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Alberta, Athabasca — Athabasca Landing
This was once the "jumping off point" for the vast northland. Here in 1887 the first steamboat "Athabasca" was built to ply the river between Mirror Landing and Grand Rapids. Steamboats superceded the canoe, York boat, and scow, and were replaced themselves a few decades later by the railway. — Map (db m8837) HM
Alberta, Banff — Banff Park Museum
Opened in 1895, the Banff Park Museum was moved into this building in 1903. Its cross-log motif exemplifies an architectural style common in the town at the time. Norman Bethune Sanson, the museum’s curator from 1896 to 1932, energetically developed the collections, initially put together by the Geological Survey of Canada. Throughout its early years the museum dealt with natural and human history but by the late 1950s was limited to natural history. While this building was refurbished in 1985, . . . — Map (db m8836) HM
Alberta, Devon — Leduc-Woodbend Oil FieldLe Site Pétrolifière Leduc-Woodbend
The development of this field in 1947 marked a turning point in the history of the Alberta petroleum industry. After the drilling of Leduc No. 1, the geographical focus of the industry shifted from Turner Valley northward to the central plains area, where vast oil reserves were uncovered. Oil production, which has been in decline, expanded dramatically and the Edmonton area became a petrochemical and distributing centre. The boom in output enable Alberta to become, for the first time, a major . . . — Map (db m8856) HM
Alberta, Fort McMurray — Methye Portage
The earliest trade route between eastward and northward flowing waters followed the Clearwater River and the Methye Portage. Discovered by Peter Pond in 1778 and used continuously for more than a century for more than a century by fur-traders and explorers, including Sir Alexander Mackenzie, Sir John Franklin, and Sir George Simpson. — Map (db m8814) HM
Alberta, Glendon — The Pyrogy – PyrohyBest Made in Glendon
A European food that was brought to Western Canada in the early 19th century by the working and poor people. It originated as a boiled dumpling, and later people added whatever they desired inside, and it became a pyrogy – pyrohy, sometimes called varenyky. — Map (db m8813) HM
Alberta, Lake Louise — Canadian Pacific Railway Stone Monument
Erected in honor of Sir James Hector K. C. M. C. Geologist and explorer to the Palliser Expedition of 1857 - 1860 by his friends in Canada, the United States & England. One of the earliest scientists to explore the Canadian Rocky Mountains. He discovered the Kicking Horse Pass through which the Canadian Pacific Railway now runs from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean. — Map (db m70443) HM
Alberta, Lake Louise — Castle Mountain Internment Camp
During Canada’s first national internment operations in World War One, thousands of immigrants from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the majority of Ukrainian origin, some citizens of Canada, were imprisoned as “enemy aliens”. Internment operations lasted from 1914 to 1920. This plaque is in memory of those held at the Castle Mountain camp from 14 July 1915 to 15 July 1917. Camp D’Internement du Mont-Castle. Lors des premières operations nationale d’internement Durant la . . . — Map (db m8827) HM
Alberta, Lake Louise — Defining the Boundry of the Great DivideDélimitation de la Ligne de Partage des Eaux
Prior to 1913 the Alberta-British Columbia boundary was defined by the divide or watershed of the Rocky Mountains. The discovery of valuable coal deposits and the availability of marketable timber and the incursion of railroads and roads required a more precise demarcation. In 1913 provincial and federal Orders-in-Council approved a boundary survey between the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia and the appointment of Commissioners. In June of that year Edward Deville, Surveyor . . . — Map (db m70445) HM
Alberta, Lake Louise — Parting of the WatersLe Partage des Eaux
How many creeks do you know of that split, with each fork reaching a separate ocean, 4500 km apart.

Here, Divide Creek forks on the boundary between Pacific and Atlantic watersheds, commonly called the Great Divide.

Water in the left fork will flow into the Pacific Ocean. Water in the right fort will flow into the Atlantic Ocean. — Map (db m70444) HM
Alberta, Turner Valley — Turner Valley Gas Plant
This plant, which was critical to the development of the Turner Valley oil field, is the earliest gas processing facility built in Canada and the only survivor of its type. The present complex was begun in 1921 after a fire destroyed the original plant, built in 1914. The many modifications and additions made to it since the 1920s reflect the evolution of refining technology. The buildings. Machinery and equipment together illustrate the production process required to extract marketable gas and . . . — Map (db m8825) HM
Alberta, Turner Valley — Turner Valley Oilfield
Turner Valley is Alberta’s first great oilfield. Initially the field, which began production in 1914, yielded mainly natural gas. Local plants, which provided the only extensive gas-processing system in the province, extracted the marketable petroleum products. The discovery of deeper deposits in 1924 at Royalite No. 4 made Turner Valley the leading producer in Canada. In 1936, the crude-oil pool underlying the gas reserves was discovered and Turner Valley reached peak output. While production . . . — Map (db m9204) HM
British Columbia, Victoria — St. Andrew's Roman Catholic CathedralLa Cathédrale Catholique St. Andrew
Soaring skywards with its bold array of coloured brick, stone and slate, St. Andrew's Roman Catholic Cathedral displays the confident spirituality that characterizes the best religious architecture of the High Victorian Gothic style. Designed in 1892 by Perrault and Mesnard of Montréal, St. Andrew's was inspired by the medieval cathedrals of Europe, whose emphatic verticality and picturesque asymmetry greatly appealed to 19th-century Roman Catholic taste. The wall patterns, created by combining . . . — Map (db m70881) HM
British Columbia (Alberni-Clayoquot Regional District), Port Alberni — Bicentennial of the Spanish Expeditions to the Northwest Coasts of America1771–1991
[Upper Marker]: Pedro de Alberni, Captain of the Catalan Volunteers and Commander of the Spanish Establishment at Santa Cruz de Nootka, 1790-1792. Offered by the Government of Spain on the occasion of the visit of the Spanish training ship “Juan Sebastian el Cano” to the province of British Columbia, April 1991. [Lower Marker]: Generalitat de Catalunya The Autonomous Government of Catalonia joins this bicentennial celebration in remembrance of . . . — Map (db m9155) HM
British Columbia (Alberni-Clayoquot Regional District), Port Alberni — Forest Industry in British ColumbiaL’Industrie Forestiere en Colombie-Britannique
Harvesting of the forest has long been an important aspect of life on the Pacific Coast. The native people were the first to utilize this valuable resource in the construction of dwellings, canoes, and implements. In the nineteenth century, spars masts, and timber were exported. In 1860 the first export sawmill was constructed near this site. From these beginnings the forest industry has expanded to become a very important element of the economy of British Columbia. In this century considerable . . . — Map (db m9192) HM
British Columbia (Bulkley-Nechako Regional District), Southbank — Ootsa Lake Nechako Reservoir
In 1952, the Kenney Dam was constructed on the Nechako River to service the new Alcan aluminum smelter at Kitimat, resulting in the creation of the Nechako Reservoir and the relocation of over 75 families. The damming also linked the rivers and lakes of Ootsa, Intata, Whitesail, Chelaslie, Tetachuck, Tahtsa and Natalkuz into the reservoir with a surface area of over 90,000 hectares. — Map (db m8855) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Central Saanich — Black Pioneers in British ColumbiaLes Pionniers Noirs de la Colombie-Britannique
In 1858, nearly 800 free Blacks left the oppressive racial conditions of San Francisco for a new life on Vancouver Island. Governor James Douglas had invited them here as promising settlers. Though still faced with intense discrimination, these pioneers enriched the political, religious and economic life of the colony. For example, Mifflin Gibbs became a prominent politician; Charles and Nancy Alexander initiated the Shady Creek Methodist Church; John Deas established a salmon cannery; and the . . . — Map (db m72868) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Colwood — Colwood Pioneer Cemetery
The Colwood Pioneer Cemetery was established in the 1890's on land donated by Alfred Thomas Peatt. Originally the site included St. Matthew's Presbyterian Church. The Colwood Women's Institute maintained the cemetery from 1925 to 1993, and then responsibility was transferred to the City of Colwood. This cairn is a generous gift of the Acres and Aubrey families of Colwood in loving memory of Bert and Agnes Parker. — Map (db m72869) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Colwood — Fisgard LighthouseLe Phare Fisgard
The first permanent lighthouse on the Pacific coast of Canada, Fisgard was erected in 1859-60 by the British and Colonial Governments to guide mariners into Esquimalt Harbour. Brought from England with the first lightkeeper, the lantern became operational on November 16, 1860, and in 1928 it was made automatic. Captain G. H. Richards, R. N., recommended this site on the island names for H.M.S. FISGARD, on station in the Pacific from 1844 to 1847. Ce phare fut le premier permanent sur la . . . — Map (db m70876) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Colwood — Hatley Park
This superb example of an Edwardian park was laid out for James and Laura Dunsmuir in the early 20th century. At its centre stands a Tudor Revival mansion, whose picturesque design is enhanced by a rich array of decoration and fine craftsmanship. The grounds, featuring a variety of native and exotic vegetation, unfold from formal gardens to recreational spaces, farmlands and forests. Acquired by the Canadian armed forces in 1940, Hatley Park evolved to meet the needs of Royal Roads Military . . . — Map (db m72870) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Colwood — Royal Roads
To seaward lies an anchorage or roadstead first used in 1790 by the Spanish and named in 1846 for its location between Albert Head and Victoria. Unloading place for large vessels serving Victoria in days of sail, it was once a scene of disaster. On April 1, 1883, a southeasterly gale swept the haven, beaching the ships Southern Chief, Gettysburg, Connaught, and Tiger. — Map (db m72871) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Colwood — Victoria-Esquimalt FortificationsLes Fortifications de Victoria-Esquimalt
From 1878 to 1956 coast artillery installations protected the city of Victoria and the naval base at Esquimalt. Temporary batteries were constructed in response to the Anglo-Russian crisis of 1878, and in the 1890s Canada negotiated with Great Britain for the building of a series of permanent defences to be manned by British troops. Canada took control of these fortifications in 1906 and, by the end of the Second World War, they had been rebuilt and greatly expanded. They were declared obsolete . . . — Map (db m72872) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Esquimalt — Esquimalt Naval SitesLes Sites Navals d'Esquimalt
The long naval presence here has produced a unique legacy among defence sites in Canada. From its establishment in 1865 until Britain's Royal Navy withdrew in 1906, Esquimalt served as headquarters of the vast Pacific Station. In the Dockyard, the Admiralty built wooden storehouses and repair shops for the Pacific fleet. Well-crafted brick buildings, many still in use, replaced the original structures in the 1890s. A hospital complex was installed at nearby Pilgrim Cove. Sailors who succumbed . . . — Map (db m72867) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Esquimalt — The Canadian Women's Army Corps (CWAC)Le Corps Féminin de l'Armée Canadienne (CFAC)
Canadian Women's Army Corps (CWAC) Women's service in the military during the Second World War challenged the tradition of all-male armed forces. Between 1941 and 1946, close to 22,000 volunteers enlisted in the CWAC and were posted to bases at home and abroad. Working in such unconventional settings transformed their life and ambitions. Joan Kennedy, later its commander, opened the first CWAC office on the Esquimalt base on 29 August 1941. The Corps contributed to Allied victory, paved the way . . . — Map (db m72873) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Metchosin — Metchosin Schoolhouse
In spring 1872, classes began in Metchosin schoolhouse with Mrs. Elizabeth Fisher teaching 7 girls and 3 boys. On land donated by John Witty and with its $300 cost shared equally by local settlers and the colonial government, it was the first new school building opened in British Columbia after confederation. In regular use to 1914 and reopened in 1942, it finally closed its doors in 1949. — Map (db m70867) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Oak Bay — Chinese CemeteryLe Cimetière Chinois
This place, chosen by the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association in 1903 for its harmonized elements of Nature expressing the principles of "feng shui", is a significant legacy of the first Canadians of Chinese origin. Traditionally it was a sanctuary of temporary repose before final interment in China, a pattern which reflected the early aspirations of these immigrants to return to their homeland. After the Sino-Japanese war broke out in 1937, it was no longer possible to ship remains . . . — Map (db m72874) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — “Journey For Lives”Stephen Fonyo
In commemoration of Stephen Fonyo’s run across Canada to raise money on behalf of the Canadian Cancer Society, for cancer education, patient care and research.

His “Journey For Lives” covered nearly 8,000 kilometers, starting in St. John’s, Newfoundland, March 31st, 1984, and was completed here, May 29th, 1985. Province of British Columbia. — Map (db m49230) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — “The Birdcages”
The Legislative Buildings for the Colony of Vancouver Island were built on these grounds in 1859. Nicknamed “The Birdcages” because of their quaint style, they were replaced in 1894-97 by the present buildings. The original Legislative Hall, meeting place of the first House of Assembly west of the Great Lakes, was preserved until 1957 when it was destroyed by fire. — Map (db m9196) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — 100th Anniversary of the Canadian Navy
Prior to 1910. the Royal Navy provided maritime defence of British North America and for the Dominion of Canada from 1867. With World War I brewing in Europe early in the 20th century, Great Britain redistributed the British fleet and reduced its stations in Halifax and Esquimalt. The Government of Canada move to assume full responsibility to protect Canada’s major seaports and the longest coastline in the world. On May 4, 1910, under authority of the Naval Service Act, the Navy was created. On . . . — Map (db m49075) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — 713 JohnsonDesigned in 1908 by Victorian architects Thomas Hooper and Charles Elwood Watkins
This building is a good example of Edwardian commercial architecture. It was built for William James Marble as a carriage factory, replacing the original wooden structure from 1885. Early painted signage is still visible on the east façade. In 1938, the building was sold and run as a furniture store on the main floor and with offices above. In the 1970s, the site became the home of the Salvation Army Thrift Shop and, 20 years later, the 711 Bingo and Snack Bar. It was briefly used by Our Place . . . — Map (db m48748) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Amor De Cosmos, 1825-1897
[English] Amor De Cosmos (Lover of the Universe) was the name adopted by William Smith of Windor, Nova Scotia, while in the California goldfields. In 1858 he arrived in Victoria and founded the opposition journal, the Colonist. For over two decades his irrepressible pen and exuberant oratory championed the causes of responsible government and Confederation. He sat for Victoria in the Legislative Assembly (1863-74) and in the House of Commons (1871-82), and served briefly (1872-4) as provincial . . . — Map (db m49079) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Beacon Hill
Death, life and happiness are in the story of Beacon Hill. On these headlands, where an ancient race once buried their dead, early settlers erected beacons to guide mariners past dangerous Brotchie Ledge. Here, too, ever since Victoria was founded in 1843, people have gathered to enjoy sports and a vista of timeless appeal. — Map (db m49255) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Beacon Hill Park
When Victoria was settled in 1840, this area was a natural park. It was reserved in 1858 for a park by Sir James Douglas, Governor of the Colony of Vancouver Island and given in trust to Victoria by the Province of British Columbia in 1882. It was so named from two beacons place upon the hill in 1846 to mark the position of Brotchie Ledge. Area 154 acres. — Map (db m49252) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Boomerang Court and Chancery Lane
You are standing in Bastion Square, a public space dating back to the Victorian Era.

