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Alberta, Athabasca — Athabasca Landing
This was once the "jumping off point" for the vast northland. Here in 1887 the first steamboat "Athabasca" was built to ply the river between Mirror Landing and Grand Rapids. Steamboats superceded the canoe, York boat, and scow, and were replaced themselves a few decades later by the railway. — Map (db m8837) HM
Alberta, Banff — Banff Park Museum
Opened in 1895, the Banff Park Museum was moved into this building in 1903. Its cross-log motif exemplifies an architectural style common in the town at the time. Norman Bethune Sanson, the museum’s curator from 1896 to 1932, energetically developed the collections, initially put together by the Geological Survey of Canada. Throughout its early years the museum dealt with natural and human history but by the late 1950s was limited to natural history. While this building was refurbished in 1985, . . . — Map (db m8836) HM
Alberta, Devon — Leduc-Woodbend Oil FieldLe Site Pétrolifière Leduc-Woodbend
The development of this field in 1947 marked a turning point in the history of the Alberta petroleum industry. After the drilling of Leduc No. 1, the geographical focus of the industry shifted from Turner Valley northward to the central plains area, where vast oil reserves were uncovered. Oil production, which has been in decline, expanded dramatically and the Edmonton area became a petrochemical and distributing centre. The boom in output enable Alberta to become, for the first time, a major . . . — Map (db m8856) HM
Alberta, Fort McMurray — Methye Portage
The earliest trade route between eastward and northward flowing waters followed the Clearwater River and the Methye Portage. Discovered by Peter Pond in 1778 and used continuously for more than a century for more than a century by fur-traders and explorers, including Sir Alexander Mackenzie, Sir John Franklin, and Sir George Simpson. — Map (db m8814) HM
Alberta, Glendon — The Pyrogy – PyrohyBest Made in Glendon
A European food that was brought to Western Canada in the early 19th century by the working and poor people. It originated as a boiled dumpling, and later people added whatever they desired inside, and it became a pyrogy – pyrohy, sometimes called varenyky. — Map (db m8813) HM
Alberta, Lake Louise — Canadian Pacific Railway Stone Monument
Erected in honor of Sir James Hector K. C. M. C. Geologist and explorer to the Palliser Expedition of 1857 - 1860 by his friends in Canada, the United States & England. One of the earliest scientists to explore the Canadian Rocky Mountains. He discovered the Kicking Horse Pass through which the Canadian Pacific Railway now runs from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean. — Map (db m70443) HM
Alberta, Lake Louise — Castle Mountain Internment Camp
During Canada’s first national internment operations in World War One, thousands of immigrants from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the majority of Ukrainian origin, some citizens of Canada, were imprisoned as “enemy aliens”. Internment operations lasted from 1914 to 1920. This plaque is in memory of those held at the Castle Mountain camp from 14 July 1915 to 15 July 1917. Camp D’Internement du Mont-Castle. Lors des premières operations nationale d’internement Durant la . . . — Map (db m8827) HM
Alberta, Lake Louise — Defining the Boundry of the Great DivideDélimitation de la Ligne de Partage des Eaux
Prior to 1913 the Alberta-British Columbia boundary was defined by the divide or watershed of the Rocky Mountains. The discovery of valuable coal deposits and the availability of marketable timber and the incursion of railroads and roads required a more precise demarcation. In 1913 provincial and federal Orders-in-Council approved a boundary survey between the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia and the appointment of Commissioners. In June of that year Edward Deville, Surveyor . . . — Map (db m70445) HM
Alberta, Lake Louise — Parting of the WatersLe Partage des Eaux
How many creeks do you know of that split, with each fork reaching a separate ocean, 4500 km apart.

Here, Divide Creek forks on the boundary between Pacific and Atlantic watersheds, commonly called the Great Divide.

