|Argentina, Misiones Province, Iguazú National Park — Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca — Salto Alvar Núñez — Parque Nacional Iguazú|
Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca.
Homenaje de la Administración General de Parques Nacionales y Turismo a la memoria del descubridor de estas Cataratas, Don Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, quién tras de cruentas luchas con la naturaleza y lo ignoto, en su temerario viaje desde las selvas Brasileñas Atlánticas en busca de una vía al Rio de la Plata descubrió esta maravilla del mundo en el año 1541.
To Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca.
A tribute from the . . . — Map (db m37605) HM|
|Brazil, Paraná, Foz do Iguaçu — Alberto Santos-Dumont Memorial — Parque Nacional do Iguaçu — Patrimonio Natural da Humanidade|
|As alturas não me intimidam. —Santos-Dumont, Foz do Iguaçu, 24 Abril 1916.
Posso dizer-ihe, Frederico Engel, que estas maravilhas em torno das cataratas não podem continuar a pertencer a um particular (Santos–Dumont) Foz, 25 de Abril de 1916.
Com esta estátua o sonho de Elfrida E. N. Rios, pioneira da cidade, tornou-se realidade. —Foz, 25 de Abril de 1979.
(English translation) “Heights do not intimidate me.” . . . — Map (db m26178) HM|
|Alberta, Lake Louise — Defining the Boundry of the Great Divide — Délimitation de la Ligne de Partage des Eaux|
|Prior to 1913 the Alberta-British Columbia boundary was defined by the divide or watershed of the Rocky Mountains. The discovery of valuable coal deposits and the availability of marketable timber and the incursion of railroads and roads required a more precise demarcation.
In 1913 provincial and federal Orders-in-Council approved a boundary survey between the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia and the appointment of Commissioners. In June of that year Edward Deville, Surveyor . . . — Map (db m70445) HM|
|Alberta, Lake Louise — Parting of the Waters — Le Partage des Eaux|
|How many creeks do you know of that split, with each fork reaching a separate ocean, 4500 km apart.
Here, Divide Creek forks on the boundary between Pacific and Atlantic watersheds, commonly called the Great Divide.
Water in the left fork will flow into the Pacific Ocean. Water in the right fort will flow into the Atlantic Ocean. — Map (db m70444) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Arbutus Tree (Arbutus menziesii)|
The only native broadleaf evergreen tree in Canada, the Arbutus is found from the southern coastline of BC to California. In BC the Arbutus grows in a narrow band along the south coast line, generally within 5 kilometers (3 miles), of the ocean. It can grow up to 30 meters tall (100 feet), with a crooked or leaning trunk that divides into several twisting upright branches and an irregularly rounded crown. The Arbutus can live for 500 years.
In Washington and Oregon State the tree is . . . — Map (db m74403) HM|
|British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Beacon Hill Park|
|When Victoria was settled in 1843, this area was a natural park. It was reserved in 1858 for a park by Sir James Douglas, Governor of the Colony of Vancouver Island and given in trust to Victoria by the Province of British Columbia. In 1882 it was so named from two beacons place upon the hill in 1846 to mark the position of Brotchie Ledge. Area is 154 acres. — Map (db m49252) HM|
|Ontario (the Regional Municipality of Niagara), Niagara Falls — Niagara Glen|
|The Falls of Niagara were here about 7000 to 8000 years ago, three separate cataracts, about .8 kilometres (.5 miles) apart, fed by drainage from Lake Erie. Then suddenly, other lakes began to pour into Lake Erie, thereby increasing the outflow to the river. This resulted in one cataract which eroded a wider gorge. — Map (db m34806) HM|
|Ontario (The Regional Municipality of Niagara), Queenston — The Niagara Escarpment|
|Queenston Heights is part of the Niagara escarpment. A height of land which extends 725 kilometers across Ontario from Niagara Falls to Manitoulin Island. Over 430 million years ago, a shallow tropical sea covered most of central North America. Sediments and coral reef on the seabed were compressed into dolomite, a hard type of limestone which was more resistant to erosion then the bedrock of the adjacent lands after the water retreated. The cliffs of the escarpment are the exposed floor of the . . . — Map (db m51623) HM|
|Ontario (Toronto), Toronto — Scarborough Bluffs|
| The layers of sand and clay exposed in these cliffs display a remarkable geological record of the last stages of the Great Ice Age. Unique in North America, they have attracted worldwide scientific interest. The first 46 metres of sediments contain fossil plants and animals that were deposited in a large river delta during the first advance of the Wisconsinan glacier some 70,000 years ago. They are covered by 61 metres of boulder clay and sand in alternating layers left by four subsequent . . . — Map (db m39366) HM|
|Yukon Territory, Dawson City — The Midnight Dome|
|“What fools we mortals be.”
About 150 people, “many of whom were ladies”, attended the first formal gathering to see the midnight sun on June 21, 1899. Weary mountaineers were greeted with a selection of nuts, candies and soft drinks at suitably elevated prices. Both the British and American flags were raised and the Ceremony began with a bugle call. The highlight of the evening was a speech by playwright and poet Captain Jack Crawford. Disappointing the crowd, the sun . . . — Map (db m44762) HM|
|Ireland, Connacht (County Galway), Inishmore, Aran Islands — Welcome to Port Corrúch Seal Colony — Failte go Port Corrúch|
| Welcome to Port Corrúch Seal Colony
[First part of the marker is about the seal colony along the coastline and is not transcribed]
As you look across the North Sound you can see the Coast of Connemare and the Twelve pins of Connemara. Near by the factory ruins represents an out post of Victorian industianlism [sic] in the 19th Century. One of the earliest attempts to mechanige [sic] the kelp industry was sited just here for the topography of the area makes this Aran's most favoured . . . — Map (db m22928) HM|
|Ireland, Connacht (County Mayo), Althore — Srahwee or Altóir Megalithic Wedge Tomb — Clew Bay Archaeological Trail site 13 — Slí Seandálaíochta Chuan Módh|
| Sraith Bhuí – The Yellow River Land
This is one of the finest megalithic tombs in Ireland. This particular example is a wedge tomb, so-called because of its shape, wider and higher at the entrance and gradually tapering towards the rear. This type of tomb dates to the beginning of the Bronze Age (about 2,000 BC), when there was a final flourish of tomb building in Ireland.
The flat roof stone was used as an altar during Penal times, giving the tomb its local name, . . . — Map (db m28063) HM|
|Ireland, Connacht (County Mayo), Murrisk — Murrisk Abbey / National Famine Monument / Statue of St Patrick — Clew Bay Archaeological Trail sites 6, 7, 8 — Slí Seandálaíochta Chuan Módh|
Murrisk Abbey • site 6
Muraisc - Sea Marsh
Murrisk Abbey was founded circa 1456 by the Augustinian Friars because “the inhabitants of those parts have not hitherto been instructed in their faith.” It quickly became the preferred starting point for pilgrimages up Croagh Patrick. Before then, pilgrims approached the mountain from AnTóchar Phádraig, which starts in Aughagower.
The ruins consist of an L-shaped building representing the long and narrow . . . — Map (db m27757) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Dublin), Dublin — Dublin Millenium Literary Parade — 988 - 1988 — Dublin Corporate Parks Dept.|
| One of Dublin's major contributions to European civilisation has been in the area of literature. It is remarkable that so many writers of world renown were born here including three winners of the Nobel Prize for Literature. This Literary Parade honours some of our distinguished sons of literature.
St. Patrick's Park has been restored thanks to the generosity of Jameson Irish Whiskey, and the Publicans of Dublin. — Map (db m22472) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Fingal), Howth — Howth The Village / Binn Éadair ______ — The Fingal Way / Sli Fhine Gall|
| A Fishing Village
References to the fishing industry in Howth can be found from the twelfth century, although in the seventeenth century the port was also known in the area as a base for pirates roaming Dublin Bay. In Elizabethan times a wooden quay was built but as vessel size increased the importance of Howth for goods and passenger traffic declined. In the nineteenth century various plans were put forward for a harbour at Howth and in 1807 construction commenced using stone quarried . . . — Map (db m27057) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Fingal), Portmarnock — The Velvet Strand / An Trá Chaoin — Portmarnock / Port Mearnóg|
| What's in a name?
Portmarnock is names after St Marnock, a prominent missionary who founded a church in the area.
The Velvet Strand and Aviation History
It was from the Velvet Strand, on 24th of June 1930, that the famous Australian aircraft Southern Cross departed on a pioneering Atlantic flight to Harbour Grace, Newfoundland, where it landed safely some 31.5 hours later. The plane was piloted by the legendary Charles Kingsford Smith and navigated by Dubliner Captain . . . — Map (db m25663) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Duleek — The Lime Tree — Duleek Heritage Trail|
| William of Orange and Mary accepted the throne of England in 1698, supplanting King James II who took refuge with his ally and sponsor Louis XIV of France. The tensions between James and William would reach their highpoint in 1690 at the battle of the Boyne in Meath, where James was defeated.
In Duleek at the time there was a very significant colony of Huguenots (French Protestants) who had fled persecution in France.
Subsequently to the Battle of the Boyne the people of Duleek planted . . . — Map (db m24802) HM|
|Ireland, Leinster (County Meath), Kells — Suffolk Street — Kells Heritage Trail|
| Suffolk Street is an anglicisation of the ancient name Siofac, the meaning of which is today uncertain. The Annals of the Four Masters mentions a fire in 1156 burning the area of Kells from the cross of the gate to Siofoic. The name may be derived from the existence of a suidhe, a fairy mound, possibly a prehistoric tumulus, at the junction of Suffolk and Farrell Streets. A hillock at this site was cleared away in the early 19th century with the widening of Farrell Street. — Map (db m26424) HM|
|Ireland, Munster (County Kerry), Dunquin — The Blaskets|
| This group, the most westerly off the Irish coast, comprises 7 sizeable islands and isolated rocks spread in a line west by south over 2½ miles of the Atlantic, the largest (Great Blasket) 2 miles off shore.
Antiquities of the early Christian period include oratories, crosses and “beehive” cells on Inis Mhicileáin and Inis Tuaisceart, and church ruins on the Great Blasket.
The economy of the islands, based mainly on fishing with some farming, in 1839 supported 13 . . . — Map (db m24096) HM|
|Ireland, Munster (County Kerry), Listowel — "River Fort"|
| This sculpture was designed by
local councillor and craftsman
The “Standing Stone” illustrates
the River Feale
which flows around our town.
The “Ring” depicts an earthen fort
situated in the vicinity of the town
from which the town got its name
Lios Tuathail (Listowel).
— Map (db m23989) HM|
|Switzerland, Bern (Interlaken-Oberhasli (District)), Interlaken — From Jungfrauenberg to Jungfrau — Vom Jungfrauenberg Zur Jungfrau|
Eiger, Moench und Jungfrau prägen eindrucklich das Bild der Alpen. Und doch, unbestrittene Königin bleibt die Jungfrau. Der ewige Schnee verleiht ihr majestätischen Glanz und Leuchtkraft. Umgeben von sanften Voralpen ist sie das natürliche Juwel von Interlaken.
Die Jungfrau, der besondere Berg. Ihr edles, liebliches Aussehen und der Glanz des ewigen Schnees haben schon in frühen Zeiten die Menschen beeindruckt. Eingerahmt von den grünen Voralpen der Lauterbrunnentals wirkt sie wie ein . . . — Map (db m67942) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Foley — City of Foley Camellia Walk|
|The camellia, is often called the Queen of winter flowers, is the state flower of Alabama. Originally from the Orient, the camellia made its way to Europe in the 1600s, then to America and Australia in the 1700s. It now flourishes in the southern states of the U.S. and in California. Enthusiastic camellia lovers have managed to increase the number of named cultivars from a few hundred in the eighteenth century to over 32,000 in the twenty-first. Now cold-hardy cultivars are being developed and . . . — Map (db m50411) HM|
|Alabama (Blount County), Oneonta — Champion Mines|
|John Hanby came in 1817 and found a rich seam of brown iron ore. Named Champion in 1882 when Henry DeBardeleben and James Sloss bought land and brought L&N Railroad causing county seat to be moved from Blountsville to Oneonta in 1889. Most ore was mined by Shook and Fletcher 1925-1967 from Champion & Taits Gap mines under E. N. Vandergrift, superintendent. Ore was shipped to Woodward, T. C. I. & Sloss furnaces in Birmingham and Republic in Gadsden. — Map (db m28362) HM|
|Alabama (Colbert County), Tuscumbia — Petrified Conifer Tree / Petrified Lycopod Tree Stump|
| Plaque A 85-90 Million Years Old
Possibly a Bald Cypress
from the Cretaceous Period
or the Age of Dinosaurs Plaque B
325 Million Years Old
A Member of the Giant Club Mosses
from the early Coal Age — Map (db m29287) HM|
|Alabama (Colbert County), Tuscumbia — Tuscumbia Big Spring|
|Tuscumbia Big Spring
Big Spring (average daily flow 35,000,000 gallons) provided water for town founded on its banks.
Michael Dickson of Tennessee was first settler (about 1817). Town laid out in 1819 and incorporated as Ococoposo (Cold Water, 1820).
Name changed to Tuscumbia (1822) for a Chickasaw Indian. Confederate and Union soldiers camped here intermittently during wartime.
(1861~1865). Site of Tennessee Valley Fair in the 1800's, later Colbert County Fair until 1930's.
Spring park . . . — Map (db m28581) HM|
|Alabama (Jackson County), Woodville — Cathedral Caverns|
|Has been designated a
Under the provisions of the
Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935
This site possesses exceptional value
in illustrating the natural
history of the United States — Map (db m76233) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Clay — The Cahaba Heart River of Alabama|
|On Cahaba Mountain to the NW, springs form a fragile stream that grows as it carves through the steep, rocky terrain of Birmingham suburbs, flowing south on the Gulf Coastal Plain to the Alabama River, at the site of Alabama's first capital, Cahawba. The Cahaba has sustained human life at least 10,000 years and remains a major drinking water source. It is known nationally for biological diversity and beauty and, at 191 miles, is Alabama's longest free flowing river. It nurtures 69 rare, . . . — Map (db m25110) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Pinson — Pinson, Alabama|
|Pinson, one of Alabama’s oldest communities, was settled by General Andrew Jackson’s soldiers in the early 1800s, after victory at Horseshoe Bend during the War of 1812. The community was originally known as Hagood’s Crossroads for settler Zachariah Hagood and his family. It was renamed Mount Pinson, presumably after Pinson, Tennessee, and later called Pinson. Pinson’s first post office was established in 1837. Andrew Jackson Beard, a black American who became a renowned inventor and the first . . . — Map (db m37829) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Deibert Park — -dedicated May 25, 2000-|
|This park was donated to the people of Florence by Dr. Kirk R. and Lillian Cook Deibert who initially acquired this property in 1952. The acreage was once a part of a large ante-bellum plantation owned by Judge Sidney Cherry Posey. In 1875 his heirs sold this farm to Charles Posey who had worked these same fields as a slave. Later, Charles and his wife Amcy, began dividing the land among their heirs, and this settlement became known as Posey. According to tradition, Charles Posey built a . . . — Map (db m33086) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Locust Dell Academy — 1834~1843|
|On this site Nicholas Marcellus Hentz conducted a girls school,
Native of Metz, France.