There are many alleys and walkways to explore, connecting Bastion Square to nearby streets to see the heart of Victoria’s Old Town Historical Site. Chancery Lane warps around The Maritime Museum, linking Bastion Square to Boomerang Court. The Court was the home to the Boomerang Saloon, opened in 1858 by Ben and Adelaide Griffin, an English couple. Like many pioneers, the Griffins arrived in Victoria a the . . . — Map (db m49226) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Capt. James Cook, R.N.1728-1779
After two historic voyages of the South Pacific[,] Cook was cruising the waters of the Pacific Northwest on his third and final voyage, with his two ships, Resolution and Discovery[.] He was searching for the western exit to the legendary Northwest Passage. In March, 1778, they put into Nootka Sound for repairs and to trade with the native people. With him on the voyage were Mr. William Bligh as Master of the Resolution and Midshipman George Vancouver. This statue was commissioned by the . . . — Map (db m48546) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Cast Iron Panels
The cast iron panels on this fence are from the Driard Hotel, built in 1892 and designed by architect John Teaque. It was Victoria’s most prestigious hotel prior to the construction of the Empress Hotel. A reconstructed portion of the original hotel facade was incorporated into the bay Centre at the corner of View and Broad Streets. The terra cotta “frozen fountain” to the right of the entrance gate is from the former Kresge’s Department Store, a 1930 Art Deco style building which . . . — Map (db m48477) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Cecilia Helmcken
Born on October 24, 1834, Cecilia was the eldest daughter of James and Amelia Douglas. “The room of Mr. Douglas, partly an office and partly domestic, stood open and there I saw Cecilia his eldest daughter flitting about, active as a little squirrel and one of the prettiest objects I have ever seen; rather short but with a very pretty graceful figure of dark complexion and lovely black eye – petite and nice... I was more or less captivated.” They married in a snowstorm in . . . — Map (db m48928) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Chinese General Store
For many years the building on the near left side of this photograph (where you are standing) was a Chinese general store. It was taken down in the early 1960s to enlarge the intersection. You can see a streetcar on Johnson Street crossing Government Street at the next corner. When this was taken in about 1900, Government Street was Victoria’s main business thoroughfare. [Photo caption] Image # A-03016 courtesy of British Columbia Archives — Map (db m49154) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Congregation Emanu-El
The Congregation Emanu-El Synagogue was built in 1863, just five years after the arrival if the first members of Victoria's Jewish community during the Fraser River gold rush period. Its opening was widely celebrated in Victoria for, despite their small numbers, members of the congregation played leading roles in the social, economic and political life of both the town and the colony. The oldest surviving synagogue in Canada, the building is a testament to the devotion and resourcefulness of . . . — Map (db m72875) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Craigdarroch
Built for coal magnate Robert Dunsmuir, Craigdarroch symbolized the desire of late 19th-century industrialists to assert their social position through conspicuous displays of wealth. Completed in 1890, the eclectic mansion features exquisite detailing in stone, stained glass, wrought iron and fine woods. Designers, craftsmen and materials were drawn from all over North America, marking a new age in construction made possible by transcontinental rail systems. This imposing landmark is among the . . . — Map (db m72876) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Creation of the Province of British ColumbiaCréation de la Province de Columbie-Britannique
[English] The province of British Columbia was created on July 20, 1871. Formerly a crown colony established by the union in 1866 of Vancouver Island with the mainland colony of British Columbia, the addition of the Pacific coast province made Canada truly a nation “from sea to sea”. With provincial status came success for the movement toward self-government. The first Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia was Joseph W. Trutch and the first premier was John Foster . . . — Map (db m49038) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Customs House
[English] The 1957 portion of the building was renovated to provide retail space and a heritage facade compatible with the original 1914 section. This project was completed by Public Works Canada as a contribution to the historical preservation of the City of Victoria, and was commemorated by the Honourable Elmer MacKay, Minister of Public Works, on June 1, 1992. Public Works Canada Government of Canada

[French] Bureau des Douanes La partie de l’édifice datant de 1957 fut rénovée . . . — Map (db m48544) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Doctor John Sebastian Helmcken
John Sebastian Helmcken was born in London in 1924. He trained to be a doctor at Guys Hospital, London. He arrived in Victoria as a surgeon and clerk for the Hudson Bay Company on March 24, 1850.

Dr. Helmcken entered politics in 1856, becoming the first Speaker of the Legislative Assembly on Vancouver Island. Though re-elected on a campaign against Confederation, Helmcken helped negotiate the entry of British Columbia into Canada in 1871. He then returned to medicine and the raising of his . . . — Map (db m48865) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Dr John Sebastian Helmcken(1824-1920)
Dr Helmcken earned acclaim for his work as a physician, colonial legislator and negotiator of British Columbia’s entry into Canada. This statue, created by Armando Barbon and Gabriele Vicari, was donated to the Royal BC Museum by the family of Yole and Armando Barbon. May 19, 2011 — Map (db m48992) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Dragon Alley
During this district’s boom of 1881 – 1884, sixteen thousand Chinese established themselves within this area of Victoria. Thus emerged six blocks of businesses, theatres, a hospital, schools, churches, temples, opium factories, gambling dens and brothels; creating for Victoria’s Chinese community, Canada’s first and largest Chinatown.

This lot between Fisgard and Herald, originally, was the site of wooden huts that were leased to the Chinese. Building A, the Hart’s Block on Herald . . . — Map (db m49155) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Elliot Street Square
This area, designed and laid out by the landscape branch of the Provincial Department of Public Works in 1975, has been named Elliot Street Square, in memory of Andrew Charles Elliot, barrister, judge, gold commissioner, police magistrate, and fourth Premier of the Province of British Columbia, and as a reminder of the street, which bore his name. Before its closure in 1974 many prominent citizens had their homes within the limited length of Elliot Street. On the north or city side were the . . . — Map (db m48765) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Emily Carr1871-1945
[English] Artist and author Emily Carr was born here and lived most of her life in this neighbourhood of Victoria where she died. Her compelling canvases of British Columbia landscape offer a unique vision of the forest an shore, while her documentation of Indian villages provides a valuable anthropological record. Lively accounts of Emily Carr’s travels in the province are collected in Klee Wyck, for which she won the Governor General’s Award for non-fiction in 1941. Six other . . . — Map (db m49241) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Empress HotelL’Hotel Empress
[English] This hotel was built between 1904 and 1908, and has since been enlarged twice. The architect, Francis M. Rattenbury, followed the practice of the Canadian Pacific Railway in employing the Chateau style, identifiable by the steep slate roof and Gothic Revival gables. Rattenbury modified this style using a symmetrical plan and flanking pavilions which give a strong vertical emphasis to the design. These elements make the Empress Hotel an important transitional building in the . . . — Map (db m49238) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway RoundhouseLa Rotonde de l'Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway
This imposing brick roundhouse is a particularly fine example of an industrial structure associated with the steam railway era in Canada. Built in 1913, the ten-stall roundhouse with attached machine, boiler and blacksmith's shops is part of a remarkably well-preserved railway yard that also includes a car shop and stores building. The roundhouse complex served the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway long after the introduction of the diesel locomotive in 1949 and the railway's operational relocation . . . — Map (db m72877) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Estate of the Lieutenant Governor of British ColumbiaLe Domaine du Lieutenant-Gouverneur de la Colombie-Britannique
This magnificent estate, residence of the Crown's representatives in British Columbia, is a cultural landscape that boasts a long and remarkable association with this high office. In 1865 the government of the colony purchased Cary Castle, a house located on this site, to serve as the residence of the governor of Vancouver Island. When British Columbia entered Confederation in 1871, Cary Castle became the home to the province's lieutenant governors. The present structure, built in 1957-1959, is . . . — Map (db m72878) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — European exploration in the Strait of Juan de FucaLes Européens explorent le Détroit de Juan de Fuca
Competition for sovereignty and trade drew Europeans to the Pacific Northwest coast in the 1780s. Although long known to First Nations people, the strait received its present name in 1787 when Charles Barkley identified it as the legendary transcontinental passage of Juan de Fuca, the Greek pilot who claimed to have ventured here in 1592. In 1792, Spanish and British expeditions entered the strait, circumnavigated Vancouver Island, and proved that this was not the Northwest Passage. Surveys . . . — Map (db m32630) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fifth Regiment of Garrison Artillery
The Fifth Regiment of Garrison Artillery marches down Government Street in December 1915 on their way to the Inner Harbour, where they boarded a steamer to Vancouver. They would join other Canadian troops fighting in Europe in World War I. The tall building in the back of is photo is the Pantages Theatre, now the McPherson Playhouse. The other building stood until the redevelopment of Centennial Square in the early 1960s. [Photo credit] Image # B-04181 courtesy of British Columbia Archives. — Map (db m49153) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Figures and Medallions of the Library Wing of Parliament Building
[Medallions, top row] Milton – Sophocles – Shakespeare – Socrates – Dante – Homer [Statues, anti-clockwise from the top left] Colonel R.C. Moody 1813-1887 Commander of Royal Engineers in 1858, erected New Westminster as capital of B.C., planned the Cariboo Road. David Thompson 1770 – 1857 Greatest of fur trade explorers. In 1812 traversed Kootenay area, descended the Columbia from source to mouth. Sir Anthony Musgrave 1828 – . . . — Map (db m49045) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Finlayson Point
Named after Roderick Finlayson Chief – Factor Hudson’s Bay Company at Victoria 1844 – 1872. Before the arrival of white men this was the sit of an ancient fortified Indian Village. A battery of two 64 pound wrought iron rifled guns stood here 1878 – 1892 for protection against and expected Russian invasion. — Map (db m49244) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — First British Columbia School
On this site Rev. R.J. Staines and wife opened the first British Columbia School in 1849. In the same building of Fort Victoria the first Legislative Assembly met August 12th 1856.

[Plaque below] This plaque unveiled by Honorable Nancy Hodges, first woman speaker in the British Commonwealth, Speaker of British Columbia Legislature August 12th, 1950 — Map (db m48521) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Former Victoria Law CourtsL’Ancien Palais de Justice de Victoria
[English] Opened in 1889, the Victoria Law Courts was the first major public building constructed by the provincial government after union with Canada. Previously, court sessions had been held in one of the colonial administration buildings located on the site of the present provincial legislature. Removal of the courts to Bastion Square marked an important stage in the evolution of British Columbia’s court system and the start of a programme [sic] to erect permanent court houses in judicial . . . — Map (db m49098) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria
The mooring rings on the rocks below are the only surviving fragment of Fort Victoria built by the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1843. From 1846, when the Oregon boundary was drawn at the 49th parallel, this post served as grand depot and headquarters of the Company’s Pacific fur trade. Ships moored here to unload supplies for an extensive network of forts and to take on natural products for export, principally to Alaska, California and Hawaii. In 1849 the first Legislative Assembly of the Colony of . . . — Map (db m9195) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort VictoriaFounded 1843
The pavement design near this marks the location of the bastion that stood at the northeast corner of Fort Victoria. From here the stockade ran southward past the gateway at Fort Street, and westward toward the harbour. Each brick within the bastion design bears the name of a Hudson’s Bay Company employee or later resident of the area. Bricks around the outer rim of the octagon carry the names of some of the Indians who signed treaties giving the Hudson’s Bay Company ownership of the Fort . . . — Map (db m48509) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria
The pavement design near this plaque marks the location of the east gate of Fort Victoria, built in 1843. From here the wooden stockade stretched northward to the bastion and southward toward what is now Broughton Street. The plaques in the pavement are copied from the official seal of the City of Victoria (1862) and the Crown Colony of the Island of Vancouver and Its Dependencies (1849). The names of early city officials and of colonial legislators surround the respective plaques. The strip . . . — Map (db m48520) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria
Founded by the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1843, Fort Victoria became, after 1846, the head-quarters of the Company’s trade in British territory west of the Rocky Mountains. When the Colony of Vancouver Island was formed in 1849 Victoria was the capital, and in the fort the first Legislative Assembly met. The Gold Rush of 1858 led to the development of the City of Victoria. The early history of the city and the colony is closely intertwined with that of the fort. The last of the original buildings . . . — Map (db m48542) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria
was erected by Hudson’s Bay Company 1843 Here Colony of Vancouver’s Island was inaugurated by Richard Blanshard 1850 Vancouver’s Island and British Columbia united 1866 Two years later Victoria became the capital of British Columbia — Map (db m48547) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Helmchen House Historic Site
John Sebastian Helmcken arrived in Fort Victoria in 1850 to work as a physician for the Hudson’s Bay Company. He remained here for the rest of his life, marrying Cecilia Douglas, the eldest daughter of Governor James Douglas. The young couple has a small log cabin built here in 1852, next to their in-laws home. Over the years as the family grew the house also grew larger. It is one of the oldest housed in western Canada.

