Hospital|
1861 - 1865
“Sanctuary for valiant and courageous men”
Built for a river tavern 1836
Placed by Barbour County Chapter United Daughter of the Confederacy. — Map (db m27986) HM|
|Alabama (Barbour County), Eufaula — Fendall Hall — The Young - Dent Home|
Built between 1856 and 1860 by Edward Brown Young and his wife, Ann Fendall Beall, this was one of the first of the great Italianate style homes constructed in Eufaula. It later became the home of the builders’ daughter, Anna Beall Young, and her husband, Stouten Hubert Dent. The Dents renovated the house in the 1880s in the styles and colors then popular, and hired a Mr. LaFranc to stencil and paint the ceilings and walls of the hall, parlor, and dining room. These three . . . — Map (db m33759) HM|
|Alabama (Bibb County), Brierfield — Bibb Furnace|
|The Bibb County Iron Company under the direction of C. C. Huckabee of Newbern, Alabama, constructed a furnace here and poured the first iron in November 1862. Within a year, the Confederate government purchased the works and completed a second and larger furnace alongside whose stack exists today. Known as the Bibb Naval Works, the facility was a major contributor of iron used for Confederate ordnance especially the Brooke cannon.
On the morning of 31 March 1865, Union General James H. . . . — Map (db m37090) HM|
|Alabama (Bibb County), Brierfield — Bibb Naval Furnaces Brierfield Furnaces — — ½ mile →|
|Principal iron producer for Confederate foundry at Selma where naval guns and iron-clads were made.
1865 - Furnaces destroyed by Wilson’s Raiders, U. S. A.
1866 - Furnaces rebuilt and operated by Gen. Gorgas, former Ordnance Chief, C. S. A. — Map (db m37055) HM|
|Alabama (Bibb County), West Blocton — Belle Ellen|
|One and a half miles northeast of here, the mining town of Belle Ellen was established by the Bessemer Coal, Iron and Land Company in the fall of 1895 and named for Henry F. DeBardeleben's daughter, Belle, and wife, Ellen. DeBardeleben was a noted industrialist of the era and principal stockholder in the company.
During its existence, several mines were opened at Belle Ellen. The Welsh mining engineer, Llewellyn Johns, was an early superintendent. The Number Two mine was operated with . . . — Map (db m37226) HM|
|Alabama (Bibb County), West Blocton — Blocton / Blocton Coke Ovens|
Centered around the coke ovens, Blocton, first called Gresham, was the Cahaba Coal Mining Company town founded by Truman H. Aldrich in 1883-84. Other company officers included W. A. Clark of Muscatine, Iowa, and Cornelius Cadle, Jr., the town's first postmaster. The first coal was shipped in February 1884. Ten coal mines were eventually opened, the last in 1915 by the Tennesee Coal, Iron & Railroad Company division of U.S. Steel. In its hayday around 1900, Blocton was the largest . . . — Map (db m37228) HM|
|Alabama (Bibb County), West Blocton — Piper|
|The town of Piper was established in 1901 a half mile of northeast of here by the Little Cahaba Coal Company, named for Oliver Hazzard Perry Piper, a partner of industrialist Henry F. DeBardeleben. Two coal mines were opened in 1901 and 1903. The first was sealed in 1935 due to fire. Piper was one of the larger mining towns in the Cahaba Coal Field reaching greatest employment in 1914 with 432 miners and related workers. The Piper-Coleanor High School operated from 1931-1940. After World War . . . — Map (db m37227) HM|
|Alabama (Bibb County), West Blocton — West Blocton, Alabama|
West Blocton began as a business and residential community adjoining the Cahaba Coal Mining Company's town of Blocton in 1883-84. West Blocton incorporated in 1901. Eugene D. Reynolds was the first mayor, 1901-1904, followed by Dr. L.E. Peacock, 1904-1906. A son of Italian Immigrants, Frank T. Ferrire, has been the longest serving mayor, 1965-1984. West Blocton was the commercial center of the southern Cahaba coal field serving the neighboring company towns and mining camps of Belle Ellen, . . . — Map (db m72283) HM|
|Alabama (Blount County), Blount Springs — Blount Springs|
|Famous Health Resort
Here fashionable ladies and
gentlemen of the South
their families. — Map (db m33782) HM|
|Alabama (Blount County), Oneonta — Champion Mines|
|John Hanby came in 1817 and found a rich seam of brown iron ore. Named Champion in 1882 when Henry DeBardeleben and James Sloss bought land and brought L&N Railroad causing county seat to be moved from Blountsville to Oneonta in 1889. Most ore was mined by Shook and Fletcher 1925-1967 from Champion & Taits Gap mines under E. N. Vandergrift, superintendent. Ore was shipped to Woodward, T. C. I. & Sloss furnaces in Birmingham and Republic in Gadsden. — Map (db m28362) HM|
|Alabama (Butler County), Greenville — Pioneer Electric Cooperative|
|The Butler County Electric Membership Corporation was formed as a rural electric cooperative in Greenville in July 1938. The first home receiving electricity from the cooperative was located near here.
The Cooperative's original Board of Directors included Dr. C. Wall, president, W.M. Harrison, Dr. R.L. Jernigan, Arthur Bennett, E.L. Cunningham, D.P. Robbins, P.E. Youngblood, H.M. Hardy and T.J. Middleton. Edwin Wallace was first manager.