Water in the left fork will flow into the Pacific Ocean. Water in the right fort will flow into the Atlantic Ocean. — Map (db m70444) HM
Alberta, Lake Louise — Storm MountainMont Storm
ENGLISH INSCRIPTION Mountains create their own weather As winds swirl around and rise above these massive barriers, clouds build up and bring the rain and snowstorms for which Storm Mountain was named. Travellers Converge in Valleys Vermilion Pass provides a vital low-elevation travel route through the mountains of the Continental Divide. Wild animals have long used these valley pathways to find seasonal food sources and new home ranges. People have . . . — Map (db m82917)
Alberta, Turner Valley — Turner Valley Gas Plant
This plant, which was critical to the development of the Turner Valley oil field, is the earliest gas processing facility built in Canada and the only survivor of its type. The present complex was begun in 1921 after a fire destroyed the original plant, built in 1914. The many modifications and additions made to it since the 1920s reflect the evolution of refining technology. The buildings. Machinery and equipment together illustrate the production process required to extract marketable gas and . . . — Map (db m8825) HM
Alberta, Turner Valley — Turner Valley Oilfield
Turner Valley is Alberta’s first great oilfield. Initially the field, which began production in 1914, yielded mainly natural gas. Local plants, which provided the only extensive gas-processing system in the province, extracted the marketable petroleum products. The discovery of deeper deposits in 1924 at Royalite No. 4 made Turner Valley the leading producer in Canada. In 1936, the crude-oil pool underlying the gas reserves was discovered and Turner Valley reached peak output. While production . . . — Map (db m9204) HM
Alberta, Waterton — Dream TownVille de Rêve
ENGLISH INSCRIPTION Western Canada’s first producing oil was drilled in this valley at the turn of the 20th century. This success spurred further activity in this area, attracting more drilling and workers. A.P. Patrick, an investor in the first well and a Dominion Land Surveyor, decided to create a community to support them. You are standing in the area he surveyed, then registered in 1908 as Oil City. His ambitious plan showed a main street and 450 fifty-foot lots . . . — Map (db m82965) HM
Alberta, Waterton — Oil & ArchitecturePétrole et Architecture
ENGLISH INSCRIPTION Did you know Waterton contains two national historic sites? Many more are nearby, some managed by Parks Canada and some by other agencies and groups. National historic sites celebrate over 1,500 places, persons and events important to Canadians. First Oil Well in Western Canada National Historic Site Oil was struck in Waterton’s Akamina Valley in 1902! As Western Canada’s first oil well producing saleable quantities of oil, it became a national . . . — Map (db m82964) HM
Alberta, Waterton — Waterton
ENGLISH INSCRIPTION Welcome to Waterton Lakes National Park of Canada National Parks protect the natural landscapes of Canada and also provide great places for outdoor adventures and connecting with nature. As you enjoy the park today, thank local rancher F.W. Godsal for your experience. He initiated conservation efforts by sending a letter to Ottawa in 1893 recommending that the area be set aside as a protected reserve. Protected in 1895, Waterton is Canada’s 4th . . . — Map (db m82962) HM
Alberta, Waterton — Western Canada's 1st Producing Oil Well1er Puits De Pétrole Producteur de L'ouest Canadien
ENGLISH INSCRIPTION (Panel 1) Bears Discover Oil?! Oil seeps in this area were well known to Aboriginal peoples, who may have found them while observing bears. Bears are attracted by the smell of oil and may roll in it to rid themselves of insects. Aboriginal peoples used oil as a medicine. Beginning in the 1870s the search was on for oil in western Canada. Drawing on Native lore, locals looked for oil seepages, and eventually found oil covered pools near . . . — Map (db m80302) HM
British Columbia (Alberni-Clayoquot Regional District), Port Alberni — Bicentennial of the Spanish Expeditions to the Northwest Coasts of America1771–1991
[Upper Marker]: Pedro de Alberni, Captain of the Catalan Volunteers and Commander of the Spanish Establishment at Santa Cruz de Nootka, 1790-1792. Offered by the Government of Spain on the occasion of the visit of the Spanish training ship “Juan Sebastian el Cano” to the province of British Columbia, April 1991. [Lower Marker]: Generalitat de Catalunya The Autonomous Government of Catalonia joins this bicentennial celebration in remembrance of . . . — Map (db m9155) HM
British Columbia (Alberni-Clayoquot Regional District), Port Alberni — Forest Industry in British ColumbiaL’Industrie Forestiere en Colombie-Britannique
Harvesting of the forest has long been an important aspect of life on the Pacific Coast. The native people were the first to utilize this valuable resource in the construction of dwellings, canoes, and implements. In the nineteenth century, spars masts, and timber were exported. In 1860 the first export sawmill was constructed near this site. From these beginnings the forest industry has expanded to become a very important element of the economy of British Columbia. In this century considerable . . . — Map (db m9192) HM
British Columbia (Bulkley-Nechako Regional District), Southbank — Ootsa Lake Nechako Reservoir
In 1952, the Kenney Dam was constructed on the Nechako River to service the new Alcan aluminum smelter at Kitimat, resulting in the creation of the Nechako Reservoir and the relocation of over 75 families. The damming also linked the rivers and lakes of Ootsa, Intata, Whitesail, Chelaslie, Tetachuck, Tahtsa and Natalkuz into the reservoir with a surface area of over 90,000 hectares. — Map (db m8855) HM
British Columbia (C), Victoria — Isabella Mainville RossBorn Jan. 10, 1808 • Died in Victoria April 23, 1885 — Here Lies
She came here in 1843 with her husband, Chief Trader Charles Ross, who was in charge of building Fort Victoria. After his death she bought the land upon which you are standing for a farm. By so doing she became the first woman to own land in what is now British Columbia. — Map (db m74825) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — Above The Sunken Garden
The mound in the centre of the quarry was of an inferior grade of limestone and therefore not quarried. Left intact, it provided a natural viewpoint amid the developing garden beds. Jennie Butchart planted a pair of arbor vitae (trees of life) on either side of the walkway in 1920. They have become a distinguishing part of the Sunken Garden and have been replaced three times. — Map (db m74451) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — Coast Salish Totem Poles
Eagle with Salmon, Orca, Bear with Salmon This Totem Pole, carve in Contemporary Coast Salish style by master carver Doug LaFortune of the Tsawout First Nation, was dedicated on September 9th, 2004 in celebration of the 100th anniversary of The Butchart Gardens. ———————— Raven, Beaver with Grouse, Otter with pups & clam, Frog This Totem Pole, carved in Classic Coast Salish style by master carver Charles Elliott of the Tsartlip . . . — Map (db m74456) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — Concert Lawn
Under the sponsorship of Mr. and Mrs. Ian Ross, the Victoria Symphony Orchestra performed summer concerts on the main lawn between 1953 and 1967. Conducted by Hans Gruber they featured many international artists such as Teresa Stratas, Bernard Turgeon and Grace Bumbry. On occasion guest conductors were invited to lead the orchestra. — Map (db m74461) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — Fountain of the Three Sturgeons
Once the location of a large Japanese teahouse, the view from the fountain is a commanding one of the Butchart Residence across the Main Lawn. — Map (db m74485) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — Organ Pavillion
The Aeolian Pipe Organ played at The Butchart Gardens is an early twentieth century residence instrument equipped with its own pneumatic player. Built by the Aeolian Company of New York this model, once owned by Vancouver department store owner, Chris Spencer, is identical to the one owned by R.P. Butchart and installed in his residence here at Benvenuto. Fully playable manually this organ boasts just under one thousand individual pipes, a set of twenty tubular chimes and a forty-nine note . . . — Map (db m74479) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — Rose Garden History
The present Rose Garden was built in 1929 and 1930 on the site of the Butchart's vegetable garden. The design was developed by Butler Sturtevant, a Seattle landscape artist, and adapted by Jennie Butchart. The head gardener at the time, Bob Ballantyne, was in charge of its installation. His perfectionist methods added greatly to its improvement and expansion over the next thirty years until his retirement in 1959. Between the Rose Garden and the nursery field, now the Concert Lawn, the . . . — Map (db m74483) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — Ross Fountain Lookout
This smaller quarry was a source of limestone in the 1860s. It was here that Ian Ross, grandson of Mr. and Mrs. Butchart, devised his spectacular fountain with the assistance of his plumber, Adrian Butler and his electrician, Vic Dawson. The Ross Fountain commemorated the 60th Anniversary of The Butchart Gardens when it was installed in 1964. — Map (db m74441) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — Ross Fountain Lookout
Directly behind the Ross Fountain lies Tod Inlet and the site of the Vancouver Portland Cement Company established in 1904. Adjacent to the plant at Tod Inlet was a village that housed the employees. — Map (db m74444) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — Seed & Fireworks Fields
In 1903, the land now occupied by the Butchart Gardens was purchased from a local dairy farmer, Mr. Fernie. Reservoirs were excavated in 1969 to ensure a water supply for irrigation. The single jet fountain was installed to aerate the water supply in the largest reservoir, now the focal point of the fireworks display. — Map (db m74459) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — Soda Fountain Sit-In
The factory buildings have been demolished and the land is now designated as provincial parkland. The one remaining chimney is within The Butchart Gardens and stands as a beacon to the cement industry it once served. — Map (db m74447) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — Star Pond
This pond was designed by Mr. Butchart for his collection of ducks in 1931. Beyond is the entrance to the Italian Garden through a Lawson cypress hedge. — Map (db m74549) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — Sunken Garden Lake Sit-in
Limestone was also quarried up the hill from the Sunken Garden. It was transported in ore buckets suspended on cables high above ground from some half a mile away. — Map (db m74432) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — The Butchart Boar
The original Porcellino, or little pig, sits on the south side of the Straw Market in Florence, Italy. For generations his nose has been affectionately rubbed to bring good luck, so that today his snout is finely burnished. About 1620 Pietro Tacca cast the "little pig" in bronze from the marble boar "Cinghiale", now displayed at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. He completely changed the simple base of the earlier statue by adding a small pool surrounded by plants, frogs, snakes and a . . . — Map (db m74552) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — The Butchart Gardens / Les Jardins Butchart
Jennie Butchart began to shape this magnificent landscape in 1904. She established, in the style of the grand estates of the period, several distinct gardens to evoke a range of aesthetic experiences. An abandoned limestone quarry was transformed into the dramatic Sunken Garden, a reflection of the early 20th-century beautification movement and an exceptional achievement in Canadian gardening history. Through successive generations of the Butchart family, this site has retained much of its . . . — Map (db m74419) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — The Italian Garden
The Italian Garden is the most formal of Mrs. Butchart's gardens. Created in 1926 on the site of the family tennis court, the well known architect Samuel Maclure worked from Mr. Butchart's ideas to create the garden. — Map (db m74551) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — The Japanese Garden
The first of Jennie Butchart's formal gardens, the Japanese Garden was started in 1906. A Japanese landscape artist, Isaburo Kishida, assisted her with the design. Under the supervision of Hugh Lindsay the first of Mrs. Butchart's head gardeners, labourers from the cement works implemented Kishida's plan. Jennie installed a torii gate to mark the entrance to the garden. The magnificent purple beech on each side of the gate and the Japanese maples at the head of the stone stairs down into . . . — Map (db m74513) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — The Quarry Walls
The barren rock face of the quarry presented Jennie Butchart with a challenge. She hung in a bosun's chair to plant ivy in the crevices in the rock walls. — Map (db m74437) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — The Sunken Garden
The Limestone deposit was exhausted in 1908 and the quarry abandoned. Mrs. Butchart conceived the idea of transforming the barren pit into a garden and thus the Sunken Garden came into being. In 1910 she planted Lombardy poplar trees in an attempt to block the view of the cement factory. By 1912 the development of the garden was underway and it was completed in 1921. — Map (db m74428) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — The Sunken Garden Lake
The deepest part of the quarry floor was sealed, lined and allowed to fill with water from a natural spring forming a lake 40 ft deep in places. Mr. Butchart stocked the pool with trout which would rise to the surface to be fed when he clapped his hands. — Map (db m74438) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Central Saanich — Black Pioneers in British ColumbiaLes Pionniers Noirs de la Colombie-Britannique
In 1858, nearly 800 free Blacks left the oppressive racial conditions of San Francisco for a new life on Vancouver Island. Governor James Douglas had invited them here as promising settlers. Though still faced with intense discrimination, these pioneers enriched the political, religious and economic life of the colony. For example, Mifflin Gibbs became a prominent politician; Charles and Nancy Alexander initiated the Shady Creek Methodist Church; John Deas established a salmon cannery; and the . . . — Map (db m72868) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Colwood — Colwood Pioneer Cemetery
The Colwood Pioneer Cemetery was established in the 1890's on land donated by Alfred Thomas Peatt. Originally the site included St. Matthew's Presbyterian Church. The Colwood Women's Institute maintained the cemetery from 1925 to 1993, and then responsibility was transferred to the City of Colwood. This cairn is a generous gift of the Acres and Aubrey families of Colwood in loving memory of Bert and Agnes Parker. — Map (db m72869) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Colwood — Fisgard LighthouseLe Phare Fisgard
The first permanent lighthouse on the Pacific coast of Canada, Fisgard was erected in 1859-60 by the British and Colonial Governments to guide mariners into Esquimalt Harbour. Brought from England with the first lightkeeper, the lantern became operational on November 16, 1860, and in 1928 it was made automatic. Captain G. H. Richards, R. N., recommended this site on the island names for H.M.S. FISGARD, on station in the Pacific from 1844 to 1847. Ce phare fut le premier permanent sur la . . . — Map (db m70876) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Colwood — Hatley Park
This superb example of an Edwardian park was laid out for James and Laura Dunsmuir in the early 20th century. At its centre stands a Tudor Revival mansion, whose picturesque design is enhanced by a rich array of decoration and fine craftsmanship. The grounds, featuring a variety of native and exotic vegetation, unfold from formal gardens to recreational spaces, farmlands and forests. Acquired by the Canadian armed forces in 1940, Hatley Park evolved to meet the needs of Royal Roads Military . . . — Map (db m72870) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Colwood — Royal Roads
To seaward lies an anchorage or roadstead first used in 1790 by the Spanish and named in 1846 for its location between Albert Head and Victoria. Unloading place for large vessels serving Victoria in days of sail, it was once a scene of disaster. On April 1, 1883, a southeasterly gale swept the haven, beaching the ships Southern Chief, Gettysburg, Connaught, and Tiger. — Map (db m72871) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Colwood — Victoria-Esquimalt FortificationsLes Fortifications de Victoria-Esquimalt
From 1878 to 1956 coast artillery installations protected the city of Victoria and the naval base at Esquimalt. Temporary batteries were constructed in response to the Anglo-Russian crisis of 1878, and in the 1890s Canada negotiated with Great Britain for the building of a series of permanent defences to be manned by British troops. Canada took control of these fortifications in 1906 and, by the end of the Second World War, they had been rebuilt and greatly expanded. They were declared obsolete . . . — Map (db m72872) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Esquimalt — Esquimalt Naval SitesLes Sites Navals d'Esquimalt
The long naval presence here has produced a unique legacy among defence sites in Canada. From its establishment in 1865 until Britain's Royal Navy withdrew in 1906, Esquimalt served as headquarters of the vast Pacific Station. In the Dockyard, the Admiralty built wooden storehouses and repair shops for the Pacific fleet. Well-crafted brick buildings, many still in use, replaced the original structures in the 1890s. A hospital complex was installed at nearby Pilgrim Cove. Sailors who succumbed . . . — Map (db m72867) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Esquimalt — The Canadian Women's Army Corps (CWAC)Le Corps Féminin de l'Armée Canadienne (CFAC)
Canadian Women's Army Corps (CWAC) Women's service in the military during the Second World War challenged the tradition of all-male armed forces. Between 1941 and 1946, close to 22,000 volunteers enlisted in the CWAC and were posted to bases at home and abroad. Working in such unconventional settings transformed their life and ambitions. Joan Kennedy, later its commander, opened the first CWAC office on the Esquimalt base on 29 August 1941. The Corps contributed to Allied victory, paved the way . . . — Map (db m72873) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Metchosin — Metchosin Schoolhouse
In spring 1872, classes began in Metchosin schoolhouse with Mrs. Elizabeth Fisher teaching 7 girls and 3 boys. On land donated by John Witty and with its $300 cost shared equally by local settlers and the colonial government, it was the first new school building opened in British Columbia after confederation. In regular use to 1914 and reopened in 1942, it finally closed its doors in 1949. — Map (db m70867) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Oak Bay — Chinese CemeteryLe Cimetière Chinois
This place, chosen by the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association in 1903 for its harmonized elements of Nature expressing the principles of "feng shui", is a significant legacy of the first Canadians of Chinese origin. Traditionally it was a sanctuary of temporary repose before final interment in China, a pattern which reflected the early aspirations of these immigrants to return to their homeland. After the Sino-Japanese war broke out in 1937, it was no longer possible to ship remains . . . — Map (db m72874) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Sidney — Mayor's Community Builder Awardees at Beacon Park Pavilion
Town of Sidney BC Spirit Squares Beacon Park Pavilion Opened June 28, 2009 by the Honourable Steven Point, Lt. Gov. of BC A legacy of the 150th anniversary of the founding of the Crown Colony of British Columbia —————————— Joan E. Ballenger 1939 - 2005 The Town of Sidney and Peninsula Celebrations Society celebrate Joan Ballenger, an incredibly active community volunteer. In 1994, Joan saw an opportunity . . . — Map (db m75464) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Sidney — Port of Entry Beacon
was seen in early days by ships at sea Hence, Beacon Avenue — Map (db m75341) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Sidney — War Memorial
Dedicated in proud memory of the ultimate sacrifice given for their countrymen by all of Canada's Armed Forces by the first recipient of the Star of Military Valour Sergeant Patrick Tower, S.M.V., C.D. June 30, 2007 — Map (db m75469) HM WM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Sidney — War Memorial
In memory of the men of this district who gave their lives in the Great War 1914 - 1918 ——— • ——— W.I. Apps • James Arden • H.H. Bedford • V. Cleaves • G.J. Coward • G.C. Cruse • Dean Arnold • H.A. Dennis • C.R. Gillan H. Grainger • T. Holliday • T. Ibrotson • F.C. John • W.S.J. Lalt John McNally • L.H. Norris • P. Robertson • C.F. Stutchbury C. Toogood • F. Toogood • F. Wilkinson Their Name Liveth For Evermore . . . — Map (db m75480) WM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Sidney — Waterfront Industries
Before town planning and notions of the picturesque, waterfronts were convenient for industrial development. As a transportation hub, Sidney's waterfront boasted a sawmill, a cannery, boatworks and roofing plant, besides rail and ship facilities. Sidney sawmill began in 1892 to cut lumber for the V&S Railway. After initial success it flagged and was in receivership by 1913. Closed until 1917, it was revived by GH Walton. By 1920 it employed about 150 men, the largest workforce in the . . . — Map (db m75465) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Sidney — Year of the Ocean
If the Oceans of the world perish, so shall we. This mural was painted in celebration of the "International Year of the Ocean", and is a brief glimpse into the story of ocean science on the west coast. A mere fraction of the story is depicted here. The mural is a dream of the Ocean, and like a dream it flows across a montage of images floating through space and time. Beginning in the distant past, with an Ancient Navigator lovingly holding our Ocean planet, it ends with a . . . — Map (db m75463) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — "Summerdyne"Celebrating Our Heritage
The Burrell family home, "Summerdyne", on Oak Bay Avenue at Monterey looking west - circa 1906 The Burrell family walking east along Oak Bay Avenue near their home - circa 1900 — Map (db m75299) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — "Tomorrow Run 91"
The Elks and Royal Purple of Canada commemorate Al Howie's record setting "Tomorrow Run 91" Began at Mile 0 St. John's Nfld. June 21 and ended September 1, 1991 at Mile 0 Victoria B.C. 72 days - 10 hours later. Our gratitude to all who helped us raise funds for Canadian children with special needs. — Map (db m74134) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — “Journey For Lives”Stephen Fonyo
In commemoration of Stephen Fonyo’s run across Canada to raise money on behalf of the Canadian Cancer Society, for cancer education, patient care and research.

His “Journey For Lives” covered nearly 8,000 kilometers, starting in St. John’s, Newfoundland, March 31st, 1984, and was completed here, May 29th, 1985. Province of British Columbia. — Map (db m49230) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — “The Birdcages”
The Legislative Buildings for the Colony of Vancouver Island were built on these grounds in 1859. Nicknamed “The Birdcages” because of their quaint style, they were replaced in 1894-97 by the present buildings. The original Legislative Hall, meeting place of the first House of Assembly west of the Great Lakes, was preserved until 1957 when it was destroyed by fire. — Map (db m9196) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Hosaqami
a replica of the original pole carved in 1960 by Chief Mungo Martin Carved by Chief Tony Hunt and Raised on 8 September 2012 in the presence of The Honourable Steven L. Point, OBC Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia in honour of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II’s Diamond Jubilee and dedicated to all Aboriginal Veterans This pole was made possible thanks to the generosity of the Government House Foundation and in cooperation with the Esquimalt and Songhees First . . . — Map (db m75002) HM WM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — 100th Anniversary of the Canadian Navy
Prior to 1910. the Royal Navy provided maritime defence of British North America and for the Dominion of Canada from 1867. With World War I brewing in Europe early in the 20th century, Great Britain redistributed the British fleet and reduced its stations in Halifax and Esquimalt. The Government of Canada move to assume full responsibility to protect Canada’s major seaports and the longest coastline in the world. On May 4, 1910, under authority of the Naval Service Act, the Navy was created. On . . . — Map (db m49075) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — 713 JohnsonDesigned in 1908 by Victorian architects Thomas Hooper and Charles Elwood Watkins
This building is a good example of Edwardian commercial architecture. It was built for William James Marble as a carriage factory, replacing the original wooden structure from 1885. Early painted signage is still visible on the east façade. In 1938, the building was sold and run as a furniture store on the main floor and with offices above. In the 1970s, the site became the home of the Salvation Army Thrift Shop and, 20 years later, the 711 Bingo and Snack Bar. It was briefly used by Our Place . . . — Map (db m48748) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — 90 mm Anti-Aircraft GunCanon Antiaérien de 90 mm
During the 1950s this type of anti-aircraft gun was part of the Victoria-Esquimalt defences, although it was not used here at Fort Rodd Hill. This American-made weapon had begun to replace the British-designed 3.7-inch gun as the Canadian Army’s heavy AA defence after the Second World War. It had a maximum vertical range of 30,000 feet and fired 22 rounds a minute. ——————————————— . . . — Map (db m75031) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — A Natural HarbourFisherman's Wharf Park
ca. 1860 [Photo caption reads] A detail of the View of Victoria, 1860. Major Bay is largely undeveloped. BC Archives POP01538 1878 [Photo caption reads] Bird's-Eye View of Victoria, Vancouver Island, B.C. 1878, detail. Drawn by E.S. Glover, Published by M.W. Waitt & Co., Victoria, B.C. 1880's The shores around Shoal Point and Major Bay offered a protected landing point and by the 1890's the development of the Outer Wharves changed the look of the untouched . . . — Map (db m74383) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Abkhazi GardenThe Garden that Love Built
Peggy Pemberton-Carter met Prince Nicholas Abkhazi, in Paris in 1922. Prince Nicholas, the last surviving son of an ancient line of kings of Abkhazia on the Black Sea, had been living there in exile since escaping the Bolshevik Revolution. They found themselves "amiable", taking walks together, visiting galleries and conversing in their common language of French. They kept in touch through correspondence and met occasionally over the next few years. Peggy and her mother lived in . . . — Map (db m75253) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Abkhazi Garden House
City of Victoria Heritage Building — Map (db m75297) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Amor De Cosmos, 1825-1897
[English] Amor De Cosmos (Lover of the Universe) was the name adopted by William Smith of Windor, Nova Scotia, while in the California goldfields. In 1858 he arrived in Victoria and founded the opposition journal, the Colonist. For over two decades his irrepressible pen and exuberant oratory championed the causes of responsible government and Confederation. He sat for Victoria in the Legislative Assembly (1863-74) and in the House of Commons (1871-82), and served briefly (1872-4) as provincial . . . — Map (db m49079) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Arbutus Tree (Arbutus menziesii)
The only native broadleaf evergreen tree in Canada, the Arbutus is found from the southern coastline of BC to California. In BC the Arbutus grows in a narrow band along the south coast line, generally within 5 kilometers (3 miles), of the ocean. It can grow up to 30 meters tall (100 feet), with a crooked or leaning trunk that divides into several twisting upright branches and an irregularly rounded crown. The Arbutus can live for 500 years. In Washington and Oregon State the tree is . . . — Map (db m74403) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Beacon Hill
Death, life and happiness are in the story of Beacon Hill. On these headlands, where an ancient race once buried their dead, early settlers erected beacons to guide mariners past dangerous Brotchie Ledge. Here, too, ever since Victoria was founded in 1843, people have gathered to enjoy sports and a vista of timeless appeal. — Map (db m49255) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Beacon Hill Park
When Victoria was settled in 1843, this area was a natural park. It was reserved in 1858 for a park by Sir James Douglas, Governor of the Colony of Vancouver Island and given in trust to Victoria by the Province of British Columbia. In 1882 it was so named from two beacons place upon the hill in 1846 to mark the position of Brotchie Ledge. Area is 154 acres. — Map (db m49252) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Boomerang Court and Chancery Lane
You are standing in Bastion Square, a public space dating back to the Victorian Era.