Dr. Helmcken practiced medicine during the fur trade, the gold rush . . . — Map (db m48752) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — In Commemoration of the Treaty Between Great Britain and the Russian Empire28 February 1825, Demarcating Canada's Western Boundary
[English] In Commemoration of the Treaty Between Great Britain and the Russian Empire, 28 February 1825, Demarcating Canada’s Western Boundary [Russian] В память Договора между Великобританией и Россия . . . — Map (db m48937) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Japanese Internment
On April 22, 1942, 273 men, women and children of Japanese ancestry were exiled from their homes in the Greater Victoria area. None of the survivors of this event ever returned to Victoria to re-establish a home. On August 4, 1992, 67 survivors of this devastating event returned to Victoria to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the exile. This plaque has been placed here, a location central to where a number of us had our homes, to commemorate our return. — Map (db m49127) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra1743 – 1794
Captain in the Spanish Royal Navy. Explorer of the West Coast of North America and Governor of the Spanish settlement at Nootka, Vancouver Island. In honor of their meeting and the ensuing friendly association, Captain George Vancouver named this land Quadra and Vancouver’s Island. In recognition of the historic friendship between Canada and Spain – His Majesty King Juan Carlos I of Spain Dedicated this monument on March 17, 1984 — Map (db m49036) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Knowledge Totem
Carved by Master Carver Cicero August and his sons Darrell and Doug August for the Cowichan Tribes, on the occasion of the closing of the XIV Commonwealth Games in Auckland, New Zealand and the beginning of Victoria’s role as host of the XV Commonwealth Games, August 18-24, 1994 in Victoria, British Columbia. The loon, fisherman, bone game player and frog represent lessons of the past and hope for the future. Erected February 2, 1990 — Map (db m49043) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Le Legs De La Famille CôtéThe Legacy of the Côté Family
[French] Les ancêtres de la famille Côté son arrives au Québec en 1634. En 1945, Joseph Napoléon Côté et son épouse Ida Camille Demers, accompagnés de leur fils Joseph Henri Côté et son épouse Anne-Marie Forcade s’establissent à Victoria.

Le famille Côté conserve son patrimoine québécois de par son engagement envers la langue française et sa participation à la culture francophone de Victoria. À titre de membres actifs de la paroisse St-Jean Baptiste à Fairfield, les Côté contribuent à . . . — Map (db m49228) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Lee Mong Kow
[Chinese, not transcribed] [English] Lee Mong Kow (1863-1924) was born in Panyu County, Guangdong Province, China. As an interpreter in the Canadian Customs House and Immigration Office he helped facilitate communication between Chinese and Western people.

Mr. Lee devoted himself to welfare work and served as a board director of the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association of Victoria for 9 one-year terms.

He was one of the founders of Lok Kwun Free School (1899-1909) and served . . . — Map (db m49157) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Leiser BuildingBuilt 1896
Simon Leiser & Co., Wholesale Grocers, was the largest business of it kind in British Columbia when this warehouse was built. The building featured a central electric elevator with tracks radiating from the elevator on each floor for ease of handling merchandise.

Designed by architect A.C. Ewart, the building cost $35,000 in 1896. The brick structure has stone dressing and sheet metal decoration. It was renovated in 1972 as the headquarters for Capital Regional District.

This . . . — Map (db m49101) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Log Cabin to Victorian Parlour
As the Helmcken family grew, so did this house. You can see three stages in the structure.

[Right section] The original 1852 log cabin was built in a fur trade post-in-sill style with hand hewn squared logs and cedar shingles. Hearths in three rooms join into a single chimney.

[Middle section] This house’s middle section, containing a dining room and upstairs bedrooms, was added in 1856.

[Left section] In 1883 Dr. Helmcken added a framed wing with a second story and front . . . — Map (db m48866) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Market Square’s Main Gate Fountain
This historic fountain was originally erected near the turn of the century at the “edge of town” known as the Five Corners: Government, Douglas, Gorge and Hillside Streets.

The three-level fountain provided water for parched travellers [sic] and their thirsty horses, as well as smaller animals such as dogs, and pigs on their way to market.

The fountain was removed to the City workyards in 1950 where it languished until it was restored when these nine heritage building were . . . — Map (db m48478) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — McPherson PlayhouseDedicated 26th, February 1965
Named in Honour of Thomas Shanks McPherson Born Airdrie, Scotland, prominent business man, philanthropist and citizen of Victoria for fifty-three years, who died at the age of 89 years on 3rd, December 1962, and under whose will a bequest including this theatre was made to the City of Victoria — Map (db m49129) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Miss Marilyn Bell
This cairn commemorates the feat of Miss Marilyn Bell who landed in this bay 23rd August 1956 to become the first woman and first Canadian to swim Juan de Fuca Strait from Port Angeles, U.S.A. to Victoria, Canada — Map (db m49247) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Mizzen Mast – H.M.S. Algerine
Presented to the City of Victoria by the Maritime Museum of British Columbia 28th July, 1966 H.M.S. Algerine was the last ship of the Royal Navy to be based in Esquimalt, 1908-1914. Transferred to the Royal Canadian Navy, she served as Depot Ship at Esquimalt, until sold out of the Service in 1919. — Map (db m49081) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Modeste Demers1809-1871
Born near Levis, Demers was trained at the Seminary of Quebec, ordained in 1836 and sent in 1838 as a missionary to the Columbia. His ministry extended from the interior of British Columbia to Oregon. First pastor of St. John's Church of Oregon City, he was appointed in 1846 first Bishop of Vancouver Island with responsibility for New Caledonia and the Queen Charlotte Islands. In the following decades Bishop Demers oversaw the transition of his diocese from the fur trade era to that of a . . . — Map (db m72879) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Old Victoria Custom HouseAncien Édifice de la Douane de Victoria
(English) Completed in 1875 in the Second Empire style, Victoria’s original Custom House is a distinguished example of the buildings erected by the new Federal Government after Confederation. It regulated the trade of the West Coast’s busiest port and symbolized the pre-eminence of Victoria as a commercial centre in the late 19th century. Goldseekers from around the world converged on its steps to obtain miners’ licences before embarking for the Klondike in 1898. This elegant structure recalls . . . — Map (db m49077) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Pendrary House309 Belleville Street — Victoria, B.C.
Family home of William J. Pendrary Built 1897 Known as Loretto Hall 1940-1966 Restoration by William and Florence Prior 1970 Topiary gardens replanted by descendants of Mr. Pendrary 1980

[Marker below, French] Ancienne residence de la famille William J. Pendrary construite en 1897. Devint «Lorretto Hall», couvent de la congrégation de Notre-Dame des Anges de Lennoxville, Québec. Les salles de jardins furent loués pour des activities speciales des Canadiens français. . . . — Map (db m49035) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Percy Leonard James1878 – 1970
[English] Percy Leonard James was born in London, England, where he trained and first practiced as an architect. In 1908, he settled in Victoria, British Columbia, where he obtained his first commission and practiced his profession until 1954.

Mr. James was a charter member of both the national and provincial architectural institutes. In 1931, he was the first architect in British Columbia to be elected to the College of Fellows of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada. In 1956, Mr. . . . — Map (db m48480) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Robert Dunsmuir(1825-1889)
Born into a family of Ayrshire coalmasters, Robert Dunsmuir achieved renown as a leading Canadian businessman. He developed the Wellington Mine near Nanaimo, which soon made him one of the richest men in Canada and, through his labour practices, one of the most controversial. Dunsmuir's commercial empire expanded to include railways, shipping, lumbering and iron works. Dunsmuir was elected to the British Columbia legislature for Nanaimo in 1882, and named president of the Executive Council in . . . — Map (db m72880) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Royal Canadian Navy
To commemorate the contribution made by ships and men to the naval service of Canada for seventy year since it was founded on 4th May, 1910. Since November, 1910 when H.M.C.S. Rainbow arrived in Esquimalt, ships and men of the R.C.N. have been part of the maritime life of Canada’s West Coast. Ships sailed from here to fight in boat World Wars and in Korea. Between maritime tasks they protect Canada’s sovereignty and show the flag in the Pacific Placed here on 30th June, 1980 by Commander, . . . — Map (db m48716) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Royal TheatreLe Théâtre Royal
Constructed in 1912-1913 during the Victoria building boom, this structure originally opened as the Royal Victoria Theatre, owned by a group of local entrepreneurs. Theatres of this type, presenting live dramatic, musical and vaudeville performances, were constructed across Canada between 1913 and 1930. While they were among the grandest theatres ever built in this country, few now exist. This theatre's impressive bricK and terra cotta facade and ornate classically-inspired interior have . . . — Map (db m72881) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — S.J. Pitts, ImporterBuilt 1882
This is one of the earlier brick warehouse in the area, replacing previous wooden construction. Sidney Pitts, like other businessmen on Yates Street, operated a wholesale grocery, provision and produce business.

Stuccoed for may years, the building was restored in 1990 by the Canadian Hostelling Association, revealing windows and other details that had long been covered.

[Photo credits] c1890 Victoria City Archives, c1975 Hallmark Society photograph — Map (db m49102) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Salvation Army
At this site the Salvation Army began activities in Victoria, June 26, 1887 — Map (db m48479) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Shop/WarehouseBuilt 1883
This two-story brick building in the Italianate style was one of several shop/warehouses in Victoria’s warehouse district. Originally occupied by W.J. Jeffree, pioneer clothier, the building later housed F.R. Stewart & Co. Provisioners. The historic photograph shows boxes and local produce waiting on the sidewalk for delivery by F.R. Stewart’s horse-drawn delivery wagon. Splendid cast iron columns, made at the Albion Iron Works in Victoria support the building and are dated on their . . . — Map (db m49124) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Sir Anthony Musgrave1828-1888
A career Imperial civil servant, Anthony Musgrave served as governor of Newfoundland (1864 - 69) and British Columbia (1869 - 71). Both terms of office were marked by a strong personal effort to encourage the two colonies to unite with the new Canadian confederation, and it was under his direction that British Columbia entered the Dominion on July 20, 1871, Musgrave was knighted in 1875, subsequently held vice-regal office in Natal, South Australia, Jamaica and Queensland where he died. . . . — Map (db m72882) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Sir James Douglas1803-1877
[English] Justifiably described as “the father of British Columbia”, Douglas was born in Demerara. He joined the North West Company in 1819, serving at Fort William and Ile a la Crosse where he was taken into the Hudson’s Bay Company. Rising rapidly in that service he became a member of the Columbia District Board in 1845, company agent at Vancouver Island in 1849 and second Governor of the colony two years later. His firm and wise rule, particularly during the gold rush of 1858, . . . — Map (db m48769) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Sir Matthew Baillie Begbie1819 – 1894
[English] Begbie practised [sic] law in England for fourteen years before his appointment in 1858 as the first judge of the mainland Colony of British Columbia. During the gold rush, he won the respect of lawless miners of the Fraser River and Cariboo regions. In 1869, after the union of Vancouver Island and British Columbia, he was named Chief Justice of the mainland; in 1870, of the whole Colony; and in 1871, of the Province. He presided in this building, erected in 1889. His 36 years of . . . — Map (db m49082) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — St. Ann’s Pioneer Schoolhouse
[English] St. Ann’s schoolhouse was purchased by Bishop Demers for the four sisters of the order of St. Ann who came from Quebec in June, 1858, to teach in Victoria. It is believed to be the oldest building in Victoria which is still in use, possibly built between 1843 and 1853. It was moved to its present site from the grounds of St. Ann’s Academy in 1974.

[French] Anncienne Ecole Sainte-Anne En juin, 1858 l’Ecole Sainte-Anne a été achetée par Mgr. Demers pour les quatre . . . — Map (db m48864) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — St. Ann’s Schoolhouse
This log cabin is one of the oldest buildings in western Canada. It was built in the French-Canadian fur trade post and sill style between 1843 and 1852. Bishop Modeste Demers purchased it from carpenter Leon Morel in 1855 and transferred it to the Sisters of St. Ann to use as a schoolhouse. The Sisters arrived in June 5, 1858, living and teaching the children of colonial Victoria in this school which was their first convent.

The first 12 students included Morel’s young daughter, Emilie, . . . — Map (db m48768) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — St. Ann's Academyl'Académie St. Ann
For over a century, St. Ann's played an important role in the educational life of Western Canada. It served as the regional motherhouse for the Sisters of St. Ann, the major female Roman Catholic teaching and nursing order in British Columbia, which had opened its first school on the site in 1858. Inspired by convent designs in the Sisters' native Quebec, the Academy was built in three stages between 1871 and 1910. Among its notable features is the chapel, built as Victoria's first Roman . . . — Map (db m72883) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Terry Fox1958 – 1981
Terry Fox was born in Winnipeg, Manitoba, and raised in Port Coquitlam, British Columbia, a community near Vancouver on Canada’s west coast. An active teenage involved in many sports, Terry was only 18 years old when he was diagnosed with osteogenic sarcoma (bone cancer) and forced to have his right leg amputated 15 centimeters (six inches) above the knee in 1977. While in hospital, Terry was so overcome by the suffering of other cancer patients, many of them young children, that he decided to . . . — Map (db m49229) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The “Veteran Sailor”
Founded in 1910, Canada’s Naval Service wore the same uniform as the Royal Navy. The traditional “sailor suit” included bell bottom trousers, jumper, flannel ‘gun shirt”, and square collar. The uniform was completed with a lanyard, silk and a round cap with a ribbon that during peacetime identified the sailor’s ship. In 1968 Canada adopted a single uniform for both officers and non-commissioned members of the Canadian Forces.

The “Veteran Sailor” The . . . — Map (db m49076) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The 75th Anniversary of the Canadian Navy
This tree and anchor dedicated to the City of Victoria celebration of the 75th Anniversary of the Canadian Navy by HMCS Malahat 21 April 1985. Rededicated on 3 May 1998 in celebration of the Naval Reserves’s 75th Anniversary This historic Admiralty pattern anchor, salvaged from Esquimalt Harbour, was donated by the CFB Esquimalt Naval and Military Museum for the rededication ceremony. It has retained its strenth [sic] of purpose as does the bond between HMCS Malahat and the City of Victoria. — Map (db m49078) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Bank BuildingFirst Opened for Business on April 19, 1886 — Project Architect: Mr. W.H. Williams
When the building opened, it was the second largest in Victoria with a total area 5,230 square feet. The original drawings came from London, England. Using brick on a stone foundation, Mr. Williams combined cast iron columns, lintels, and sills with moulded cement renderings; cornices of heavy galvanized iron sheet metal; and elaborate, hand carved entrance doors and interior trim. The roof was edged with a decorative cast iron cresting depicting the floral emblems of the United Kingdom, a . . . — Map (db m48522) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Bastion
This tablet marks the site of the bastion which stood at the north east corner of Fort Victoria. The fort was erected by the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1843. Erected by Miller, Court & Co. Ltd. For the British Columbia Historical Assn. A.D. 1928 — Map (db m48511) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Bastion CannonsBastion Square — Come see the history you never knew we had...
You are standing at the entrance to Bastion Square Bastion Square is a legacy of Fort Victoria whose two log towers or “Bastions” were located near here. The Hudson’s Bay Company, which remains as a store across the street, built the fort in 1843 including a surrounding log wall or “palisade”. The two bastions on opposite corners of the fort, held cannons at the top for defence [sic] and one also housed the fort’s jail. Looking closely at the sidewalk, you can see the . . . — Map (db m48519) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Bell Tower
You are standing in Bastion Square. The Hudson’s Bay Company, whose legacy continues at the store on Government Street, established Fort Victoria here in 1843.