In 1940, the Cooperative's name was changed . . . — Map (db m70756) HM|
|Alabama (Butler County), Greenville — West Commerce Street Historic District/Historic Greenville Depot|
West Commerce Street Historic District
The completion of the railroad in the late 1850s brought this District into being. The District grew into a major trade center between Montgomery and Mobile. The capital accumulated from this trade allowed the construction of brick commercial buildings, most of them completed by 1890. The downtown area was revitalized in the spring of 1997.
Historic Greenville Depot
The Depot highlights the West . . . — Map (db m70753) HM|
|Alabama (Calhoun County), Jacksonville — The First National Bank of Jacksonville|
|Since 1890 the financial interests of this area have been served by The First National Bank and its predecessor The Tredagar National Bank (an institution of the "Boom" days of Jacksonville)
Organizers were Peyton Rowan, President, Jos. W. Burke (Brig. Gen. USA), Vice Pres., and George P. Ide, Cashier. Horace Lee Stevenson, Pres. 1900-1913.
Name changed to First National Bank March 25, 1913
Maximillian Bethune Wellborn, 1913-1914
Henry A. Young, 1914-1918 . . . — Map (db m29480) HM|
|Alabama (Calhoun County), Ohatchee — Janney Furnace|
|The furnace was constructed by Montgomery businessman Alfred A. Janney, reportedly using slaves brought from Tennessee by a "Dr. Smith." The furnace was completed and ready to produce pig iron when, on July 14, 1864, a Union cavalry raiding force of 2,300 men, led by Major General Louvell H. Rousseau, crossed the Coosa River at Ten Islands Ford in route to destroying the railroad between Montgomery and West Point, Georgia. Learning of the location of the furnace, Rousseau dispatched his . . . — Map (db m25544) HM|
|Alabama (Chambers County), Valley — Fairfax Kindergarten|
|Built in 1916, the kindergarten was one of five original public buildings in the Fairfax Mill Village. Each mill village had an efficient, attractive, and well kept kindergarten for children ages four to six. LaFayette Lanier, Sr. was the inspiration for the kindergarten system that was put into operation. In his newsletter of July 16, 1917, William Teagin, Alabama Superintendent of Education, commended West Point Manufacturing Company for its commitment to education. The kindergarten was in operation until 1983 and is now privately owned. — Map (db m71634) HM|
|Alabama (Chambers County), Valley — West Point Manufacturing Company|
|Cornerstones of Chattahoochee Mfg. Co., Langdale, Ala., and Alabama & Georgia Mfg. Co., River View, Ala., were laid on August 1, 1866. Mills used Chattahoochee River water power for operation of spindles and looms. Planters and businessmen of Chambers County, Ala., and West Point, Ga., invested the capital for these ventures, providing a new way of life to a war stricken people.
In 1880, West Point Manufacturing Company was organized from the Chattahoochee mill. The business genius, . . . — Map (db m71637) HM|
|Alabama (Cherokee County), Cedar Bluff — Cornwall Furnace|
|The Confederate States of America in 1862 commissioned the Noble Brothers of Rome, Georgia to erect a cold blast furnace to produce needed pig iron from the war effort.
The skilled labor was detailed from Confederate army personnel. It is estimated that 1000 laborers were employed in building the canal, tunnel and mining brown hematite rock used in building the furnace in less than a year.
The furnace output was small (6 tons daily) but an important asset to the Confederacy in building . . . — Map (db m41006) HM|
|Alabama (Chilton County), Verbena — Mitchell Dam|
| Named by the Board of Directors
Alabama Power Company
Major modifications to this project were completed
in 1985. Three new generating units with a total
capacity of 150,000 kilowatts were installed in a
new powerhouse on the west bank. In addition, the
three additional units installed in 1923 with a total
capacity of 52,500 kilowatts were removed from
service. Unit 4 with a capacity of 20,000 kilowatts
that was . . . — Map (db m72486) HM|
|Alabama (Coffee County), Enterprise — Boll Weevil Monument — December 11, 1919|
|In profound appreciation of the Boll Weevil and what it has done as the Herald of Prosperity this monument was erected by the Citizens of Enterprise, Coffee County, Alabama — Map (db m30306) HM|
|Alabama (Coffee County), Enterprise — Enterprise Depot|
|This building was built in 1903 with additions in 1916 and 1997. The first freight shipments and passengers came here on the Alabama Midland railroad in 1898 immediately after construction of the roadbed. That was also the year when most of the brick business buildings downtown were completed. By 1903 a depot was needed as the transportation focus of this town. Along with the new Rawls Hotel, the depot became a gathering place for our citizens. In 1974 the Pea River Historical Society purchased the depot and began operating the Depot Museum. — Map (db m30307) HM|
|Alabama (Coffee County), Enterprise — Rawls Hotel|
|Original two-story brick structure built 1903 by Japheth Rawls, developer of some of earliest turpentine plants in Coffee County. Building remodeled 1928 and three-story wings added by Jesse P. Rawls, founder of first electric power system in Enterprise. Hotel was center for business and social gatherings until its closing in early 1970's. Listed on National Register of Historic Places 1980. — Map (db m30308) HM|
|Alabama (Colbert County), Sheffield — Furnace Hill|
|Center of Industry for new town of Sheffield. Five blast furnaces with 75 ft stacks build 1886~1895 1/2 mile west. Promoted by E. W. Cole and E. Ensley. Iron ore and limestone from Franklin Co., coke from Walker Co. and Virginia used. Hattie Ensley Furnace, most successful, produced 221 tons pig iron daily. Iron barged down Tennessee River. Furnaces operated by Sloss ~ Sheffield Iron & Steel Co until 1927. — Map (db m28428) HM|
|Alabama (Colbert County), Sheffield — History of Sheffield|
| Side A Prehistoric man arrived in this area bout 10,000 years ago.