Hentz was a painter, entomologist, author, and was once a professor at University of North Alabama. Experimenting with silkworms, he planted groves of mulberry trees around this section of town. His wife, Caroline Lee Whiting Hentz, native of Massachusetts, assisted in the academy. She also wrote plays, poems, stories, popular novels, and a significant diary of her years in Florence. — Map (db m28866) HM|
|Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Prehistoric Mound — (Probably Built Between 100 B.C and 400 A.D.)|
|This is the highest domiciliary mound in the Tennessee Valley. It was probably built between 100 B.C. and 400 A.D. by a prehistoric people of the ancient Woodland Culture. Such mounds served as bases for ceremonial temples or chief's houses. This mound, originally encircled by an earthen wall, contains no burials. It is 43 feet in height. Its base measurements are 310 feet by 230 feet. Its flat top measures 145 feet by 90 feet. Evidence indicates that nearby there were two smaller mounds, villages and cultivated fields. — Map (db m28457) HM|
|Alabama (Lawrence County), Courtland — The Town of Courtland / Early Settlers — 1819|
|Side A Federal lands in this area were first sold in 1818 and quickly purchased by settlers and speculators. A group of investors calling themselves the “Courtland Land Company” and consisting of William H. Whitaker, James M. Camp, William F. Broadnax, John M. Tifford, Benjamin Thomas and Bernard McKiernan acquired the future town site and had it laid off in a gridiron street pattern containing 300 lots. These were immediately put up for sale. In hopes that Courtland would . . . — Map (db m28989) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Burritt Museum|
|Situated on 167 acres of some of the most scenic land in North Alabama, the museum and its grounds contain items of local and national interest.
This property was willed to the City of Huntsville in 1955 by Dr. William Henry Burritt (1869-1955), physician and philanthropist.
Open to the Public — Map (db m27876) HM|
|Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Old Town Historic District|
|Designated by the City of Huntsville, Alabama on December 12, 1974 as a Huntsville historic district, it contains houses dating from 1828 onward with the majority dating from 1880 to 1929. Approximate boundaries:
East Clinton Avenue north to Walker Avenue; Lincoln Street east to Andrew Jackson Way.
Listed on the National Register of Historic places,
July 18, 1978 — Map (db m30381) HM|
|Alabama (Marengo County), Demopolis — White Bluff|
|Composed of limestone or “Selma
chalk” which abounds in fossils.
Called “Ecor Blanc” by
eighteenth-century French explorers
Named “Chickasaw Gallery” because
early Indian inhabitants harassed
boats from here.
Landing site of Bonapartist exiles
who established the
“Vine and Olive Colony” in 1817. — Map (db m38001) HM|
|Alabama (Talladega County), Childersburg — DeSoto Caverns|
| Named for the famous Spanish explore who traveled through this area in 1540. Over its rich history it offered shelter for native Indians for centuries (a 2,000-year-old Woodland Period burial was excavated by archeologists in the mid-1960s), became the first officially recorded cave in the U.S. (1796), and served as a Confederate gunpowder mining site during the Civil War.
One of the largest show caves in the southeastern U.S., the main room of the caverns stands 12-stories high and is as . . . — Map (db m45034) HM|
|Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Burns’ Shoals|
|The remains of Burns' Shoals now lie nearly 40 feet underwater. This rock outcropping was the first of the shoals known as the "Falls of Tuscaloosa" and represents the "Fall Line" or contact point of the Coastal Plain and the Appalachian Plateau, which extends nearly 2000 miles to Canada. From here upstream the riverbed is primarily rock while downstream is is sand, silt and gravel. It was head of navigation on the river and thus a primary reason for the founding of Tuscaloosa. It was used as . . . — Map (db m28904) HM|
|Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Marr’s Spring|
|Part of Marr’s Field, on farmland owned by William Marr, this spring was a major factor in the selection of this site for the University of Alabama campus in 1827. From its opening in 1831 well into the 20th century, the institution relied upon Marr’s Spring as its principal water source. Water flowing from hillside crevices was collected in these brick cisterns and hauled in buckets to the rooms of students and throughout the campus. A dam for a swimming pond and bathhouse was constructed, . . . — Map (db m40388) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Chambers — Badlands|
|Geologists call eroded landscapes such as the Painted Desert "badlands." Summer thunderstorms and winter snowmelt carve the shale and sandstone into mazes of sharp ridges, steep hillsides, and deep V-shaped gullies. Practically waterless, badlands support few plants.
Badlands exist only in dry regions with sparse vegetation. Soft badland sediments, unprotected by plants or by overlying harder caprock, are easily stripped away by infrequent rains. The remaining many-colored hills--with . . . — Map (db m72923) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Chambers — Painted Desert / Finding Fossils|
|The colorful mesas, buttes, and badlands before you compose a natural work of art--the Painted Desert.
Wind and running water cut these features from the Chinle Formation deposited over 200 million years ago when this area was a vast inland basin near sea level. The colors are due to ancient environmental conditions in which the sediments were originally deposited as well as the type of minerals present in the rocks.
Besides being colorful, the Chinle Formation contains a valuable . . . — Map (db m72925) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Window Rock — In Remembrance of Our Warriors / Navajo Warrior Memorial|
In Remembrance of Our Warriors
Who Made the Ultimate Sacrifice and/or
Missing in Action,
They will never be forgotten
and to us they will always be young in our thoughts.
Nelson Lewis • Walter Nelson • Willie A. Notah • Edie Charlie Begaye • Lee D. Tsosie • John C. Nelson • Calvin D. Largo • Bobby J. Martinez • Wilson Begaye Kee • Edmund Smith • Hosteen Plum* • Leonard Tellowhair • Lee Duane Todacheene • Norman Graham • Ralford J. Jackson • Paul Kinlacheeny • Raymond ***lie • . . . — Map (db m27911) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bowie — 086-352 — Old Fort Bowie — Guardian of Apache Pass|
|Established 1862 following the battle of Apache Pass, largest conflict in Arizona Indian Wars. Massed Apaches under Cochise and Mancas Coloradas were routed by howitzers fired by California volunteers attacked in the pass. Fort Bowie overlooked only spring for miles. — Map (db m6994) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Telephone Exchange — 1909|
|This building was constructed in 1909 by John W. Weatherford, the man who earlier built the adjacent Weatherford Hotel. It was the headquarters for the Arizona Overland Telephone Company, housing its offices and physical plant.
Construction started in July 1909 and was finished that fall. Locally produced materials were used, including lumber, Moenkopi sandstone and red brick.
The Overland Company replaced the Flagstaff Mutual Telephone Company, which had been a strictly in town . . . — Map (db m59966) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — The Citadel / Natural Features|
It was a remarkable achievement, to use primitive mortar and local stones to build the walls above you straight up from the edge of the top of the rock. “The Citadel” is the modern name given to this ruin because of its location, but archeologists wonder why the Anasazi often built in high, hard-to-get-at places. Some theories say it was defensive. Others say it was to avoid building on croplands, or for sun and breeze. Or was it more simple? Today we often . . . — Map (db m60087) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — As Powerful as a Volcano|
| Cinder cones erode easily and scars are slow to heal. In 1973, Sunset Crater was closed to climbing when 2-foot-wide trails eroded to 60-foot-wide swaths. Tons of cinder were shoveled back up the cone to fill hip-deep trenches. Notice the scars still visible today.
Plants will eventually return to areas where cinders are left undisturbed. Walking in barren areas dislodges soil particles forming between the cinders. Give plants a chance; stay on the trail.
...Flagstaff . . . — Map (db m41676) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — Life and Landscape Transformed|
| The landscape before you has existed on Earth for less than 1,000 years, less time than Romanesque architecture or paper money. Consequently, this environment has unique scientific value.
Geologists come here to study weathering processes and soil formation. Ecologists are learning what it takes - and how long - to recolonize a new, hotter, dryer, nutrient-poor environment.
The harshness of this environment may mimic the effects of global warming and long-term drought. What we learn here . . . — Map (db m41691) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — The Birth of a Mountain|
| About 1,000 years ago, something spectacular happened in the lives of local Native peoples. Perhaps they first observed a change in animal behavior. Maybe they noticed the ground warming. Then the tremors increased in number and intensity. By the time the earth cracked open, people had their belongings packed. What followed impacted life profoundly in this corner of the Southwest.
A 1,000-foot-high (305m) cinder cone, known today as Sunset Crater, grew where open parks and forests had been. . . . — Map (db m41689) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Holbrook — A Gap in the Geologic Record|
|The black basalt that caps the cliffs before you stands in stark contrast to the colorful Chinle Formation visible throughout the Painted Desert.
Below this layer of basalt, a horizontal line cuts across the face of the mesa and separates rocks of two different geologic periods. The pink mudstone below this line belongs to the Chinle Formation deposited about 225 million years ago. The brown mudstone and basalt layers above the line represent the Bidahochi Formation deposited only 5 to 8 . . . — Map (db m68901) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Holbrook — Desert Vistas|
|From Pintado Point, vistas of remarkable clarity extend far beyond boundaries because the air quality in the surrounding Petrified Forest is among the purest in the continental United States. At times, the San Francisco Peaks, 120 miles (193 km) away near Flagstaff, can be seen clearly. Long-distance visibility also allows us to see the Painted Desert's vibrant colors extending out to the horizon.
But clean air is extremely sensitive. In pre-industrial times, visibility flunctuated . . . — Map (db m68903) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Holbrook — From Wood to Stone|
|Approximately 225 million years ago, during the Triassic Period, a floodplain existed here – littered with fallen trees. Periodic flooding buried the logs beneath layers of silt. Over time, silica-laden waters filtered through these deposit and petrified the wood by encasing the trees’ organic material with minerals.
Iron oxides give petrified wood its distinctive red, yellow, and orange hues; manganese oxides produce blues, purples and deep blacks, while the original carbon . . . — Map (db m68870) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Holbrook — Jasper Forest|
|The petrified wood strewn in the valley below was once encased in the bluffs around you. When erosional forces removed the softer rocks, the petrified wood tumbled and accumulated on the valley floor. Once filled with fallen logs, Jasper Forest was plundered in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by commercial collectors seeking petrified wood to sell as souvenirs.
Completion of the nearby railway line in 1882 provided early travelers – and relic hunters – easy access to . . . — Map (db m68871) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Holbrook — Painted Desert Community Complex Historic District|
Has been listed in the
of Historic Places
By the United States
Department of the Interior
Historic District — Map (db m36387) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Holbrook — Pioneers of Paleontology|
|Petrified Forest is a laboratory where scientists study not only the fossil record, but the records of earlier discoveries by naturalists and paleontologists.
Interest in the area’s fossils goes back to 1853, when a U.S. Army expedition discovered the Black Forest in what would become the park’s northern section. Later, at the request of General William Tecumseh Sherman, two petrified logs from that area were acquired for the Smithsonian Institution.
Conservationist John Muir . . . — Map (db m68873) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Holbrook — The Painted Desert|
|The Painted Desert stretches before you as an outdoor museum of fossilized plants and animals. Its striking colors emanate from the Chinle Formation of the Late Triassic, which has been eroded by the Little Colorado River drainage system.
An aerial view of the Painted Desert reveals tie-dyed corrugated hills of highly colored sedimentary rock, mostly soft, fine-grained mudstone and claystone. Also present are harder beds of more somber-colored siltstone, sandstone, and conglomerate. The . . . — Map (db m68896) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Holbrook — Triassic Landscape|
|The dry plateau lands of this region today are far different from the tree-littered floodplains of 225 million years ago during the geologic period called the Triassic. Imagine a forested Triassic land where crocodile-like phytosaurs inhabited the shores, and other carnivorous reptiles hunted on land. Visualize stormy floodwaters carrying Triassic trees here to the floodplains, where, over time, the trees would petrify.
What happened to the animals of the Triassic? Did their disappearance . . . — Map (db m68868) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Upside-down Mountain — Navajo National Monument|
|Hidden away in Tsegi Canyon’s wilderness of bare rock, sand, and sparse vegetation are surprising pockets of luxuriant growth. Betatakin Canyon—home to a village of prehistoric cliff-dwellings farmers—is one of these oases. Fir Canyon, over to your right, is another.
The deeper and narrower the canyon, the less sunshine reaches into its depths. Less sunshine means less evaporation of rainwater, so plant life flourishes. You could say that the climate of Fir Canyon is like an . . . — Map (db m71514) HM|
|Arizona (Navajo County), Winslow — Sunset Crossing|
|This crossing, first noted early in the 1850s in journals and maps of explorers along the 35th parallel, is the only convergence of major travel routes on the Little Colorado River. It lies on the trail used by Mormon immigrants journeying from Utah to Arizona settlements during the 1870's. A rock ledge spanning the stream from bank to bank at this point made crossing by wagon possible. It is said to have been named after Sunset Pass located to the southwest. — Map (db m32722) HM|
|Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Sentinel Peak|
|Used as a lookout and for signal fires by the Indians prior to and since 1692 and later by early settlers — Map (db m38401) HM|
|Arizona (Pima County), Vail — Colossal Cave Mountain Park|
This Property has
been placed on the
of Historic Places
By the United States
Department of the Interior
1934 — Map (db m30613) HM|
|Arkansas (Clay County), St. Francis — Chalk Bluff|
|Named for the white clay which resembles chalk, this magnificent bluff is one of the most important historical landmarks in Arkansas. At this point the St. Francis River cuts through Crowley's Ridge from west to east and forms the boundary between Arkansas and Missouri. In 1857 David Dale Owen began the first geological survey of the state here. — Map (db m18136) HM|
|Arkansas (Jefferson County), Pine Bluff — Bayou Bartholomew|
|Beginning 10 miles northwest of Pine Bluff, this storied bayou flows 300 miles through 6 Arkansas counties and 2 Louisiana parishes before emptying into the Ouachita River in north Louisiana. Indian mounds dotted its banks. Immigrants travelled it by flatboat and settled in Jefferson County. While the origin of its name is uncertain, it was so known as early as 1786. Baron De Carondelet referred to it by name in a 1795 letter, and Don Carlos Trudeau, surveyor general of the Spanish Province of . . . — Map (db m30581) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Indian Rock — Berkeley History|
|Outcroppings of weathered rock are a prominent feature of the Berkeley Hills, providing evidence of this area’s complex geological past. Composed of Northbrae rhyolite, Indian Rock is an ancient volcanic remnant. Native Ohlone communities gathered at these outcroppings. Here they ground acorns into meal with stone pestles, eventually wearing bowl-like depressions in the rock.
In the early 20th century the Mason-McDuffie Real Estate Company developed the surrounding Northbrae subdivision. . . . — Map (db m53852) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Live Oak Park — 1914 — Berkeley History|
|Live Oak Park was created in 1914 when the City of Berkeley purchased four acres from landowners R.S. Penniman and Michael O’Toole. Mr. Penniman’s brown shingle house served as the park clubhouse and also, from 1916-1936, as Berkeley’s North Branch Public Library. The Walnut Street bridge over Codornices Creek was constructed in 1915 and an aviary featuring “a nice assortment of rare birds” was added a few years later. Also built at about this time, the tennis courts and the park’s . . . — Map (db m54190) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Thousand Oaks Neighborhood and Urns — Circa 1909-1910 — Mark Daniels, Landscape Engineer|
In the early 1900s, the natural beauty of this undeveloped district, with dramatic rock outcroppings and ancient oaks made it a favorite destination for picnickers and hikers.