Acting on behalf of the British Columbia Government, the company sold the surrounding land to pioneers but kept the area around here for itself. During The Fraser River Gold Rush of 1858, thousands of new settlers, including many immigrants, arrived in Victoria. The Hudson’s Bay sold the Fort Victoria land to these new arrivals in . . . — Map (db m49227) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Birthplace of Victoria
We would like to take a moment to share with you the history that you are standing over, around and next to. This harbour was originally the sole domain of the Lekwungen First Nation who plied its protected waters and fished in their dugout canoes. When James Douglas arrived here in 1843, he chose it as the site for a new Hudson’s Bay Company trading post, eventually called Fort Victoria. It wooden walls stood along the rocky shore overlooking this site (behind you along Wharf Street).

At . . . — Map (db m48749) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Children’s Graves
Soon after the Helmckens moved into their new log house in 1853, Cecilia gave birth to a baby boy ‘before the doors had been hung”, as Dr Hemcken later recalled. Later Dr Helmcken wrote: “ When he was about a month or two old we found him dead in the bed one morning. The anguish felt at this time is indescribable.... The poor little fellow was buried in the garden where the holly now grows – close by out bedroom window. An oval of white daisies were planted around with a . . . — Map (db m48930) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Church of our Lord
This picturesque building is one of the finest expressions in wood of the Gothic Revival style in Canada. It was constructed in 1875 for the Reformed Episcopal church in Victoria by the Reverend Edward Cridge. Architect John Teague enhanced the building's Gothic character by exploiting the advantages of board-and-batten siding to reinforce the vertical thrust of its pointed roof, pinnacles and spire. Inside, a Gothic hammer beam ceiling spans the broad open space to provide an unbroken view of . . . — Map (db m72884) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Mackenzie Papineau Battalion of the International BrigadesSpanish Civil War 1936-1939
This monument commemorates the gallant men and women of British Columbia and Canada who offered their lives to defend the principles of democracy and served as the Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion of the International Brigades in defence of the Republic of Spain. In July 1936, the opening shots of the Second World War were fired in Spain. Insurgent forces led by General Franco staged a rebellion to crush the democratically elected Government of the Spanish Republic. This treason was met with armed . . . — Map (db m49040) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Majestic TheatreBuilt c1860 — Alterations: 1885; 1909; 1917
This building first housed Moore’s Music Hall (Victoria’s earliest existing theatre) upstairs, above Nathanial Moore’s dry goods store. In 1885, a new facade was constructed to match the new building next door, with identical cast iron columns. Various commercial uses followed, which included supplying miners preparing for the Klondike. In 1898 miners’ equipment was piled high on this sidewalk. In 1909 architect Thomas Hooper renovated the building to house the Majestic Theatre, . . . — Map (db m49125) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Netherland Carillon / History of the Carillon
The Netherland Carillon The carillon was a gift fro British Columbia’s Dutch community to honour Canada’s 100th birthday in 1967. Her Majesty Queen Juliana of the Netherlands unveiled the cornerstone of this tower on May 23, 1967; it now sits in the garden below.

A carillon is a musical instrument with a set of 23 or more bronze bells. This carillon, the largest in Canada, has 62 bells. It is housed at the top of this tower, which stands 27 meters (89 feet) tall. The largest bell . . . — Map (db m48932) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Old Man’s Garden
Dr. Helmcken loved tending the family garden throughout his long live. In his memoirs, he described his passion for gardening in the 1850s: “At this time I was a great gardener – worked hard – up at 5 or 6 o’clock digging & c. Indians cleared out the stumps and so forth – grew our own vegetables & c. In process of time the land was got into some sort of shape – and I planted with sods the grass plot as it now stands.” The Helmcken garden originally . . . — Map (db m48929) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Oriental HotelBuilt 1883;1888
William McKeon operated the Oriental Saloon on this site, at the corner of Oriental Alley, prior to 1883. That year, he commissioned architect John Teague to build the Oriental Hotel on the lot next door. Teague doubled the size of the hotel in 1888, adding this corner entrance and an imposing tower.

The hotel then had about 80 bedrooms, each with a fireplace and closets. On the ground floor were ladies’ and gentlemen’s dining saloons able to seat over 200 diners.

McKeon operated the . . . — Map (db m49103) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Parade of Ships
These plaques commemorate famous vessels in the history of Victoria and pay tribute to pioneers they brought to this new land, the men and women who fought the good fight and built Victoria and British Columbia. This key plaque presented by Horace J. Sims Victoria’s Centennial Year, 1968 [Northern Group, presented left to right] James K. Nesbit, 1908-1981 Newspaperman – Historian, Native son of Victoria, Originator of the “Parade of . . . — Map (db m48891) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Signing Post
You are standing in Bastion Square. The Hudson’s Bay Company, whose legacy continues at the store on Government Street, established Fort Victoria here in 1843. This area has always been an important public space. All visitors had to gain permission from a gatekeeper to enter Fort Victoria and they were required to provide letters of introduction to . . . — Map (db m49080) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Sisters of St. Ann
In 1850, Marie Esther Blondin, now known as Blessed Marie Anne Blondin founded the Congregation of the Sisters of Saint Ann, a Roman Catholic religious order dedicated to education and nursing in Lachine, Quebec.

Bishop Modeste Demers of Victoria went to the Sisters of St. Ann in Quebec to recruit volunteers to educate children. Her returned via Panama with Sister Mary Conception, Sister Mary Angèle, Sister Mary of the Sacred Heart, and Sister Mary Lumena.

On June 5, 1858, the Bishop . . . — Map (db m48767) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Victoria Centennial FountainActivated 2 August 1968 by Hon. W.A.C. Bennett, L.E.D.. Premier.
British Columbia was formed from four British Colonies and territories: The Crown Colony of Vancouver Island 1845 The Dependency of the Queen Charlotte Islands 1852 The Crown Colony of British Columbia 1856 The Stickeen Territory 1862 Plaques on the fountain tell the origin of their union to become the British Columbia of today. The animal symbols are those from which all Indian Societies obtained their main totems of the four areas. The first impetus to exploration and . . . — Map (db m49074) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Thomas Earle WarehouseBuilt 1900
Thomas Earle was a local wholesale grocer and provision merchant whose business dated back to 1869. This building, constructed for $10,000 and designed by architect Thomas Hopper, features a large brick arch and two finials flanking a central pediment and date plaque

The building was used for many years by Smith, Davidson and Lecky, paper wholesalers. After a major fire, the building was renovated in 1979 for the Capital Regional District.

[Photo credit] c. 1900 Victoria City Archives. British Columbia Heritage Trust — Map (db m49099) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Tiger Company Fire Hall1880 - 1899
The Tiger Company was one of three volunteer fire companies dedicated to protecting Victoria's growing business district during the late 1800s. By the 1870s, there was a need to replace the Tiger's original fire hall on Johnson Street but it was not until November 1880 that the company moved into a new fire hall built on the southwest corner of Victoria City Hall. The entrance to the fire hall was located at the arched doorway just around the corner from where you are now standing. On . . . — Map (db m72885) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — To Our Glorious Dead1914 – 1919 — 1939 – 1945
“They died the noblest death a man may die, fighting for god, and right and liberty, and such a death is immortality.”

Korea 1950 – 1953 [On the back] In Recognition of the Services of the Canadian Forces and Canadian Citizens In The Service of Peace — Map (db m48933) WM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Tsukuba1880-1980
13 gun – 1034 ton Naval Cadet Training 3 masted screw corvette Commanded by Capt. Norimichi Aiura Imperial Japanese Navy First Japanese naval vessel to visit Canadian water 10 June 1880 Erected on the occasion of the visit of the Japan Training Squadron J.D.S. Katori – J.D.S. Akigumo Commanded by Rear-Admiral Osuke Fukai, J.M.S.D.F. Presented by the Canadian Navy Unveiled by Mayor W. Tindall and Admiral M. Martin 10 June 1980 — Map (db m48715) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Vancouver Island Wallmap Mural
[Three 'markers' a part of this mural. They are entitled: Pemberton Family, Vancouver Island, and Fort Victoria.]

Pemberton Family J.D. Pemberton, engineer and surveyor for the H.B.C., arrived in 1851 by canoe in the last stages of his journey from England when this settlement numbered about 300. He built the first schoolhouse, was the first settler to cross the Island, and was the first Surveyor General of the colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia. As population swelled . . . — Map (db m48543) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Victoria City HallHôtel de Ville de Victoria
Victoria’s first city hall was designed in 1875. The building was begun three years later and completed in 1890. The designer was John Teague, an Englishman long resident in Victoria, who was responsible for planning many of the city’s early buildings. His city hall was conceived in the Second Empire style popular at the time, with a typical mansard roof tower and rich ornamentation. The building remains one of the best surviving examples of this style in western Canada. [French] . . . — Map (db m49126) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Victoria Fire Department Headquarters1899 -1959
You are near the site of the Victoria Fire Department Headquarters, which served downtown Victoria from 1899 to 1959. History Victoria’s central business district grew dramatically during the 1880s and 1890s. More “modern’ buildings in size and value signalled [sic] a need for increased fire protection downtown. A decision was made to incorporate a new Fire Department Headquarters into the existing Public Market building – roughly the location of today’s Centennial . . . — Map (db m49128) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Victoria, B.C.1889
Fort Victoria had its start in 1843, centered on Fort Street and present-day Bastion Square. Most of Victoria’s Old Town however was constructed during the great building boom of 1886-1892. During that period the red-brick character of Victoria became firmly established. Small wooden buildings were replaced by substantial structures suited to the largest city in the province. Victoria’s status as a busy seaport gave rise to a large area of warehouses, saloons, hotels, manufacturing . . . — Map (db m49225) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Victoria’s ChinatownLe Quartier Chinois de Victoria — 域 多 利 唐 人 街
[English] This district, first settled in 1858, is the oldest and most intact Chinatown in Canada, representing an important chapter in the long history and heritage of Chinese Canadians. As the major immigrant port of entry on the west coast in the nineteenth century, Victoria boasted the largest concentration of Chinese Canadians in the country. They established a self-contained and identifiable neighbourhood which offered a complete range of commercial, residential and social institutions. . . . — Map (db m52980) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Waddington Alley
Built by B.C. pioneer Alfred Waddington, this alley was intended to maximize access to, and use of, three privately-owned lots during the Fraser River gold rush of 1858.

Initially, “a number of cheap shops” were erected which, by 1863, included a fishmarket, a bakery, a blacksmith, a bowling saloon, the Sacramento Restaurant and the Pioneer Wholesale and Retail Variety Store.

Alfred Waddington retained private ownership of the alley until his death of smallpox in 1872. Both . . . — Map (db m49100) HM

British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Wesleyan Methodist Church
Upon this site stood Pandora Ave. Wesleyan Methodist Church, the corner-stone of which (the first in British Columbia) was laid by His Excellency Governor Sir James Douglas, August 15th 1859. Erected by Metropolitan United Church, Feb. 11, 1934. — Map (db m49152) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Windsor Hotel
The Windsor Hotel was originally called the Victoria Hotel when it opened in 1858, and boasted the city’s first brick building. It still stands across the street from here, with bricks now covered in stucco, at the corner of Government and Courtney. The ground floor was entirely occupied by a saloon. Its thick walls withstood an explosion in 1876 when owner George Richardson investigated a gas leak with a lit candle! Image # A-02716 courtesy of British Columbia Archives — Map (db m48717) HM
British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — World’s Tallest Totem PoleThe Legend of the Totem
127 Feet, 7 Inches Carved by Mungo Martin • David Martin • Henry Hunt Dedicated July 2, 1956 Percy B. Scurrah, Mayor of Victoria Hon. Ray Williston, Minister of Education Stuart Keate, Sponsor Raised by public subscription through the Victoria Daily Times

The Legend of the Totem “Memento of the Nation’s infancy, symbol of a proud race. Monument to rare native art. Proof of a united community interest and the purest form of Canadiana.” (Victoria Daily Times) . . . — Map (db m49250) HM