Later Indian cultures left many stone artifacts and pottery vessels.
In the 1780s, a French trading post and Indian village were located near the mouth of Spring Creek. The town of York Bluff was laid out in 1820 and Andrew Jackson brought land for a plantation. A few houses and store were built but that "town" dwindled away. In 1832, the first railroad in the state terminated at Tuscumbia Landing near Spring Creek. . . . — Map (db m35624) HM|
|Alabama (Colbert County), Sheffield — Village One|
| Front In 1918, during World War I, the U.S. Government built this unique village of 85 bungalows, school, and officers barracks to house personnel at nearby Nitrate Plant No. 1. Prefabricated and standard size materials were used in construction along with red tile roofs and stucco exteriors. Streets were laid out in an unusual "Liberty Bell" design.
Reverse The Village was owned by TVA from 1933~1949. Its employees occupied the houses and their children attended a . . . — Map (db m28577) HM|
|Alabama (Covington County), Opp — The Depot / Opp, Alabama|
| The Depot In 1900, the L&N Railroad won the right to establish the railroad through this area. The town is named for Henry Opp, who represented L&N in successful legal negotiations. The coming of the railroad consolidated the surrounding areas and brought people and businesses from Poley, Opine, Cool Springs and other nearby areas. The first depot was a railcar parked on a sidetrack. As the town developed, a wooden building was constructed. The present structure was constructed in 1928 . . . — Map (db m39777) HM|
|Alabama (Covington County), River Falls — The Horseshoe Lumber Company / River Falls Power Company|
The Horseshoe Lumber Company
E.L. More, president of the A&F Division of the L&N Railroad, arrived in River Falls from Nashville in 1897 to spearhead the construction of a branch line of the L&N. Recognizing a business opportunity in the large quantity of virgin longleaf pine timberland in the area, he purchased a half-interest in a small mill located on Buck Creek near River Falls. He was encouraged by his long-time friend and mentor Major E.C. Lewis, president of . . . — Map (db m42547) HM|
|Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — Cahaba Drug Store|
|The Cahaba Drug Store once covered this cellar hole. It was operated by Herbert Hudson and J. D. Craig.
On the same lot were T. L. Craig's large family grocery, Coleman's dry goods store, and Fellows' Jewelry.
All these men were related through marriage. — Map (db m23008) HM|
|Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — Commissary - R.R. Depot|
|This cellar was under Joseph Babcock's brick store. During the Civil War the building was used as a commissary.
Babcock's warehouse and cotton shed were located to your right on the bluff overlooking the river. The family home, kitchen, and garden stood between this store and the warehouse.
In 1860 the Babcock family sold the land between this sign and Capitol Street to the Cahawba, Marion and Greensboro Railroad Company for a train depot. Railroad tracks had been laid directly down Capitol Street in 1858. — Map (db m23287) HM|
|Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — Crocheron's Row|
|A "row" was a 19th century shopping mall. The word was used whan building or block had several similar storefronts arranged in a straight line or row.
This celler marks the spot where David and Nicholas Crocheron built a large 2 story brick row. It was completed in 1822. At that time, most of Cahawba's stores were in log cabins. The brothers had previously built the town's other brick structure, the Statehouse.
This building contained eight different stores or offices, equally divided . . . — Map (db m23007) HM|
|Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — Perine Well|
|This artesian well was drilled to serve a factory which did not materialized. It was then used to water the grounds, a garden and pastures. In addition, by forcing water through pipes into his $50,000 home, E. M. Perine, a merchant prince, had the first air conditioning in Alabama. Fry's history relates that when drilled, this was the deepest known well in the world. Flow is now estimated at 1250 gallons per minute from a depth of 700-900 feet. — Map (db m23290) HM|
|Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — The Old Brick Store|
|By 1858 many brick stores had been built in Cahaba, so everyone called this the "old brick store." Merchant Sam M. Hill turned the building into one huge dry goods store where shoppers could buy just about anything!
Col. Hill, like most of the merchants in Cahaba, traveled to New York twice a year to stock up on new seasonal goods. They traveled by steam-boat down the Alabama then by packet boat from Mobile or New Orleans to New York via Cuba. In 1859, Col. Hill made this trip in less than four days! — Map (db m23242) HM|
|Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — Vine Street|
|Vine Street was Cahawba Business district. Stores, offices and hotels were tightly packed together along these three blocks. Homes were scattered over an entire square mile. Nearly every house had a yard of one or two acres. — Map (db m23289) HM|
|Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Arsenal Anvil|
|Anvil used in Selma’s Confederate Arsenal to make armament for Southern forces.
Presented to Sturdivant Museum Association April 1, 1961 by the Southern Railway Company which as the Selma, Rome and Dalton Railroad Company purchased the anvil among scrap disposed of at the arsenal, in 1866. The anvil was in use in the railroad blacksmith shop until 1936. — Map (db m37690) HM|
|Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Water Avenue|
|Selma’s Water Avenue is one of the finest surviving examples of a 19th century riverfront street in the south. Located here are structures which reflect the architectural trends in commercial buildings from 1830 to 1900.