After a campaign to make the area a city park failed, real estate promoter John Hopkins Spring subdivided the land in 1909. He advertised: “We are touching this, nature’s masterpiece, with a reverent hand.” Landscape engineer Mark Daniels laid out building lots and winding roads . . . — Map (db m53848) HM|
|California (Alameda County), Piedmont — Sulphur Springs Grotto — The Healing Powers of Mineral Springs|
|The first recorded visitor to the sulphur springs grotto is Isaac Holmes, a retired U.S. Senator from South Carolina, who reportedly installed a bathtub in Bushy Dell canyon in the early 1860s in order to take alfresco baths for his rheumatism.
Walter Blair hoped to capitalize on the curative powers of the water when he bought the park property. According to the newspaper, ”The waters of these springs contain sulphur, magnesia, iodine and iron and are claimed by those who have . . . — Map (db m72378) HM|
|California (Alpine County), Kirkwood — Caples Lake|
|In 1849 Dr. James Caples passed through here on his way to California’s gold country.
After a brief stay in Old Hangtown (Placerville) Caples remembered the lake and returned here with his family to establish a way station that served weary travelers for thirty years.
The lake known variously as Summit Lake, Clear Lake, and Twin Lakes, is two miles long and has a surface area of 600 acres.
Dedicated by the Historical Society of Alpine County. — Map (db m11048) HM|
|California (Alpine County), Kirkwood — Summer Retreat|
|In 1849 Mary Jane Walker Caples, along with her brother, husband James, and baby daughter Isabella, traveled overland by wagon to the gold fields of California. The Caples went to “Hangtown,” (Placerville,CA) to seek their fortune. James became ill in the cold damp conditions, forcing Mary Jane to support the family for awhile. She baked pies in two Dutch ovens to sell to the miners. She charged $1.00 per pie and sold as many as 100 pies in one day. When the gold fever passed, the . . . — Map (db m44987) HM|
|California (Alpine County), Markleeville — Beautiful Hot Springs Valley — draws people now as it has for thousands of years|
|Summer after summer the Washoe Indian people visited the valley. Eventually their idyllic retreat was discovered.
During the winter of 1844 Captain John Fremont may have seen this place during his crossing of the Sierra. Fremont’s diary of his crossing west over the Sierra has been interpreted by some historians with his route passing through Hot Springs Valley.
Just ten years later John Hawkins, the first white settler in the valley, began his cattle ranch here. His ranch house was . . . — Map (db m11001) HM|
|California (Alpine County), Markleeville — Grover Hot Springs|
|Telltale signs of geologic activity surround Grover Hot Springs State Park. Bold granite peaks to the northwest are the work of immense mountain building forces. Old lava flows cover hundreds of square miles to the east, giving the Markleeville area its distinctly volcanic appearance. Ice Age glaciers carved this valley into the rugged form that visitors admire today.
The hot-springs here are a by-product of similar processes – the interplay of rock and fire and ice. Water melted from . . . — Map (db m13239) HM|
|California (Amador County), Volcano — Volcano Masonic Cave|
|In Memory of the Bryant Brothers
Clemens E. Bryant, Thomas L. Bryant,
Roy Bryant and Walter F. Bryant
Whose surviving relatives deeded this property
to Volcano Lodge No. 56 F. & A. M. on June 20, 1962.
Our pioneer brethren held five meetings in this
cave in 1853 when they were organizing the
Volcano Masonic Lodge.
Dedicated May 6, 1967 — Map (db m15824) HM|
|California (Calaveras County), Murphys — Mercer Caverns|
|Discovered September 1, 1885, by Walter J. Mercer. Resting at this site and noticing movement of grass near a small hole. Enlarging the opening, he ascended into extensive caverns containing varieties of fantastic crystalline formations. The public tours began September 12, 1885.
In 1900, a display of the rare Aragonite Flos Ferri was awarded the Grand Prize at the Paris World's Fair.
Recognized by the State of California as a Point of Historical Interest on August 2, 1985. — Map (db m16017) HM|
|California (Fresno County), Sanger — 25 — Kings River|
|Its waters made possible the irrigation of a million fertile acres, despite a 39 year battle over water rights. From 1882 forward, 150 lawsuits were filed and early irrigators often used armed force to open headgates to water their crops. L. A. Nares proposed the first diversion plan in 1897. Broader agreements in 1921 and 1927 brought peace. Completion of Pine Flat Dam in 1956 by the U.S. Corps of Engineers for flood control and irrigation finally insured maximum use of the river's water, . . . — Map (db m27996) HM|
|California (Humboldt County), Fortuna — The Eel River Starts on Your Street — Eel River: Linking Human and Coastal Environments|
|The Eel, California’s third largest river, flows 800 miles before emptying into the Pacific Ocean. Through ongoing monitoring, public and private entities are working to preserve the integrity of this designated “Wild and Scenic River.”
(The balance of the sign is specific to local residents and protecting the river. See photo for text.) — Map (db m71985) HM|
|California (Los Angeles County), Long Beach — Evolution of a skyline — Long Beach's history can be seen in its rooftops|
|In the early 1990s, Long Beach was world-famous as a visitor destination. Hotels and dance halls, trolleys and roller coasters lured tourist to the city. The mild climate and pristine beaches beckoned people to the water's edge. With daily train service on the Southern Pacific Railroad and seven miles of beach "wide enough to drive twenty teams abreast", Long Beach was called the finest location in southern California for "heath, pleasure and profit". Today, as the City reflects on its past, it . . . — Map (db m71543) HM|
|California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — Chester Stock, Ph.D. - Observation Pit — Hancock Park — Rancho La Brea|
| Panel 1: Chester Stock, Ph.D. January 28, 1892 - December 7, 1950 Paleontalogist
Chief curator of science - Los Angeles County Museum Chairman of the Division of Geological Sciences California Institute of Technology who, encouraged by the foresight and generosity of G. Allan Hancock, inspired his many co-workers in developing and preserving the treasures of Rancho La Brea Presented by the Los Angeles County Museum Association. Panel 2: Observation Pit . . . — Map (db m51436) HM|
|California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — 247 — Hancock Park — La Brea Pits|
The Citizens of Los Angeles County
In December 1916 by
Captain Allan Hancock
With a request that the scientific
features be preserved
First historic reference to the tar pools
Recorded in the diary of Caspar dePortola'
In August 3, 1769
Originally a portion of the Rancho LaBrea
Granted by Governor Alvarado 1840 — Map (db m59013) HM|
|California (Los Angeles County), Palmdale — The San Andreas Fault|
|One of the most outstanding geological feautures in California, extending for over 650 miles from Point Arena, North of San Francisco, to south of San Corconio Pass. Between twenty and thirty miles deep and more than a mile wide in some locations. The faulted sandstone and shale, contorted and sheared may be seen by looking northward from this point, where the Antelope Valley Freeway cuts through the upthrusted ridge to the north. This fault is responisble for two of the greatest earthquakes in . . . — Map (db m55474) HM|
|California (Los Angeles County), San Pedro — Portuguese Bend|
|The Palos Verdes Peninsula is an up lifted block of land forced out of the sea at a rate of about 0.4 millimeters per year over the last 2 million years. Once an island, the peninsula is encircled by thirteen wave cut terraces. These broad "benches" were cut out of the rock by ocean waves when the rising land was still at sea level.
Portuguese bend is surrounded by the Abalone Cove and Portuguese Bend Landslides, and stands as a sentinel against the waves of the Pacific Ocean. The strata . . . — Map (db m42124) HM|
|California (Marin County), Point Reyes Station — Sea Life in These Waters — Gulf of the Farallones & Cordell Band — National Marine Sanctuaries|
|Some of the world’s richest waters exist right off California’s coast. An explosion of life occurs here due to a combination of the sun’s energy, wind, ocean currents, and contours of the sea floor. Microscopic phytoplankton form the base of the food chain, which are fed upon by zooplankton and fishes, providing a feast for seabirds, seals, whales sharks and humans. Gulf of the Farallones and Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuaries protect this ocean wilderness through research, education, . . . — Map (db m63362) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Bear Valley — May Rock|
|Originally named Tower Rock, May Rock is the largest outcropping of quartz along the Mother Lode. This 82 foot high formation contains no gold ore. Most gold ore within quartz is at greater depths in the earth.
It was part of Colonel John C. Fremont’s1847 “Las Mariposas” 44,000 acre land grant and later owned by Louis Trabucco.
To celebrate May Day, people came from Bagby, Bear Valley, Elkhorn, Hornitos Mariposa, Quartzburg, and Princeton.
It became the central . . . — Map (db m46375) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Wawona — 4 — Yosemite Valley's First Visit by White Men|
|From the crest of the ridge of a few hundred feet behind this point members of the Mariposa Battalion under the leadership of Major James D. Savage looked into Yosemite Valley on March 27, 1851. Alarmed by the encroaching tide of California Gold Rush miners, the Indians who made Yosemite their home raided and destroyed foothill trading posts. In retaliation, Major Savage's battalion pursued them into their mountain stronghold. After a long fight the Indians surrendered and were taken to . . . — Map (db m47417) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — A Varied View — Tunnel View - Yosemite National Park|
In Yosemite, you may never witness the same scene twice.
This grand show is eternal. It is always sunrise, somewhere; the dew is never all dried at once; a shower is forever falling; vapor ever rising. Eternal sunrise, eternal sunset, eternal dawn and gloaming, on seas and continents and islands, each in its turn, as the round earth rolls.
- John Muir
Whether spring or fall, morning or afternoon, one has the opportunity to experience an ever . . . — Map (db m63596) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — A View Through Time — Tunnel View - Yosemite National Park|
| A Burning Tradition
Miwok people, who called themselves Ahwahneechee, lived in Yosemite Valley for thousands of years. Their traditional practice of regularly burning the meadows and oak woodlands of the Valley contributed to the open landscape first seen by the Mariposa Battalion.
“The whole valley had the appearance of park-like grounds, with trees, shrubbery, flowers and lawns.”
Lafayette Bunnell, 1880.
From this breathtaking viewpoint into Yosemite Valley, . . . — Map (db m63597) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — Disappearing Waterfalls|
|At certain times of the year some of the Valley’s waterfalls disappear. Bridalveil keeps flowing even in late summer, when Yosemite Falls begins to dry up.
Above Yosemite Falls the terrain is largely bare granite; runoff is rapid. Bridalveil Creek’s green upper valley has more vegetation and deeper soil that absorb rain and snowmelt, slowing runoff to a relatively steady flow.
Recognizing that the vegetation above helps feed the falls, John Muir pushed for expansion of the park area . . . — Map (db m63589) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — Glacier Point Hotel|
|You are standing on the site of two famous Yosemite landmarks: McCauley’s Mountain House (1872-1969) and the Glacier Point Hotel (1917-1969). Both structures were built from trees cut down near this site. They both burned to the ground on the evening of July 9, 1969. Rather than rebuild the hotels, the National Park Service decided to reduce development and provide unimpaired views to all visitors.
For generations, Glacier Point has been one of the most popular . . . — Map (db m65530) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — Reawakening the Meadow|
|Where the Old Village once stood, little evidence remains. In its heyday, thousands of tourists arrived on horseback, in wagons, and in early Model T Fords. They danced, bathed, and slept here. Today this is hard to imagine, as the meadow seems so pristine. The National Park Service relocated the old buildings over time, removing the last building, Degnan’s Bakery, in 1881.
Seeds of Change
A century of trash once lay buried beneath this meadow’s surface, obstructing water flow and . . . — Map (db m65527) HM|
|California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — Welcome to Glacier Point|
|People have been coming to Glacier Point for generations to see one of the most spectacular views on earth. For a panoramic vista of Yosemite Valley, walk along the trail to Glacier Point, located ¼ mile from where you’re now standing. Along the trail, you can visit the Geology Hut exhibit on glaciations and landforms and watch for other interpretive exhibits pointing out Half Dome, waterfalls, and views of the High Sierra.
The Four Mile Trail
is 4.6 miles, descending 3,200 feet in . . . — Map (db m63610) HM|
|California (Mono County), Mammoth Lakes — Convict Lake|
|Convict Lake and Creek are so named as the result of an encounter here September 17, 1871, between Robert Morrison, Benton Merchant and member of a posse of citizens, and three convicts who had escaped from the Carson City, Nevada, State Penitentiary. Morrison encountered the convicts on present Convict Creek, then known as Monte Diablo Creek. Morrison was killed and the convicts escaped. Other members of the posse captured the fugitives in Round Valley. They were taken to Bishop where two of . . . — Map (db m19879) HM|
|California (Mono County), Mammoth Lakes — Crowley Lake|
|Crowley Lake, widely known for its trout fishing, has yielded more than 40 tons of fish the first week of fishing season. It was named for Father Crowley, a beloved Catholic priest. who traveled this area extensively.
The White Mountain Range, to the east, is the home of the bristlecone pines, the world's oldest living thing.
The banded light and dark colored formations of the Sierra Nevada was once sediment deposited by an ancient sea and is approximately 450 million years old. . . . — Map (db m72570) HM|
|California (Mono County), Mammoth Lakes — Owens Valley|
|extended from Bishop south for 100 miles. The valley was inhabited by Indians for many years. Joseph Walker in 1833 was the first white man to discover the valley. In 1845 John C. Fremont named the valley, a river and a lake, after Richard Owens, an army captain in his expedition to this area. — Map (db m50058) HM|
|California (Mono County), Mammoth Lakes — Preserving Special Places|
|Devils Postpile stands not only as an unusual geologic wonder but as a monument to the visionary efforts of a dedicated conservationist. In 1910, under U.S. Forest Service management, engineer Walter L. Huber received an application from mining interests to blast the formation and dam the river. Huber sparked a campaign that succeeded in blocking the application and led to the designation of Devils Postpile National Monument in 1911. Since then, other citizens have worked with the National Park . . . — Map (db m63616) HM|
|California (Monterey County), Carmel — Lone Cypress — Perched over the Pacific for Hundreds of Years|
|Even though Monterey cypress trees prefer this area's rugged bare granite headlands, the Lone Cypress is a testament to the hardiness of these trees. It has withstood Pacific storms and winds for roughly 250 years. Fences and cables now offer added protection in the hopes it will live to be 300.
Due to Samuel F.B. Morse, the preservation-minded founder of Pebble Beach, the Del Monte Forest now consists of nature trails and reserves, spectacular 17 Mile Drive, resorts and golf courses, and . . . — Map (db m8476) HM|
|California (Monterey County), Marina — A Coastal Attack the Army Couldn’t Stop — Fort Ord Dunes State Park|
|Soldiers once guarded this shoreline against sea-borne attack, but one force proved too powerful to stop. Coastal erosion, the wearing away of these bluffs and beaches by ocean waves, has been steadily moving the coastline inland here since sea levels began rising after the last ice age. Human activities, such as mining sand and constructing dams on the coastal rivers, and speed up erosion by preventing new sand from replenishing these beaches. — Map (db m68883) HM|
|California (Monterey County), Pacific Grove — Balance Lost and Found Again — Asilomar Conference Center|
| Decades of logging, grazing, recreation, and foot traffic brought Asilomar's dune ecosystem to the brink of extinction. When the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) established the Asilomar summer camp grounds in 1913, the dunes became a recreation area.