British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), 150 Mile House — To the Goldfields!
In the 1860s, the fabulous Cariboo goldfields were a lure to thousands. Miners, traders, and adventurers, many afoot, some with wheelbarrows, shared the pioneer route with mule trains, plodding oxen, freight wagons, and swaying stage-coaches. Havens for man and beast were the road-houses and stables every 12-14 miles along the way. — Map (db m8857) HM
British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), Barkerville — Cariboo Gold FieldsDistricts Aurifères de Cariboo — Barkerville - Historic Town
English: A search for the source of placer gold found on lower parts of the Fraser River led to discoveries of lode mines in the Cariboo, of which Williams Creek, is said to have yielded $19,000,000. As a centre of population in the 1860’s, the gold fields were the catalyst for the economic and political development of colony of British Columbia. They attracted miners from around the world and stimulated the growth of trade and agriculture. Economic difficulties resulting from the . . . — Map (db m42712) HM
British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), Barkerville — Chee Kung Tong Building
This rare example of a 19th century Chinese benevolent society hall conformed to a Chee Kung Tong tradition that placed services to members on the ground floor and formal functions above. With its hostel, kitchen, and meeting and ceremonial spaces, this hall offered members a refuge where they could find support, work, and shelter. The benevolent services, ceremonies and celebrations, and membership rules of the Chee Kung Tong fostered a sense of belonging in many Chinese and helped promote . . . — Map (db m42533) HM
British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), Barkerville — Cornish Wheel & Pump
This overshot water wheel is 16 feet in diameter. It is modeled after wheels and pumps used in the tin mines of Cornwall. The early miners found that the pay gravel often lay 40 to 100 feet under the surface. The wheels were used to pump the water from these deep workings and also lift gravel to the surface. — Map (db m42710) HM
British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), Barkerville — Richfield Courthouse
Built in 1882, this is British Columbia’s oldest surviving courthouse, replacing one which stood here from 1862-1882. By 1918, declining population in Richfield led to the building’s closure. Designated a Provincial historic object in 1945, it was restored by the Provincial Government in 1982. Reopened by Hon. A.J. Brummet Minister of Lands, Parks and Housing An3 Hon. Nathan T. Nemetz Chief Justice of British Columbia June 18, 1983 — Map (db m42763) HM
British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), Fort St. James — Fort St. James
English: Simon Fraser and John Stuart established Fort St. James among the Carrier Indians in 1806. Originally a North West Company post, it passed to the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1821. From the beginning an important centre of trade and cooperation with the Indians, it became, under the Hudson’s Bay Company, the chief trading post in north-central British Columbia and the administrative centre of the large and prosperous district of New Caledonia. Throughout its history Fort St. . . . — Map (db m42736) HM
British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), Quesnel — Collins’ Overland International Telegraph
Promoted by Perry Collins, the U.S. Commercial Agent in Russia, and dependent on the Western Union Telegraph Company’s money, men and technology for its execution, this early telegraph line roused the enthusiasm of the white residents of British Columbia. At no expense to them the colony was to be a vital link in a line joining Europe and America via Russia. In 1867, after completion of the more economical Trans-Atlantic cable, construction ceased at Fort Stager at the confluence of the Kispyap . . . — Map (db m8853) HM
British Columbia (Cariboo Regional District), Quesnel — Cottonwood House
For over half a century the Boyd family operated this haven for man and beast. Here weary travellers found lodging, food, and drink. Here fresh horses were hitched to stage-coaches and miners bought supplies. This historic road-house, built in 1864 stood as an oasis of civilization on the frontier of a rich new land. — Map (db m42766) HM
British Columbia (Columbia Shuswap Regional District), Field — Kicking Horse PassLe Col du Cheval-Qui-Rue
First recorded in the report of the Palliser expedition of 1857-60, this pass takes its name from an incident in which Dr. James Hector, surgeon in the expedition, was kicked by his horse while exploring in this vicinity. The pass was virtually unused until after 1881 when the Canadian Pacific Railway decided to adopt it as their new route through the Rockies, foregoing the earlier preference for the more northerly Yellowhead Pass. This decision altered the location of the line across western . . . — Map (db m9202) HM
British Columbia (Columbia-Shuswap Regional District), Field — Baldwin #7717 Steam Locomotive
[English] Baldwin #7717 Steam Locomotive This Baldwin 2-6-0 mogul steam engine – builders #7717 – road #6 – 36" gauge locomotive, was built for the North Western Coal & Navigation Co. in 1885. It was originally used to carry bituminous coal on a narrow gauge railway, which connected the C.P.R. mainline with the coal mines near Lethbridge. In 1893 this railway track was converted to standard gauge, causing a surplus of these narrow gauge engines. This engine was . . . — Map (db m44339) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), New Westminster — Carnegie Library1905 - 1958
This plaque was unveiled on October 21, 2000 as part of the New Westminster Public Libary's celebration of 135 years of service to the community. It commemorates the Carnegie Library which opened on March 5, 1905 on this site and continued to operate until November, 1958. Industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie funded the construction of over 2,500 libraries around the world. The New Westminster Library was one of these and stood as a landmark in the community for 53 years. The . . . — Map (db m32130) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), New Westminster — The Great FireNew Westminster
On September 10 & 11, 1898, fire destroyed the downtown portion of the City. After the conflagration only these two major buildings in this area remained: the Burr Block and the Queens Hotel. This marker is placed in recognition of the fire and to honour the spirit of those citizens of the Royal City, from all walks of life, who worked together to rebuild this town. Dedicated September 10, 1998 — Map (db m32209) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), New Westminster — The New Westminster Court House and Land Registry Office
The New Westminster Court House The Court House was designed by architect George William Grant and opened on June 3, 1891 by the first colonial judge and Chief Justice for British Columbia, Sir Matthew Baillie Begbie. On September 10, 1898, the entire New Westminster downtown business area was destroyed by fire, including the Court House. The Court House was rebuilt within existing walls by G.W. Grant and reopened on June 19, 1899. The Land Registry Office The Land Registry . . . — Map (db m33185) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), North Vancouver — Pacific Great Eastern Railway StationProtected Heritage Building - 1913
The Pacific Great Eastern Railway Station was built to service a rail link between North Vancouver westward along Howe Sound to the interior of the province. The foot of Lonsdale became a busy transportation hub in the early days of the community as the meeting place for the railway, the ferry to Vancouver, and streetcars from Upper Lonsdale, Lynn Valley, and Capsilano. Delay in completing the railway line up Howe Sound, and a decision to redirect the line under Esplanade towards the . . . — Map (db m31979) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), North Vancouver — St. Paul's ChurchL'église Saint-Paul
{In English:} The oldest surviving mission church in the Vancouver area has long been a focal point of the Mission Reserve. Chief Snat, a renowned Squamish leader, assisted by the Oblate missionaries, was largely responsible for building the first church here in 1868 and for securing this land as a reserve in the following year. In 1884 the early chapel was replaced by the present structure and in 1910 corner towers and transepts were added. The church is named in tribute to Bishop Paul . . . — Map (db m32481) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Semiahmoo — Peace ArchThe Signing of the Columbia River Treaty
Upper marker: This unfortified boundary line between the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America should quicken the remembrance of the more than century old friendship between these countries A lesson of peace to all nations. Lower marker: In commemoration of One hundred and fifty years of peace, 1814 - 1864, between Canada and the United States of America. The signing of the Columbia River Treaty on September 16th, 1964, at this international . . . — Map (db m27450) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Surrey — Farming HistoryPart of Surrey’s Cultural Heritage
Preparing the Land When John Stewart acquired this land in 1880, only basic land clearing had occurred. The blackberry bushes and hardhack marsh provided hospitable habitat for birds and small animals, but was not suitable for successful farming. In the early years, neighbours worked together to share resources, labour and equipment. One of the early problems to be solved was bringing the rich lowlands along tidal rivers under cultivation. John Stewart referred to this effort as . . . — Map (db m61051) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Surrey — Historic ElginPart of Surrey’s Heritage Resources
Community Building The first permanent structure in Elgin was the Elgin Hotel (1870). It was built as a convenient stop-over point for travellers between New Westminster and Blaine. In 1875, four years before the incorporation of the District Municipality of Surrey, the first public church service was held in a simple log cabin built by John Brewer, who had settled in the area in 1870. William Brewer is attributed with building the first community hall in 1878. Built on the . . . — Map (db m60900) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Surrey — Historic McMillan ExpeditonPart of Surrey’s Heritage
A Trading Post on the Fraser In 1824, James McMillan of the Hudson’s Bay Company and a party of forty-seven passed this shore on an exploratory trip from Fort George (Astoria) at the mouth of the Columbia River to the Fraser River. They were sent to find a suitable site for a new fur trading depot. The expedition left Fort George on November 18, 1824 with three boats, travelled across the Puget Sound, continued up the coast, and entered this bay on December 12, 1824. After . . . — Map (db m61525) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Surrey — Historic Port ElginTransportation & Communication — Part of Surrey’s Built Heritage
River Routes Located near the intersection of the King George VI Highway and the Nicomekl River, the Port Elgin area has been a crossroads for various forms of traffic for thousands of years. For centuries prior to the arrival of the first European settlers, Natives regularly canoed up the Nicomekl River and down the Salmon River as they made their way to the salmon-fishing platforms in the Frasier Canyon. The Hudson’s Bay Company’s chief trader James McMillan and his party of men . . . — Map (db m63715) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Surrey — Historic Stewart FarmhousePart of Surrey’s Built Heritage
Settlement History First Nations settlements and seasonal hunting and fishing camps existed at the mouths of rivers and along the coastal shoreline for thousands of years before Europeans reached the West Coast. These sites were near plentiful resources of fish, berries, wild game and cedar forests, which provided food, shelter and transportation. These same resources eventually attracted explorers, fur traders, loggers, and settlers. As early as 1861, Samuel Handy and Hugh . . . — Map (db m60901) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Surrey — The Semiahmoo Trail
This trail was an ancient Indian travel-way linking tribal villages in the south to salmon grounds of the Fraser River. The first white explorers, lead by Chief Trader James McMillan of the Hudson’s Bay Company passed here in December of 1824. Using the Nicomekl and Salmon Rivers, they reached the Fraser and located the site of Fort Langley. Erected by the This trail was an ancient Indian travel-way linking tribal villages in the south to salmon grounds of the Fraser River. The first . . . — Map (db m60820) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — "Gassy Jack"1830-1875 — The Founding Father of Gastown
John Deighton was born in Hull, England. He was an adventurer, river boat pilot and captain, but best known for his "gassy" monologues as a saloonkeeper. His Deighton House Hotel, erected here on the first subdivided lot, burned in the Great Fire of June 13, 1886. On December 25, 1986, this statue was dedicated to the City of Vancouver by the owner of this historic site, Howard Meakin, a third generation Vancouver realtor. — Map (db m40204) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — 326 West Pender StreetCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: J.S.D. Taylor
This building is an integral part of the Victory Square area dating back to 1929. The facade was renovated in 1948 by architect W.H. Birmingham. It was given Neo-classical treatments including a decorative cornice installed below the original corbelled brick parapet. The facade was protected by designation in 1997 as part of a new mixed use development on this site and the site to the east designed by Nigel Baldwin Architects. The new building features complementary materials and massing and a glazed connection to the historic facade. — Map (db m54517) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — 64 Pounder Guns
In 1878 on the approach of an enemy cruiser squadron these 64 pounder muzzle-loading naval guns were hastily shore mounted to protect Esquimault. Subsequently they were issued to No. 5 Battery B.C. Brigade of Garrison Artillery, the first citizen militia unit in Vancouver. That historic battery became the present British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own) — Map (db m53894) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — B.C. Electric BuildingCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architects: Sharp and Thompson Berwick Pratt
This landmark building, completed in 1957 as the head office for BC Electric Company, is a significant example of the Internationalist style of modern architecture. Floors are cantilevered from a central load bearing concrete core and supported by slender perimeter columns. The lobby, plaza and elevator penthouse feature richly coloured glass mosaic tiles by local artist B.C. Binning. Conversion of the building to residential use required replacement of the exterior curtain wall. Renovation of . . . — Map (db m32348) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — BC Permanent BuildingCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architects: Hooper and Watkins
This small scale but well-executed example of Beaux-Arts classicism was designed by Thomas Hooper (the architect of Shaughnessy's Hycroft Mansion) and Elwood Watkins. Built in 1907 for Thomas Talton Langlois' BC Permanent Loan Company, after 1935 it housed offices of the Bank of Canada. The impressive open interior features a large Tiffany-style stained glass dome, mosaic tile floors, and a series of fine windows displaying the Yukon, Great Britain and eight provincial coats-of-arms. After new . . . — Map (db m54523) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Canadian Bank of Commerce BuildingArchitects: Darling and Pearson — City of Vancouver Heritage Building
In the early 20th century, bank buildings were designed to recall classical temples and evoke a sense of permanence and dignity. The Neo-Classical design, imposing Ionic columns, decorative stonework, and prominent roof cornice of this building make it a fine example of revival architecture. It was built between 1906 and 1908 to serve as the local head office for the Canadian Bank of Commerce, later known as the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce. The building was converted to retail use by . . . — Map (db m33025) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Carnegie LibraryCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: George William Grant
This eclectic 1903 building was one of 2,507 public libraries paid for by the Scottish-American industrialist Andrew Carnegie, the richest person in the world when he retired in 1901. Carnegie believed in the "Gospel of Wealth" and gave away 90% of his fortune. This commanding building is built of Gabriola Island sandstone and features and Ionic corner portico and dome. Romanesque-inspired arched windows, a French mansard roof and and unusual stained glass window by the spiral staircase. . . . — Map (db m32318) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Chinese Freemasons BuildingCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: Samuel Buttrey Birds (1913)
The Chi Kung Tong, later the Chinese Freemasons, purchased this building in 1907. It included meeting rooms, a male dormitory and a Chinese school - uses common to Chinese Society Buildings. The Chi Kung Tong assisted early immigrants from China who took part in the Cariboo gold rush. The Freemasons were also intensively involved in the politics of China, including Dr. Sun-Yat Sen's efforts to bring democracy to his native country. Built in 1901, the building blends Victorian style along the . . . — Map (db m53798) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Deutschesland CaféCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: Max B. Downing
This unusual building is one of the few surviving Art Deco buildings in downtown Vancouver. Its roofline an exuberant crenelated cornice built in cast concrete and designed in a curvilinear waterfall theme. Downing is best known as the architect of the Art Deco Federal Buildings in Prince Rupert and Powell River. The original owner of this was the nearby Hudson's Bay Company, and it was tenanted by the Deutschesland Café until 1939. — Map (db m41926) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Dominion BuildingCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architects: J.S. Helyer & Son
This ornate Beaux-Arts skyscraper was commissioned by Imperial Trust in 1906 but opened in 1910 as the Dominion Trust Building after this company assumed the debt and completed construction. It was the tallest building in the British Empire at that time, topped out at 18 storeys. The striking red and yellow terracotta exterior is capped by a three-storey Mansard roof reminiscent of late 19th Century Parisian townhouses. It was the finest building of the architects' careers and a major city . . . — Map (db m54360) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Drill HallCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: Department of Public Works
This fortress-like building has served as the drill hall and armoury for the British Columbia Regiment since its opening by HRH the Duke of Cornwall and York in 1901. The solid building with three-foot thick walls, was constructed of Gabriola Island sandstone and brick. The two central towers, crenellated roofline, rusticated stonework, and recessed windows provide an attractive frontispiece to the large drill hall at the rear. — Map (db m54225) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Ferguson Point
This area was the site of a coast defence fort manned during WW II 1939-1945 by The Royal Canadian Artillery Batteries 31st Heavy 58th Heavy 85th Heavy — Map (db m54578) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Flack BlockCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: William Blackmore
Thomas Flack commissioned this landmark commercial building in 1898, following his return from a prosperous venture to the Klondike gold fields. Completed in 1900, it framed one of the city's most prominent intersections, facing the first provincial Court House across the street in what is now Victory Square. Conceived as a prestige project in a prime location, this was one of the largest structures designed by prolific local architect William Blackmore (1842-1904). The Romanesque Revival . . . — Map (db m53619) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Here Stood Hamilton
Here stood Hamilton First Land Commissioner Canadian Pacific Railway 1885 in the silent solitude of the primeval forest He drove a wooden stake in the earth and commenced to measure an empty land into the streets of Vancouver — Map (db m40645) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Meet You Under the Clock
Since 1907, generations of Vancouverites have arranged downtown rendevous with one simple phrase - "meet you under the Birks clock!" Erected as "a public convenience for the people of Vancouver", this stalwart timepiece has stood in front of the main Birks store in Vancouver for over 90 years, requiring little more attention than a weekly winding of the original mechanical movement. Originally placed at the northeast corner of Hastings and Granville, the clock moved with Birks in 1913 to . . . — Map (db m32970) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Nine O'Clock Gun
This gun is a naval type twelve pound muzzle-loader. Cast in 1816 at Woolwich, England, it was brought to Vancouver around 1894. The crests of King George III and of the Earl of Mulgrave, Master General of Ordnance are on the barrel. Gun restoration and pavilion were centennial gifts in 1986 to the City of Vancouver from: EBCO Industries Ltd.; Chester F. Millar; First Generation Capital Corporation; Hudson's Bay Company — Map (db m33868) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Power BlockCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architects: N.S. Hoffar, 1888, Townley & Matheson, 1929
This rare example of an art deco exterior employing colourful terra cotta with Egyptian overtones was designed by the architects of Vancouver's city hall as part of a 1929 building renovation. The interior structure dates from built in 1888 for Captain William Power, then known as the "Mayor" of North Vancouver's Moodyville. It was expanded and renovated by owner Dominic Burns of the meat-packing family in 1911, the year he also built the nearby 14-storey Vancouver Block with its huge landmark clock. — Map (db m42010) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Ram Mk II