This was the main business artery of one of central Alabama’s major commercial centers. During the War Between the States Selma was the Confederacy’s most important military depot in the lower south. The arsenal and naval foundry were located here and the St. James Hotel . . . — Map (db m37669) HM|
|Alabama (DeKalb County), Fort Payne — Boom Town Historic District|
|Around 1889-1891 Fort Payne experienced a great industrial boom due to promotion by New England investors who speculated greatly on the area’s mineral deposits. During this period several highly ornate commercial and civic buildings, along with the planned park, were constructed along Gault Avenue. The Fort Payne Opera House and other buildings in the same block constructed by the Fort Payne Coal & Iron Co., together with the Sawyer Building, the Alabama Great Southern Railroad Depot & Union . . . — Map (db m28027) HM|
|Alabama (DeKalb County), Valley Head — Former Site Of Battelle|
|Former Site Of Battelle
Thriving iron ore and coal mining community of early 1900’s established by Colonel John Gordon Battelle five miles north of Valley Head. — Map (db m61018) HM|
|Alabama (Escambia County), Atmore — Canoe Station|
|Settled by A.J. Hall in 1852 and occupied by Confederate troops because of its value as a railroad stop during the War Between the States (1861-65), Canoe was the site of a March 27, 1865 encampment of Union forces. The 1870s brought expansion through the A.M. Lowery sawmill. The Farrar, Lowrey, Stanton, Watson, and other stores prospered (1890s-1950s). Schools educated the young and the L&N Railroad provided passenger service (1890-1960s).
The mineral springs was a social center and water . . . — Map (db m72265) HM|
|Alabama (Escambia County), Atmore — Williams Station, Alabama 1866-1897 / Atmore Alabama|
| Side 1
Williams Station, Alabama
Creek Indians lived in these parts some 200 years before trains began stopping here in 1866 to leave supplies for a farmer, William Larkin Williams, who lived nearby. Workers, who came first to build the railroads, were attracted by the vast forests of longleaf pine and rich farmland. As the settlement grew around Mr. Williams' supply stop, it became known as Williams Station. Saw mills sprang up in this timber-rich area. Abundant . . . — Map (db m72260) HM|
|Alabama (Escambia County), Brewton — Bank of Brewton|
| Side A Recognized as “Alabama’s Oldest Bank,” the Bank
of Brewton opened for business on Monday, January 7, 1899. Brewton, Alabama was a prosperous town in the late 1800s. A local resident, Charles Sowell, participated in the flourishing times. A native of Monroe County, Alabama and a wounded veteran of the Civil War, Sowell settled in Brewton. After a brief stint as a railroad station agent, he began a timber industry that produced a sizeable fortune. In 1880 Sowell . . . — Map (db m39025) HM|
|Alabama (Escambia County), Flomaton — Flomaton, Alabama|
| Front As railroads were reconstructed following the Civil War, a junction of north-south and east-west lines was established along the Alabama-Florida border near the confluence of Big Escambia Creek and the Conecuh-Escambia River. A settlement followed which became knows as Reuterville, for Major Reuter, the contractor who on April 9, 1872, drove the last spikes joining the different railroads. The community was also known as Pensacola Junction, or simply the Junction, as well as . . . — Map (db m47484) HM|
|Alabama (Etowah County), Alabama City — Howard Gardner Nichols 1871-1896 — Scholar, Engineer, Industrialist, Naturalist, Humanitarian|
|Nichols came to Alabama City in 1894 to supervise construction of the Dwight Manufacturing Company. While serving as the mill's first agent, he planned and began a model mill village and was elected Mayor of Alabama City. — Map (db m18578) HM|
|Alabama (Etowah County), Attalla — Electricity for the City of Attalla|
|In the fall of 1902, Captain William Patrick Lay, of Gadsden, began construction of a small hydro electric generating plant at the site of Wesson Mill on Big Wills Creek, just southwest of Attalla. The plant was constructed, in Lay’s words, “First to supply the City of Attalla with electricity; second, to pump water into a tall stand pipe which would furnish Attalla with water; and third, to demonstrate the possibilities and economy of hydro electric power for which I had been contending . . . — Map (db m39158) HM|
|Alabama (Etowah County), Attalla — William Patrick Lay — (1853-1940)|
|William Patrick Lay (1853-1940), founder of Alabama Power Company, built his first hydroelectric plant on Big Wills Creek about 2 miles east on Simmons Lane.
Lay purchased the Old Wesson Mill in 1902 and built a small hydroelectric generating plant which furnished electricity to the City of Attalla. Drawing on this success, Lay proposed building a large hydroelectric plant on the Coosa River at the Lock 12 site near Clanton and in 1906 organized the Alabama Power Company. Lock 12 Dam, . . . — Map (db m24082) HM|
|Alabama (Etowah County), Gadsden — Dwight Mill Village|
| Dwight Manufacturing Company of Chicopee, Massachusetts selected this site in Alabama City for a cotton mill in 1894. The Mill and the village covering 240 acres was constructed under the direction of Howard Gardner Nichols.
There were 160 New England style cottages in the original construction plan, each home had a distinctive architectural style and color scheme. Later construction brought the total number of homes in the village to 700. This model Village was designed with its own . . . — Map (db m18575) HM|
|Alabama (Etowah County), Gadsden — Gadsden, Alabama|
| Side A:
In the early 1840’s, John S. Moragne, along with Gabriel and Joseph Hughes, began surveying for a city on the banks of the Coosa River near the settlement of Double Springs. The new city would be located on 120 acres of land at the present site of the downtown business district. The fledgling town received a boost on July 4, 1845, when the piercing sound of a steamboat’s whistle along the banks of the Coosa River announced the beginning of a new era in Northeast Alabama. The . . . — Map (db m39139) HM|
|Alabama (Franklin County), Red Bay — Bay Theater|
|T. A. Wilson built the theater in 1927. Since Red Bay had no electricity at that time, he used a Delco System. Shortly after, electricity became available and he had to switch from Delco to Alabama Power. When he first started in the business, he rented the back of a store on back street. He then built a building near the location of the Community Spirit Bank today.