There are many alleys and walkways to explore, connecting Bastion Square to nearby streets to see the heart of Victoria’s Old Town Historical Site. Chancery Lane warps around The Maritime Museum, linking Bastion Square to Boomerang Court. The Court was the home to the Boomerang Saloon, opened in 1858 by Ben and Adelaide Griffin, an English couple. Like many pioneers, the Griffins arrived in Victoria a the . . . — Map (db m49226) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — British Columbia Indians World Wars Memorial
This tablet in memory of the British Columbia Indians who gave their lives in the World Wars 1914 • 1918 - 1939 • 1945 — Map (db m74139) WM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Capt. James Cook, R.N.1728-1779
After two historic voyages of the South Pacific[,] Cook was cruising the waters of the Pacific Northwest on his third and final voyage, with his two ships, Resolution and Discovery[.] He was searching for the western exit to the legendary Northwest Passage. In March, 1778, they put into Nootka Sound for repairs and to trade with the native people. With him on the voyage were Mr. William Bligh as Master of the Resolution and Midshipman George Vancouver. This statue was commissioned by the . . . — Map (db m48546) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Cast Iron Panels
The cast iron panels on this fence are from the Driard Hotel, built in 1892 and designed by architect John Teaque. It was Victoria’s most prestigious hotel prior to the construction of the Empress Hotel. A reconstructed portion of the original hotel facade was incorporated into the bay Centre at the corner of View and Broad Streets. The terra cotta “frozen fountain” to the right of the entrance gate is from the former Kresge’s Department Store, a 1930 Art Deco style building which . . . — Map (db m48477) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Cecilia Helmcken
Born on October 24, 1834, Cecilia was the eldest daughter of James and Amelia Douglas. “The room of Mr. Douglas, partly an office and partly domestic, stood open and there I saw Cecilia his eldest daughter flitting about, active as a little squirrel and one of the prettiest objects I have ever seen; rather short but with a very pretty graceful figure of dark complexion and lovely black eye – petite and nice... I was more or less captivated.” They married in a snowstorm in . . . — Map (db m48928) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Chinese Cemetery
Before 1903 the remains of early Chinese immigrants were buried in the low-lying, southwestern corner of Ross Bay cemetery. This area was often flooded after a heavy rainstorm. In the early 1900s, high winds and waves eroded a few waterfront Chinese graves, exposing coffins and sweeping away their remains. In 1903 the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association (CCBA) purchased this site for a cemetery. Traditional Chinese burial practices had the remains exhumed after seven years, the . . . — Map (db m75449) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Chinese General Store
For many years the building on the near left side of this photograph (where you are standing) was a Chinese general store. It was taken down in the early 1960s to enlarge the intersection. You can see a streetcar on Johnson Street crossing Government Street at the next corner. When this was taken in about 1900, Government Street was Victoria’s main business thoroughfare. [Photo caption] Image # A-03016 courtesy of British Columbia Archives — Map (db m49154) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Coast Defence Artillery Positions: 1878-1956Positions de l’artillerie côtière: 1878-1956
The harbours at Victoria and Esquimalt, and the adjacent coastline were defended by temporary gun emplacements from 1878. International crises during the latter part of the century led to an agreement between the Canadian and British governments to improve and expand these defences with permanent fortifications and modern guns. Fort Rodd Hill was one part of this new development and continued in service until 1956. ———————— À partir . . . — Map (db m75210) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Congregation Emanu-El
The Congregation Emanu-El Synagogue was built in 1863, just five years after the arrival if the first members of Victoria's Jewish community during the Fraser River gold rush period. Its opening was widely celebrated in Victoria for, despite their small numbers, members of the congregation played leading roles in the social, economic and political life of both the town and the colony. The oldest surviving synagogue in Canada, the building is a testament to the devotion and resourcefulness of . . . — Map (db m72875) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Craigdarroch
Built for coal magnate Robert Dunsmuir, Craigdarroch symbolized the desire of late 19th-century industrialists to assert their social position through conspicuous displays of wealth. Completed in 1890, the eclectic mansion features exquisite detailing in stone, stained glass, wrought iron and fine woods. Designers, craftsmen and materials were drawn from all over North America, marking a new age in construction made possible by transcontinental rail systems. This imposing landmark is among the . . . — Map (db m72876) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Creation of the Province of British ColumbiaCréation de la Province de Columbie-Britannique
[English] The province of British Columbia was created on July 20, 1871. Formerly a crown colony established by the union in 1866 of Vancouver Island with the mainland colony of British Columbia, the addition of the Pacific coast province made Canada truly a nation “from sea to sea”. With provincial status came success for the movement toward self-government. The first Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia was Joseph W. Trutch and the first premier was John Foster . . . — Map (db m49038) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Customs House
[English] The 1957 portion of the building was renovated to provide retail space and a heritage facade compatible with the original 1914 section. This project was completed by Public Works Canada as a contribution to the historical preservation of the City of Victoria, and was commemorated by the Honourable Elmer MacKay, Minister of Public Works, on June 1, 1992. Public Works Canada Government of Canada

[French] Bureau des Douanes La partie de l’édifice datant de 1957 fut rénovée . . . — Map (db m48544) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Doctor John Sebastian Helmcken
John Sebastian Helmcken was born in London in 1924. He trained to be a doctor at Guys Hospital, London. He arrived in Victoria as a surgeon and clerk for the Hudson Bay Company on March 24, 1850.

Dr. Helmcken entered politics in 1856, becoming the first Speaker of the Legislative Assembly on Vancouver Island. Though re-elected on a campaign against Confederation, Helmcken helped negotiate the entry of British Columbia into Canada in 1871. He then returned to medicine and the raising of his . . . — Map (db m48865) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Dr John Sebastian Helmcken(1824-1920)
Dr Helmcken earned acclaim for his work as a physician, colonial legislator and negotiator of British Columbia’s entry into Canada. This statue, created by Armando Barbon and Gabriele Vicari, was donated to the Royal BC Museum by the family of Yole and Armando Barbon. May 19, 2011 — Map (db m48992) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Dragon Alley
During this district’s boom of 1881 – 1884, sixteen thousand Chinese established themselves within this area of Victoria. Thus emerged six blocks of businesses, theatres, a hospital, schools, churches, temples, opium factories, gambling dens and brothels; creating for Victoria’s Chinese community, Canada’s first and largest Chinatown.

This lot between Fisgard and Herald, originally, was the site of wooden huts that were leased to the Chinese. Building A, the Hart’s Block on Herald . . . — Map (db m49155) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Elliot Street Square
This area, designed and laid out by the landscape branch of the Provincial Department of Public Works in 1975, has been named Elliot Street Square, in memory of Andrew Charles Elliot, barrister, judge, gold commissioner, police magistrate, and fourth Premier of the Province of British Columbia, and as a reminder of the street, which bore his name. Before its closure in 1974 many prominent citizens had their homes within the limited length of Elliot Street. On the north or city side were the . . . — Map (db m48765) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Emily Carr1871-1945
[English] Artist and author Emily Carr was born here and lived most of her life in this neighbourhood of Victoria where she died. Her compelling canvases of British Columbia landscape offer a unique vision of the forest an shore, while her documentation of Indian villages provides a valuable anthropological record. Lively accounts of Emily Carr’s travels in the province are collected in Klee Wyck, for which she won the Governor General’s Award for non-fiction in 1941. Six other . . . — Map (db m49241) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Emily CarrBorn December 13, 1871 • Died March 2, 1945 — "Our Emily"
Victoria-born Emily Carr is British Columbia's most famous artist. Her art and writings are recognized across Canada. Emily grew up with a passion for art and a love of nature, especially animals. After high school she studied art in San Francisco. Later she travelled to England and France to refine her style. A trip to the native village of Ucluelet in 1899 opened the world of Aboriginal culture that inspired her to paint images of the vanishing totem poles in their natural setting. An . . . — Map (db m74400) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Empress HotelL’Hotel Empress
[English] This hotel was built between 1904 and 1908, and has since been enlarged twice. The architect, Francis M. Rattenbury, followed the practice of the Canadian Pacific Railway in employing the Chateau style, identifiable by the steep slate roof and Gothic Revival gables. Rattenbury modified this style using a symmetrical plan and flanking pavilions which give a strong vertical emphasis to the design. These elements make the Empress Hotel an important transitional building in the . . . — Map (db m49238) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway RoundhouseLa Rotonde de l'Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway
This imposing brick roundhouse is a particularly fine example of an industrial structure associated with the steam railway era in Canada. Built in 1913, the ten-stall roundhouse with attached machine, boiler and blacksmith's shops is part of a remarkably well-preserved railway yard that also includes a car shop and stores building. The roundhouse complex served the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway long after the introduction of the diesel locomotive in 1949 and the railway's operational relocation . . . — Map (db m72877) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Estate of the Lieutenant Governor of British ColumbiaLe Domaine du Lieutenant-Gouverneur de la Colombie-Britannique
This magnificent estate, residence of the Crown's representatives in British Columbia, is a cultural landscape that boasts a long and remarkable association with this high office. In 1865 the government of the colony purchased Cary Castle, a house located on this site, to serve as the residence of the governor of Vancouver Island. When British Columbia entered Confederation in 1871, Cary Castle became the home to the province's lieutenant governors. The present structure, built in 1957-1959, is . . . — Map (db m72878) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — European exploration in the Strait of Juan de FucaLes Européens explorent le Détroit de Juan de Fuca
Competition for sovereignty and trade drew Europeans to the Pacific Northwest coast in the 1780s. Although long known to First Nations people, the strait received its present name in 1787 when Charles Barkley identified it as the legendary transcontinental passage of Juan de Fuca, the Greek pilot who claimed to have ventured here in 1592. In 1792, Spanish and British expeditions entered the strait, circumnavigated Vancouver Island, and proved that this was not the Northwest Passage. Surveys . . . — Map (db m80552) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fifth Regiment of Garrison Artillery
The Fifth Regiment of Garrison Artillery marches down Government Street in December 1915 on their way to the Inner Harbour, where they boarded a steamer to Vancouver. They would join other Canadian troops fighting in Europe in World War I. The tall building in the back of is photo is the Pantages Theatre, now the McPherson Playhouse. The other building stood until the redevelopment of Centennial Square in the early 1960s. [Photo credit] Image # B-04181 courtesy of British Columbia Archives. — Map (db m49153) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Figures and Medallions of the Library Wing of Parliament Building
[Medallions, top row] Milton – Sophocles – Shakespeare – Socrates – Dante – Homer [Statues, anti-clockwise from the top left] Colonel R.C. Moody 1813-1887 Commander of Royal Engineers in 1858, erected New Westminster as capital of B.C., planned the Cariboo Road. David Thompson 1770 – 1857 Greatest of fur trade explorers. In 1812 traversed Kootenay area, descended the Columbia from source to mouth. Sir Anthony Musgrave 1828 – . . . — Map (db m49045) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Finlayson Point
Named after Roderick Finlayson Chief – Factor Hudson’s Bay Company at Victoria 1844 – 1872. Before the arrival of white men this was the site of an ancient fortified Indian Village. A battery of two 64 pound wrought iron rifled guns stood here 1878 – 1892 for protection against an expected Russian invasion. — Map (db m49244) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — First British Columbia School
On this site Rev. R.J. Staines and wife opened the first British Columbia School in 1849. In the same building of Fort Victoria the first Legislative Assembly met August 12th 1856.