Crew 5, Wt 30 tonnes, Speed 40 km/hr, armament - 57 mm main gun, 2 x 30 cal mg, in service 1941-1945. The Ram tank was designed and built in Canada as part of Canada's contribution to the allied war effort in WW II. A total of 1949 Ram tanks were at the Montreal Locomotive Works in Montreal, Quebec. This tank is dedicated to all those who have served or are serving in the Royal Canadian Armoured Corps. — Map (db m54263) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Randall BuildingCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: Richard T. Perry
Built in 1929 for the brokerage firm S.W. Randall Company, this commercial building is a good example of the design of the city's downtown office development at the time of the Great Depression. The brick cladding is enriched by the terra cotta paneling on the lower levels of the important Georgia Street facade. Sam Randall was also a thoroughbred race promoter who operated racetracks at Hastings Park in the 1920s and Lansdowne Park in Richmond (1924-45). In 1991 the building was rehabilitated . . . — Map (db m54834) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Sadie MarksCity of Vancouver, 1886-1986
In 1922 Ferrera Court was the home of Vancouver tailor David Marks, where vaudeville comedian Benny Kubelsky met thirteen-year-old Sadie Marks. They dated in 1926 and married the next year. As Jack Benny and Mary Livingstone they often returned to the city of her birth. — Map (db m46691) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Sherman
M4A3E8, Crew 5, Wt 32 tonnes, speed 48 km/hr armament - 76 mm main gun, 2 x 30 cal mg in service 1943-1970 On 8/9 August 1944, the British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own), then designated Canadian 28th Armoured Regiment, was commanded by LCOL D.G. Worthington in his tank "Boss". In Sherman tanks similar to this one, they fought a heroic 14 hour battle on Hill 140 north of the town of Falaise, France. When the battle ended the "Dukes" had suffered great losses, including their . . . — Map (db m53942) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — St. Regis HotelCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: W.T. Whiteway
Of the turn-of-the century hotels built in the downtown area before World War I, this is the last one that has survived as a hotel. Noted architect W.T. Whiteway designed it in 1913. He was the architect of the Sun Tower, the original 1903 Woodard's store, as well as notable buildings in Victoria, Halifax, St. John's and Port Townsend, Washington. The builder, E.J. Ryan, constructed the existing Hotel Vancouver. The St. Regis is a good example of the Edwardian Commercial style. Part of the . . . — Map (db m41988) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — The Old Maple
Here stood the old maple tree under whose branches the pioneers met in 1885 and chose the name "Vancouver" for this city. — Map (db m41554) HM
British Columbia (Greater Vancouver Regional District), Vancouver — Vancouver Rowing ClubCity of Vancouver Heritage Building — Architect: J.W. Keagey
The Vancouver Rowing Club was established in 1899 when the Burrard Inlet Rowing Club joined the Vancouver Boating Club. Throughout it's history the Vancouver Rowing Club has played an important part in the athletic and social life of Vancouver. This building, designed in the Tudor Revival style, was officially opened on September 9, 1911 replacing an earlier clubhouse located at the foot of Burrard Street. Renovations to the clubhouse were completed by Watson-Donald Architects in 1988. His . . . — Map (db m31941) HM
British Columbia (Kitimat-Stikine Regional District), Hazelton — Hazelton
Head of sternwheeler navigation on the Skeena. The town grew at the landing close to the Indian village of Gitenmaks. Crews from the Collins Telegraph arrived in 1866. Following them Omineca gold miners, Hudson’s Bay pack strings and “gandy dancers” of the Grand Truck all tramped these streets. Each is a chapter in the history of “the town on the hazel flats.” — Map (db m9073) HM
British Columbia (Kitimat-Stikine Regional District), Moricetown — Moricetown Canyon
This site, once the largest village of the Bulkley Valley Indians, later was named after the pioneer missionary, Father Morice. Salmon, staple food of the Indian, concentrated in the canyon and were caught with basketry traps, dip-nets, and harpoons. Indians still catch salmon with long gaff nooks and smoke them at this historic native fishery. — Map (db m9072) HM
British Columbia (Skeena-Queen Charlotte Regional District), Port Edward — Inverness Cannery
The developing provincial salmon industry spread northward when the Inverness Cannery opened here in 1876. The first cannery in northern British Columbia, it took advantage of the abundant sockeye runs up the Skeena River to challenge the dominance of the canneries along the lower Fraser. Finally closed in 1950, the plant was destroyed by fire in 1973. — Map (db m9075) HM
British Columbia (Skeena-Queen Charlotte Regional District), Port Edward — North Pacific Cannery
Salmon canning stimulated economic development on this coast. North Pacific is the oldest West Coast cannery still standing. From here the Bell-Irving family shipped high quality salmon directly to England before 1900. Typical of most canneries in its isolation and operations, North Pacific relied more on native labour than those close to urban centres, was slower to adopt new technology, and had lower production costs. Ethnically-segregated living and work areas divided Chinese, Indian, . . . — Map (db m9203) HM
British Columbia (Skeena-Queen Charlotte Regional District), Tyee — “K-Shian” – The Skeena
The Skeena, “river of mists,” makes a major cleft through the Coast Mountains. To Coastal Tsimshian Indians and Interior tribes it was vital to trade and travel. In later years, Port Essington, near the river’s mouth, became the main port of this swift, treacherous waterway – a route serving pioneers from the 1860s to 1914 when the railway was built. — Map (db m9074) HM
British Columbia (Strathcona Regional District), Campbell River — Seymour Narrows
Treacherous currents, swirling eddies, and turbulent tide-rips still harass vessels, despite the blasting away in 1958 of the twin peaks of Ripple Rock. Charted in 1792 by Captain George Vancouver, the Narrows has claimed numerous ships and lives and is considered by many seamen the worst hazard to marine navigation on the British Columbia coast. — Map (db m9077) HM
Manitoba, Gardenton — St. Michael’s Ukrainian Orthodox Church
Constructed in 1899, this church is a fine early example of Ukrainian ecclesiastical architecture in Canada. Its distinctive massing, plan and bulbous cupolas reflect the Byzantine-influenced architectural heritage of the homeland of the settlers in the region. The traditional free-standing bell tower was built in 1906, and like the church, is distinguished by the high quality of its wooden craftsmanship. Built by the first generation of Ukrainians to arrive in Canada, St. Michael’s served as . . . — Map (db m8421) HM
Manitoba, Gimli — New Iceland
New Iceland represents a distinctive episode in the early settlement of the Canadian West. In 1875 and 1876, more than a thousand Icelandic immigrants settled a large tract of land reserved for them by the federal government along the western shore of Lake Winnipeg. Before 1887, the reserve was essentially self-governing under its own constitution, and the setters were primarily of Icelandic origin. New Iceland enabled them to preserve their language and cultural identity. Numerous descendants . . . — Map (db m8453) HM
Manitoba, Headingley — Dominion Lands Survey System
The first marker of the Dominion Lands Survey was placed 10 July, 1871, on the Principal Meridian, about half a mile south of this site. The system, then inaugurated by Lieutenant Colonel J.S. Dennis, Surveyor-General, extends across the prairies and to the Pacific coast, embracing more than 200 million acres of surveyed lands in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and parts of British Columbia. Réseau Topographique du Dominion Le 10 juillet 1871, la première borne du réseau . . . — Map (db m8489) HM
Manitoba, Inglis — Inglis Grain Elevators
This impressive grouping of five standard-plan wooden grain elevators is a rare survivor of the long rows that once dominated Prairie towns. The row was built between 1922 and 1941, Manitoba's golden age of elevators, by a cross-section of grain-handling firms, including cooperatives and large companies backed by Canadian and American investors. Located in a town typical of many that dot the West, these slope-shouldered sentinels are surrounded by their outbuildings, rail line and fields of . . . — Map (db m8491) HM
Manitoba, Lockport — St. Andrews Caméré Curtain Dam
This is the only Caméré curtain bridge-dam built in North American, and by far the largest ever constructed. H.E .Vautelet, the Canadian engineer responsible for its design, adapted a French technological advancement to deal with the destructive and unpredictable floodwaters of the Red River. It has wooden curtains that dam the river for navigation and roll up to pass the spring freshets. The Canadian government constructed the dam, lock and machine shop/electrical powerhouse in 1907-1910 as . . . — Map (db m9205) HM
Manitoba, St. Andrews — St. Andrew’s Rectory
Erected between 1852 and 1854, this large limestone dwelling housed the rector of nearby St. Andrew’s church and complemented the massive construction of that building. The rectory, built for the Reverend William Cockran was one of the first stone houses in the Red River Settlement. Like a number of substantial homes built here for retired officers of the Hudson’s Bay Company, it reflects the style and character of important dwellings at company posts. In this way the rectory provides a good . . . — Map (db m8449) HM
Manitoba, St. Andrews — St. Andrews Anglican Church
Beginning in 1828 the Rev. W. Cockran held religious services in the homes of settlers in this area. In 1829 he established a permanent residence at Grand Rapids on the Red River and by 1831 had built a small wooden church. His growing congregation required a larger church building and the present stone church , the oldest in Western Canada, was begun in 1845 and completed in 1849. This simple but beautiful building became the center of missionary activity in Rupert's Land and continues to be . . . — Map (db m8445) HM
Manitoba, St. Andrews — Twin Oaks
Built in the mid-1850s, this house was the residence for a private girls’ school run by Matilda Davis until 1873. The school was supported by families of the Red River Settlement and by officers of the Hudson’s Bay Company from across western Canada who sent their daughters here to be educated as English ladies. The residence could board up to 40 girls. Along with two log classrooms it was used to teach French, music, drawing, dancing, needlework and deportment. The building survives as a fine . . . — Map (db m8450) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Campobello — Campobello's Resort Hotels
In 1881, a group of American businessmen (called themselves the Campobello Company) purchased most of Campobello Island. In an era of summer-long vacations and great summer resorts, the company hoped, by promoting Campobello's charms, to attract, well-to-do people with extensive leisure time to its hotels. Both the Canadian and American press promoted Campobello as a summer resort. Built in 1881 on the northern end of Friar's Bay, the Owen was the first and most luxurious of the company's three . . . — Map (db m25467) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Campobello — James and Sara Roosevelt Cottage
On this site, in 1885, James Roosevelt, businessman and country gentleman of Hyde Park, New york, built the cottage shown below. The Cottage was intended to be a summer retreat for his wife, Sara Delano, and their son Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Franklin spent many of his boyhood summers at this cottage. Miss Eleanor Roosevelt was a guest here in 1904. In 1905, Franklin and Eleanor were married. In 1907, Mrs. Sara Roosevelt purchased the Kuhn cottage and gave it to the married couple. The Kuhn . . . — Map (db m25456) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Campobello — Roosevelt Campobello Park
Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson and Mrs. Lester B. Pearson Together opened the Roosevelt Campobello Park on the twenthieth day of August 1964 Lyndon Baines Johnson President of the United States of America and Lester Bowles Pearson Prime Minister of Canada Together laid the cornerstone of this Reception Centre on the twenty-first day of August, 1966 Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother declared the building open on the thirteenth day of July, 1967 — Map (db m25394) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Campobello — Summer Activities
The Campobello hotels welcomed socializing between their guests and the summer cottage owners. Summer colonists and hotel guests exchanged visits and participated in hotel activities such as excursions aboard the company's small steamboats, field days, dances, and the use of tennis and croquet courts, billiards tables and bowling alleys. During 1881 and 1882, the Campobello Company built a hotel pier, roads to Glensevern Lake and Raccoon Beach, a bridge across Glensevern and another at Eastern . . . — Map (db m25462) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Campobello — The Summer Colony
Owners of the Campobello Company hoped to enhance their one million-dollar investment by subdividing their land and selling the smaller lots to hotel guests, island residents, and others. Only a few of the lots were actually sold and built upon. however, at least nine cottages were constructed between 1884 and 1902 on land purchased from the company. In addition, two existing homes were purchased and transformed into more elaborate summer homes. These summer residences became Campobello's . . . — Map (db m25471) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Campobello Company and HotelsLe Campobello Company et les Hôtels
Although visitors had been coming to the island since 1855, Campobello's summer trade did not really prosper until the 1880s - years of long summer vacations and great resorts. A group of Boston and New York businessmen bought most of the island in 1881. The new owners called themselves the Campobello Company; their plan was to promote the island as a summer resort. They hoped to lure a wealthy clientele with extensive leisure time to the island, let them enjoy the area's many charms, . . . — Map (db m63639) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Friar's Head / Le Cap Friar
Friar's Head takes its name from the stone pillar or stack (photo 1) that rises from the beach directly below the observation deck. While occupying Eastport, the British navy was said to have used the stone pillar for target practice, altering its outline to that of a hooded monk or Friar in deep contemplation. Native American Passamaquoddy legend referred to this rock as the Stone Maiden. The legend speaks of a young brave leaving on a long journey, telling his lover to sit . . . — Map (db m63629) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Lubec, Maine
About 1840, a canal connecting Johnson and South Bays was dug in North Lubec and a dam constructed there to harness tidal energy to power plaster mills. Gypsum (the raw product used to make plaster) and grindstones from the Maritimes were important trade goods. Lubec’s mills manufactured plaster as late as 1858. In 1874, shipping traffic to and from Lubec was so extensive that the U.S. Coast Guard constructed a life-saving station at West Quoddy Head. About that time, passenger ferries . . . — Map (db m54995) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Lubec, Maine
Lubec's known history began at a Passamaquoddy Indian encampment at Mill Creek in what came to be called Seward's Neck (now North Lubec). French settlers later came to those shores in the early 1700s, but shortly afterward were driven away by the British. Resettlement occurred around 1776 when squatters settled Seward's Neck and Moose Island, both incorporated into the town of Eastport in 1798 and having a population of 244. Many of the settlers were Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and western . . . — Map (db m55023) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Mulholland Point / La pointe Mulholland
[English version] Built in 1885, the Mulholland Point Lighthouse guided many small coasters and freighters taking the shorter and foul weather-protected route through the narrow passage between Campobello and Lubec. Steamships, carrying freight and passengers, many of whom were bound for Campobello's resort hotels, could pass through the narrows only when the tide was high. The lighthouse's white octagonal tower is 9.7 metres (32 feet) tall, post and timber-framed, and covered with cedar . . . — Map (db m54894) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Mulholland Point / La Pointe Mulholland
Built in 1885, the Mulholland Point Lighthouse (photo 1) served as a guide for the many small coasters and freighters taking the shorter and more foul weather-protected route through the Lubec Narrows. Steamships, such as the Penobscot (photo 2), sailing between Boston, Portland, and Eastport in the 1890s could only travel through the Narrows when the tide was high. Otherwise, they had to steam around the eastern side of Campobello. The first automobiles brought to the island . . . — Map (db m63593) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Panoramic View of CottagesVue Panoramique des Résidences d'Éte
Two of the Campobello Company's founders, Alex S. Porter and Samuel Wells, and several of the luxury hotel visitors, including James Roosevelt and families by the name of Sturgis, Cochrane, Prince, and Pell purchased land and refurbished or built large cottages. Five cottages remain today: the Prince, Roosevelt, Hubbard, Wells-Shober, and Johnston cottages in what is now the Roosevelt Campobello International Park's historic core. This circa 1914 photo identifies the various . . . — Map (db m63641) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Passamaquoddy Tidal Power ProjectProjet de Centrale Électrique Marée Motrice
During the years FDR summered on Campobello, the daughter of one of Campobello's summer colonists married Dexter P. Cooper, an eminent American engineer. Cooper studied the tremendous rise and fall of Passamaquoddy Bay's tides and became obsessed with the potential of generating electricity from the 2 billion cubic metres (70 billion cubic feet) of seawater that entered and left the bay twice each day. Passamaquoddy tides are among the highest in the world, and range from a maximum . . . — Map (db m63611) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Passamaquoddy Tribe / La Tribu Passamaquoddy
Passamaquoddy Bay takes its name from the Native American Passamaquoddy Tribe. The word means People of the Pollock-Spearing Place. The Passamaquoddy have a rich heritage, once occupying much of what is now eastern Maine and western New Brunswick. They lived inland, seasonally, where during the colder months they subsisted mainly by hunting and fishing. During the warmer months, they moved to the shore (where there were cooler temperatures and fewer biting flies) to harvest abundant . . . — Map (db m63617) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — President Franklin Delano Roosevelt1933 - 1945
The Great Depression 1929-1941 The depression was world-wide. In the U.S., the banking system collapsed and 12.8 million people were unemployed. Hardest hit were youth, minorities, the elderly, and workers in the consumer durables industries. There was widespread hunger and suffering as communities ran out of charitable and government relief. FDR's "New Deal" programs, some more successful than others, helped to stem national despair and boost public confidence. La Crise économique . . . — Map (db m54783) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — Roosevelt Campobello International ParkLe Parc International Roosevelt de Campobello
The Roosevelt Campobello International Park is a unique example of international cooperation - jointly administered, staffed, and funded by the peoples of Canada and the United States. Established by international treaty in 1964, the 1,134-hectare (2800-acre) park remains a symbol of the close relationship between our two countries. When she declared the Park Visitor Center open in 1967, the Queen Mother Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth expressed the sentiments of both countries with these . . . — Map (db m63591) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Welshpool — St. Anne's Anglican Church
This house of God has welcomed worshippers for one hundred years or more. In commemoration of this fact this plaque has been presented in 1967 Canada's Centennial of Confederation Year 1867 - 1967 — Map (db m54939) HM
New Brunswick (Charlotte County), Wilson's Beach — World War II Memorial1939 - 1945
To the Glory of God and the memory of our Immortal Dead Howard Mallock • Lawson Searles Those who served our King and Country Alison Alexander • Ronald Anthony • Wesley Anthony • George Babcock • Lydie Brown • Manning Brown • Raye Brown • Whitney Brown • Alexander Calder • Emerson Calder • Hilton Calder • Ryder Cline • Durrell Fitzgerald • Herbert Fitzsimmons • John Fitzsimmons • Clayton Fletcher • William Galley • Stanley Henderson • Andrew Hooper • Calvin Mallock • Elwood . . . — Map (db m54938) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Carleton Martello Tower
Construction of this tower was begun by the British Army during the War of 1812 as one of the projected series of fortifications intended to block the western land approach to Saint John. Subsequent to its completion in 1815 the tower was largely neglected, seeing only occasional use in times of emergency, including service as a fire control headquarters in the second world war. The original structure typifies the English martello tower design, a popular form of coastal defence in the British . . . — Map (db m539) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Deadman's Island
These men died in captivity while serving the United States of America on land and sea during the War of 1812. They lie in unmarked graves here on Deadman's Island.