When the school burned in 1926, some classes were held there. The Red Bay Church of Christ congregation also met in the theater . . . — Map (db m68984) HM|
|Alabama (Franklin County), Red Bay — Red Bay Depot & Hotel|
The Depot, a treasured landmark in the history and growth of Red Bay, was built by Illinois Central Railroad in 1907. The trains provided a lifetime for towns like Red Bay. They brought necessities like sugar, flour, cheese, canned goods, etc. The trains also brought heavy items such as automobiles, hardware, farm implements, and machinery. They were also means for local shipments of lumber, sand, cotton, and furniture.
A small Illinois Central passenger train with three . . . — Map (db m68963) HM|
|Alabama (Franklin County), Red Bay — Red Bay Ice and Gin Company|
|In Red Bay's early years, ice was shipped by freight train to Red Bay. The ice was buried in sawdust to keep it from melting until all had been sold. On the day the ice arrived, the freight car was put on a sidetrack, emptied, and later picked up by another train. From the open door of the freight car, two men would place a ramp and large cakes of ice would slide down the ramp into the open door of the adjacent icehouse into the sawdust. Ice was then loaded onto a horse driven wagon and peddled . . . — Map (db m68981) HM|
|Alabama (Franklin County), Red Bay — Yarber Grist Mill|
|Yarber Grist Mill opened for business in February 1933, in a tin building on Main Street in downtown Red Bay, Preston Yarber, owner and operator, had moved to Red Bay from Belmont early in January that same year. The mill was located across the street from where the park is now. Ground corn meal and crushed livestock feed were the primary functions of the Grist Mill's day operation.
The livestock feed was made up of corn, hay, soybeans, and other ingredients raised by the farmers. They . . . — Map (db m68982) HM|
|Alabama (Hale County), Greensboro — Gayle - Tunstall House|
|Built in 1828 by John Gayle,
sixth governor of Alabama.
Amelia Gayle Gorgas,
wife of Gen. Josiah Gorgas,
Chief of Ordnance, CSA,
mother of Wm. Crawford Gorgas,
US Surgeon General who freed
Canal Zone of yellow fever.
For many years was the home
of the Hobson - Tunstall family:
Wiley C. Tunstall, member of
first Alabama R. R. Commission;
his son, Alfred Moore Tunstall,
Alabama legislator for 39 years
and twice Speaker of House. — Map (db m33744) HM|
|Alabama (Henry County), Headland — Head's Land Yielded Fruits of Success|
|Begun on 160 acres of land owned by Dr. Joshua Head, "Head's Land," or Headland, was established in 1871, incorporated as a town in 1884 and a city in 1893. The land itself yielded the city's first industry. Due to the abundance of pine trees, timber and turpentine became big business. With this industry, the town began to grow as dry goods, hotels, grocery stores, blacksmith shops, and sawmills began to spring up, many around Headland's now popular square. The timber business later yielded to . . . — Map (db m71816) HM|
|Alabama (Henry County), Newville — Newville, Alabama / Newville Pioneers|
| Side 1
James Madison Wells founded a village called Wells circa 1882. When Abbeville Southern Railroad laid tracks through the town in 1893, its name was changed to Wells Station. The post office was built in 1894. Wells Station incorporated as "Newville" in 1903. The town of Newville became prosperous with merchants, banks, lodges, doctors, churches, a Newville High School, a Rosenwald High School, societies, a newspaper, a depot, sawmills, cotton gins, . . . — Map (db m71810) HM|
|Alabama (Jackson County), Paint Rock — The History of Paint Rock, Alabama / Paint Rock Arrests in 1931 Began 'Scottsboro Boys' Cases|
The History of Paint Rock, Alabama
Originally Camden circa 1830, the post office was renamed Redman in 1846 and became Paint Rock on May 17, 1860. After the Memphis and Charleston Railroad Co. built a depot and water tower in 1856, the village thrived as a farm to market center. Four battles were waged nearby during the Civil War and Union troops guarded the railroad.
Early industries included a mill to grind corn and wheat, a pencil mill, and two mills made . . . — Map (db m69756) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Bessemer — Bright Star / Koikos Restaurant — "Alabama's Oldest Restaurant" / "An American Classic"|
| Bright Star
In 1907, Greek immigrant Tom Bonduris invested his savings and opened a small cafe with only a horseshoe shaped bar at First Avenue and 21st Street in Bessemer, Alabama. Outgrowing three locations, the Bright Star moved to this site in 1915, and introduced patrons to a new dining atmosphere. The interior of the restaurant has remained true to its 1915 glory, with handpainted murals on the walls, a marble-tiled floor, and a couple of private curtained booths. Major . . . — Map (db m34926) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 4th Avenue District|
|The Fourth Avenue "Strip" thrived during a time when downtown privileges for blacks were limited. Although blacks could shop at some white-owned stores, they did not share the same privileges and services as white customers, so they created tailor shops, department stores, cafeterias, billiard parlors, fruit stands, shoe shine shops, laundry service, jewelry and record shops, and taxicab stands. These businesses were distinctively geared toward and managed by blacks. When darkness fell, the . . . — Map (db m26985) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — A New City — Building early Birmingham|
|The arrival of two railroad lines in Jones Valley opened nearby deposits of iron ore, limestone, and coal to commercial development and helped make Birmingham one of the great industrial cities of the post Civil War South.