By the time California State Parks acquired Asilomar in 1956, the dunes were crisscrossed with walking paths. Foot traffic damaged remaining native vegetation, weakened the towering dunes, and permitted the sand to blow away.
In . . . — Map (db m63773) HM|
|California (Orange County), North Tustin — Red Hill|
|In early descriptions it was known as Cerrito De Las Ranas, meaning the Hill of the Frogs. In the 1890s this hill became the scene of mining excitement. Its soil composition, very red in color, had caused early American settlers to name it Red Hill. This landmark is a physical reminder of our rich State and local history. — Map (db m51966) HM|
|California (Orange County), North Tustin — 203 — Red Hill|
|A promontory which served as a landmark for early travelers. It was called "Katuktu" by the Indians. — Map (db m52087) HM|
|California (Sacramento County), Gold River — The Treasured American River|
|The river before you is not the same river that flowed through here 200 years ago when the Nisenan Indians caught salmon and collected acorns along its bank. The river has been mined, dammed and surrounded by our cities, yet it still supports healthy runs of Chinook salmon and steelhead. The American River remains a vital part of our region and its protection is in your hands. — Map (db m15836) HM|
|California (Sacramento County), Rancho Cordova — Vernal Pool Grassland — Mather Vernal Pools|
|When rain falls on a vernal pool grassland, some water sinks into the ground and the rest flows into streams or into depressions in the landscape. The water cannot move deeper into the ground in a vernal pool grassland because a hardpan blocks its path.
Hardplan is a layer of clay or minerals that water cannot pass through easily. Once the soils are saturated, rainwater perches on top of the hardpan. Only where there are depressions in the landscape can you see the perched water - as ponds . . . — Map (db m52708) HM|
|California (San Benito County), Paicines — Benitoite|
|Was discovered on February 22, 1907 by James Marshall Couch while prospecting for quicksilver on a fifty dollar grubstake for shares from R.W. Dallas and Tom Sanders. On July 30, 1907 mineralogy Professor George D. Louderback identified it as a new mineral species, barium titanium silicate (BaTiSi3O9). He named it Benitoite after the river, county and nearby mountain range. The gem-quality crystal combines the color of sapphire with the fire of a diamond. It . . . — Map (db m63910) HM|
|California (San Benito County), Paicines — The Coast Range: an ecological meeting place|
|Ecology is all about how all things around us interact and affect each other, from rocks to plants to animals. Here is a place rich with different ecological interactions. How many can you see?
Millions of years ago, most of California was under the ocean. Then the Pacific plate collided with the North American plate and was forced beneath it...
Rock from the bottom of the sea was scraped up into a jumbled pile: from shale and sandstone that had formed from layers of sediments settling . . . — Map (db m71565) HM|
|California (San Benito County), San Juan Bautista — The San Andreas Fault Exhibit & El Camino Real Earthquake Walk|
|In Celebration of the
U.S.Geological Survey's Centennial
1879 - 1979
Dedicated July 4, 1979
SAN JUAN BAUTISTA CHAMBER OF COMMERCE
In Cooperation With
Old Mission San Juan Bautista-Diocese of Monterey,
U.S.Geological Survey-Department of the Interior,
California State Historical Park-San Juan Bautista
and the Citizens of San Juan Bautista, California — Map (db m15340) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Amboy — 88 — Amboy Crater — National Natural Landmark|
|Amboy Crater, formed of ash and cinders, is 250 feet high and 1500 feet in diameter. The crater is in one of the youngest volcanic fields in the United States. Six distinct periods of eruptions created the resulting nested group of volcanic cinder cones encompassing 24 square miles. Volcanic activity started an estimated 6000 years ago with the last period of eruptions occuring as recently as 500 years ago. Amboy Crater's recent origin and its near-perfect shape led to its designation as a . . . — Map (db m50733) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Amboy — The Story of Route 66|
[ Six panels are mounted on a half-moon base which tell The Story of Route 66 ]. Reading from left to right:
[ Panel 1: ]
The Story of Route 66
Commissioned in 1926 and soon dubbed "The Mother Road," Route 66 was a great asphalt river linking Chicago and Los Angeles – a highway of hope that led thousands of people to a new life.
You're standing on the site of one of the original Route 66 rest stops. Four covered picnic tables were located at this . . . — Map (db m33446) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), San Bernardino — 977 — The Arrowhead Landmark|
|Located in the foothills of the San Bernardino Mountains directly above the City of San Bernardino, the Arrowhead Landmark can be seen for miles around. This important landmark has for centuries been a symbol of the San Bernardino Valley to the Native Indians and then to the pioneers and settlers that followed.
It is believed to be a natural landmark. The face of the arrowhead consists of light quartz, supporting a growth of short white sage. This lighter vegetation shows in sharp contrast . . . — Map (db m51028) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Trona — Welcome to the Trona Pinnacles — ... a National Natural Landmark|
|Rising from the bottom of what was once an ancient lakebed, the Trona Pinnacles represent one of the most unique geologic landscapes in the California Desert. Over 500 of these tufa or calcium carbonate spires are spread out over a 14 square mile area across the Searles Lake basin. These features range in size from small coral-like boulders to several that top out at over 140 feet tall.
The Pinnacles were formed between 10,000 and 100,000 years ago when Searles Lake formed a link in a . . . — Map (db m50221) HM|
|California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Historic Shipwrecks - Lost at the Golden Gate|
| Swift tides, treacherous rocks, dense fog, and a narrow harbor entrance have always made San Francisco’s coast and port difficult to navigate. Over 300 known vessels have failed to make the passage and sank in the cold, treacherous waters.
One of the worst maritime disasters along the coast was the wreck of the City of Rio de Janeiro in 1901. The iron-hulled steamer hit a submerged ledge off Fort Point, in the Presidio, and flooded and sank within eight minutes. One hundred and . . . — Map (db m48638) HM|
|California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Mint Hill — A Trip Through Local History — Clyde Wahrhaftig|
|In 1936 almost half of Mint Hill was removed to create a flat base for the Mint.
In 1947 Duboce Avenue east of the Sunset Tunnel was crowded with automobiles as shoppers thronged to the farmers’ market.
The area near Market and Church Streets was an Ohlone village site. This was near a stream that flowed from Twin Peaks, along 14th Street to Church Street, 15th Street and into Dolores Lagoon. To this day, heavy rains sometime flood the intersection of 14th, Church, and Market . . . — Map (db m72658) HM|
|California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — San Francisco Gold Rush Shoreline|
|The shore line of San Francisco Bay reached a point twenty-five feet northeasterly from this spot at the time gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Coloma, California, January 24, 1848.
Map of old water line shown on tablet on opposite side of the street. — Map (db m71806) HM|
|California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Southbeach Shoreline – 1852|
|In 1852 you would have been standing on a bluff overlooking the narrow beach just below that followed the approximate line of King Street. First accurately charted by the U.S. Coast Survey topographical engineers in 1852, the shoreline was named Steamboat Point after the boatyards on the beach. All of the land that you can see on the bay side of King Street is man-made, created by filling the bay. Massive timber cribbing was built to hold large rocks, and thousand of cubic yards of the city’s . . . — Map (db m72544) HM|
|California (San Luis Obispo County), Morro Bay — 821 — Morro Rock|
|An important mariner's landfall for over 300 years, chronicled in the diaries of Portola, Fr. Crespi and Costanso in 1769 when they camped near this area on their trek to find Monterey. Sometimes called the "Gibraltar of the Pacific". It is the last in the famous chain of nine peaks which start in the city of San Luis Obispo.
California Registered Historical Landmark No. 821
Plaque placed by the State Department of Parks and Recreation in cooperation with the Morro Bay Chamber of . . . — Map (db m24795) HM|
|California (San Mateo County), Daly City — If it's Summer, Bring a Sweater — Daly City summers are virtually rain-free, but don't expect sunny skies.|
|Daly City is usually blanketed with heavy fog and swept by brisk sea breezes from mid-May to mid-September. But while Daly City shivers, the summer fog and sea breezes provide natural air conditioning for the rest of the Bay Area.
The breeze kick in when California's Central Valley heats up in summer. As the inland valley air warms up, it rises, drawing cool coastal air in to replace it. The coast is cooled by summer fog which forms when warm moist sea air blows over cold ocean waters . . . — Map (db m52114) HM|
|California (San Mateo County), Daly City — The Ground Beneath Your Feet|
|Here at Thornton Beach, the ground is not as solid as it seems. The ground itself is made up of a semi-consolidate sedimentary rock from here to Mussel Rock. It doesn't hold together well, which makes the coastline very unstable.
Constant pounding of the surf along Daly City coast undercuts the cliffs. Rain scours and penetrates the soil loosening the rock structure. Gravity pulls the weakened slopes down in slumps and slides. If that weren't enough, the San Andreas Fault runs 1/4 mile . . . — Map (db m52113) HM|
|California (San Mateo County), Milbrae — The San Andreas Fault|
|The San Andreas Fault is the largest earthquake fault in North America. It passes through this point and alongside the tip of the small peninsula straight ahead.
In this area, during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the west side of the fault moved nine feet northwestward. — Map (db m17165) HM|
|California (Santa Clara County), Los Gatos — Lexington Reservoir — James J. Lenihan Dam|
|Watershed: Guadalupe River
Capacity: 6.5 billion gallons
Depth: 130 feet
Length: 2.5 miles
Lexington Reservoir, named for the historic 1850's town which once stood on the valley's floor, is a significant source of local drinking water. Water captured in this reservoir is released into Los Gatos Creek, where it percolates through the earth's layers until it reaches the underground aquifers which are the source for the valley's groundwater. This . . . — Map (db m55147) HM|
|California (Santa Clara County), San Jose — Mineral Springs Grotto|
|The mineral springs located in this area have played an important role in the history and development of the park. Between 1891 and 1902, the Parks Commission began developing the park, highlighting the springs. During this period, over 20 different springs were identified, including sulfur, magnesia, iron and naturally carbonated soda springs. To protect and identify the different springs, tunnels were dug into the hillside and craftsmen were brought in to build the grottos (sic) and fonts . . . — Map (db m63781) HM|
|California (Shasta County), Burney — Burney Falls|
has been dedicated a
National Natural Landmark.
This site possesses exceptional value as an illustration of the nation's natural heritage and contributes to a better understanding of man's environment. — Map (db m546) HM|
|California (Shasta County), Shingletown — Bumpass’s Hell — Kendall Vanhook Bumpass|
|Our guide [Mr. K.V. Bumpass,] after cautioning us to be careful where we stepped, that the surface was treacherous, suddenly concluded with Virgil that the “descent to Hell was easy” for stepping upon a slight inequality in the ground he broke through the crust and plunged his leg into the boiling mud beneath, which clinging to his limb burned him severely. If our guide had been a profane man I think he would have cursed a little; as it was, I think his silence was owing to his . . . — Map (db m58148) HM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Tule Lake — Petroglyph Point|
|For thousands of years, the hill rising in front of you was an island. Ancient Lake Modoc lapped against its base, scouring cliffs. Later, Native Americans canoed to these cliffs to carve symbols in the soft volcanic tuff, and Modocs still tell of Kamookumpts, creator of the world, who sleeps here.
As you walk along the base of the of the cliff a trail brochure will guide you past petroglyphs and through stories of Petroglyph Point and the native peoples who have gone before and continue today. — Map (db m13736) HM|
|California (Siskiyou County), Weed — Mount Shasta|
|Dominating the landscape, Mt. Shasta can be seen for 100 miles from certain points drawing hikers, skiers and travelers. Mt. Shasta rises 11,000 fro the base to the summit for a total elevation of 14,162’ above sea level, one of the nation’s largest rises, ranking 49th. It is one of the southernmost volcanoes in the Cascade Range and is the second tallest, falling short of Mt. Rainier by 248’. It has a 17 mile diameter with 5 glaciers, the Whitney Glacier being the largest in California. The . . . — Map (db m69866) HM|
|California (Trinity County), Douglas City — Reading’s Bar|
|Major Pierson B. Reading discovered gold on this bar behind this monument in July, 1848. After crossing the Trinity Divide from the North Fork of Cottonwood Creek. His party of three whites, close friend Delaware Indian scout Tom Hill, and sixty three Valley Wintu Indians is said to have taken out $80,000 in six weeks before abandoning the claim to a band of Oregonians who objected to his use of Indian labor.
First dedicated July, 20, 1968.
Rededicated July 11, 1998 by — Map (db m55999) HM|
|California (Trinity County), Weaverville — Weaverville Basin Gold Discovery Site|
|In the bend of Rich Gulch near its junction with Ash Hollow five miners worked the winter of 1849-50, with the use of a log hollowed out to make a rocker. The rich pocket yielded five pounds of gold per day. The gulches in this district proved to great account. News of the strikes led to the rush in 1850 that brought a thousand goldminers to the Trinity River country. Miners founded the town of Weaverville by July, 1850 — Map (db m56111) HM|
|California (Tuolumne County), Groveland — 5-1975 — Big Gap Flume|
|In 1859 a wooden suspension flume 2200’ long was constructed across this valley by G.W. Holt and August Conrad as a link in the Golden Rock Ditch system which conveyed the water of the South Fork of the Tuolumne River to the mining areas of Groveland (Garrote) and Big Oak Flat. It was rightfully considered one of California’s early day engineering marvels, and is said to have been the highest major flume constructed during the Gold Rush period.
The flume decayed and fell with a spectacular . . . — Map (db m53274) HM|
|California (Tuolumne County), Groveland — Trails and Waterfalls|
|Within this 459-square-mile Hetch Hetchy watershed are 287 miles of trails, including a portion of the Pacific Crest Trail. They offer views of an abundance of flora and fauna, along with breathtaking scenery.
Upstream from the dam to your left, depending on the season, you can see the Tueeulala and Wapama falls which plunge more than 1,000 feet from the top of the cliffs into Hetch Hetchy Reservoir. They are fullest from late spring to early or mid summer. Tueeulala, which dries to a . . . — Map (db m1943) HM|
|California (Tuolumne County), Groveland — Water Quality at Hetch Hetchy|
|The Tuolumne River supplies 85% of the water for 2.4 million people. It originates from pristine spring snowmelt as far upstream as Mt. Lyell at an elevation of 13,114 feet.
The City and County of San Francisco protects the resources entrusted to its care by continuously monitoring this watershed and working with the park to minimize pollution.
Natural occurrences such as fire and erosion can affect water quality. More than 1,000 water samples are taken annually to protect the water . . . — Map (db m1942) HM|
|California (Tuolumne County), Jamestown — 431 — Mark Twain Bret Harte Trail — Jamestown (Also Called Jimtown)|
|Known as gateway of Mother Lode and to southern mines, gold first discovered in Tuolumne County west of this point at Woods Creek by James Woods shortly before town was founded by Col. George James, August 8, 1848. Large quantities of gold recovered from streambeds and gulches during “Gold Rush.” Surrounded by famous mines from which millions were extracted in later years. First mercantile business in Southern mines said to have been in Butterfield Building, built in 1850, still standing (1948). — Map (db m2304) HM|
|Colorado (Alamosa County), Mosca — "Totally Unique and Unexpected" — Park Visitor|
|Welcome to the high elevation desert that is Great Sand Dunes! Does this landscape strike you as amazing, bizarre or totally out of place. If so, you’re not alone. For many, the unexpected combination of massive dunes surrounded by alpine peaks and a desert valley inspires awe and curiosity.