Followed by a list of 188 men identified by Name, Rank, Ship/Unit, and Date of Death. Map (db m44062) HM

Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Duke of York's Martello TowerYork Redoubt
[English Text only shown] The Duke of York's Martello Tower was one of many small towers built for coastal defence throughout the British Empire. They were usually round, with stone walls too thick to be penetrated by cannon balls. This tower protected the seaward battery from attack by land. The tower was built in 1798 by Prince Edward, fourth son of King George III, while he was the military commander at Halifax. It was named for Edward's brother, the Duke of York. What happened to . . . — Map (db m44629) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — York Redoubt
[English text] York Redoubt was the heart of the defences protecting the outer harbour approaches to Halifax. Begun in 1793, it was enlarged by the Duke of Kent who constructed a Martello tower here in 1798. The redoubt became an essential link in the communications system protecting the city against surprise attack. Its strategic importance was such that it was rebuilt in the 1860s and 1880s to mount more powerful guns. In the twentieth century York Redoubt became the tactical command . . . — Map (db m44479) HM
Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Peggys Cove — Swissair Flight 111 MemorialWhalesback
English text only shown The communities of Peggys Cove and Blandford were central to the recovery operation following the crash of Swissair Flight 111. The Whalesback and Bayswater Beach sites were chosen for their proximity to those communities because they have view lines to the crash site and each other. The three sites combined - Whalesback, Bayswater, and the actual crash site - make a triangular shape, which is reflected in the design of the memorials. Whalesback is at the . . . — Map (db m45717) HM
Nova Scotia (Lunenburg County), Bayswater — Swissair Flight 111 MemorialBayswater
English text only shown The communities of Peggys Cove and Blandford were central to the recovery operation following the crash of Swissair Flight 111. The Whalesback and Bayswater Beach sites were chosen for their proximity to those communities and because they have view lines to the crash site and each other. The three sites combined — Whalesback, Bayswater and the actual crash site — make a triangular shape, which is reflected in the design of the memorials. . . . — Map (db m47255) HM
Ontario, Chippawa — Niagara River Remedial Action Plan
Niagara's beauty has been an inspiration for today's environmental movement. Early conservationists such as George Catlin and Frederick Olmstead, who invented the concept of national parks, came to view its wonders. Nurtured by such visions and encouraged by the leadership of Colonel Casimir Gzowski, The Niagara Parks Commission established the first provincial park in Ontario in 1885. The Remedial Action Plan (RAP) today unites concerned citizens committed to restoring Niagara's ecosystem . . . — Map (db m64652) HM
Ontario, Chippawa — The Destruction of The Caroline, 1837
On the night of December 29-30, 1837, some 60 volunteers acting on the orders of Col. Allen Napier MacNab, and commanded by Capt. Andrew Drew, R.N., set out from Chippawa in small boats to capture the American steamer "Caroline". That vessel, which had been supplying William Lyon Mackenzie's rebel forces on Navy Island, was moored at Fort Schlosser, N.Y. There she was boarded by Drew's men, her crew killed or driven ashore, and after an unsuccessful attempt to start the engines, her captors set . . . — Map (db m64651) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — "The Burlington Races" 1813
On the morning of September 28, 1813, a powerfully-armed United States fleet comprising ten ships under the command of Commodore Isaac Chauncey appeared off York (Toronto). The smaller British fleet of six vessels, commanded by Commodore Sir James L. Yeo, was in the harbour, but on the approach of the enemy set sail to attack. After a sharp engagement, the British squadron was forced to withdraw toward Burlington Bay where it could take refuge under the batteries on the adjacent heights. A . . . — Map (db m56759) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — Burlington Heights 1813 - 1814
[English Text]: Here in June, 1813, General John Vincent assembled troops that made the successful night attack on the invaders at Stoney Creek. From this point of vantage, in December, 1813, the force which retook Fort George and carried Fort Niagara by assault, began its march. On these heights stood the strong point of reserve and depot of arms for the defence of the Niagara Peninsula and support of the navy on Lake Ontario. [French Text]: Ici, en juin 1813, le . . . — Map (db m56725) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — Defensive Outwork
About this spot was an outwork of the first line of defense 1812 - 1815 Map (db m56758) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — Dundurn Castle
This villa was completed in 1835 for Allan Napier MacNab. Incorporating an existing farmhouse, it was designed by the local architect, Robert Wetherell, as a statement of its owner's place in Hamilton society. The house features an eclectic blend of classical and Italianate motifs, French windows, broad verandahs and a panoramic view of Burlington Bay. With its outbuildings and grounds, Dundurn Castle stands as an important example of the Picturesque Movement in Canada. After years in private . . . — Map (db m66126) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — Dundurn Castle— 1832 —
This mansion was built 1832-35 by Allan Napier MacNab (1798-1862) and named after the family ancestral seat in Scotland. Enlisting at fifteen, MacNab distinguished himself by his bravery in the War of 1812. He subsequently entered politics and was noted for his support of the Family Compact. During the Rebellion of 1837 he was one of the government's most active military supporters and was knighted for his services. Leader of the Tory-Conservatives, MacNab was speaker of the Legislative . . . — Map (db m66129) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — First Line of Defense
This Stone Marks The Line of Earthworks In First Line of Defense 1812 - 1815 Map (db m56740) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — Hamilton - Scourge ProjectWar of 1812 Naval Memorial Garden
We honour here fifty-three sailors who lost their lives when their ships, HAMILTON and SCOURGE, capsized during a storm in the early morning hours of Sunday, 8th August 1813. These two armed merchant schooners lie in 90 metres of water, 30 kilometres northeast of this site, intact and perfectly preserved with their guns and equipment still in place. A replica of the foremast of SCOURGE is flanked by fifty-three markers similar to those in Allied military cemeteries throughout the world. — Map (db m56928) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — HMCS Haida - NCSM HaidaTribal Class Destroyer — National Historic Site of Canada
HMCS Haida is the last of the Tribal class destroyers which saw heavy action with the Australian, British and Canadian navies during World War II. Built for the Royal Canadian Navy at Newcastle, England, , in 1942, this ship served on the frigid Murmansk run and in clearing the English Channel for the Normandy invasion. She helped sink 14 enemy vessels. Haida was re-commissioned in 1952 and served two tours of duty with the United Nations in Korea, taking part in shore bombardment, blockades . . . — Map (db m67343) WM
Ontario, Hamilton — March to Stoney Creek
These ramparts were erected by the British troops during the War of 1812-15. From this place on the night of June 5th 1813, 700 men under the command of Lieut. Colonel Harvey, marched to Stoney Creek where they surprised and routed an American force of 3750 men ridding the Niagara Peninsula of the invaders. — Map (db m56756) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — Sir Allan Napier MacNab1798 - 1862
Politician, businessman, land speculator and soldier, Allan MacNab enjoyed a very public life. He was a successful lawyer and was appointed Upper Canada's first Queen's Counsel. In 1838 he was knighted for his role in suppressing the rebellion in Upper Canada. The profits from his extensive land speculation were fed into a variety of projects, including construction of his monument, Dundurn. He was influential in establishing the Gore Bank and in promoting the Great Western Railway. During a . . . — Map (db m66130) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — Sir John Harvey 1778 - 1852
From these heights, Lieutenant-Colonel John Harvey set out with about 700 men on the night of June 5, 1813, to launch a surprise attack on an invading United States force of some 3,000 men camped at Stoney Creek. His rout of the troops commanded by Brigadier-General John Chandler under cover of darkness in the early hours of June 6, is generally credited with saving Upper Canada from being overrun by the enemy. Harvey was knighted in 1834, served as Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick 1834-41, . . . — Map (db m56743) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — United Empire Loyalists
In Lasting Memory of the United Empire Loyalists Who preferred to remain loyal British subjects and came to canada in large numbers immediately following the American Revolution of 1776 and the signing of the Treaty of Peace in 1783. —————— On this site in 1785 was erected one of the first log houses in this district by a loyalist pioneer Col. Richard Beasley who on June 11th and 12th 1796 here . . . — Map (db m66131) HM
Ontario, Niagara Falls — Ebenezer Community
In 1852 this was the site of the Ebenezer religious community of 800 people. It had log houses, a wharf, store, blacksmith shop, sawmill, woolen mill, flour mill, cannery, cabinet shop and a communal dining hall. Their best known product was high quality cotton denim dyed Ebenezer Blue. In 1859 the community moved to Amana, Iowa. — Map (db m64653) HM
Ontario, Niagara Falls — Niagara Falls Park and River Railway Powerhouse
The Niagara Falls Park and River Railway Powerhouse, built on this site in 1892, was the first hydraulic powerhouse to use water from the Canadian side of the Niagara River. It generated 2100 hp of direct current electricity for the electric railway. Power generation ceased in 1932 and the building was demolished in 1985. — Map (db m66409) HM
Ontario, Niagara Falls — Niagara Park Greenhouses
These greenhouses were erected in the year 1946 as a part of the design of the Niagara Parks Commission to develop the natural magnificence of this historic district and to display its charms for the benefit not only of those who are residents of the province of ontario but of those to whom, as our welcome guests, we extend our warmest hospitality. The Niagara Parks Commission Chairman: The Honourable Charles Daily Vice-Chairman: Fred M. Cairns Commissioners Wm. B. Rollason • Cecil . . . — Map (db m66411) HM
Ontario, Niagara Falls — On June 15, 2012
On June 15, 2012, the world watched as professional tightrope walker Nik Wallenda crossed the Niagara Gorge on a wire. Table Rock complex marked the Canadian end point for this high wire walk, which began at Terrapin Point, directly across the Gorge at the Niagara Falls State Park, in New York. The Niagara Parks Commission granted one-time permission for this event in order to recognize the role that daredevil performances and stunting have played in the rich history and promotion of . . . — Map (db m64660) HM
Ontario, Niagara Falls — Rainbow Bridge
The Rainbow Bridge, owned and operated by the Niagara Falls Bridge Commission, was built in 1940-41 to replace the Upper Steel Arch Bridge. Its abutments are 15.1m (50 ft.) above the level of river ice jams. When it was built its 286m (950 ft.) arch was the longest hingeless arch in the world. — Map (db m64661) HM
Ontario, Niagara Falls — Table Rock
This is the site of the historic landmark, Table Rock, a shelf of bare rock 61 metres (200 feet) long, 18.3 metres (60 feet) wide. Once part of the crest of the Horseshoe Falls it was left isolated when the Falls receded. Rock falls in 1818, 1828, 1829, 1850 and 1934 reduced its size. The remaining overhang was blasted off for safety reasons in 1935. — Map (db m64668) HM
Ontario, Niagara Falls — The Boundary Waters Treaty
"It is further agreed that the waters herein defined as boundary waters and waters flowing across the boundary shall not be polluted on either side to the injury of health or property of the other." Widely regarded as the first environmental agreement, the 1909 Boundary Waters Treaty was the first international treaty to articulate principles of boundary water resource development, to address cross-boundary pollution and to prohibit the diversion of boundary waters. Further, in . . . — Map (db m64648) HM
Ontario, Niagara Falls — Upper Steel Arch Bridge
An abutment of the Upper Steel Arch Bridge built on this site 1897-98, is visible on the U.S. shore of the river. Also known as the Falls View Bridge and the Honeymoon Bridge, it stood until January 27, 1938, when an ice jam pushed the bridge off its abutments and it collapsed onto the ice in the river. — Map (db m64669) HM
Ontario, Niagara Falls — Upper Suspension Bridge
This plaque marks the entrance to the Upper Suspension Bridge, opened in July 1869, then the longest suspension bridge in the world. The iron cables were hung from timber towers. In 1884-87, this wooden bridge was changed to steel. In 1898, this steel bridge was replaced by the Upper Steel Arch Bridge. — Map (db m64670) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — By Ward Market Heritage Conservation DistrictDistrict de Conservation du Patrimoine du Marché By
The dense cedar bog that became the site of the By Ward Market was drained and cleared in 1827 by Lieutenant-Colonel John By of the Royal Engineers to accommodate the workers building the Rideau Canal. The area rapidly became the commercial core of Bytown and later served the region's farming communities and the Ottawa Valley lumber industry, whose itinerant lumbermen gave the town its rowdy reputation. Over the next century the By Ward Market housed the businesses and institutions that . . . — Map (db m63692) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Grand Central Hotel / Hôtel Grand Central1877
Built as a grocery store by Thomas Coffey, Sr., this building was the Grand Central Hotel from 1889 to 1907, and a Salvation Army hostel from 1908 to 1949. Designated Heritage Property ————————— Construit au départ comme l'épicerie de Thomas Coffey, pére. L'immueble a abrite l'hôtel Grand Central de 1889 à 1907, puis d'auberge de l'Armee du Salut de 1908 à 1949. Classé Monument Historique . . . — Map (db m63693) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Parliament Clocktower Bell
This bell was taken from the ruins of the clock tower destroyed by fire February 3, 1916. "The fire raged fiercely for hours. The main tower was not touched until about 11 p.m., and one of the most pathetic incidents of the night, which moved the spectators, was the striking of the midnight hour by the old tower clock. There seemed almost a human touch as its familiar tones boomed out from the mass of flames." From the 1916 report of the deputy minister of public works. — Map (db m39748) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Silent Messengers of the ArcticInuksuk created by Kananginak Pootoogook, 1997
For generations, the Inuit have been creating impressive stone markers on the Arctic landscape. Inuksuk means "acting in the capacity of a human." They serve many functions, including guiding travellers, warning of danger, assisting hunters and marking places of reverence. — Map (db m39750) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Terry Fox 1958 -1981The Greatness of the Human Spirit — L'eminence du courage de l'homme
"I was lucky to do what I did. How many people ever get a chance to do something that they really believe in." Terry Fox On April 12, 1980, Terry Fox began his dream to run across Canada in support of cancer research by dipping his artificial leg into the Atlantic waters off St. John's, Newfoundland. Terry's run, which he called the 'Marathon of Hope', would do so much more by uniting Canadians in support of his heroic desire to better the lives of others. On September 1, near . . . — Map (db m63937) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Women Are Persons!Les Femmes Sont Des Personnes!
The Persons' Case of 1929 is a celebrated landmark victory in the struggle of Canadian women for equality. For years, groups had repeatedly requested that a woman be appointed to the Senate, often naming Judge Emily Murphy as their candidate. However, five successive federal governments maintained that women were ineligible to serve in the Senate on the basis that they were not "qualified persons" according to Section 24 of the British North America Act of 1867.