In 1871, the year of Birmingham's founding, civil engineer William P. Barker with North and South Alabama Railroad laid out Birmingham's system of streets and avenues to align with the main rail lines that still run through the city. Development began to fill in . . . — Map (db m69018) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Before Birmingham: Jones Valley|
|Red Mountain, where you are standing, and Jones Valley, which stretches before you, were sites of human activity long before Birmingham's founding in 1871.
Native American presence
Recorded history and archaeological evidence indicate the presence of Native American people in Jones Valley stretching back 12,000 years.
• From 1500 to 1800 members of Alabama's Creek Nation fished and hunted in the area.
• The Creeks, or Muscogee, are believed by many to descend from the . . . — Map (db m69017) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Belview Heights Neighborhood|
|The Corey Land Company, a group of prominent local businessmen headed by Robert Jemison, Jr., developed Belview Heights as a neighborhood for the professional employees of U.S. Steel in the 1910's. Extending the grid system being used in Ensley over the topography of the 30 square block area, Jemison created a neighborhood of rolling streets and avenues, occasional steeply pitched lots, and captivating views. In 1915, the city of Birmingham set the architectural tone for Belview Heights when it . . . — Map (db m24351) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Birmingham District Minerals|
|The availability of seemingly limitless mineral resources was the key to the success of the Birmingham District, an area defined by geologic deposits that span five counties (Jefferson, Shelby, Tuscaloosa, Walker and Bibb). Some of the minerals essential to the iron industry and to the creation of Vulcan lie directly beneath you in the heart of Red Mountain.
Where Did They Come From?
These important minerals were deposited hundreds of millions of years ago and then pushed up into . . . — Map (db m69026) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Birmingham Water Works Company (1887) / Cahaba Pumping Station (1890)|
| Side A The Elyton Land Company, which had founded the city of Birmingham in 1871, established a subsidiary, the Birmingham Water Works Company in 1887. Dr. Henry M. Caldwell, President of the Elyton Land Company, contracted with Judge A. O. Lane, mayor of Birmingham, to furnish the new city with not less than five million gallons of water a day. Without water Birmingham could not have grown into the city that the founders had envisioned.
(Continued on other side) Side B . . . — Map (db m28445) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Boilers — Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark|
| The Process
The boiler was the source of power for most of Sloss. The boilers burned blast furnace gas to provide the heat necessary for converting water into steam. The steam produced here powered the blowing engines and turbo-blowers, the skip hoist, and the electrical generator in the powerhouse. A network of pipes distributed water and steam throughout the plant
The company installed six boilers (illustrated below) in 1910-11. The four boilers on the south side of the walkway . . . — Map (db m43728) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Brock Drugs Building|
|The Brock building was established in 1915, located at the intersection of Fourth Avenue and 18th Street North, was built while the area was residential. The three-story building housed a hotel upstairs that catered to professional musicians and athletes. The drug store served as the "gathering place" for black patrons during the early 1920's through the early 1960's. The building was demolished in the 80's. The most notable businesses included:
1928 - 1977 Palm Leaf Hotel
. . . — Map (db m26723) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Building The Park — Visiting the Park — Restoring Vulcan Park|
|Side 1 - Building the Park
In the mid-1930’s, civic leaders worked to move Vulcan to a place of honor on Red Mountain. The park was built through the combined efforts of several groups: the Kiwanis Club of Birmingham, the Birmingham Parks and Recreation Board, the Alabama Highway Department, Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company, and local workers. These groups worked together to raise money from the WPA and other sources, acquire the land, and plan and built the park.
The . . . — Map (db m69024) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Casting Pigs — Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark|
The technology of casting molten iron into bars called pigs changed dramatically over the years. Prior to 1931 casting at Sloss took place inside the cast shed. Men cut molds into the sand floor of the shed, allowing the molten iron to pour through the channels and into individual molds. The configuration of molds feeding off troughs gave rise to the term "pig" for the bar of iron—workers thought the molds resembled pigs suckling at the sow.
After 1931 casting . . . — Map (db m69083) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Clark Building|
|This building was constructed in 1908 by Louis V. Clark (1862-1934), who also built the historic Lyric Theater located nearby on 18th Street. The Clark Theater on Caldwell Park is named in honor of Mr. Clark’s generosity to the Birmingham Little Theater.
The Clark Building housed multiple businesses until 1986, when it became vacant. In 1996, plans had been made to demolish the building when John Lauriello of Southpace Properties and Bob Moody of Moody & Associates recognized its potential . . . — Map (db m27515) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dewberry Drugs and Phenix Insurance Company Buildings|
|The two commercial buildings on this corner lot are some of the earliest surviving business houses in Birmingham. The Dewberry building appeared on the corner about 1881, and it housed the first and longest surviving drug store in the city, starting as Godden & Lide, and becoming Dewberry around 1900. After Dewberry left the building in about 1995, it remained vacant until its rehabilitation as a law office in 2003.