The 30 square mile dunefield before you is the most impressive part of an enormous deposit of sand stretching west, south, and north. The San Juan Mountains on the far western horizon contributed most . . . — Map (db m71050) HM|
|Colorado (Alamosa County), Mosca — A Landmark for People|
“We can see the Dunes and the Crestone Needles from all over our ranch. When we are lost, that’s what we navigate by.”
Whether traveling on foot, by horseback, Model A, or the latest-model car, the dunes and mountains behind them were—and still are—used as landmarks by travelers in and around the San Luis Valley. The oldest evidence of humans in the area dates back to about 11,000 years ago. Perhaps echoing your own . . . — Map (db m71051) HM|
|Colorado (Alamosa County), Mosca — Sangre de Cristo Ecosystem — Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve|
|Different Life Zones Exist in the Mountains
Imagine climbing the mountain in front of you. You might notice it gets cooler as you ascend. As the temperature drops, moisture in the air condenses, precipitation increases, and creates different life zones.
The Alpine Life Zone
Only low shrubs and a few hardy plants can survive this cold, windy climate.
The Subalpine Life Zone
These dense, moist forests consist of spruce and subalpine fir trees.
The Montane Life . . . — Map (db m71056) HM|
|Colorado (Alamosa County), Mosca — Stepping into Wilderness — Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve|
|You are about to step into the Great Sand Dunes Wilderness. Its mood changes with the seasons, from the spacious solitude of winter, to spring and summer fun and play. Whatever the season of your visit, this unexpected wilderness offers opportunities to enjoy, explore, learn and recreate in one of our nation’s unspoiled wonders.
Great Sand Dunes is part of the National Wilderness Preservation System, which includes lands set aside to protect their unique natural conditions. Great Sand Dunes . . . — Map (db m71057) HM|
|Colorado (Alamosa County), Mosca — The Mountain Barrier|
|Mountains and passes were important in the formation
of the sand dunes.
You are looking at the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Prevailing southwesterly winds carrying sand across the San Luis Valley were blocked by the mountains.
As the winds rose to sweep through the passes, sand was dropped.
Some storms come from the northeast and reverse the wind flow through the passes, blowing sand back toward the Dune field. — Map (db m71055) HM|
|Colorado (Archuleta County), Pagosa Springs — Pagosa Springs|
|Pagosa Springs has a rich history, beginning with the Anasazi Indians. Later the Utes, Navajos and Apaches inhabited this beautiful corner of the Southwest. They also visited the great “Pagosah” hot springs which they believed had curative powers.
In time, the military established a post here to protect settlers from Indian hostilities. Archuleta County was established in 1885, and the town of Pagosa Springs was incorporated in 1891. The Pagosa & Northern Railroad steamed into . . . — Map (db m27527) HM|
|Colorado (Douglas County), Castle Rock — The Rock|
|A geologic phenomenon known as a “glowing avalanche” formed Castle Rock and the other buttes of Douglas County 36.7 million years ago. A volcanic eruption near Mount Princeton, about 95 miles southwest of here, spewed a frothy, gleaming cloud of lava across the landscape. As soon as the liquid rock hit the ground it hardened into a glassy-textured layer some 15 to 30 feet thick, known today as Castle Rock rhyolite. Throughout time, powerful wind and water forces scoured this valley . . . — Map (db m46142) HM|
|Colorado (Douglas County), Larkspur — Southwest Rises The Summit of Pikes Peak|
|This mountain, 14,110 feet above the sea and the most celebrated peak in America, is named for the explorer, Capt. Zubulon M. Pike, who saw it first in 1806. He attempted to climb it, failed and reported it unclimbable. Ascended in 1820 by Dr. Edwin James, a later explorer. A cog railway reached the summit in 1890 and a highway, in 1915. Motor races up the peak are held annually. The resort city of Colorado Springs, founded 1871, nestles at its foot where the first town called Colorado stood . . . — Map (db m4846) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Cascade — The Continental Divide|
|The Rocky Mountains are the longest chain of mountains in the world. They divide the United States watershed between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Colorado has 53 peaks over 14,000 feet. One inch on the Horizon equals about 38 miles. — Map (db m4838) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — A Look From The Top|
You are at 13,380 feet, 4,078 meters
Feeling Spacey? In the United States you can not get much closer to outer space than this! Are you dizzy and short of breath? No wonder, you are 2.5 miles (4 kilometers) above sea level! There is 40% less oxygen here as down below. Beware, thinner atmosphere accelerated sun burning.|
Alpine: Above the Forest. You have reached the harshest environment on Pikes Peak. From the ? do not grow here? There are some hard hips from can not endure. The . . . — Map (db m45815) HM
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Garden of the Gods Park|
|The beauty of Garden of the Gods Park, with its dramatic red rock formations framing Pikes Peak, serves as a magnificent eastern gateway to Colorado’s Rocky Mountains. The park’s towering red sandstone rocks have long been recognized as a landmark. American Indian people often gathered to stay in the shadow of the red rocks and to enjoy the abundance of plants and wildlife. Early European explorers, miners, and settlers also reveled in the beauty of what we now know as Garden of the Gods . . . — Map (db m45983) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Pike's Peak|
|Has been designated a Registered National Historic Landmark under the provisions of the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935 this site possesses exceptional value in commemorating and illustrating the history of the United States. US Department of the Interior, National Park Service 1963. — Map (db m45816) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — The Amazing Balanced Rock|
|Around 300 million years ago, the Ancestral Rockies once stood here. Over time, the forces of wind and water eroded the magnificent peaks into swift streams full of sediments. These sediments were eventually pressed and cemented into solid rock. The new rocks took the form of: •
Sands full of iron oxide creating red sandstone rock • muds forming softer, more delicate shales and • a mixture of sand and pebbles called conglomerate.|
Balanced Rock was exposed more than 60 million years ago . . . — Map (db m45979) HM
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — The Making of America's Mountain|
|The granite that make up Pikes Peak was once molten (or liquid) rock. It slowly cooled and hardened miles beneath the earth’s surface, giving the crystals time to grow. Over the last 500 million years several tectonic plates (the earth’s outer layers) have collided and pushed the now-cool granite lying below the surface upward. Around 65 million years ago a tectonic plate under the Pacific Ocean was driving into the North American continent. This movement initiated tremendous, mountain-building . . . — Map (db m45921) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Ute Pass|
| Passage from prairie to high plains
If you had been standing on this spot for the last 10,000 years, you would have seen the history of Colorado progress below you. This ancient route through the Rocky Mountains is named for Colorado’s Ute Indians who made yearly treks down this pass to visit the springs in Manitou and hunt buffalo on the plains.|
Spanish and American explorers followed the trail. Major Lon’s expedition of 1820 stopped for a lunch on bison ribs near the springs at the . . . — Map (db m45761) HM
|Colorado (Fremont County), Cañon City — 141 — Royal Gorge|
|Lt. Zubulon M. Pike and his men, who traveled through this area in November and December 1806, were the first American explorers to view the Arkansas River Canyon now known as the Royal Gorge. A small party from the Maj. Stephen H. Long expedition visited the mouth of the canyon in 1820, as did members of Lt. John C. Fremont's expedition in 1845.
In 1878 a right of way through Royal Gorge became the focal point of a bitter struggle between The Denver and Rio Grande and the Atchison, Topeka . . . — Map (db m34858) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Clear Creek|
|Clear Creek is one of the most popular and historic waterways of the Front Range. The Clear Creek watershed covers approximately 1550 square kilometers (600 square miles), includes five counties, and more than thirteen communities. From the headwaters on the Continental Divide to the plains near Denver, Clear Creek connects small mountain communities with Colorado’s largest metropolitan area. It starts at Loveland pass and drains into the South Platte River, near Commerce City. The most scenic . . . — Map (db m49896) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Golden and Clear Creek|
|The history of Golden reflects the history of Clear Creek. Eons ago, this creek, then a raging river, coursed its way through the mountains, cutting out the canyon and leaving behind fertile soil where an abundance of plants provided food for wild animals. The animals attracted trappers to the area in the 1700s. The river also laid down the placer gold to be found by gold seekers in the mid-1800s, and provide underground aquifers supplying fresh spring water for the future settlement of . . . — Map (db m49908) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Our Changing Landscape-From Sea Floor to Mountain Top|
|•Colorado’s geologic history dates back nearly two billion years. Several mountain ranges have been uplifted and eroded away before the rise of today’s Rocky Mountains. The landscape you see in front of you has undergone many dramatic changes. This story starts at a billion years ago.|
•The sea covers Colorado: 80 million years ago. Today’s Rocky Mountains did not exist. Where you are standing and all before you was beneath a shallow sea that covered the middle of the North American . . . — Map (db m46438) HM
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — What You Can See From Here Today|
|•This diagram illustrates the features you can see from here. North and South table Mountains are remnants of ancient lava flows now separated and eroded by Clear Creek. The Dakota Hogbacks on the left and right sides of the image were one continuous, but they have been cut off by the Golden Fault shown in black in this picture and on the geologic map. The rocks you are standing on were uplifted along the Golden Fault and are now two miles higher than the same rocks under the Table . . . — Map (db m46439) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Morrison — Front Range Foothills|
|You are looking out over the edges of tilted and eroded layers of sandstone and shale that lie upon much older rocks in the mountains behind you. If the eroded layers were restored to where you stand they would be more than two miles thick. The sandstone and shale were deposited as flat layers of sand and mud in streams, lakes and shallow seas during a time that began about 300 million years ago and ended about 70 million years ago. Later, the flat layers were bent upward during the rise of the . . . — Map (db m57932) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Red Rocks Park — Red Rocks Amphitheatre — City and County of Denver Landmark|
|Principle construction by Civilian Conservation Corps Company 1848, SP-13C, Mt. Morrison, CO.
1936 - 1941
Dedicated as a memorial to all who served at Mt. Morrison and to the 3 million who served in the CCC nation-wide, 1933 - 1942. The CCC left its heritage in the preservation of America's natural resources for enjoyment by all generations. — Map (db m57683) HM|
|Colorado (Mineral County), South Fork — The Great Divide|
|Water! Every drop has a destiny via the continent’s backbone: the Continental Divide.
With a foot on each side of the bronze line below, you are symbolically straddling the spine of the Western Hemisphere. In North America the Divide follows the crest of the Rocky Mountains, beginning north in Alaska’s Brook Range and continuing through South America to the Strait of Magellan.
Does the Continental Divide affect our lives? You bet!
Spring thaws begin as trickles, grow to . . . — Map (db m71660)|
|Connecticut (Fairfield County), Norwalk — A Habitat Renewed|
| In the past, the shallow and stagnant Mill Pond was not a good place for marine life. In 1996-97, the City of Norwalk undertook a $500,000 project to improve the aquatic habitat. Funds for the work came from the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection’s Office of Long Island Sound Programs. At the culvert connecting the pond with the harbor, a new tidal gate was installed to let in a refreshing rush of sea water twice a day. Dredging helped in several ways: • First, it removed . . . — Map (db m53485) HM|
|Connecticut (Fairfield County), Trumbull — Tashua Hills|
Above Sea Level
On the East Coast
Trumbull Parks Commission — Map (db m77495) HM|
|Connecticut (Litchfield County), New Milford — Lover’s Leap State Park|
| Highlights of Lover’s Leap State Park
New Milford, CT
Lover’s Leap State Park is located in southern New Milford. The Housatonic River flows through the park and forms the headwaters of Lake Lillinonah. This historic 140 acre park began in 1971 when Catherine Hurd bequeathed her 52 acre estate to the State of Connecticut for use as a ‘public park.’ In 2001, the Connecticut Light & Power Company sold 86 adjoining acres to the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, with the . . . — Map (db m22739) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Delaware City — Pea Patch Island|
|Fort Delaware is located on Pea Patch Island in the Delaware River. The island is sometimes said to have gotten its name from a boat loaded with peas that ran aground on a mud shoal in the 1770s. The spilled peas sprouted, mud caught in the vines, and so the island grew. In 1794, the island appeared on a map from the first time. During the Civil War, Pea Patch Island was only about 75 acres in size (compared with almost 300 acres today). Earth dredged up from the river was dumped onto the . . . — Map (db m21589) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Newark — Historic Iron Ore Mining|
|What is iron ore? Iron is a silvery-white, solid metal, though when found in Pencader Hundred, it commonly appears as a brown and sometimes nearly black oxide of iron. Its chemical symbol Fe, is derived from ferrum, the Latin word for iron. By volume, iron is the most abundant element, making up 34.6% of the earth. In Pencader Hundred, a medium to low grade of iron ore was mined from open pits on Iron Hill and Chestnut Hill. How was it made into iron? To refine iron ore it is . . . — Map (db m10705) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Newark — In the Beginning — Formation of the Delmarva Peninsula|
|Left Column Delaware is the second smallest state in the country. However, we played an important role in the formation of the nation. Caesar Rodney rode from Lewes to Philadelphia to cast the deciding vote for independence in 1776. We were the first state to ratify the Constitution in 1787. Piedmont Rocks(Crystaline Rocks): Metamorphosed (changed by pressure and heat) sedimentary rocks of the ancient North American Continent and adjacent ocean basin. Wilmington . . . — Map (db m10867) HM|
|Delaware (New Castle County), Wilmington — NC-85 — Ebright Azimuth|
|The highest benchmark monument in Delaware is located on Ebright Road. This horizontal control mark denotes an elevation of 447.85 feet above sea level. The Delaware Geological Society through its relationship with the National Geodetic Survey has determined that this benchmark monument is in the vicinity of the hightest natural elevation in the state. — Map (db m2893) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Zero Milestone — President's Park|
| [north face:]
[rendering of Mercury’s winged helmet]
[plaque in sidewalk below:]
The U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey determined the latitude, longitude and elevation of the Zero Milestone. Authorized by Act of Congress, June 5, 1920. Dedicated June 4, 1923.
Point for the measurement of distances from Washington on highways of
of the United States.
Starting point of first trans-continental . . . — Map (db m32486) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Northwest — Site of a Tulip Tree|
|Used as a signal station
· by ·
Confederate soldiers under
Gen. Jubal A. Early
during the attack on
· Washington ·
July 11 and 12, 1864
Also used by
The lower plaque reads:
Two cannon balls
Relics of Civil War days
found on the dairy farm
which is now a part of
Walter Reed Army Medical Center
Donated by Mr. William R. Burdett — Map (db m42698) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Tenleytown — Fort Reno — Civil War Defenses of Washington — 1861-1865|
|No visible evidence remains of Fort Reno, which stood at the top of this hill, the highest elevation in Washington, D.C.
[drawing of Fort Reno] Fort Reno from U.S. Army Corps of Engineers drawing. Cannon mounted at Fort Reno helped repulse a Confederate attack on Fort Stevens, July 11-12, 1864.
[map of northern DC] Other Civil War fort locations administered by Rock Creek Park.