In 1927, Judge Murphy . . . — Map (db m39749) HM

Ontario, Queenston — Brock Dead HouseThe first of five places where Sir Isaac Brock's body rested after the Battle of Queenston Heights
During the War of 1812, the Brock Dead House was owned by Patrick McCabe. The façade was oriented in an easterly direction, facing the Niagara River. Courtesy Brock University Library, Special Collections and Archives Brock Dead House On 13th of October 1812, Major-General Sir Isaac Brock was killed at the Battle of Queenston Heights. In the midst of a deadly gunfire, his body was carried off the field and hidden in a nearby house. This improvised mortuary, or dead house. was . . . — Map (db m63493) HM WM
Ontario, South Dundas — Loyalist American Regiments / Loyalists of the Indian Nations / Sir John Johnson
[ Front of Monument ] Loyalists American Regiments 1775-84 This monument has been erected by a grateful province to commemorate the services of His Majesty's Forces in North America, 1775-84 In particular the following which were disbanded as units and settled along the St. Lawrence River in the new province of Upper Canada. The 84th Regiment (Royal Highland Emigrants) The King's Royal Regiment of New York (Royal Greens) The King's Rangers (Rogers' Corps) The Loyal . . . — Map (db m39747) HM
Ontario, Toronto — Canadian Airmen Monument
Panel 1: Per Arua Ad Astra In Memory of our Canadian Airmen who fought in the Skies to preserve freedom and order in the world. Panel 2: Canadian Airmen Awarded the Victoria Cross World War I: William Avery Bishop Alan Arnett McLeod William George Barker World War II: Andrew Charles Mynarski David Ernest Hornell Ian Willoughby Bazalgette Robert Hampton Gray Panel 3: This Monument was dedicated by Her Majesty Queen . . . — Map (db m57901) HM
Ontario, Toronto — Mary Ann Shadd Cary — 1823 – 1893
Mary Ann Shadd Cary was an anti-slavery activist, an advocate for the rights of women, and a pioneering woman newspaper editor and publisher. The daughter of a free African American shoemaker and abolitionist, Shadd began a life of teaching at age 16 by founding a school for African American children in the slave state of Delaware. Following the passing of the Fugitive Slave act (1850), many escaped and free African Americans (like Shadd) sought refuge in Canada. Shadd moved to Windsor, . . . — Map (db m57756) HM
Ontario, Toronto — South African War Memorial — ("2nd Boer War")
. . . — Map (db m57959) WM
Ontario, Toronto — Toronto's first professional stadium: Sunlight Park 1886 - 1896
"Sunlight Park" was constructed in 1886 as the Toronto Baseball Grounds. The smell of baked potatoes and cigars greeted fans filing in to the park through an avenue of workers' cottages called "Baseball Place". The stands, four storeys high and surrounded by a 4 m wooden fence, sat 2,250 paying customers. Admission was 25 cents. The grounds became known as Sunlight Park after William Hesketh Lever opened Sunlight Soap Works south of the park in 1893. Toronto won its first professional . . . — Map (db m64502) HM
Ontario, Wexford — Welcome to the Site of The Battle of the Windmill
[ On the Right - In English ]: You are standing on a battlefield where men fought and died. This battle took place in November 1838, during the Canadian rebellions. One side fought to "liberate" Canada from British rule. The other side rallied to protect their homes or the established political order. The lighthouse in front of you is a converted windmill around which the battle was fought. Fort Wellington, a few kilometres to the west in Prescott, was a gathering . . . — Map (db m40068) HM
Ontario, Whitney — Algonquin Provincial ParkLe Parc Provincial Algonquin
Established in 1893, Algonquin was the first provincial park in Canada and the forerunner of Ontario’s extensive park system. Many methods now used across Canada to administer multi-purpose parks and explain nature to the public were developed here. Algonquin also became a focus for discussion of seemingly conflicting objectives, such as wilderness protection versus recreation promotion; forest conservation versus logging activity. Its rugged lakeshores and wooded slopes have long attracted . . . — Map (db m59998) HM
Ontario (County of Essex), Amherstburg — Major John Richardson (1796 - 1852)
Born at Queenston in Upper Canada, John Richardson served as a volunteer at Fort Malden during the War of 1812 and was taken prisoner by the Americans at Moraviantown. He was released at war's end, retired on half-pay in 1818, and spent most of the next 20 years in Europe. There he won a certain literary reputation with works such as the poem Tecumseh and Wacousta, a historical novel. Returning to Canada as a journalist, he founded the New Era in Brockville where, in 1842, . . . — Map (db m66085) HM
Ontario (Durham Region), Whitby — Camp X1941 - 1946
Upper Plaque On this site British Security Co-Ordination operated Special Training School No. 103 and Hydra. S.T.S. 103 trained allied agents in the techniques of secret warfare for the Special Operations Executive (SOE) Branch of the British Intelligence Service. Hydra Network communicated vital messages between Canada, the United States and Great Britain. This commemoration is dedicated to the service of the men and women who took part in these operations. Lower Plaque In . . . — Map (db m61880) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Amherstburg Navy Yard
[West Historic Marker]:Amherstburg Navy Yard A Navy Yard was built here in 1796 to replace Detroit as the base and supply depot for the Provincial Marine on Lakes Erie and Huron. In 1812 the GENERAL HUNTER and QUEEN CHARLOTTE, built here, took part in the capture of Detroit. The next year, his supply lines cut, Robert Barclay's poorly equipped fleet, including the DETROIT, was defeated by Oliver Perry, U.S.N., in the battle of Lake Erie. This reverse led the British to burn the . . . — Map (db m37552) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Boblo Island
Boblo Island For many centuries the island you see in front of you was used for hunting and fishing by First Nations people. Called Île aux Bois Blancs by the French, Boblo Island's key location made it a site for blockhouses during the War of 1812 and the Upper Canada Rebellion. In 1837 a lighthouse was erected on the southern end; about sixty years later the island became the site of a popular amusement park that lasted for nearly a century. The Detroit . . . — Map (db m71185) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Brick Officers' Guard Room
Brick Officers' Guard Room and Staff Sergeant's Quarters (1839) Poste de garde des officiers en briques et quartiers du sergent de l'etat-major (1839) — Map (db m71220) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Capture of the Anne, 1838
On January 9, 1838, a force of Canadians and Americans sympathizing with Mackenzie's rebellion, sailed from United States territory and landed on Bois Blane Island. The schooner "Anne," supporting the invasion, cruised along the Canadian mainland firing on structures near Fort Malden. Defending militia under Col. T. Radcliff returned the fire, disabling the helmsman and damaging the rigging. The "Anne" grounded on Elliott's Point and those aboard were captured. Their leader, Dr. E.A.Theller, an . . . — Map (db m37246) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Colonel Matthew Elliott1739 - 1814
Near this site stood the house erected in 1784 by Matthew Elliott. Born in Ireland, he emigrated to the American Colonies in 1761, and during the Revolution served with the British forces as a captain in the Indian Department. He was an Indian agent for the western tribes 1790-95 and deputy superintendent of the Indian Department 1795-98. Elliott represented Essex in the legislative assembly 1801-12. As colonel of the 1st Essex Militia he took part in the capture of Detroit , August 16, 1812, . . . — Map (db m37286) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Connection to Town
Connection to Town Fort Malden (originally called Fort Amherstburg) was the anchor of the town, which grew to the south. In this view, you are looking past the parade grounds of the fort (now a park) down Dalhousie Street towards the location of the naval dockyard. Over the years, much of the economic activity of the town of Amherstburg was generated by the need to feed, supply and amuse several hundred soldiers and their families. Entries from an 1810 account . . . — Map (db m71192) HM
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