[Plaque below] This plaque unveiled by Honorable Nancy Hodges, first woman speaker in the British Commonwealth, Speaker of British Columbia Legislature August 12th, 1950 — Map (db m48521) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fisgard Lighthouse National Historic SiteLe Phare Fisgard, Lieu Historique National
Fisgard Lighthouse was built in 1860 as the first permanent light on the west coast of Canada. Although administered together with Fort Rodd Hill, it is a separate national historic site. There is no historic connection between the two structures. The lighthouse now contains exhibits on shipwrecks, navigation and the growth of the west coast lighthouse system. Various lenses and lightkeeping tools are also on display. Your most direct route to Fisgard is by the path that leads . . . — Map (db m75218) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Former Victoria Law CourtsL’Ancien Palais de Justice de Victoria
[English] Opened in 1889, the Victoria Law Courts was the first major public building constructed by the provincial government after union with Canada. Previously, court sessions had been held in one of the colonial administration buildings located on the site of the present provincial legislature. Removal of the courts to Bastion Square marked an important stage in the evolution of British Columbia’s court system and the start of a programme [sic] to erect permanent court houses in judicial . . . — Map (db m49098) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria
The mooring rings on the rocks below are the only surviving fragment of Fort Victoria built by the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1843. From 1846, when the Oregon boundary was drawn at the 49th parallel, this post served as grand depot and headquarters of the Company’s Pacific fur trade. Ships moored here to unload supplies for an extensive network of forts and to take on natural products for export, principally to Alaska, California and Hawaii. In 1849 the first Legislative Assembly of the Colony of . . . — Map (db m9195) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort VictoriaFounded 1843
The pavement design near this marks the location of the bastion that stood at the northeast corner of Fort Victoria. From here the stockade ran southward past the gateway at Fort Street, and westward toward the harbour. Each brick within the bastion design bears the name of a Hudson’s Bay Company employee or later resident of the area. Bricks around the outer rim of the octagon carry the names of some of the Indians who signed treaties giving the Hudson’s Bay Company ownership of the Fort . . . — Map (db m48509) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria
The pavement design near this plaque marks the location of the east gate of Fort Victoria, built in 1843. From here the wooden stockade stretched northward to the bastion and southward toward what is now Broughton Street. The plaques in the pavement are copied from the official seal of the City of Victoria (1862) and the Crown Colony of the Island of Vancouver and Its Dependencies (1849). The names of early city officials and of colonial legislators surround the respective plaques. The strip . . . — Map (db m48520) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria
Founded by the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1843, Fort Victoria became, after 1846, the head-quarters of the Company’s trade in British territory west of the Rocky Mountains. When the Colony of Vancouver Island was formed in 1849 Victoria was the capital, and in the fort the first Legislative Assembly met. The Gold Rush of 1858 led to the development of the City of Victoria. The early history of the city and the colony is closely intertwined with that of the fort. The last of the original buildings . . . — Map (db m48542) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria
was erected by Hudson’s Bay Company 1843 Here Colony of Vancouver’s Island was inaugurated by Richard Blanshard 1850 Vancouver’s Island and British Columbia united 1866 Two years later Victoria became the capital of British Columbia — Map (db m48547) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — From Mudflat to Rain GardenFisherman's Wharf Park
A sports field served James Bay for many years until the Community envisioned a new park space. On August 27th, 2009 City Council adopted the Fisherman's Wharf Management Plan. The plan was completed in two phases and the Mayor celebrated the grand opening with residents on October 2nd, 2012. [Inset photos and text follow] A small shanty-town was also born during this era with houses in the bay. 1940's. 1940 - Today The map underlay shows the shoreline of 1940. Major Bay's . . . — Map (db m74385) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — George and Isabella Pottinger
Came with their five children from Papa Westray, Orkney Isl[ands]. aboard the sailing ship Knight Bruce via Cape Horn. Arrived at Victoria on 24 Dec 1864 after 180 days at sea. — Map (db m74706) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Giants Rooted Among Us
Gaze up into a Giant sequoia. Let your imagination soar. Fully grown, they are the largest living things on the planet. Their ancestors stood among dinosaurs. Today, the Giant sequoia is found naturally in fewer than 100 groves in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Giant sequoias were planted in Beacon Hill Park. Look for them along Circle Drive (behind you) and just off the Goodacre Lake path. Shaped by Fire Lightning-sparked forest fires are common in the mountains of . . . — Map (db m74141) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Government House
This plaque was unveiled by The Honourable Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C., LL.D. Lieutenant Governor of the Province of British Columbia on May 19th, 1959, to mark the official opening of the 10th Government House built to replace the former residence destroyed by fire April 15th, 1957. Planned and constructed under the authority of the Hon. W. N. Chant, Minister of Public Works, Province of British Columbia. Built by John Laing and Son, (Canada) Limited. — Map (db m74991) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Helmchen House Historic Site
John Sebastian Helmcken arrived in Fort Victoria in 1850 to work as a physician for the Hudson’s Bay Company. He remained here for the rest of his life, marrying Cecilia Douglas, the eldest daughter of Governor James Douglas. The young couple has a small log cabin built here in 1852, next to their in-laws home. Over the years as the family grew the house also grew larger. It is one of the oldest housed in western Canada.

Dr. Helmcken practiced medicine during the fur trade, the gold rush . . . — Map (db m48752) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — In Commemoration of the Treaty Between Great Britain and the Russian Empire28 February 1825, Demarcating Canada's Western Boundary
[English] In Commemoration of the Treaty Between Great Britain and the Russian Empire, 28 February 1825, Demarcating Canada’s Western Boundary [Russian] В память Договора между Великобританией и Россия . . . — Map (db m48937) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Japanese Internment
On April 22, 1942, 273 men, women and children of Japanese ancestry were exiled from their homes in the Greater Victoria area. None of the survivors of this event ever returned to Victoria to re-establish a home. On August 4, 1992, 67 survivors of this devastating event returned to Victoria to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the exile. This plaque has been placed here, a location central to where a number of us had our homes, to commemorate our return. — Map (db m49127) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra1743 – 1794
Captain in the Spanish Royal Navy. Explorer of the West Coast of North America and Governor of the Spanish settlement at Nootka, Vancouver Island. In honor of their meeting and the ensuing friendly association, Captain George Vancouver named this land Quadra and Vancouver’s Island. In recognition of the historic friendship between Canada and Spain – His Majesty King Juan Carlos I of Spain Dedicated this monument on March 17, 1984 — Map (db m49036) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — KakehashiIn Honour and Memory of Pioneers from Japan
This memorial commemorates the 150 Victorians of Japanese descent who are buried in this historic cemetery, beginning in 1887. During the 1940's, when no person of Japanese descent was allowed to remain within 100 miles of the West Coast, many grave markers deteriorated or were vandalized. This monument is dedicated to the early immigrants from Japan whose courage and endurance made our lives in Canada possible. [Japanese script on reverse] August 1999 — Map (db m74695) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Knowledge Totem
Carved by Master Carver Cicero August and his sons Darrell and Doug August for the Cowichan Tribes, on the occasion of the closing of the XIV Commonwealth Games in Auckland, New Zealand and the beginning of Victoria’s role as host of the XV Commonwealth Games, August 18-24, 1994 in Victoria, British Columbia. The loon, fisherman, bone game player and frog represent lessons of the past and hope for the future. Erected February 2, 1990 — Map (db m49043) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Kwakiutl Bear Pole
Project of Native Indians' Participation Centennial Sub-Committee to commemorate the Union in 1866 of the colonies on Vancouver Island and the mainland as British Columbia Kwakiutl Bear Pole carved by Mr. Henry Hunt of Kwawkewlth Indian Band at Victoria, B.C. Log donated by MacMillan, Bloedel and Powell River, Limited. — Map (db m74399) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Le Legs De La Famille CôtéThe Legacy of the Côté Family
[French] Les ancêtres de la famille Côté son arrives au Québec en 1634. En 1945, Joseph Napoléon Côté et son épouse Ida Camille Demers, accompagnés de leur fils Joseph Henri Côté et son épouse Anne-Marie Forcade s’establissent à Victoria.

Le famille Côté conserve son patrimoine québécois de par son engagement envers la langue française et sa participation à la culture francophone de Victoria. À titre de membres actifs de la paroisse St-Jean Baptiste à Fairfield, les Côté contribuent à . . . — Map (db m49228) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Lee Mong Kow
[Chinese, not transcribed] [English] Lee Mong Kow (1863-1924) was born in Panyu County, Guangdong Province, China. As an interpreter in the Canadian Customs House and Immigration Office he helped facilitate communication between Chinese and Western people.

Mr. Lee devoted himself to welfare work and served as a board director of the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association of Victoria for 9 one-year terms.

He was one of the founders of Lok Kwun Free School (1899-1909) and served . . . — Map (db m49157) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Leiser BuildingBuilt 1896
Simon Leiser & Co., Wholesale Grocers, was the largest business of it kind in British Columbia when this warehouse was built. The building featured a central electric elevator with tracks radiating from the elevator on each floor for ease of handling merchandise.

Designed by architect A.C. Ewart, the building cost $35,000 in 1896. The brick structure has stone dressing and sheet metal decoration. It was renovated in 1972 as the headquarters for Capital Regional District.

This . . . — Map (db m49101) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Log Cabin to Victorian Parlour
As the Helmcken family grew, so did this house. You can see three stages in the structure.

[Right section] The original 1852 log cabin was built in a fur trade post-in-sill style with hand hewn squared logs and cedar shingles. Hearths in three rooms join into a single chimney.

[Middle section] This house’s middle section, containing a dining room and upstairs bedrooms, was added in 1856.

[Left section] In 1883 Dr. Helmcken added a framed wing with a second story and front . . . — Map (db m48866) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Lorne LewisHere Lies
Born in New Bedford Massachussets [sic] in 1814 Died in Victoria in 1912 while a resident of the Old Men's Home He came to Victoria from California in 1858 and was appointed by Governor James Douglas as a police constable but racial prejudice made his job difficult. Later he served for many years as district constable on the Songhees Indian Reserve and afterwards was a member of the British Columbia Provincial Police. — Map (db m74829) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Market Square’s Main Gate Fountain
This historic fountain was originally erected near the turn of the century at the “edge of town” known as the Five Corners: Government, Douglas, Gorge and Hillside Streets.

The three-level fountain provided water for parched travellers [sic] and their thirsty horses, as well as smaller animals such as dogs, and pigs on their way to market.

The fountain was removed to the City workyards in 1950 where it languished until it was restored when these nine heritage building were . . . — Map (db m48478) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — McPherson PlayhouseDedicated 26th, February 1965
Named in Honour of Thomas Shanks McPherson Born Airdrie, Scotland, prominent business man, philanthropist and citizen of Victoria for fifty-three years, who died at the age of 89 years on 3rd, December 1962, and under whose will a bequest including this theatre was made to the City of Victoria — Map (db m49129) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Minnie Victoria Robertson
[Born] December 7th, 1870, Victoria, Drowned Ellice Bridge Disaster May 26th, 1896 — Map (db m74701) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Miss Marilyn Bell
This cairn commemorates the feat of Miss Marilyn Bell who landed in this bay 23rd August 1956 to become the first woman and first Canadian to swim Juan de Fuca Strait from Port Angeles, U.S.A. to Victoria, Canada — Map (db m49247) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Mizzen Mast – H.M.S. Algerine
Presented to the City of Victoria by the Maritime Museum of British Columbia 28th July, 1966 H.M.S. Algerine was the last ship of the Royal Navy to be based in Esquimalt, 1908-1914. Transferred to the Royal Canadian Navy, she served as Depot Ship at Esquimalt, until sold out of the Service in 1919. — Map (db m49081) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Modeste Demers1809-1871
Born near Levis, Demers was trained at the Seminary of Quebec, ordained in 1836 and sent in 1838 as a missionary to the Columbia. His ministry extended from the interior of British Columbia to Oregon. First pastor of St. John's Church of Oregon City, he was appointed in 1846 first Bishop of Vancouver Island with responsibility for New Caledonia and the Queen Charlotte Islands. In the following decades Bishop Demers oversaw the transition of his diocese from the fur trade era to that of a . . . — Map (db m72879) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Oak Bay GroceryCelebrating Our Heritage
the oldest building in the Village Built in 1912, it is the current location of The Blethering Place — Map (db m75298) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Old Victoria Custom HouseAncien Édifice de la Douane de Victoria
(English) Completed in 1875 in the Second Empire style, Victoria’s original Custom House is a distinguished example of the buildings erected by the new Federal Government after Confederation. It regulated the trade of the West Coast’s busiest port and symbolized the pre-eminence of Victoria as a commercial centre in the late 19th century. Goldseekers from around the world converged on its steps to obtain miners’ licences before embarking for the Klondike in 1898. This elegant structure recalls . . . — Map (db m49077) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Order of Canada / Ordre du Canada
In commemoration of the 25th anniversary of the founding of the Order of Canada and the 125th anniversary of Canada as a nation this plaque has been erected by the recipients of the Order resident in the Province of British Columbia. The Order recognizes accomplishments that have influenced the economic, cultural, scientific and community life of the nation and are representative of the characteristics and qualities that define a Canadian. Unveiled October 27th, 1992 by His Excellency . . . — Map (db m75023) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Pendrary House309 Belleville Street — Victoria, B.C.
Family home of William J. Pendrary Built 1897 Known as Loretto Hall 1940-1966 Restoration by William and Florence Prior 1970 Topiary gardens replanted by descendants of Mr. Pendrary 1980

[Marker below, French] Ancienne residence de la famille William J. Pendrary construite en 1897. Devint «Lorretto Hall», couvent de la congrégation de Notre-Dame des Anges de Lennoxville, Québec. Les salles de jardins furent loués pour des activities speciales des Canadiens français. . . . — Map (db m49035) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Percy Leonard James1878 – 1970
[English] Percy Leonard James was born in London, England, where he trained and first practiced as an architect. In 1908, he settled in Victoria, British Columbia, where he obtained his first commission and practiced his profession until 1954.