[photo of unnamed Washington fort] During the Civil War, Washington's forts overlooked farm land. — Map (db m20629) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — Petrified Wood — Araucarioxylon Arizonicum Knowlton — Triassic Period|
|about 200 million years old Found near Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona Contributors: Mr. and Mrs. James M. Gray Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Zuhl City of Holbrook, Arizona — Map (db m54063) HM|
|Florida (Duval County), Jacksonville — Spanish Pond — Fort Caroline National Monument — Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve|
|500 Spanish soldiers from St. Augustine marched four days through marsh, forest tangle, fierce wind, and heavy rainfall to an encampment near here. Exhausted and hungry they rested in a downpour; at dawn they attacked and captured France's Fort de la Caroline. In 1565 Spaniards, slogging through wetlands like Spanish Pond to overtake Fort de la Caroline, saw an inhospitable environment. Today we see backyards. An open, pristine pine flatwoods once surrounded this spot; today, a . . . — Map (db m46579) HM|
|Florida (Duval County), Jacksonville — Timucuan Preserve — Fort Caroline National Monument — Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve|
|Bound by the Nassau River, the Atlantic Ocean, and the St. Johns River, the Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve seeks to protect much of the water and undeveloped land you see from here. Salt marsh, coastal hammock, tidal creeks, and sea and marsh islands compose most of the 46,000-acre National Park site. The Preserve is about people, beginning 6,000 years ago with the native Timucuans. Native American, French, Spanish, English, African-American, and American all had a stake here. . . . — Map (db m46576) HM|
|Florida (Hamilton County), White Springs — F-24 — White Springs|
|These sulphur springs were thought to have medicinal properties and were considered sacred by the Indians. Warriors wounded in battle reputedly were not attacked when they came here to recuperate. Settlers moved into the vicinity in 1826 and the springs became an ante bellum resort noted for natural beauty and good cuisine. The village was a refuge during the War Between the States and many planters brought their families and slaves here for safety. — Map (db m13675) HM|
|Florida (Hillsborough County), Thonotosassa — John B. Sargeant, Sr. — May 29, 1915 - March 6, 1989|
|John B. Sargeant is remembered as a "gentle" man who generously gave of his time so that future generations could enjoy the lands preserved here. A Polk County dairyman, he served twenty-seven years on the Hillsborough River Basin Board of the Southwest Florida Water Management District. — Map (db m13678) HM|
|Florida (Levy County), Cedar Key — F-303 — John Muir at Cedar Key|
|John Muir, noted naturalist and conservation leader, spent several months in Florida in 1867. He arrived at Cedar Key in October, seven weeks after setting out from Indiana on a "thousand-mile walk to the Gulf." Muir's journal account of his adventure, which was published in 1916, two years after his death, includes interesting glimpses of the quality of life in the post-Civil War south. "The traces of war," he wrote, "are not only apparent on the broken fields, mills, and woods ruthlessly . . . — Map (db m17705) HM|
|Florida (Marion County), Dunellon — Rainbow Springs|
|Rainbow Springs has been designated a registered natural landmark
Under the provisions of the historic sites act of August 21, 1935
This site possesses exceptional value in illustrating the natural history of the United States
U.S. Department of the Interior
National Park Service
1972 — Map (db m13618) HM|
|Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — The Miami Circle|
|On this spot of land at the mouth of the Miami River, a historic discovery shed new light on one of Florida's early peoples - the Tequesta. During the demolition of the Brickell Point apartments in 1998, archaeologists uncovered preshistoric artifacts and a dense deposit of black soil, animal bones and shells. Salvage excavations revealed an unusual feature consisting of holes and basins carved into the shallow Miami oolitic limestone bedrock in a circular pattern 38 feet in diameter. . . . — Map (db m65644) HM|
|Florida (Orange County), Apopka — Dr. Howard A. Kelly Park|
|To the memory of Dr. Howard Atwood Kelly of Baltimore, Maryland, one of the founders of Johns Hopkins Hospital and medical school. He was a great surgeon, teacher and medical authority, and above all, a Christian gentleman.
Dr. Kelly, in 1927 donated to Orange County for public use this 200 acre tropical scenic park from whose natural springs flow 26000 gallons of water per minute. — Map (db m66834) HM|
|Florida (Orange County), Maitland — Fort Maitland / Maitland / Lake Maitland — 1838 — Directly east of this highway|
was built in November 1838 by Lt. Col. Alexander C. W. Fanning, U.S.A. (1788-1848) on the military road connecting Fort Melon (Sanford) with Fort Gatlin (Orlando) and used as a stockade in the war between the United States and the Seminole Indians. The fort was named in honor of William Seton Maitland (1798-1837), a native of New York, a graduate of West Point whom President Andrew Jackson commissioned Brevet Captain for gallantry and good conduct at Withlacoochee 31 December . . . — Map (db m7452) HM|
|Florida (Polk County), Homeland — F-719 — Historic Kissengen Spring|
|Historic Kissengen Spring is located approximately one mile north of this location. At one time the spring discharged up to 20 million gallons of water a day into the Peace River. The spring’s pool was 200 feet in diameter and reached a depth of 17 feet above the spring vent. Its boil reportedly was so powerful that the strongest swimmer could not reach it. Archaeological evidence shows this area of the Peace River was inhabited by Native Americans who established large villages near the . . . — Map (db m67655) HM|
|Florida (Saint Johns County), St. Augustine — F-229 — Old Spanish Quarries — Anastasia Island|
About 200 yards south-east of this point are the remains of the King's Coquina Quarries. (Coquina, a type of limestone composed of mollusk shells and sand, is found along the north-east coast of Florida.) Coquina was used in the building of many early colonial structures in St. Augustine, including the fortress Castillo de San Marcos (1672-1696).
On July 21, 1821, Major General Andrew Jackson, Florida's first Territorial Governor, established . . . — Map (db m28361) HM|
|Florida (Taylor County), Hampton Springs — F-606 — Hampton Springs Hotel|
|The Hampton Springs Hotel was built in 1908 and was destroyed by fire in 1954. The hotel was world renowned for its sulphur springs and baths known for their healing and medicinal powers. The luxurious hotel boasted lush gardens with elaborate fountains and planters. The resort had a covered pool with foot baths fed by the springs, a golf course, tennis courts, stables, casino, grand ballroom, outdoor dance pavilion, and railroad depot. The nine-hole golf course was among the first in the . . . — Map (db m17720) HM|
|Florida (Washington County), Chipley — F-174 — Falling Waters State Park|
Park development started in 1963 on this hill, which has an elevation of 322 feet and a limestone base. A stream flowing from the hill plunges over a cliff and disappears through an underground channel. Some sinks and caverns are near the falls, which powered an early grist mill. A pioneer era whisky distillery was nearby. Indians and others mined the area for colorfully pigmented rocks used in making paints and dyes. The area was the scene of early oil-drilling efforts, as . . . — Map (db m73295) HM|
|Georgia (Brantley County), Hoboken — 84 B-7 — Trail Ridge|
|This ridge, interrupted only by major streams, extends south from the Altamaha River in Georgia to the Santa Fe River in Florida, a distance of 130 miles. It is an ancient barrier beach formerly many miles off-shore in the sea which covered this area during the Pleistocene, or last Ice Age. The top of the ridge is now about 160 feet above sea level and formed a natural trail way for the Indians and early white settlers through the coastal lowlands. — Map (db m12423) HM|
|Georgia (Burke County), Waynesboro — 25 B-4 — Shell Bluff|
|Shell Bluff on the Savannah River 15 miles northeast has been famous since Indian days because of its outcrops of fossil shells including those of giant
oysters. These lived in the Eocene sea that covered this part of Georgia some 50 million years ago. Shell Bluff has been visited and described by many famous travelers and geologists including Bartram in 1791, Vanuxem in 1828, Conrad in 1834, and Sir Charles Lyell in 1842. — Map (db m13134) HM|
|Georgia (Butts County), Jackson — Indian Spring|
|The wonderful healing powers of the waters of Indian Spring were known to the Indians before the pioneers blazed the trail of civilization in Georgia. Such were their belief and confidence in the medicinal virtues of the waters that they came with their sick and invalid and tented on the hill-sides, that the afflicted might drink of the life-giving stream, and be restored to health. — Map (db m404) HM|
|Georgia (Calhoun County), Arlington — 019-2 — Hernando DeSoto in Georgia|
|Hernando de Soto, born ca. 1500, nobleman, conquistador, Governor of Cuba, with rights to conquer Florida, traveled in 1540 through what later became Georgia on an expedition to find gold. His exact route is unknown and certain landmarks mentioned by the scribe of the expedition remain unidentified.
De Soto’s success as a conquistador on Pizarro’s conquest of Peru in 1531 brought the support of Emperor Charles V of Spain in this expedition. In April, 1538, De Soto sailed for Cuba from San . . . — Map (db m27362) HM|
|Georgia (Catoosa County), Ringgold — 023-1 — Catoosa County|
|Created December 5, 1853, the county has an Indian name. Ringgold bears the name of Major Samuel Ringgold, who died of wounds received at the Mexican War battle of Palo Alto in 1846. Taylor’s Ridge, visible for miles, is named for the Indian chief Richard Taylor. Catoosa Springs, four miles to the east, and Gordon Springs, ten miles south, were colorful ante-bellum summer resorts.
The bloody Chickamauga battle was fought seven miles to the west, the battlefield now being a National Military Park. — Map (db m19268) HM|
|Georgia (Catoosa County), Ringgold — 023-2 — Nickajack Gap|
|The road E. ascends Taylor’s Ridge & via Nickajack Gap, crosses E. Chickamauga Cr. Valley. May 7, 1864. Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick’s (3d) Div., Elliott’s Cav. Corps (Army of the Cumberland) [US], moving from Ringgold, crossed Taylor’s Ridge at Nickajack Gap, followed by Williams’ (1st) Div., 20th Corps. The 2d & 3d Divs. crossed the ridge 4.5 mi. S. at Gordon Springs Gap, the same day. Kilpatrick’s Cav. masked the advance of the 20th A.C. into E. Chickamauga Valley, enroute to Mill Cr. Gap . . . — Map (db m19394) HM|
|Georgia (Charlton County), Folkston — 024-2 — Okefenokee Swamp — <--- 10 mi. ---<<<<|
|Okefenokee, “Land of the Trembling Earth”, was a favorite hunting and fishing ground for many tribes of Indians. General Charles Floyd with 250 dragoons drove out the last of these, the Seminoles, in 1838 ending Indian rebellion in southern Georgia. In 1937 the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service acquired most of the 400,000 acres of the swamp. Now a sanctuary for wild life, it abounds in rare species of birds, mammals, fish and reptiles in a vast natural botanical garden. All hunting is prohibited; some fishing is allowed. — Map (db m27477) HM|
|Georgia (Clinch County), Fargo — 032-3 — Okefenokee Swamp — 10 mi. →|
|Okefenokee, “Land of the Trembling Earth”, was named by its early inhabitants, the Seminole Indians. Acquired by the Federal Government in 1937 for a national wildlife refuge, its more than 600 square miles make it the largest preserved swampland in the country. Fed by rain, small streams and springs, the swamp is 110 to 130 feet above sea level. The pure fresh water of the Okefenokee forms the headwaters of the St. Marys and Suwanee Rivers. The St. Marys flows into the Atlantic . . . — Map (db m14657) HM|
|Georgia (Cook County), Adel — 037-2 — Adel Lime Sink|
|The origin of both this lake and its name are a mystery as the source of water is unknown and analysis has shown no lime in the soil. The lake which reputedly “has no bottom” formerly served as a baptismal pool for the adjacent Salem Primitive Baptist Church built in 1859. The church organized in that year was given the lake and three acres of land by David G. Hutchinson. The area has been restored to its natural beauty by the Adel Womans Club. During the early history of Adel this . . . — Map (db m40380) HM|
|Georgia (Dawson County), Dawsonville — 042-2 — The Appalachian Trail|
|Here begins the approach trail to Springer Mountain, the southern terminus of the Appalachian Trail, a continuous footpath extending more than 2,000 miles to Mt. Katahdin, Maine. The Appalachian Trail was conceived by Benton MacKaye, forester, philosopher, dreamer, who in 1921 envisioned a footpath along the crest of the Appalachian Mountains. The Trail is maintained by volunteer hiking clubs, the U.S. Forest Service, coordinated through the Appalachian Trail Conference.
”Remote for . . . — Map (db m23262) HM|
|Georgia (Glynn County), St Simons Island — 063-13 — Gascoigne Bluff|
|Throughout the ages Gascoigne Bluff has been the gateway to St. Simons Island. An Indian village was located here. Capt. James Gascoigne of HM Sloop-of-was, HAWK, which convoyed the Frederica settlers on their voyage across the Atlantic in 1736, established headquarters for Georgia`s naval forces and had his plantation here. In the invasion of 1742 the Spaniards landed at this Bluff.
Live oak timbers for the building of USS CONSTITUTION, better known as "OLD IRONSIDES." and the other vessels . . . — Map (db m13415) HM|
|Georgia (Greene County), Union Point — Great Buffalo Lick|
|This site is described in the treaty signed by the Creek and Cherokee Indians at Augusta, Georgia, in 1773. Here began the survey of the ceded lands. — Map (db m15712) HM|
|Georgia (Habersham County), Cornelia — 068-2 — Indian War Trail|
|This highway runs along the divide between the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. On the south the waters run into the Broad and Savannah rivers to the Atlantic Ocean. Waters on the north run into Chattahoochee and Apalachicola rivers and the Gulf of Mexico. This divide was formerly the boundary line between the Cherokee and Creek Nations and along this ridge ran the Indian War Trail from Cherokee settlements on the Upper Tugalo to what is now Atlanta. A branch went southeast into the . . . — Map (db m21065) HM|
|Georgia (Harris County), Pine Mountain — 072-7 — “This Was His Georgia”|
|During the 21 years (1924–1945) in which he was a constant visitor to Warm Springs, GA., Franklin D. Roosevelt became familiar with the scenic beauties of field & forest in the environs. The splendid isolation of Dowdell’s Knob, with its vista of valley & cloud-land, was his favorite resort for recreation — an item of which was the outdoor fireplace, a monument to his further pleasure in the Georgia scene.
One of his last days was marked by a visit here in the glad April, . . . — Map (db m43137) HM|
|Georgia (Harris County), Pine Mountain — 072-6 — Dowdell's Knob — <------<<<<|
|The road extending one mile south traverses a spur which projects into Pine Mountain Valley and terminates in a knob 1395 feet elevation above sea level overlooking a spectacular spread of the valley floor. The knob was named for two pioneer Harris County settlers, Lewis & James Dowdell of Virginia ancestry who settled here in 1828. While sojourning at The Little White House near Warm Springs, Franklin D. Roosevelt, 32d President of the United States, found momentary rest and relaxation . . . — Map (db m22013) HM|
|Georgia (Harris County), Pine Mountain — 072-8 — Franklin D. Roosevelt Memorial Bridge|
|Pine Mountain Scenic Highway & this bridge, spanning historic King’s Gap, are living monuments to President Roosevelt’s abiding interest in the natural features of Warm Springs’ environs. He, personally, selected the location of this road atop Pine Mtn. & with Federal funds available, forwarded construction.