The Phenix Insurance Company building was built somewhat later, about . . . — Map (db m36740) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Five Points South|
|This neighborhoods developed in the 1880s as one of Birmingham's first streetcar suburbs. It was the Town of Highlands from 1887 to 1893, when it became part of the City of Birmingham. The heart of the neighborhood was Five Points Circle, a major streetcar intersection lined with houses and small stores. In the 1920s, the Circle was transformed into one of the state's most distinctive shopping areas, known for its outstanding collection of Spanish Revival and Art Deco buildings. Nearby houses, . . . — Map (db m26965) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Fourth Avenue Historic District.|
Prior to 1900 a "black business district" did not exist in Birmingham. In a pattern characteristic of Southern cities found during Reconstruction, black businesses developed alongside those of whites in many sections of the downtown area.
After the turn of the century, Jim Crow laws authorizing the distinct separation of "the races" and subsequent restrictions placed on black firms forced the growing black business community into an area along Third, Fourth, and Fifth . . . — Map (db m26702) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Fraternal Hotel Building|
|The Fraternal Hotel Building was built in 1925. Some of the businesses that were located in this building included:
1925 - 1980 Fraternal Hotel
1925 - 1970 Fraternal Café
1950 - 1966 Monroe Steak House
1985 - 1994 Grand Lodge Knights of Pythians
1928 - 1931 Mabry Brothers Department Store
1952 - 1985 Hill Photo Studio
1950 - 1985 Central Barber Shop
Famous persons such as: Dr. Martin L. King, Jr., Rev. Jesse Jackson, Jackie Robinson, Monroe Kennedy and many others were . . . — Map (db m27518) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Green Acres Café — 1705 - 4th Avenue, North|
|Businesses that occupied this building between 1908 - 1970
1908 - 1913 Southern Bell Telephone Company Stockroom
1915 - 1926 OK French Dry Cleaning Company
1927 - 1938 George Kanelis Billiards
1940 - 1945 Alex’s Steak House
1946 - 1971 OK Cleaning Company
Historically, this building has been identified as the OK Cleaners building. During the early 1970’s until 1989 this building remained vacant. Green Acres Café was established in 1959 and was located at 1600 - 6th Avenue, . . . — Map (db m27521) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Industry — Iron and steeel manufacturing|
|Heavy industry, the reason for Birmingham’s founding, is still an economic force here today. Foundries and pipe plants dot the landscape, the railroad runs through the city’s center, and steam rises periodically in the distance from the quenching of super-heated metals.
North view from Red Mountain
1. ACIPCO (American Cast Iron Pipe Company)
2. Principal railroad lines
3. Hardie-Tynes Company
4. ABC Coke – Division of Drummond Company
5. McWane Pipe . . . — Map (db m69019) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Ironmaking — Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark|
| The Industry That Built A City
The minerals needed to make iron-iron ore, coal, and limestone-are abundant in the Birmingham area, and for ninety years men turned these materials into pig iron at Sloss. Sloss pig iron was sold to foundries, where it was melted down and cast into iron pipe, machinery, and many other products.
The heart of the Sloss plant was a pair of blast furnaces that together produced as much as 950 tons of iron a day. In addition to the furnaces, the plant . . . — Map (db m43973) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Mineral Railroad Trestle|
|The railroad trestle support wall across the road is a remnant of L&N's 156-mile Mineral Railroad, the backbone of the local iron industry. This segment ran along the north edge of Vulcan Park on its route around the Birmingham District, linking mines and mills. The railroad not only transported raw materials locally; it also connected to the nationwide rail network to ship pig iron and finish iron and steel. — Map (db m69016) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Morris Avenue Historic District / Elyton Land Company (Successor, Birmingham Realty Co.)|
|Created 1972 by the Jefferson County Historical Commission, the district is based on this avenue. Morris Avenue was named for one of the founders of Birmingham, Josiah Morris, who paid $100,000 for 4,157 acres of the original site of the city in 1870. At the suggestion of Mr. Morris the city was named for England's industrial district. This avenue was the principal wholesale trade district of the city and enjoyed it's greatest popularity from 1880 to 1900. Some of the city's most prominent . . . — Map (db m27156) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — North Birmingham|
|On October 1, 1886, the North Birmingham Land Company was formed to develop a planned industrial and residential town on 900 acres of land, formerly part of the Alfred Nathaniel Hawkins plantation north of Village Creek. The plan included sites for houses, parks, businesses and manufacturing plants, and a streetcar line to downtown Birmingham. The community was incorporated in 1902 with a population of 5,000, and annexed by legislative act, into the City of Birmingham, under protest, in 1910. . . . — Map (db m26700) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Oldest House In Shades Valley / Irondale Furnace Commissary — Cummings - Eastis - Beaumont House|
|The original log structure was built c. 1820 - 1830, with the board and batten addition dating to as late as the 1860s. The log cabin was at first one and one-half stories and is believed to be the oldest structure in Shades Valley. Members of the Eastis family lived here for over eighty years until it was purchased by the Edward Beaumonts in 1951.
(Continued on other side)
The log house, purchased from William Cummings in 1863 by Wallace S. McElwain, owner of the . . . — Map (db m26697) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Oxmoor Iron Furnaces — 1863 - 1928|
|First blast furnace in Jefferson County erected near this site (1863) by Red Mountain Coal and Iron Co. Destroyed (1865) by Federal troops: rebuilt (1873) and second furnace added. Successful experimental run made in Furnace No. 2 (1876) using local coke and Red Mountain iron ore: this assured future growth of coal and iron industry in Birmingham area. Owned by a succession of companies, the furnaces were acquired by U.S. Steel Corp. (1907) and later dismantled (1928). — Map (db m27280) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Slag — Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark|
In addition to making iron the furnace produced a molten waste called slag. Workers drained off the slag periodically through the cinder notch, a hole at the base of the furnace. After processing, the slag was sold for use in the road building and in the manufacture of concrete and mineral wool.