Mr. James was a charter member of both the national and provincial architectural institutes. In 1931, he was the first architect in British Columbia to be elected to the College of Fellows of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada. In 1956, Mr. . . . — Map (db m48480) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Right Reverend George Hills, D.D.
First Bishop of British Columbia who resigned after completing nearly 34 years of untiring and laborious work in this colony He died at Parham Vicarage, Suffolk, England on December 10th 1895 and was buried 14th December in the churchyard of that parish. 'Blessed are the pure of heart; for they shall see God.' Matt. V. — Map (db m74752) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Robert Dunsmuir(1825-1889)
Born into a family of Ayrshire coalmasters, Robert Dunsmuir achieved renown as a leading Canadian businessman. He developed the Wellington Mine near Nanaimo, which soon made him one of the richest men in Canada and, through his labour practices, one of the most controversial. Dunsmuir's commercial empire expanded to include railways, shipping, lumbering and iron works. Dunsmuir was elected to the British Columbia legislature for Nanaimo in 1882, and named president of the Executive Council in . . . — Map (db m72880) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Rockland Cairn
This monument was erected by residents of Rockland, with the support of the City of Victoria, to commemorate the past, celebrate the millennium and look to the future. Rockland was carved out of the 500 acre Douglas Estate “Fairfield Farm” in the mid 1800’s. The foremost architects of Victoria reflected the image and lifestyle of their day in the grand homes of Rockland. Residents of Rockland have sought to maintain the heritage character of the neighbourhood for the . . . — Map (db m75028) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Royal and Distinguished Visitors
As the representative of the Crown, the Lieutenant Governor plays an important ceremonial role that includes hosting royal visitors, heads of state, the Governor General, and other dignitaries. Members of the royal family have toured Canada since 1860 to maintain close ties between Canadians and the Crown. Canada’s Royal family continues to tour regularly and stays at Government House while in Victoria. [Photo captions read] 1. Princess Margaret, the younger sister of Queen . . . — Map (db m75026) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Royal Canadian Navy
To commemorate the contribution made by ships and men to the naval service of Canada for seventy year since it was founded on 4th May, 1910. Since November, 1910 when H.M.C.S. Rainbow arrived in Esquimalt, ships and men of the R.C.N. have been part of the maritime life of Canada’s West Coast. Ships sailed from here to fight in boat World Wars and in Korea. Between maritime tasks they protect Canada’s sovereignty and show the flag in the Pacific Placed here on 30th June, 1980 by Commander, . . . — Map (db m48716) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Royal TheatreLe Théâtre Royal
Constructed in 1912-1913 during the Victoria building boom, this structure originally opened as the Royal Victoria Theatre, owned by a group of local entrepreneurs. Theatres of this type, presenting live dramatic, musical and vaudeville performances, were constructed across Canada between 1913 and 1930. While they were among the grandest theatres ever built in this country, few now exist. This theatre's impressive bricK and terra cotta facade and ornate classically-inspired interior have . . . — Map (db m72881) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — S.J. Pitts, ImporterBuilt 1882
This is one of the earlier brick warehouse in the area, replacing previous wooden construction. Sidney Pitts, like other businessmen on Yates Street, operated a wholesale grocery, provision and produce business.

Stuccoed for may years, the building was restored in 1990 by the Canadian Hostelling Association, revealing windows and other details that had long been covered.

[Photo credits] c1890 Victoria City Archives, c1975 Hallmark Society photograph — Map (db m49102) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Sahsima
Sahsima, meaning "harpoon", was the original name identified by Songhees elder James Fraser for the point where the Chinese Cemetery is located. Hayls the Transformer, with spirit companions Raven and Mink, came by in his canoe, frightening away the seal the harpooner had been stalking. The harpooner rebuked them. Hayls turned him to stone as he stood there poised to throw the harpoon, saying, "You'll be boss for seals...from Sooke to Namaimo." Artwork by Charles Elliott, Temoseng BC 150 Years, 2008 — Map (db m75313) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Salvation Army
At this site the Salvation Army began activities in Victoria, June 26, 1887 — Map (db m48479) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Shop/WarehouseBuilt 1883
This two-story brick building in the Italianate style was one of several shop/warehouses in Victoria’s warehouse district. Originally occupied by W.J. Jeffree, pioneer clothier, the building later housed F.R. Stewart & Co. Provisioners. The historic photograph shows boxes and local produce waiting on the sidewalk for delivery by F.R. Stewart’s horse-drawn delivery wagon. Splendid cast iron columns, made at the Albion Iron Works in Victoria support the building and are dated on their . . . — Map (db m49124) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — 5 — Signs of LekwungenWe Are Still Here — Beside the "Lookout" on Beacon Hill - míqən
There are messages in the landscape here, surviving traditional place names, and the soil itself preserves ancient stories waiting to be told. This is the land of the Lekwungen People, known today as the Esquimalt and Songhees Nations. As you travel through the city, you will find seven carvings that mark places of cultural significance. To seek out these markers is to learn about the land, its original culture, and the spirit of its people. The hill here is called MEE-qan which . . . — Map (db m74378) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Sir Anthony Musgrave1828-1888
A career Imperial civil servant, Anthony Musgrave served as governor of Newfoundland (1864 - 69) and British Columbia (1869 - 71). Both terms of office were marked by a strong personal effort to encourage the two colonies to unite with the new Canadian confederation, and it was under his direction that British Columbia entered the Dominion on July 20, 1871, Musgrave was knighted in 1875, subsequently held vice-regal office in Natal, South Australia, Jamaica and Queensland where he died. . . . — Map (db m72882) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Sir James Douglas1803-1877
[English] Justifiably described as “the father of British Columbia”, Douglas was born in Demerara. He joined the North West Company in 1819, serving at Fort William and Ile a la Crosse where he was taken into the Hudson’s Bay Company. Rising rapidly in that service he became a member of the Columbia District Board in 1845, company agent at Vancouver Island in 1849 and second Governor of the colony two years later. His firm and wise rule, particularly during the gold rush of 1858, . . . — Map (db m48769) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Sir James Douglas, KCB1803 – 1877
First Governor of British Columbia Unveiled by The Honourable Steven L. Point, OBC Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia in honour of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II’s Diamond Jubilee 21 May 2012 — Map (db m74992) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Sir Matthew Baillie Begbie1819 – 1894
[English] Begbie practised [sic] law in England for fourteen years before his appointment in 1858 as the first judge of the mainland Colony of British Columbia. During the gold rush, he won the respect of lawless miners of the Fraser River and Cariboo regions. In 1869, after the union of Vancouver Island and British Columbia, he was named Chief Justice of the mainland; in 1870, of the whole Colony; and in 1871, of the Province. He presided in this building, erected in 1889. His 36 years of . . . — Map (db m49082) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Spewhung
Turkey Head was known by the indigenous people as Spewhung. A large shell-midden along this shoreline indicates that this was an ancient village site to which first peoples brought many fish, bird, mammal and plant resources. Food was gathered from Chatham and Discovery Islands (Stsnaang and Tlchess) in the distance and from Jimmy Chicken-Mary Tod Island (Kohweechella island, "where there are many fish"), nearer shore. Artwork by Charles Elliott, Temoseng BC 150 Years, 2008 — Map (db m75329) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — St. Andrew's Roman Catholic CathedralLa Cathédrale Catholique St. Andrew
Soaring skywards with its bold array of coloured brick, stone and slate, St. Andrew's Roman Catholic Cathedral displays the confident spirituality that characterizes the best religious architecture of the High Victorian Gothic style. Designed in 1892 by Perrault and Mesnard of Montréal, St. Andrew's was inspired by the medieval cathedrals of Europe, whose emphatic verticality and picturesque asymmetry greatly appealed to 19th-century Roman Catholic taste. The wall patterns, created by combining . . . — Map (db m70881) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — St. Ann’s Pioneer Schoolhouse
[English] St. Ann’s schoolhouse was purchased by Bishop Demers for the four sisters of the order of St. Ann who came from Quebec in June, 1858, to teach in Victoria. It is believed to be the oldest building in Victoria which is still in use, possibly built between 1843 and 1853. It was moved to its present site from the grounds of St. Ann’s Academy in 1974.

[French] Anncienne Ecole Sainte-Anne En juin, 1858 l’Ecole Sainte-Anne a été achetée par Mgr. Demers pour les quatre . . . — Map (db m48864) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — St. Ann’s Schoolhouse
This log cabin is one of the oldest buildings in western Canada. It was built in the French-Canadian fur trade post and sill style between 1843 and 1852. Bishop Modeste Demers purchased it from carpenter Leon Morel in 1855 and transferred it to the Sisters of St. Ann to use as a schoolhouse. The Sisters arrived in June 5, 1858, living and teaching the children of colonial Victoria in this school which was their first convent.

The first 12 students included Morel’s young daughter, Emilie, . . . — Map (db m48768) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — St. Ann's Academyl'Académie St. Ann
For over a century, St. Ann's played an important role in the educational life of Western Canada. It served as the regional motherhouse for the Sisters of St. Ann, the major female Roman Catholic teaching and nursing order in British Columbia, which had opened its first school on the site in 1858. Inspired by convent designs in the Sisters' native Quebec, the Academy was built in three stages between 1871 and 1910. Among its notable features is the chapel, built as Victoria's first Roman . . . — Map (db m72883) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Stone Boundary Marker
A stone boundary marker set by the Royal Engineers 1859-60 as part of the original survey of Government House grounds and Fairfield Farm. — Map (db m75001) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Terry Fox1958 – 1981
Terry Fox was born in Winnipeg, Manitoba, and raised in Port Coquitlam, British Columbia, a community near Vancouver on Canada’s west coast. An active teenage involved in many sports, Terry was only 18 years old when he was diagnosed with osteogenic sarcoma (bone cancer) and forced to have his right leg amputated 15 centimeters (six inches) above the knee in 1977. While in hospital, Terry was so overcome by the suffering of other cancer patients, many of them young children, that he decided to . . . — Map (db m49229) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The “Veteran Sailor”
Founded in 1910, Canada’s Naval Service wore the same uniform as the Royal Navy. The traditional “sailor suit” included bell bottom trousers, jumper, flannel ‘gun shirt”, and square collar. The uniform was completed with a lanyard, silk and a round cap with a ribbon that during peacetime identified the sailor’s ship. In 1968 Canada adopted a single uniform for both officers and non-commissioned members of the Canadian Forces.

The “Veteran Sailor” The . . . — Map (db m49076) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The 75th Anniversary of the Canadian Navy
This tree and anchor dedicated to the City of Victoria celebration of the 75th Anniversary of the Canadian Navy by HMCS Malahat 21 April 1985. Rededicated on 3 May 1998 in celebration of the Naval Reserves’s 75th Anniversary This historic Admiralty pattern anchor, salvaged from Esquimalt Harbour, was donated by the CFB Esquimalt Naval and Military Museum for the rededication ceremony. It has retained its strenth [sic] of purpose as does the bond between HMCS Malahat and the City of Victoria. — Map (db m49078) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Bank BuildingFirst Opened for Business on April 19, 1886 — Project Architect: Mr. W.H. Williams
When the building opened, it was the second largest in Victoria with a total area 5,230 square feet. The original drawings came from London, England. Using brick on a stone foundation, Mr. Williams combined cast iron columns, lintels, and sills with moulded cement renderings; cornices of heavy galvanized iron sheet metal; and elaborate, hand carved entrance doors and interior trim. The roof was edged with a decorative cast iron cresting depicting the floral emblems of the United Kingdom, a . . . — Map (db m48522) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Bastion
This tablet marks the site of the bastion which stood at the north east corner of Fort Victoria. The fort was erected by the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1843. Erected by Miller, Court & Co. Ltd. For the British Columbia Historical Assn. A.D. 1928 — Map (db m48511) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Bastion CannonsBastion Square — Come see the history you never knew we had...
You are standing at the entrance to Bastion Square Bastion Square is a legacy of Fort Victoria whose two log towers or “Bastions” were located near here. The Hudson’s Bay Company, which remains as a store across the street, built the fort in 1843 including a surrounding log wall or “palisade”. The two bastions on opposite corners of the fort, held cannons at the top for defence [sic] and one also housed the fort’s jail. Looking closely at the sidewalk, you can see the . . . — Map (db m48519) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Bell Tower
You are standing in Bastion Square. The Hudson’s Bay Company, whose legacy continues at the store on Government Street, established Fort Victoria here in 1843.

Acting on behalf of the British Columbia Government, the company sold the surrounding land to pioneers but kept the area around here for itself. During The Fraser River Gold Rush of 1858, thousands of new settlers, including many immigrants, arrived in Victoria. The Hudson’s Bay sold the Fort Victoria land to these new arrivals in . . . — Map (db m49227) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Birthplace of Victoria
We would like to take a moment to share with you the history that you are standing over, around and next to. This harbour was originally the sole domain of the Lekwungen First Nation who plied its protected waters and fished in their dugout canoes. When James Douglas arrived here in 1843, he chose it as the site for a new Hudson’s Bay Company trading post, eventually called Fort Victoria. It wooden walls stood along the rocky shore overlooking this site (behind you along Wharf Street).