King’s Gap, a natural break in the Pine Mtn. barrier, was the site of an early settlement on the stage route between Newnan & Columbus. King’s Gap Post Office functioned from May 16, . . . — Map (db m22020) HM|
|Georgia (Harris County), Pine Mountain — 072-7 — This Was His Georgia|
|Franklin D. Roosevelt was a frequent visitor (41 trips) to Warm Springs from 1924-1945. Dowdell’s Knob was one of his favorite spots for both quiet contemplation and picnics. F.D.R. visited this spot overlooking Pine Mountain Valley as a private citizen, as governor of New York and as 32nd president of the U.S. He wanted more people to visit the area and urged the building of the scenic highway across Pine Mt. and the construction of the spur here (1937). President Roosevelt had the grill . . . — Map (db m21998) HM|
|Georgia (Meriwether County), Woodbury — 18 F-2 — The Cove Gorges of the Flint|
|Pine Mountain to the south makes a complete loop forming a beautiful basin 4 miles in diameter known as `The Cove.` It is joined on the south by Oak Mountain, another hard quartz ridge. Flint River has avoided an easier course on either side and has chosen this spot where it had to cut through four ridges, instead of two, forming picturesque rocky gorges. — Map (db m9053) HM|
|Georgia (Morgan County), Madison — The Town Spring|
|Civil Engineer R.B. Tufts noted on the 1897 Morgan County map that "The Public Spring . . . which for all these years has been sending forth a bold, steady stream of pure, cold water, was the cause of establishing the Court House and the public buildings, and consequently the town, at this place."
James Cunningham and Tallifero Finney each submitted springs for siting the new community. Cunningham's "round bowl spring of clear pure water" was selected. Preservation of public springs . . . — Map (db m20844) HM|
|Georgia (Stewart County), Lumpkin — 128-1 — Providence Canyons — >>> -- 8 mi. -->|
|Trickles of water running down old Indian paths to springs formed the Providence Canyons, natural wonders of the Southeast.
These canyons, named for an old church that had to be moved out of their path, are often called “Little Grand Canyons” because of brilliant color effects of the 43 different soils revealed in the walls. These vari-colored walls and sharp pinnacles make the view awe-inspiring.
The canyons cover several hundred acres. The largest is a half mile long, 300 feet wide and 150 feet deep. — Map (db m46392) HM|
|Georgia (Taylor County), Butler — 133-1 — Tuscaloosa Formation|
|The sand clay formation here represents the first prominent Coastal Plain deposits laid upon an ancient floor of granites and gneisses. Southward this formation (Tuscaloosa Upper Cretaceous) becomes more and more deeply buried and contains marine beds. These rocks are more than 60,000,000 years old. Still older Lower Cretaceous rocks underlie them down the dip.
Oil fields of Alabama and Mississippi are from marine beds of this formation, which occur also in Georgia to the south, indicating oil in Georgia too. — Map (db m27177) HM|
|Georgia (Towns County), Blairsville — 139-5 — Brasstown Bald — The Highest Point in Georgia ~ 4,784 ft.|
|The name is derived from the Cherokee word ltse’yi (New Green Place) or (Place of Fresh Green, from ltse’hi (green or unripe vegetation), and yi, the locative. It occurs in several places in the old Cherokee country, variously spelled Echia, Echoee, Etchowee, and sometimes “Brasstown,” from a confusion of ltse’yi with Untsaiyi (brass). One settlement known to the whites as Brasstown was on upper Brasstown Creek of Hiwassee River directly NW of this point. The area near the Spring to the SW was once an Indian camping ground. — Map (db m32706) HM|
|Georgia (Towns County), Hiawassee — 139-4 — Brasstown Bald — >>>-- 6 Mi. -->|
|The high, rounded peak, Brasstown Bald or Mt. Enotah, is the highest mountain in Georgia, 4,748 ft. Its Indian name, Itseyi, means “a place of fresh green,” referring to its grassy, instead of timbered, summit. Early white settlers mistook the Indian name for a similar one meaning brass. According to Cherokee legend, there was once a great flood and all men died except a few Cherokee families who landed on top of Brasstown Bald in a giant canoe. The Great Spirit killed all the trees . . . — Map (db m32729) HM|
|Georgia (Twiggs County), Jeffersonville — 143-11 — Geographic Center of Georgia|
|One and one tenth mile south-southeast from this marker is the geographic center of the state. The center is defined as the balance point of a plane or thin sheet of a uniform thickness in the shape of the area.
The central point is one-quarter mile south-southeast of the Junction of Turvin and Savage Creeks in Twiggs County and about seventeen and one-half miles southeast of Macon. The Geologic Survey Branch of the Department of Natural Resources determined the central point to be at . . . — Map (db m49532) HM|
|Georgia (Union County), Blairsville — 144-3 — Blood Mountain|
|Blood Mountain, elevation 4458 ft. Chattahoochee National Forest. In Cherokee mythology the mountain was one of the homes of the Nunnehi or Immortals, the “People Who Live Anywhere,” a race of Spirit People who lived in great townhouses in the highlands of the old Cherokee Country. One of these mythical townhouses stood near Lake Trahlyta. As a friendly people they often brought lost hunters and wanderers to their townhouses for rest and care before guiding them back to their homes. . . . — Map (db m3259) HM|
|Georgia (Union County), Blairsville — 144-1 — Davenport Mountain — >>>------>|
|Davenport Mountain in view to the east was named for John Davenport who came to this section in 1838. He built his 40 foot long log house 1/2 mi. to the east, over the peak of the mountain. It survived until removed in 1942 to make way for Nottely Lake.
William Poteet came to this section about the same time and settled near the junction of Camp Creek and Nottely River. William and Hosea Thomas took up homesteads at the west about 7 years later. George Loudermilk built his home on Camp . . . — Map (db m33067) HM|
|Georgia (Union County), Young Harris — US 76 C-2 — Brasstown Bald|
|The high rounded peak to the south with lookout tower is Brasstown Bald or Mount Enotah, the highest mountain in Georgia 4,748 feet above sea level. Its Indian name, Itseyi, means “place of fresh green” and refers to its grassy instead of timbered summit, as
does the name "Bald". The first white settlers mistook this name for the similar one meaning “brass”. A Forest Service road leads to a picnic area near the summit. — Map (db m32613) HM|
|Georgia (Walker County), LaFayette — 146-3 — Walker County|
|Created December 18, 1833, and named for Major Freeman Walker of Augusta, prominent attorney and United States Senator. Here the fierce Chickamaugas preyed upon pioneers, and were in turn defeated and driven away; here Federals and Confederates locked in combat in 1863. Lookout Mountain and its spur Pigeon Mountain on the West, Taylor's and Dick's Ridges on the east of the county provide spectacular scenery. Rich coal and iron deposits abound; between the mountains lie fertile valleys. — Map (db m13168) HM|
|Georgia (Ware County), Waycross — 148-3 — Okefenokee Swamp — >>>-- 13 mi. -- >|
|Okefenokee Swamp, 400,000 acres of waterways, swamp prairies and floating islands is a region of many legends. Here DeSoto’s men told of trees that turned to warriors, Indians hunted and fished in its fastnesses and fled to safety on its islands from raids on South Georgia settlers. Now the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge is a sanctuary for plant and animal life. The Seminole Indians named the swamp Okefenokee or “Land of Trembling Earth” for the islands, built on networks of roots, leaves and soil, that tremble at a footstep. — Map (db m53058) HM|
|Georgia (Warren County), Jewells Mill — 149-5 — Beall Springs|
|Beall Springs has faithfully produced chalybeate (ka-Iib-e-at) water for centuries. Chalybeate water is characterized as water containing iron salts. In
addition to iron, Beall Spring water contains nine other minerals.
First frequented by Indians who used the water for curative purposes the springs were ceded to the state in 1773. After cession the land was acquired by the Beall family who allowed public access. The springs have been in continuous public use ever since.
In the . . . — Map (db m14663) HM|
|Georgia (Warren County), Jewells Mill — 149-4 — Shoals on the Ogeechee|
|First called Lexington, Shoals was the site of what was probably the first woolen mill and iron foundry in Georgia. In 1794, Col. William Bird, Revolutionary soldier from Pennsylvania, and Benjamin A. Hamp bought several thousand acres of land including the shoals, a natural site for a dam, where they built the mill. The race was made by alternately burning pine logs on the granite and pouring cold water over it so the stone would split off. Hamp soon sold his share in “Bird & Hamp” . . . — Map (db m37372) HM|
|Georgia (White County), Helen — 154-10 — Nacoochee Valley — Valley of the Evening Star|
|This valley has long fascinated travelers, writers and artists. It was farmed for centuries by Indians and white men alike. The valley was devastated by Spanish and American gold hunters and timbermen and has been carefully nurtured by prosperous summer residents and progressive farmers. The valley is watered by Sautee and Duke`s Creeks and the Chattahoochee River. These streams formed the rich alluvial soils, laced the soils with placer gold, and powered small industries. Longtime residents . . . — Map (db m43706) HM|
|Georgia (Whitfield County), Rocky Face — 155-13 — Mill Creek Gap|
|Otherwise known as Buzzard Roost. This natural gateway through Rock Face Ridge, was heavily fortified by Confederate forces at Dalton, after their
retreat from Missionary Ridge.
February 25, 1864, the Federal 14th A.C., Dept. of the Cumberland, moving by Tunnel Hill, attempted to seize the gap, but were driven back by Stewart’s &
Breckinridge’s divs. At the same time, the gap was assailed from Crow Valley, E. of Rocky Face, by Cruft’s & Baird’s divs., which was repulsed by Hindman’s A.C. . . . — Map (db m11069) HM|
|Georgia (Whitfield County), Rocky Face — 155-13 — Mill Creek Gap|
|Otherwise known as Buzzard Roost. This natural gateway through Rock Face Ridge was heavily fortified by Confederate forces at Dalton after their
retreat from Missionary Ridge. February 25, 1864, the Federal 14th A.C., Dept. of the Cumberland, moving by Tunnel Hill, attempted to seize the gap, but were driven back by Stewart’s & Breckinridge’s divs. At the same time, the gap was assailed from Crow Valley, E. of Rocky Face, by Cruft’s & Baird’s divs., which was repulsed by Hindman’s A.C. These . . . — Map (db m11072) HM|
|Hawaii (Hawaii County), Naalehu — 66000291 — South Point Complex|
|South Point Complex has been designated a Registered National Historic Landmark under the provisions of the Historical Sites act of August 21st 1935. This site possesses exceptional value in commemorating and illustrating the history of United States.
U.S. Department of the Interior
National Park Service
1964 — Map (db m2314) HM|
|Hawaii (Hawaii County), Volcano — The "Firepit" of Halema'uma'u|
|Halema'uma'u Crater is the site of the most eruptions at the summit of Kilauea Volcano. Between 1905 and 1924, a period of about 20 years, a dazzling lake of molten lava circulated within its walls. Then, in 1924, the lake drained away, allowing ground water to penetrate deep inside the volcano. Enormous steam explosions resulted, showering the landscape with rocky debris, still visible around the rim today.
During the 1924 steam blasts, Halema'uma'u collapsed, forming a gaping pit 1600 meters . . . — Map (db m26233) HM|
|Hawaii (Kauai County), Poipu — 8 — Makawehi & Pā‘ā Dunes — Kōloa Heritage Trail — Ka Ala Hele Waiwai Ho‘olina o Kōloa — Preserving the Heritage of Po‘ipū & Kōloa|
|The eastern sand dunes of Makawehi, calm face, and Pā‘ā, hard rock, yield fossilized plant roots, bird bones, crab claws and other treasures. Prior to extensive wave erosion, this prominent limestone ridge extended across Keoneloa Bay. During March through November, water birds visit and sea birds nest and roost in the dunes. — Map (db m12859) HM|
|Hawaii (Kauai County), Poipu — 9 — Pu‘uwanawana Volcanic Cone — Kōloa Heritage Trail — Ka Ala Hele Waiwai Ho‘olina o Kōloa — Preserving the Heritage of Po‘ipū & Kōloa|
|More than 5 million years ago, a hotspot in the earth spewed lava upward to form the volcanic mountain island of Kaua‘i. Nearby Hā‘upu Ridge and Mountain contain some of the oldest geologic formations. Look for the youngest volcanic cones, such as Pu‘uwananana, within view. Weathered volcanic material produced rich agricultural plains. — Map (db m12864) HM|
|Hawaii (Kauai County), Poipu — 1 — Spouting Horn Park — Kōloa Heritage Trail — Ka Ala Hele Waiwai Ho‘olina o Kōloa — Preserving the Heritage of Po‘ipū & Kōloa|
|Spouting Horn Park was called puhi, or blowhole, by early Hawaiians. Legends tell of a huge mo‘o, or lizard, caught in this puhi, which was formed when waves eroded softer, underlying rocks and wore through the harder top rock. Water rushing into the hole is forced through the narrow opening and shoots skyward. — Map (db m12764) HM|
|Hawaii (Maui County), Hana — Haleakala National Park — Kipahulu: Costal District|
|The landscape of Haleakala National Park rises from a lush valley beneath a waterfall at sea level to a red desert of cinder cones here at the volcanic summit of Haleakala. An astounding array of climates and life zones lies in between. Yet the park’s many contrasting worlds are vitally linked. Rain that falls on the volcano’s slopes and carves its valleys nourishes a multitude of life forms.
In Hawaii coastal areas like Kipahulu are called kahakai. Islanders migrating from Polynesia . . . — Map (db m62199) HM|
|Hawaii (Maui County), Kula — Haleakala National Park — Summit District|
|The landscape of Haleakala National Park rises from a lush valley beneath a waterfall at sea level to a red desert of cinder cones here at the volcanic summit of Haleakala. An astounding array of climates and life zones lies in between. Yet the park’s many contrasting worlds are vitally linked. Rain that falls on the volcano’s slopes and carves its valleys nourishes a multitude of life forms.
You are now in kua mauna, the land above the clouds, where people never dwelled for long. Ka po’e . . . — Map (db m71753) HM|
|Hawaii (Maui County), Wailuku — Kūka‘emoku — [ʻĪao Valley]|
| Commonly called ʻĪao Needle, the traditional Hawaiian name for this 2,250 foot high peak is Kūka‘emoku. This peak is known as the phallic stone of Kanaloa, Hawaiian god of the ocean.
During periods of warfare, the peak was used by warriors. It was here that some of the Maui warriors retreated from the forces of Kamehamea I during the Battle of Kepaniwai.
Kūka‘emoku is an erosional remnant. It is at the end of a ridge comprised of a denser dike stone. The softer . . . — Map (db m31540) HM|
|Idaho (Ada County), Meridian — 193 — Initial Point|
|All Idaho land surveys refer to a
beginning point --"Initial Point"--
16 miles directly south of here.
When he began surveying Idaho in 1867, Lafayette Cartee, first surveyor general of Idaho Territory, established the initial point on a volcanic hill visible for many miles. Everywhere in Idaho, surveyors depend upon this essential point in establishing land boundaries. The city of Meridian is named for the Boise Meridian -- the surveyors' north-south line which runs through Initial Point. — Map (db m53439) HM|
|Idaho (Butte County), Arco — A Plain of Volcanoes|
|The shallow arc of Idaho’s Snake River Plain spans southern Idaho, gently rising from west to east. Current theories suggest that the plain marks the path of continental movement over a deep hotspot now lying beneath the Yellowstone Plateau. As the continent drifted southwestward over millions of years, calderas—super-volcanoes 10 - 40 miles (15 - 64 km) wide—erupted over the hotspot.