Because the furnace was sealed up under pressure and ran continuously, there was no way to manually remove the waste products of the ironmaking process—the coke ash . . . — Map (db m69085) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Sloss Furnaces|
|The crossing of railroads in 1872 adjacent to this site gave rise to the industrial city of Birmingham. In 1881 Alabama railroad magnate and entrepreneur James Withers Sloss, capitalizing on the unusual coincidence of coal, iron ore and limestone in the area, founded the Sloss Furnace Company as an iron manufacturer and built blast furnaces beside the railroad crossing. Production of pig iron at Sloss Furnaces began in 1882 and continued for almost 90 years. Early 20th century additions to the . . . — Map (db m23498) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Stock Trestle/Tunnel — Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark|
Construction of the stock trestle/tunnel complex was part of the extensive modernization that Sloss carried out between 1927 and 1931. Much of the work focused on mechanizing the charging operations and equipment—the stock trestle/tunnel complex and the inclined skip hoists. It was here that raw materials were stored, weighed, and loaded into the furnace.
The 800-foot-long stock trestle was made of concrete and supported a dual-track rail line. Freight cars . . . — Map (db m69077) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Berry Project|
|This row of buildings from 2009 to 2017 Second Avenue dates from the early years of the 20th century and has undergone a variety of changes and modernizations over the years. Originally part of a larger building that burned in 1944 (now the site of Brombergs’s), 2009 survived and was rebuilt and known for many years as the Lee Building. Martha Washington Lunch originally occupied 2013, and 2017 was originally known as Gunn’s Drug Store. Burger Dry Goods was the first occupant of 2015, a fine . . . — Map (db m38563) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Blast Furnace — Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark|
In the blast furnace the combination of iron ore, flux (limestone and/or dolomite), coke, and hot air produced molten iron and two waste products: molten slag and blast furnace gas. The molten products collected in the bottom of the furnace and were drained off periodically. The gas left the furnace through the top and was routed to the stoves and boilers where it was used as fuel.
This furnace, known simply as Furnace No. 1, is one of two that operated at Sloss. The original furnaces . . . — Map (db m69078) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Blowing Engine Room — Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark|
|The blast furnace required a tremendous amount of air - about two tons for every ton of iron produced. These three rooms, known collectively as the blower building, house the equipment used to pump air to the furnaces. Workers called this blast of air the “ wind.” The eight giant steam-powered piston engine in the largest room date from 1890-1910 and were used until the early 1950s. At that time they were replaced by the two turbo-blowers in the adjoining rooms. Despite their size, . . . — Map (db m43628) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Coe House — 1908|
|John Valentine Coe, president of Birmingham Lumber and Coal Company, commissioned this two-story Craftsman-Tudor Revival style house in 1908. Coe, who had previously been a lumber merchant in Selma, moved his family and business to Birmingham at the turn of the 20th century. As the business thrived, he built this house in the Rhodes Park area of the Highland Park neighborhood. At the time, Highland Park's gracious homes and trolley network made it one of Alabama's most exclusive residential . . . — Map (db m27356) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Gas System — Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark|
| The Gas System
Gas produced in the furnace as a by-product of the ironmaking process was used in the plant as fuel. A large pipe called the downcomer carried gas from the top of the furnace to the gas cleaning equipment, which removed the dirt and dust. Once cleaned, the gas was piped throughout the plant. The stoves burned part of the gas to pre-heat the air blast. The boilers burned the remainder to produce the steam that powered much of the plant's machinery.
The . . . — Map (db m43669) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Heaviest Corner On Earth|
|At the turn of the 20th century, Birmingham was a small town of two and three story buildings with a few church steeples punctuating the skyline. During the industrial boom from 1902 to 1912 which made Birmingham the largest city in the state. Four large buildings were constructed at the intersection of the City's main streets. The Woodward building (now National Bank of Commerce), constructed in 1902 on the Southwest corner, was the City's first steel-frame skyscraper. A good example of the . . . — Map (db m27500) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Iron Man: Vulcan|
|The giant, cast iron statue you see towering above you is Vulcan, the Roman god of metalwork and the forge. The 56-foot tall statue was commissioned by Birmingham leaders to represent their new, growing city at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. After a smashing success at the fair, he was brought home to Birmingham. — Map (db m26297) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Lone Pine Mine|
|You are standing in front of the entrance to Lone Pine Mine Number 3. This mine is one of over one hundred ore mine on Red Mountain that were active between 1860 and 1960. |
In the early twentieth century, iron ore was extracted from this mine and loaded onto the Mineral Railroad.
The Lone Pine Mine’s tunnels have never been completely mapped. However, some Red Mountain workings (the parts of a mine that have been excavated) are as much as fifteen miles long The . . . — Map (db m69020) HM
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Stock Trestle — Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark|
The raw materials for making iron—iron ore, limestone and dolomite, and coke—came to Sloss by railroad and were stored in the stock bins below. An inclined, steam-driven "skip hoist" carried the stock to the top of the furnace and dumped it in automatically. Filling the furnace with stock was called "charging." The automatic charging devices were added to the plant in the late 1920s when the furnaces were rebuilt. Before that time the raw materials were taken to the top of the . . . — Map (db m69080) HM|