At . . . — Map (db m48749) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Children’s Graves
Soon after the Helmckens moved into their new log house in 1853, Cecilia gave birth to a baby boy ‘before the doors had been hung”, as Dr Hemcken later recalled. Later Dr Helmcken wrote: “ When he was about a month or two old we found him dead in the bed one morning. The anguish felt at this time is indescribable.... The poor little fellow was buried in the garden where the holly now grows – close by out bedroom window. An oval of white daisies were planted around with a . . . — Map (db m48930) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Church of Our Lord
This picturesque building is one of the finest expressions in wood of the Gothic Revival style in Canada. It was constructed in 1875 for the Reformed Episcopal church in Victoria by the Reverend Edward Cridge. Architect John Teague enhanced the building's Gothic character by exploiting the advantages of board-and-batten siding to reinforce the vertical thrust of its pointed roof, pinnacles and spire. Inside, a Gothic hammer beam ceiling spans the broad open space to provide an unbroken view of . . . — Map (db m72884) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Guardhouse / Corps de garde
This structure was designed to accommodate the guard when the battery was fully manned. Consisting of three or four soldiers commanded by a non-commissioned officer, the guard provided sentries to control the gate and patrol the battery perimeter. There was a small kitchen, a living room and a bedroom that could also be used to hold short-term prisoners. The bedroom extended beyond the defensible wall and served as a concrete blockhouse. Loopholes in the bedroom permitted soldiers . . . — Map (db m75775) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Mackenzie Papineau Battalion of the International BrigadesSpanish Civil War 1936-1939
This monument commemorates the gallant men and women of British Columbia and Canada who offered their lives to defend the principles of democracy and served as the Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion of the International Brigades in defence of the Republic of Spain. In July 1936, the opening shots of the Second World War were fired in Spain. Insurgent forces led by General Franco staged a rebellion to crush the democratically elected Government of the Spanish Republic. This treason was met with armed . . . — Map (db m49040) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Majestic TheatreBuilt c1860 — Alterations: 1885; 1909; 1917
This building first housed Moore’s Music Hall (Victoria’s earliest existing theatre) upstairs, above Nathanial Moore’s dry goods store. In 1885, a new facade was constructed to match the new building next door, with identical cast iron columns. Various commercial uses followed, which included supplying miners preparing for the Klondike. In 1898 miners’ equipment was piled high on this sidewalk. In 1909 architect Thomas Hooper renovated the building to house the Majestic Theatre, . . . — Map (db m49125) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Netherland Carillon / History of the Carillon
The Netherland Carillon The carillon was a gift fro British Columbia’s Dutch community to honour Canada’s 100th birthday in 1967. Her Majesty Queen Juliana of the Netherlands unveiled the cornerstone of this tower on May 23, 1967; it now sits in the garden below.

A carillon is a musical instrument with a set of 23 or more bronze bells. This carillon, the largest in Canada, has 62 bells. It is housed at the top of this tower, which stands 27 meters (89 feet) tall. The largest bell . . . — Map (db m48932) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Old Man’s Garden
Dr. Helmcken loved tending the family garden throughout his long live. In his memoirs, he described his passion for gardening in the 1850s: “At this time I was a great gardener – worked hard – up at 5 or 6 o’clock digging & c. Indians cleared out the stumps and so forth – grew our own vegetables & c. In process of time the land was got into some sort of shape – and I planted with sods the grass plot as it now stands.” The Helmcken garden originally . . . — Map (db m48929) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Oriental HotelBuilt 1883;1888
William McKeon operated the Oriental Saloon on this site, at the corner of Oriental Alley, prior to 1883. That year, he commissioned architect John Teague to build the Oriental Hotel on the lot next door. Teague doubled the size of the hotel in 1888, adding this corner entrance and an imposing tower.

The hotel then had about 80 bedrooms, each with a fireplace and closets. On the ground floor were ladies’ and gentlemen’s dining saloons able to seat over 200 diners.

McKeon operated the . . . — Map (db m49103) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Parade of Ships
These plaques commemorate famous vessels in the history of Victoria and pay tribute to pioneers they brought to this new land, the men and women who fought the good fight and built Victoria and British Columbia. This key plaque presented by Horace J. Sims Victoria’s Centennial Year, 1968 [Northern Group, presented left to right] James K. Nesbit, 1908-1981 Newspaperman – Historian, Native son of Victoria, Originator of the “Parade of . . . — Map (db m48891) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The People and the Lieutenant Governor
In addition to carrying out constitutional responsibilities, the Lieutenant Governor plays an important role in celebrating, inspiring and connecting British Columbians. Many organizations invite the Lieutenant Governor to act as their patron. The Lieutenant Governor travels across the province to meet British Columbians and to recognize their achievements in public service, volunteerism, and bravery. The Lieutenant Governor has a busy schedule of attending cultural events and . . . — Map (db m74878) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Role of the Lieutenant Governor
The Lieutenant Governor is the Queen's representative in British Columbia, appointed by the Governor General for a term of at least five years. The Lieutenant Governor plays an important constitutional role, opening and closing sessions of the legislature, appointing and swearing-in Cabinet, and giving Royal Assent to all bills passed by the Legislative Assembly. To ensure that there is always a First Minister, or premier, Lieutenant Governors have, on occasion, had to make the . . . — Map (db m74940) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Signing Post
You are standing in Bastion Square. The Hudson’s Bay Company, whose legacy continues at the store on Government Street, established Fort Victoria here in 1843. This area has always been an important public space. All visitors had to gain permission from a gatekeeper to enter Fort Victoria and they were required to provide letters of introduction to . . . — Map (db m49080) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Sisters of St. Ann
In 1850, Marie Esther Blondin, now known as Blessed Marie Anne Blondin founded the Congregation of the Sisters of Saint Ann, a Roman Catholic religious order dedicated to education and nursing in Lachine, Quebec.

Bishop Modeste Demers of Victoria went to the Sisters of St. Ann in Quebec to recruit volunteers to educate children. Her returned via Panama with Sister Mary Conception, Sister Mary Angèle, Sister Mary of the Sacred Heart, and Sister Mary Lumena.

On June 5, 1858, the Bishop . . . — Map (db m48767) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Victoria Centennial FountainActivated 2 August 1968 by Hon. W.A.C. Bennett, L.E.D.. Premier.
British Columbia was formed from four British Colonies and territories: The Crown Colony of Vancouver Island 1845 The Dependency of the Queen Charlotte Islands 1852 The Crown Colony of British Columbia 1856 The Stickeen Territory 1862 Plaques on the fountain tell the origin of their union to become the British Columbia of today. The animal symbols are those from which all Indian Societies obtained their main totems of the four areas. The first impetus to exploration and . . . — Map (db m49074) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Thomas Earle WarehouseBuilt 1900
Thomas Earle was a local wholesale grocer and provision merchant whose business dated back to 1869. This building, constructed for $10,000 and designed by architect Thomas Hopper, features a large brick arch and two finials flanking a central pediment and date plaque

The building was used for many years by Smith, Davidson and Lecky, paper wholesalers. After a major fire, the building was renovated in 1979 for the Capital Regional District.

[Photo credit] c. 1900 Victoria City Archives. British Columbia Heritage Trust — Map (db m49099) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Tiger Company Fire Hall1880 - 1899
The Tiger Company was one of three volunteer fire companies dedicated to protecting Victoria's growing business district during the late 1800s. By the 1870s, there was a need to replace the Tiger's original fire hall on Johnson Street but it was not until November 1880 that the company moved into a new fire hall built on the southwest corner of Victoria City Hall. The entrance to the fire hall was located at the arched doorway just around the corner from where you are now standing. On . . . — Map (db m72885) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Tlikwaynung
This small islet and the adjacent shore were once an indigenous encampment connected with the village at McNeill Bay, Chikawich, to the west. The people living here ate over 20 species of fish and 15 species of birds, as well as deer, sea mammals, raccoon and marten. Across the water lies Trial Island, Tlikwaynung, a place where there were lots of seals. Artwork by Charles Elliott, Temoseng BC 150 Years — Map (db m75340) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — To Our Glorious Dead1914 – 1919 — 1939 – 1945
“They died the noblest death a man may die, fighting for god, and right and liberty, and such a death is immortality.”

Korea 1950 – 1953 [On the back] In Recognition of the Services of the Canadian Forces and Canadian Citizens In The Service of Peace — Map (db m48933) WM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Tsukuba1880-1980
13 gun – 1034 ton Naval Cadet Training 3 masted screw corvette Commanded by Capt. Norimichi Aiura Imperial Japanese Navy First Japanese naval vessel to visit Canadian water 10 June 1880 Erected on the occasion of the visit of the Japan Training Squadron J.D.S. Katori – J.D.S. Akigumo Commanded by Rear-Admiral Osuke Fukai, J.M.S.D.F. Presented by the Canadian Navy Unveiled by Mayor W. Tindall and Admiral M. Martin 10 June 1980 — Map (db m48715) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Twinning of Morioka, Japan and Victoria
Placed here May 23, 1985 commemorating the twinning of Morioka, Japan and Victoria and to the memory of Dr. Inazo Nitobe Mayor Daizo Ota [and] Mayor Peter Pollen ———————— 10th Anniversary of Twinning Morioka, Japan Mayor Ohta • Mayor Cross Victoria, Canada May 23, 1995 [Also in Japanese] — Map (db m74135) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Upper Battery / Batterie supérieure
A coast artillery battery consists of one or more gun emplacements and supporting structures and equipment. Its role was defensive; to prevent attack by enemy warships through the use of artillery. The layout of Upper Battery is typical of a coast defence battery of this period: High ground and a commanding position... + a clear field of fire for the gun... + a secure magazine to safely store ammunition close to the gun... + a communication system to control gun . . . — Map (db m75248) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Upper, Lower, Belmont BatteriesBatteries supérieure, inférieure et Belmont
These batteries were constructed at Fort Rodd Hill between 1895 and 1900, as part of the defences of Esquimalt Harbour. Upper and Lower Batteries, with their three large 6 inch guns, were designed to counter bombard enemy warships. Belmont Battery was equipped to engage fast torpedo boats, with smaller quick firing guns. ———————— Ces batteries furent construites au fort Rodd Hill entre 1895 et 1900 pour faire partie du système . . . — Map (db m75216) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Vancouver Island Wallmap Mural
[Three 'markers' a part of this mural. They are entitled: Pemberton Family, Vancouver Island, and Fort Victoria.]

Pemberton Family J.D. Pemberton, engineer and surveyor for the H.B.C., arrived in 1851 by canoe in the last stages of his journey from England when this settlement numbered about 300. He built the first schoolhouse, was the first settler to cross the Island, and was the first Surveyor General of the colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia. As population swelled . . . — Map (db m48543) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Victoria City HallHôtel de Ville de Victoria
Victoria’s first city hall was designed in 1875. The building was begun three years later and completed in 1890. The designer was John Teague, an Englishman long resident in Victoria, who was responsible for planning many of the city’s early buildings. His city hall was conceived in the Second Empire style popular at the time, with a typical mansard roof tower and rich ornamentation. The building remains one of the best surviving examples of this style in western Canada. [French] . . . — Map (db m49126) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Victoria Fire Department Headquarters1899 -1959
You are near the site of the Victoria Fire Department Headquarters, which served downtown Victoria from 1899 to 1959. History Victoria’s central business district grew dramatically during the 1880s and 1890s. More “modern’ buildings in size and value signalled [sic] a need for increased fire protection downtown. A decision was made to incorporate a new Fire Department Headquarters into the existing Public Market building – roughly the location of today’s Centennial . . . — Map (db m49128) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Victoria, B.C.1889
Fort Victoria had its start in 1843, centered on Fort Street and present-day Bastion Square. Most of Victoria’s Old Town however was constructed during the great building boom of 1886-1892. During that period the red-brick character of Victoria became firmly established. Small wooden buildings were replaced by substantial structures suited to the largest city in the province. Victoria’s status as a busy seaport gave rise to a large area of warehouses, saloons, hotels, manufacturing . . . — Map (db m49225) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Victoria’s ChinatownLe Quartier Chinois de Victoria — 域 多 利 唐 人 街
[English] This district, first settled in 1858, is the oldest and most intact Chinatown in Canada, representing an important chapter in the long history and heritage of Chinese Canadians. As the major immigrant port of entry on the west coast in the nineteenth century, Victoria boasted the largest concentration of Chinese Canadians in the country. They established a self-contained and identifiable neighbourhood which offered a complete range of commercial, residential and social institutions. . . . — Map (db m52980) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Waddington Alley
Built by B.C. pioneer Alfred Waddington, this alley was intended to maximize access to, and use of, three privately-owned lots during the Fraser River gold rush of 1858.

Initially, “a number of cheap shops” were erected which, by 1863, included a fishmarket, a bakery, a blacksmith, a bowling saloon, the Sacramento Restaurant and the Pioneer Wholesale and Retail Variety Store.