In the past 17 million years , there have been about a dozen catastrophic eruptions releasing . . . — Map (db m71602)|
|Idaho (Butte County), Arco — Vanishing Landmark|
|From this vantage point, you gaze across 25 miles of lava to Big Southern Butte. Early pioneers, following Goodale’s Cutoff from the Oregon Trail, used this land mark to navigate around the rugged lavas of the Snake River Plain. As a traveler today, you may have trouble seeing Big Southern Butte clearly due to the presence of air pollution. — Map (db m70595) HM|
|Idaho (Butte County), Arco — Where's the Volcano?|
|Say the word volcano and usually the image flashes to mind of a single great symmetrical cone. But, the volcanic activity in Craters of the Moon National Monument and the Snake River Plain has taken a different form.
Parallel cracks in the earth, collectively called the Great Rift, periodically ooze flows of lava which pile up in horizontal layers. Occasionally more lively displays of fireworks create cinder cones, about 25 of them in the park.
The panorama of cones before you is . . . — Map (db m71601)|
|Idaho (Cassia County), Oakley — 344 — City of Rocks|
|A vast display of towering granite rocks (16 miles southeast of here) attracted emigrants who were on their way to California. A gold rush visitor, July 14, 1849, reported that "you can imagine among these massive piles, church domes, spires, pyramids...with a little fancying you can see anything from the Capitol at Washington to a lowly thatched cottage." Emigrants who never had seen anything like that before were impressed by so many "rocks of the most singular shapes." City of Rocks is a . . . — Map (db m31637) HM|
|Idaho (Gooding County), Bliss — Formation of Malad Gorge|
|Thousands of years ago, immense flows of water from alpine glaciers and high levels of precipitation sent waters cascading over a broad area of the Snake River Canyon directly into the Snake River. Weak joints in the basalt walls gave way to these rushing waters at the mouth of Malad Canyon, concentrating the water into a narrow channel. These concentrated flows began to retreat and deepen over many years, following a zig zag direction that eventually created not one, but three canyons before . . . — Map (db m71547)|
|Idaho (Gooding County), Bliss — 300 — Fossil Beds|
|Fossil bones of zebras, beaver, otter, pelicans and other water birds are found in sediments left from a 3,400,000 year old pond on the bluff across the river. Lava flows, pouring out over the plains on this side, met and dammed up sedimentary deposits washed in on the other side, making lakes and swamps. Here the river divides these two important geologic settings, formed at a time when the climate was wetter, and the plains were tree-dotted grasslands where zebra-like horses used to graze. — Map (db m31598) HM|
|Idaho (Gooding County), Bliss — The Malad Springs — One of the Largest in the Country|
|Few places in Idaho or the United States show evidence of spring water more clearly than in Malad Gorge. These springs flow from the vast Snake River Aquifer through porous pillow basalts. On the opposite side of the canyon, where the river widens, is a concentrated spring flow measuring 600 cfs (cubic feet per second). This amounts to 300,000 gallons of water each minute that enters the Malad River.
From the waterfall upriver to the Snake River below, approximately 1200 cfs of spring . . . — Map (db m71549)|
|Idaho (Gooding County), Bliss — Woody's Cove / The Hagerman Valley|
This deep, basalt canyon was formed similar to Malad Gorge – by a retreating cataract, a huge waterfall. About four million years ago, local volcanoes spewed enormous amounts of lava over the area. Then, about one million years ago, runoff from rain and melt water from a nearby glacier flowed over the area. Following zones of weakness in the fractured volcanic rock, the forceful water formed this canyon. The great Bonneville Flood of 15,000 years ago and other . . . — Map (db m71593)|
|Idaho (Jerome County), Twin Falls — 326 — Emigrant Road|
|More than a century ago, fur trappers and emigrants followed an old Indian trail that crossed here on its way to Oregon.
Hudson's Bay Company traders preferred this route between Fort Hall and Fort Boise, but early emigrant wagons had to travel a road south of Snake River until ferries and road improvements let wagons come this way. Shoshone Falls -- known until 1849 as Canadian Falls to British and French trappers -- was a spectacular attraction along this road. — Map (db m31500) HM|
|Idaho (Oneida County), Keogh — 317 — Lake Bonneville|
|20,000 years ago, this land was under water. Not far to the north, you can see the old shore of Lake Bonneville. Formed in a basin from which no river reached the ocean, this became the largest lake in North America. Finally the lake rose high enough to overflow into the Snake River. Then after the climate got drier, and the great basin of Utah and Nevada became mostly a desert, the lake receded. Salt Lake and two other remnants are all that are left of this old 20,000 square mile lake. — Map (db m32888) HM|
|Idaho (Payette County), Fruitland — 263 — Snake River|
|The valley of the Snake, historic passage from the Midwest to the Northwest, has been a primary route for travel since the days of Indians and fur traders.
The Oregon Trail forded the river at Old Fort Boise, the Hudson's Bay Company 12 miles upstream. Many a famous early westerner saw the valley you now see - though the look of the land has changed since white settlement brought irrigated farms. Today the river provides both irrigation and power along its thousand-mile course from the . . . — Map (db m23195) HM|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Hagerman — 330 — Fishing Falls|
|When John C. Fremont came this way mapping emigrant roads in 1843, he found an important Indian village at Fishing Falls (Kanaka rapids) about 4 miles above here. He reported that native salmon spearers there were "unusually gay...fond of laughter; and in their apparent good nature and merry character...entirely different from the Indians we had been accustomed to see." As Snake River's highest salmon cascades, Fishing Falls was included on many early western maps. — Map (db m31652) HM|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Hagerman — 204 — Salmon Falls|
|In 1812, Joseph Miller found 100 lodges of Indians spearing thousands of salmon each afternoon at a cascade below here. Each summer they dried a year's supply. After 1842, they also traded salmon to Oregon Trail emigrants. John C. Fremont marveled at Salmon Falls 18-foot vertical drop, adjacent to "a sheet of foaming water...divided and broken into cateracts" by islands that "give it much picturesque beauty, and make it one of those places that the traveler turns again and again to fix in his memory." — Map (db m31597) HM|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Hagerman — 166 — Thousand Springs|
|Old lava flow changed the geologic structure of this area and thus created a multitude of famous springs here. Over thousands of years, volcanic activity repeatedly spread lava over the Snake River plain, slowly forcing the river southward in a great curve. Successive channels of the river and its tributaries were filled with spongy lava, and became both reservoirs and underground conduits gathering water from far to the northeast. Torrents from one or more of these buried channels burst forth on the opposite canyon wall. — Map (db m31595) HM|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Hansen — Ancient Lake Bonneville — "Southern Idaho's Largest Flood in World History"|
The Flood that Reshaped Southern Idaho
The Snake River Canyon is one of Idaho's most recognizable geologic features. Volcanic forces dating back more than 10 million years ago created the canyon. But it took the second largest flood in the history of the world to reshape it and to give the canyon its unique appearance as we see it today.
The Second Largest Flood in the World
Imagine standing here as a four hundred-foot tall wall of water racing at 177,000 cubic feet per . . . — Map (db m70474)|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Murtaugh — 284 — Caldron Linn|
|In 1811 the Hunt party likened the terrific torrent of the Snake River three miles east of here to a boiling caldron, adding the the old Scottish word "linn," meaning a waterfall. They had lost a man and a canoe in a roaring chute upstream. Finding worse water ahead they abandoned river travel. Next year, another explorer said of Caldron Linn, "Its terrific appearance beggars all description." Today no road reaches the spot and the name is forgotten. — Map (db m31523) HM|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Twin Falls — 172 — Shoshone Falls|
|4 miles east of here, the Snake River falls in thunder 210 feet over a rocky ledge higher than famous Niagara. Indians, trappers, and travellers all knew the "Great Shoshonie." Now the waters upstream have been harnessed for irrigation and power, and in the dry summer months the rocks can be seen. But the foaming river and the sheer walls of the canyon combine with the paths and shady lawns of the park and picnic area to make one of Idaho's most spectacular scenes. At Shoshone Falls, a natural . . . — Map (db m31520) HM|
|Illinois (Cook County), Chicago — Abandoned Shoreline of Lake Michigan|
|This ridge is an ancient beach or sand bar of Lake Michigan whose waters reached this point 8,000 years ago when the lake level was 20 feet higher than now. Clark Street runs north atop this ridge. The park ponds lie between such old beaches, abandoned by the shrinking lake.
The outer boundary of Diversey Harbor and the boat slip running south of it to North Avenue are man-made land. — Map (db m47816) HM|
|Illinois (Du Page County), Oak Brook — Mammoth Spring|
Largest in northeastern Illinois, burst forth in 1861
and was used for domestic and irrigation purposes
pumping 150 gallons per minute, furnished through wood
conduit the total water supply for Elmhurst from 1889-1916
The original trough remained until 1970 — Map (db m33626) HM|
|Indiana (Allen County), Fort Wayne — Early Effort To Build A Park|
|Around the turn of the century, the nationwide “City Beautiful” movement found local expression through the efforts of Charles Mulford Robinson and nationallly known landscape architect George Kessler. Seeking to reclaim the natural beauty of our rivers, Mr. Kessler incorporated them into a sweeping plan of riverside drives and parks that would bring the Indiana landscape into the heart of the city. Proposed in a report presented to the City's Park Board just days before the . . . — Map (db m17034) HM|
|Indiana (Allen County), Fort Wayne — First Americans|
|The confluence area of the Three Rivers was known to the native people since as early as the end of the last Ice Age, more than 10,000 years ago. As the glaciers melted and receded, they paused here creating a high point in the topography of the land. Early native people followed the edge of the glacier taking advantage of the food sources it provided, such as vegetation and wild game. The St. Mary's and St. Joseph Rivers join a few hundred yards east of this point and form the Maumee River . . . — Map (db m17064) HM|
|Indiana (Allen County), Fort Wayne — Headwaters Park|
|Architect Eric R. Kuhne was commissioned to design a flood control plan that would provide for a park and premier festival center. It could also serve as a model for flood control in other sections of the country. The Headwaters Park Commission was formed to implement and fund the plan that is now Headwaters Park. Construction to develop approximately thirty acres in the “Thumb” began in 1994 and was completed in 1999. There are approximately twenty acres of parkland that lie in the . . . — Map (db m17037) HM|
|Indiana (Crawford County), Marengo, Crawford County — Marengo Cave National Landmark|
|Discovered September 6, 1883 by Blanche & Orris Hiestand who descended into the first room. The following Sunday, Mitch Stewart and friends explored the main passageways. The next day, local residents descended in mass on the cave. Owner Samuel Stewart, recognizing the commercial potential, secured the entrance and immediately opened the cave to the public. The Marengo Cave Company was formed in 1900 to operate the cave. The cave became a popular destination for railroad excursions prior to the . . . — Map (db m70554) HM|
|Indiana (Fountain County), Attica — 23.2003.1 — Ravine Park|
|American Indians frequented this area, rich in natural resources. The ravine provided water from natural springs, marl for lime, and clay for bricks for nineteenth-century residents of Attica, platted 1825. City became owner of ravine 1906 when local business aand professional men organized to donate fifty-five acres for a public park.
City purchased thirty-five additional acres 1911, adding to eastern end. Park has served as center for social and recreational activities. Attica Chautauqua . . . — Map (db m3311) HM|
|Indiana (Fountain County), Silverwood — Fulton Township — Lodi Mineral and Artesian Well|
| Salt discovered by Norbourn Thomas in 1829.
Capacity: 200 bushel of salt every 24 hours.
Depth 1,135 feet - Deepest in the United States at that time.
Artesian water of Medicinal value was discovered.
Became a Health Spa in 1921.
Water bottled and sold in many States.
Recreational area several years after well ceased flowing. — Map (db m20482) HM|
|Indiana (Kosciusko County), North Webster — 43.1968.1 — Continental Divide|
|This divide separates the Great Lakes drainage system from the Mississippi River drainage system. — Map (db m44934) HM|
|Indiana (Kosciusko County), Warsaw — 43.1966.1 — Indiana’s Glacier Lakes|
|About 14,000 years ago melting blocks of ice from the last, or Wisconsin Glacier, formed the kettle-hole lakes of northern Indiana. The largest lake, Wawasee, and the deepest lake, Tippecanoe, are in Kosciusko County. — Map (db m1627) HM|
|Indiana (LaPorte County), LaPorte — Pinhook Bog — Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore|
|The Pinhook Bog area features two very different habitats. The Upland Trail highlights a rich Beech and Maple forest growing on top of a glacial moraine formed about 15,000 years ago. The Bog Trail leads to a depression in the moraine created when a large piece of ice broke off the melting glacier.
Bogs like Pinhook are relics of our glacial past. Trapped in the pulverized clay and rock left behind by a melting glacier, Pinhook Bog began as a kettle lake. Cut off from ground water, . . . — Map (db m75623)|
|Indiana (Owen County), Cloverdale — Cataract Falls|
Cataract Falls are the result of oceans and ice.
The limestone outcroppings that form Cataract Falls formed millions of years ago when this region was covered by a large shallow ocean.
Layers of calcium-rich materials fell to the ocean floor.
As layers accumulated, their weight pressed down, creating limestone.
More recently, glaciers extended south into the Cataract Falls area. Ice blocked the natural drainage of Mill Creek, creating a large lake. The limestone bedrock became . . . — Map (db m74183)|
|Indiana (Parke County), Marshall — 61.1968.4 — Turkey Run|
|Little Ned Garland, son of the first family to settle in Indiana North of the 10 O’clock Line, is said to have named the stream below this cliff because wild turkeys roosted in trees within this chasm. — Map (db m3673) HM|
|Indiana (Pike County), Petersburg — 63.1966.1 — The Buffalo Trace|
|Crossed White River at a nearby ford. It was made by migrating buffalo herds. The trace ran from Vincennes to Louisville and was the only through trail in pioneer days. — Map (db m23217) HM|
|Indiana (Porter County), Beverly Shores — Recipe for a Sand Dune — From the kitchen of Mother Nature|
|1. Dig a huge hole with a glacier. Use the ice to grind up millions of tons of rock and dirt and make ridges around the edge of the hole.
2. Fill the hole with glacial meltwater. Stir your brand new lake with strong prevailing northwest winds.
3. Find the grains of sand needed for your dunes that are mixed within the ridges. The challenge is to sort the sand from all the clay, pebbles, and rocks.
4. Use wind-whipped waves to erode the ridges and sort out the grains of sand. (The . . . — Map (db m61673) HM|
|Indiana (Tippecanoe County), Lafayette — 79.1992.1 — Perrin Historic District|
|Platted in 1873, this district was Lafayette's first planned residential area which conformed to geographic contours. It was developed by James J. Perrin, Margaret Cason Perrin, Edward Asher, and Consider Tinkler. Listed in National Register of Historic Places, 1979. — Map (db m8695) HM|
|Indiana (Wabash County), Lagro — The Wabash River|
History of the River
The Wabash Valley drained thousands of square miles of the Wisconsin glacier during the latter part of the Ice Age, acting as the primary sluiceway for unimaginably large amounts of glacial meltwater that would dwarf the modern river modern times over. Vast amounts of glacial outwash composed of coarse sand and gravel were deposited in the sluiceway, eventually filling it from rim to rim. The event most directly responsible for the form and size of the modern . . . — Map (db m68095)|
|Indiana (Washington County), Salem — 88.1995.1 — Illinoian Glacier Boundary|
|Nearby is the boundary of the Illinoian Glacier, which covered all but approximately 6,250 square miles in south, central area of Indiana. Most of Indiana's topography was affected by four separate glacial advancements during Pleistocene epoch, circa one million years ago. — Map (db m74084)|