Alfred Waddington retained private ownership of the alley until his death of smallpox in 1872. Both . . . — Map (db m49100) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Wesleyan Methodist Church
Upon this site stood Pandora Ave. Wesleyan Methodist Church, the corner-stone of which (the first in British Columbia) was laid by His Excellency Governor Sir James Douglas, August 15th 1859. Erected by Metropolitan United Church, Feb. 11, 1934. — Map (db m49152) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — William (Billy) Barker1817 - 1894
Baptized: March, Cambridgeshire, England June 7 1817 Died: Victoria, B.C., Canada July 11, 1894 On August 17 of 1862, Barker struck gold at 52 feet on Williams Creek, Cariboo. The town of Barkerville bears his name. Like many miners he was soon broke, but Barker continued to mine and prospect throughout the Cariboo for the rest of his life. The fabulous wealth of the Cariboo mines laid the foundation for British Columbia. With this monument, Billy Barker is honoured as a builder . . . — Map (db m74827) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — William Edgar OliverIn Loving Memory of
First Reeve of Oak Bay Municipality 1906 Born in Edinburgh, Scotland, January 19, 1867 Died at Cowichan Lake, August 9, 1920 Beloved Husband of Mary Eleanor Ward Oliver (1869-1959) Installed 2006 - Oak Bay Centennial — Map (db m74750) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Windsor Hotel
The Windsor Hotel was originally called the Victoria Hotel when it opened in 1858, and boasted the city’s first brick building. It still stands across the street from here, with bricks now covered in stucco, at the corner of Government and Courtney. The ground floor was entirely occupied by a saloon. Its thick walls withstood an explosion in 1876 when owner George Richardson investigated a gas leak with a lit candle! Image # A-02716 courtesy of British Columbia Archives — Map (db m48717) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — World’s Tallest Totem PoleThe Legend of the Totem
127 Feet, 7 Inches Carved by Mungo Martin • David Martin • Henry Hunt Dedicated July 2, 1956 Percy B. Scurrah, Mayor of Victoria Hon. Ray Williston, Minister of Education Stuart Keate, Sponsor Raised by public subscription through the Victoria Daily Times

The Legend of the Totem “Memento of the Nation’s infancy, symbol of a proud race. Monument to rare native art. Proof of a united community interest and the purest form of Canadiana.” (Victoria Daily Times) . . . — Map (db m49250) HM

British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), 150 Mile House — To the Goldfields!
In the 1860s, the fabulous Cariboo goldfields were a lure to thousands. Miners, traders, and adventurers, many afoot, some with wheelbarrows, shared the pioneer route with mule trains, plodding oxen, freight wagons, and swaying stage-coaches. Havens for man and beast were the road-houses and stables every 12-14 miles along the way. — Map (db m8857) HM
British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), Barkerville — Cariboo Gold FieldsDistricts Aurifères de Cariboo — Barkerville - Historic Town
English: A search for the source of placer gold found on lower parts of the Fraser River led to discoveries of lode mines in the Cariboo, of which Williams Creek, is said to have yielded $19,000,000. As a centre of population in the 1860’s, the gold fields were the catalyst for the economic and political development of colony of British Columbia. They attracted miners from around the world and stimulated the growth of trade and agriculture. Economic difficulties resulting from the . . . — Map (db m42712) HM
British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), Barkerville — Chee Kung Tong Building
This rare example of a 19th century Chinese benevolent society hall conformed to a Chee Kung Tong tradition that placed services to members on the ground floor and formal functions above. With its hostel, kitchen, and meeting and ceremonial spaces, this hall offered members a refuge where they could find support, work, and shelter. The benevolent services, ceremonies and celebrations, and membership rules of the Chee Kung Tong fostered a sense of belonging in many Chinese and helped promote . . . — Map (db m42533) HM
British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), Barkerville — Cornish Wheel & Pump
This overshot water wheel is 16 feet in diameter. It is modeled after wheels and pumps used in the tin mines of Cornwall. The early miners found that the pay gravel often lay 40 to 100 feet under the surface. The wheels were used to pump the water from these deep workings and also lift gravel to the surface. — Map (db m42710) HM
British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), Barkerville — Richfield Courthouse
Built in 1882, this is British Columbia’s oldest surviving courthouse, replacing one which stood here from 1862-1882. By 1918, declining population in Richfield led to the building’s closure. Designated a Provincial historic object in 1945, it was restored by the Provincial Government in 1982. Reopened by Hon. A.J. Brummet Minister of Lands, Parks and Housing An3 Hon. Nathan T. Nemetz Chief Justice of British Columbia June 18, 1983 — Map (db m42763) HM
British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), Fort St. James — Fort St. James
English: Simon Fraser and John Stuart established Fort St. James among the Carrier Indians in 1806. Originally a North West Company post, it passed to the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1821. From the beginning an important centre of trade and cooperation with the Indians, it became, under the Hudson’s Bay Company, the chief trading post in north-central British Columbia and the administrative centre of the large and prosperous district of New Caledonia. Throughout its history Fort St. . . . — Map (db m42736) HM
British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), Quesnel — Collins’ Overland International Telegraph
Promoted by Perry Collins, the U.S. Commercial Agent in Russia, and dependent on the Western Union Telegraph Company’s money, men and technology for its execution, this early telegraph line roused the enthusiasm of the white residents of British Columbia. At no expense to them the colony was to be a vital link in a line joining Europe and America via Russia. In 1867, after completion of the more economical Trans-Atlantic cable, construction ceased at Fort Stager at the confluence of the Kispyap . . . — Map (db m8853) HM
British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), Quesnel — Cottonwood House
For over half a century the Boyd family operated this haven for man and beast. Here weary travellers found lodging, food, and drink. Here fresh horses were hitched to stage-coaches and miners bought supplies. This historic road-house, built in 1864 stood as an oasis of civilization on the frontier of a rich new land. — Map (db m42766) HM
British Columbia (Columbia-Shuswap Regional District), Field — Baldwin #7717 Steam Locomotive
[English] Baldwin #7717 Steam Locomotive This Baldwin 2-6-0 mogul steam engine – builders #7717 – road #6 – 36" gauge locomotive, was built for the North Western Coal & Navigation Co. in 1885. It was originally used to carry bituminous coal on a narrow gauge railway, which connected the C.P.R. mainline with the coal mines near Lethbridge. In 1893 this railway track was converted to standard gauge, causing a surplus of these narrow gauge engines. This engine was . . . — Map (db m44339) HM
British Columbia (Columbia-Shuswap Regional District), Field — Kicking Horse PassLe Col du Cheval-Qui-Rue
First recorded in the report of the Palliser expedition of 1857-60, this pass takes its name from an incident in which Dr. James Hector, surgeon in the expedition, was kicked by his horse while exploring in this vicinity. The pass was virtually unused until after 1881 when the Canadian Pacific Railway decided to adopt it as their new route through the Rockies, foregoing the earlier preference for the more northerly Yellowhead Pass. This decision altered the location of the line across western . . . — Map (db m74545) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), New Westminster — Carnegie Library1905 - 1958
This plaque was unveiled on October 21, 2000 as part of the New Westminster Public Library's celebration of 135 years of service to the community. It commemorates the Carnegie Library which opened on March 5, 1905 on this site and continued to operate until November, 1958. Industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie funded the construction of over 2,500 libraries around the world. The New Westminster Library was one of these and stood as a landmark in the community for 53 years. The . . . — Map (db m32130) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), New Westminster — The Great FireNew Westminster
On September 10 & 11, 1898, fire destroyed the downtown portion of the City. After the conflagration only these two major buildings in this area remained: the Burr Block and the Queens Hotel. This marker is placed in recognition of the fire and to honour the spirit of those citizens of the Royal City, from all walks of life, who worked together to rebuild this town. Dedicated September 10, 1998 — Map (db m32209) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), New Westminster — The New Westminster Court House and Land Registry Office
The New Westminster Court House The Court House was designed by architect George William Grant and opened on June 3, 1891 by the first colonial judge and Chief Justice for British Columbia, Sir Matthew Baillie Begbie. On September 10, 1898, the entire New Westminster downtown business area was destroyed by fire, including the Court House. The Court House was rebuilt within existing walls by G.W. Grant and reopened on June 19, 1899. The Land Registry Office The Land Registry . . . — Map (db m33185) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), North Vancouver — Pacific Great Eastern Railway StationProtected Heritage Building - 1913
The Pacific Great Eastern Railway Station was built to service a rail link between North Vancouver westward along Howe Sound to the interior of the province. The foot of Lonsdale became a busy transportation hub in the early days of the community as the meeting place for the railway, the ferry to Vancouver, and streetcars from Upper Lonsdale, Lynn Valley, and Capsilano. Delay in completing the railway line up Howe Sound, and a decision to redirect the line under Esplanade towards the . . . — Map (db m31979) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), North Vancouver — St. Paul's ChurchL'église Saint-Paul
{In English:} The oldest surviving mission church in the Vancouver area has long been a focal point of the Mission Reserve. Chief Snat, a renowned Squamish leader, assisted by the Oblate missionaries, was largely responsible for building the first church here in 1868 and for securing this land as a reserve in the following year. In 1884 the early chapel was replaced by the present structure and in 1910 corner towers and transepts were added. The church is named in tribute to Bishop Paul . . . — Map (db m32481) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Semiahmoo — Peace ArchThe Signing of the Columbia River Treaty
Upper marker: This unfortified boundary line between the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America should quicken the remembrance of the more than century old friendship between these countries A lesson of peace to all nations. Lower marker: In commemoration of One hundred and fifty years of peace, 1814 - 1864, between Canada and the United States of America. The signing of the Columbia River Treaty on September 16th, 1964, at this international . . . — Map (db m27450) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Surrey — Farming HistoryPart of Surrey’s Cultural Heritage
Preparing the Land When John Stewart acquired this land in 1880, only basic land clearing had occurred. The blackberry bushes and hardhack marsh provided hospitable habitat for birds and small animals, but was not suitable for successful farming. In the early years, neighbours worked together to share resources, labour and equipment. One of the early problems to be solved was bringing the rich lowlands along tidal rivers under cultivation. John Stewart referred to this effort as . . . — Map (db m61051) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Surrey — Historic ElginPart of Surrey’s Heritage Resources
Community Building The first permanent structure in Elgin was the Elgin Hotel (1870). It was built as a convenient stop-over point for travellers between New Westminster and Blaine. In 1875, four years before the incorporation of the District Municipality of Surrey, the first public church service was held in a simple log cabin built by John Brewer, who had settled in the area in 1870. William Brewer is attributed with building the first community hall in 1878. Built on the . . . — Map (db m60900) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Surrey — Historic McMillan ExpeditonPart of Surrey’s Heritage
A Trading Post on the Fraser In 1824, James McMillan of the Hudson’s Bay Company and a party of forty-seven passed this shore on an exploratory trip from Fort George (Astoria) at the mouth of the Columbia River to the Fraser River. They were sent to find a suitable site for a new fur trading depot. The expedition left Fort George on November 18, 1824 with three boats, travelled across the Puget Sound, continued up the coast, and entered this bay on December 12, 1824. After . . . — Map (db m61525) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Surrey — Historic Port ElginTransportation & Communication — Part of Surrey’s Built Heritage
River Routes Located near the intersection of the King George VI Highway and the Nicomekl River, the Port Elgin area has been a crossroads for various forms of traffic for thousands of years. For centuries prior to the arrival of the first European settlers, Natives regularly canoed up the Nicomekl River and down the Salmon River as they made their way to the salmon-fishing platforms in the Frasier Canyon. The Hudson’s Bay Company’s chief trader James McMillan and his party of men . . . — Map (db m63715) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Surrey — Historic Stewart FarmhousePart of Surrey’s Built Heritage
Settlement History First Nations settlements and seasonal hunting and fishing camps existed at the mouths of rivers and along the coastal shoreline for thousands of years before Europeans reached the West Coast. These sites were near plentiful resources of fish, berries, wild game and cedar forests, which provided food, shelter and transportation. These same resources eventually attracted explorers, fur traders, loggers, and settlers. As early as 1861, Samuel Handy and Hugh . . . — Map (db m60901) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Surrey — The Semiahmoo Trail
This trail was an ancient Indian travel-way linking tribal villages in the south to salmon grounds of the Fraser River. The first white explorers, lead by Chief Trader James McMillan of the Hudson’s Bay Company passed here in December of 1824. Using the Nicomekl and Salmon Rivers, they reached the Fraser and located the site of Fort Langley. Erected by the This trail was an ancient Indian travel-way linking tribal villages in the south to salmon grounds of the Fraser River. The first . . . — Map (db m60820) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — "Gassy Jack"1830-1875 — The Founding Father of Gastown
John Deighton was born in Hull, England. He was an adventurer, river boat pilot and captain, but best known for his "gassy" monologues as a saloonkeeper. His Deighton House Hotel, erected here on the first subdivided lot, burned in the Great Fire of June 13, 1886. On December 25, 1986, this statue was dedicated to the City of Vancouver by the owner of this historic site, Howard Meakin, a third generation Vancouver realtor. — Map (db m40204) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — 326 West Pender StreetCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: J.S.D. Taylor
This building is an integral part of the Victory Square area dating back to 1929. The facade was renovated in 1948 by architect W.H. Birmingham. It was given Neo-classical treatments including a decorative cornice installed below the original corbelled brick parapet. The facade was protected by designation in 1997 as part of a new mixed use development on this site and the site to the east designed by Nigel Baldwin Architects. The new building features complementary materials and massing and a glazed connection to the historic facade. — Map (db m54517) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — 64 Pounder Guns
In 1878 on the approach of an enemy cruiser squadron these 64 pounder muzzle-loading naval guns were hastily shore mounted to protect Esquimault. Subsequently they were issued to No. 5 Battery B.C. Brigade of Garrison Artillery, the first citizen militia unit in Vancouver. That historic battery became the present British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own) — Map (db m53894) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — B.C. Electric BuildingCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architects: Sharp and Thompson Berwick Pratt
This landmark building, completed in 1957 as the head office for BC Electric Company, is a significant example of the Internationalist style of modern architecture. Floors are cantilevered from a central load bearing concrete core and supported by slender perimeter columns. The lobby, plaza and elevator penthouse feature richly coloured glass mosaic tiles by local artist B.C. Binning. Conversion of the building to residential use required replacement of the exterior curtain wall. Renovation of . . . — Map (db m32348) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — BC Permanent BuildingCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architects: Hooper and Watkins
This small scale but well-executed example of Beaux-Arts classicism was designed by Thomas Hooper (the architect of Shaughnessy's Hycroft Mansion) and Elwood Watkins. Built in 1907 for Thomas Talton Langlois' BC Permanent Loan Company, after 1935 it housed offices of the Bank of Canada. The impressive open interior features a large Tiffany-style stained glass dome, mosaic tile floors, and a series of fine windows displaying the Yukon, Great Britain and eight provincial coats-of-arms. After new . . . — Map (db m54523) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Canadian Bank of Commerce BuildingArchitects: Darling and Pearson — City of Vancouver Heritage Building
In the early 20th century, bank buildings were designed to recall classical temples and evoke a sense of permanence and dignity. The Neo-Classical design, imposing Ionic columns, decorative stonework, and prominent roof cornice of this building make it a fine example of revival architecture. It was built between 1906 and 1908 to serve as the local head office for the Canadian Bank of Commerce, later known as the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce. The building was converted to retail use by . . . — Map (db m33025) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Carnegie LibraryCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: George William Grant
This eclectic 1903 building was one of 2,507 public libraries paid for by the Scottish-American industrialist Andrew Carnegie, the richest person in the world when he retired in 1901. Carnegie believed in the "Gospel of Wealth" and gave away 90% of his fortune. This commanding building is built of Gabriola Island sandstone and features and Ionic corner portico and dome. Romanesque-inspired arched windows, a French mansard roof and and unusual stained glass window by the spiral staircase. . . . — Map (db m32318) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Chinese Freemasons BuildingCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: Samuel Buttrey Birds (1913)
The Chi Kung Tong, later the Chinese Freemasons, purchased this building in 1907. It included meeting rooms, a male dormitory and a Chinese school - uses common to Chinese Society Buildings. The Chi Kung Tong assisted early immigrants from China who took part in the Cariboo gold rush. The Freemasons were also intensively involved in the politics of China, including Dr. Sun-Yat Sen's efforts to bring democracy to his native country. Built in 1901, the building blends Victorian style along the . . . — Map (db m53798) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Deutschesland CaféCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: Max B. Downing
This unusual building is one of the few surviving Art Deco buildings in downtown Vancouver. Its roofline an exuberant crenelated cornice built in cast concrete and designed in a curvilinear waterfall theme. Downing is best known as the architect of the Art Deco Federal Buildings in Prince Rupert and Powell River. The original owner of this was the nearby Hudson's Bay Company, and it was tenanted by the Deutschesland Café until 1939. — Map (db m41926) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Dominion BuildingCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architects: J.S. Helyer & Son
This ornate Beaux-Arts skyscraper was commissioned by Imperial Trust in 1906 but opened in 1910 as the Dominion Trust Building after this company assumed the debt and completed construction. It was the tallest building in the British Empire at that time, topped out at 18 storeys. The striking red and yellow terracotta exterior is capped by a three-storey Mansard roof reminiscent of late 19th Century Parisian townhouses. It was the finest building of the architects' careers and a major city . . . — Map (db m54360) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Drill HallCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: Department of Public Works
This fortress-like building has served as the drill hall and armoury for the British Columbia Regiment since its opening by HRH the Duke of Cornwall and York in 1901. The solid building with three-foot thick walls, was constructed of Gabriola Island sandstone and brick. The two central towers, crenellated roofline, rusticated stonework, and recessed windows provide an attractive frontispiece to the large drill hall at the rear. — Map (db m54225) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Ferguson Point
This area was the site of a coast defence fort manned during WW II 1939-1945 by The Royal Canadian Artillery Batteries 31st Heavy 58th Heavy 85th Heavy — Map (db m54578) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Flack BlockCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: William Blackmore
Thomas Flack commissioned this landmark commercial building in 1898, following his return from a prosperous venture to the Klondike gold fields. Completed in 1900, it framed one of the city's most prominent intersections, facing the first provincial Court House across the street in what is now Victory Square. Conceived as a prestige project in a prime location, this was one of the largest structures designed by prolific local architect William Blackmore (1842-1904). The Romanesque Revival . . . — Map (db m53619) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Here Stood Hamilton
Here stood Hamilton First Land Commissioner Canadian Pacific Railway 1885 in the silent solitude of the primeval forest He drove a wooden stake in the earth and commenced to measure an empty land into the streets of Vancouver — Map (db m40645) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Meet You Under the Clock
Since 1907, generations of Vancouverites have arranged downtown rendevous with one simple phrase - "meet you under the Birks clock!" Erected as "a public convenience for the people of Vancouver", this stalwart timepiece has stood in front of the main Birks store in Vancouver for over 90 years, requiring little more attention than a weekly winding of the original mechanical movement. Originally placed at the northeast corner of Hastings and Granville, the clock moved with Birks in 1913 to . . . — Map (db m32970) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Nine O'Clock Gun
This gun is a naval type twelve pound muzzle-loader. Cast in 1816 at Woolwich, England, it was brought to Vancouver around 1894. The crests of King George III and of the Earl of Mulgrave, Master General of Ordnance are on the barrel. Gun restoration and pavilion were centennial gifts in 1986 to the City of Vancouver from: EBCO Industries Ltd.; Chester F. Millar; First Generation Capital Corporation; Hudson's Bay Company — Map (db m33868) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Power BlockCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architects: N.S. Hoffar, 1888, Townley & Matheson, 1929
This rare example of an art deco exterior employing colourful terra cotta with Egyptian overtones was designed by the architects of Vancouver's city hall as part of a 1929 building renovation. The interior structure dates from built in 1888 for Captain William Power, then known as the "Mayor" of North Vancouver's Moodyville. It was expanded and renovated by owner Dominic Burns of the meat-packing family in 1911, the year he also built the nearby 14-storey Vancouver Block with its huge landmark clock. — Map (db m42010) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Ram Mk II
Crew 5, Wt 30 tonnes, Speed 40 km/hr, armament - 57 mm main gun, 2 x 30 cal mg, in service 1941-1945. The Ram tank was designed and built in Canada as part of Canada's contribution to the allied war effort in WW II. A total of 1949 Ram tanks were at the Montreal Locomotive Works in Montreal, Quebec. This tank is dedicated to all those who have served or are serving in the Royal Canadian Armoured Corps. — Map (db m54263) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Randall BuildingCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: Richard T. Perry
Built in 1929 for the brokerage firm S.W. Randall Company, this commercial building is a good example of the design of the city's downtown office development at the time of the Great Depression. The brick cladding is enriched by the terra cotta paneling on the lower levels of the important Georgia Street facade. Sam Randall was also a thoroughbred race promoter who operated racetracks at Hastings Park in the 1920s and Lansdowne Park in Richmond (1924-45). In 1991 the building was rehabilitated . . . — Map (db m54834) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Sadie MarksCity of Vancouver, 1886-1986
In 1922 Ferrera Court was the home of Vancouver tailor David Marks, where vaudeville comedian Benny Kubelsky met thirteen-year-old Sadie Marks. They dated in 1926 and married the next year. As Jack Benny and Mary Livingstone they often returned to the city of her birth. — Map (db m46691) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Sherman
M4A3E8, Crew 5, Wt 32 tonnes, speed 48 km/hr armament - 76 mm main gun, 2 x 30 cal mg in service 1943-1970 On 8/9 August 1944, the British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own), then designated Canadian 28th Armoured Regiment, was commanded by LCOL D.G. Worthington in his tank "Boss". In Sherman tanks similar to this one, they fought a heroic 14 hour battle on Hill 140 north of the town of Falaise, France. When the battle ended the "Dukes" had suffered great losses, including their . . . — Map (db m53942) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — St. Regis HotelCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: W.T. Whiteway
Of the turn-of-the century hotels built in the downtown area before World War I, this is the last one that has survived as a hotel. Noted architect W.T. Whiteway designed it in 1913. He was the architect of the Sun Tower, the original 1903 Woodard's store, as well as notable buildings in Victoria, Halifax, St. John's and Port Townsend, Washington. The builder, E.J. Ryan, constructed the existing Hotel Vancouver. The St. Regis is a good example of the Edwardian Commercial style. Part of the . . . — Map (db m41988) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — The Old Maple
Here stood the old maple tree under whose branches the pioneers met in 1885 and chose the name "Vancouver" for this city. — Map (db m41554) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Vancouver Rowing ClubCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: J.W. Keagey
The Vancouver Rowing Club was established in 1899 when the Burrard Inlet Rowing Club joined the Vancouver Boating Club. Throughout it's history the Vancouver Rowing Club has played an important part in the athletic and social life of Vancouver. This building, designed in the Tudor Revival style, was officially opened on September 9, 1911 replacing an earlier clubhouse located at the foot of Burrard Street. Renovations to the clubhouse were completed by Watson-Donald Architects in 1988. His . . . — Map (db m31941) HM
British Columbia (Kitimat-Stikine Regional District), Hazelton — Hazelton
Head of sternwheeler navigation on the Skeena. The town grew at the landing close to the Indian village of Gitenmaks. Crews from the Collins Telegraph arrived in 1866. Following them Omineca gold miners, Hudson’s Bay pack strings and “gandy dancers” of the Grand Truck all tramped these streets. Each is a chapter in the history of “the town on the hazel flats.” — Map (db m9073) HM
British Columbia (Kitimat-Stikine Regional District), Moricetown — Moricetown Canyon
This site, once the largest village of the Bulkley Valley Indians, later was named after the pioneer missionary, Father Morice. Salmon, staple food of the Indian, concentrated in the canyon and were caught with basketry traps, dip-nets, and harpoons. Indians still catch salmon with long gaff nooks and smoke them at this historic native fishery. — Map (db m9072) HM
British Columbia (National Capital Region), Victoria — Gun Emplacement / Emplacement du canon
One 6-inch gun on a disappearing carriage was mounted in this emplacement. The wall and sunken emplacement helped to conceal and protect the gun and crew from enemy bombardment. The concrete apron and earth glacis extending away from the top of the wall was designed to deflect incoming shells. Cet emplacement comprenait un canon de 6 pouces monté sur un affût à éclipse. Le mur et la fosse aidaient à dissimuler le canon et servaients à les protéger contre les bombardements ennemis. Le . . . — Map (db m76336) HM
British Columbia (Skeena-Queen Charlotte Regional District), Port Edward — Inverness Cannery
The developing provincial salmon industry spread northward when the Inverness Cannery opened here in 1876. The first cannery in northern British Columbia, it took advantage of the abundant sockeye runs up the Skeena River to challenge the dominance of the canneries along the lower Fraser. Finally closed in 1950, the plant was destroyed by fire in 1973. — Map (db m9075) HM
British Columbia (Skeena-Queen Charlotte Regional District), Port Edward — North Pacific Cannery
Salmon canning stimulated economic development on this coast. North Pacific is the oldest West Coast cannery still standing. From here the Bell-Irving family shipped high quality salmon directly to England before 1900. Typical of most canneries in its isolation and operations, North Pacific relied more on native labour than those close to urban centres, was slower to adopt new technology, and had lower production costs. Ethnically-segregated living and work areas divided Chinese, Indian, . . . — Map (db m9203) HM
British Columbia (Skeena-Queen Charlotte Regional District), Tyee — “K-Shian” – The Skeena
The Skeena, “river of mists,” makes a major cleft through the Coast Mountains. To Coastal Tsimshian Indians and Interior tribes it was vital to trade and travel. In later years, Port Essington, near the river’s mouth, became the main port of this swift, treacherous waterway – a route serving pioneers from the 1860s to 1914 when the railway was built. — Map (db m9074) HM
British Columbia (Strathcona Regional District), Campbell River — Seymour Narrows
Treacherous currents, swirling eddies, and turbulent tide-rips still harass vessels, despite the blasting away in 1958 of the twin peaks of Ripple Rock. Charted in 1792 by Captain George Vancouver, the Narrows has claimed numerous ships and lives and is considered by many seamen the worst hazard to marine navigation on the British Columbia coast. — Map (db m9077) HM
Manitoba, Gardenton — St. Michael’s Ukrainian Orthodox Church
Constructed in 1899, this church is a fine early example of Ukrainian ecclesiastical architecture in Canada. Its distinctive massing, plan and bulbous cupolas reflect the Byzantine-influenced architectural heritage of the homeland of the settlers in the region. The traditional free-standing bell tower was built in 1906, and like the church, is distinguished by the high quality of its wooden craftsmanship. Built by the first generation of Ukrainians to arrive in Canada, St. Michael’s served as . . . — Map (db m8421) HM
Manitoba, Gimli — New Iceland
New Iceland represents a distinctive episode in the early settlement of the Canadian West. In 1875 and 1876, more than a thousand Icelandic immigrants settled a large tract of land reserved for them by the federal government along the western shore of Lake Winnipeg. Before 1887, the reserve was essentially self-governing under its own constitution, and the setters were primarily of Icelandic origin. New Iceland enabled them to preserve their language and cultural identity. Numerous descendants . . . — Map (db m8453) HM
Manitoba, Headingley — Dominion Lands Survey System
The first marker of the Dominion Lands Survey was placed 10 July, 1871, on the Principal Meridian, about half a mile south of this site. The system, then inaugurated by Lieutenant Colonel J.S. Dennis, Surveyor-General, extends across the prairies and to the Pacific coast, embracing more than 200 million acres of surveyed lands in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and parts of British Columbia. Réseau Topographique du Dominion Le 10 juillet 1871, la première borne du réseau . . . — Map (db m8489) HM
Manitoba, Inglis — Inglis Grain Elevators
This impressive grouping of five standard-plan wooden grain elevators is a rare survivor of the long rows that once dominated Prairie towns. The row was built between 1922 and 1941, Manitoba's golden age of elevators, by a cross-section of grain-handling firms, including cooperatives and large companies backed by Canadian and American investors. Located in a town typical of many that dot the West, these slope-shouldered sentinels are surrounded by their outbuildings, rail line and fields of . . . — Map (db m8491) HM
Manitoba, Lockport — St. Andrews Caméré Curtain Dam
This is the only Caméré curtain bridge-dam built in North American, and by far the largest ever constructed. H.E .Vautelet, the Canadian engineer responsible for its design, adapted a French technological advancement to deal with the destructive and unpredictable floodwaters of the Red River. It has wooden curtains that dam the river for navigation and roll up to pass the spring freshets. The Canadian government constructed the dam, lock and machine shop/electrical powerhouse in 1907-1910 as . . . — Map (db m9205) HM
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