|Israel, Central District, Rosh Ha'ayin — Tel Afeq - Antipatris|
|Archaeological excavations at Tel Afeq have exposed layers of occupation dating from the Chalcolithic period (the fourth millennium B.C.E.) until the 20th century C.E. Strategically situated on the "Afeq Pass", a bottleneck between the headwaters of the Yarqon Stream and the range of hills in the east, Afeq controlled the international route that ran from Egypt to the north. Already in the third millennium B.C.E. the city that stood here was encircled by a fortification wall. In the time of the . . . — Map (db m64309) HM|
|Israel, Central District, Rosh Ha'ayin — The Egyptian Governor's Residence|
|This is the most complete of the six Late Bronze Age (Canaanite), 1550-1200 B.C.E. palaces excavated at Afeq. The ground floor is preserved in its entirety, while the stairway testifies to the existence of the now-destroyed upper storeys.
Inscriptions in Sumerian, Akkadian and Canaanite languages found in the palace be a witness to the importance of Afeq in the Egyptian government network in Canaan. A letter from Ugarit (in northern Syria) is evidence of the trade between the Egyptian and . . . — Map (db m64406) HM|
|Israel, Central District, Rosh Ha'ayin — The Roman Cardo הקארדו הרומי|
|A remnant of the main street of the Roman city of Antipatris. "Cardo" is the name for the main north-south street of a Roman-era city. Shops lined the Cardo, and at its center it was connected to the Forum, the city's central square. Grooves can be seen in the paving stones, carved over the years by the wheels of vehicles rolling along the street. The lookout tower on the Cardo was constructed during the Ottoman period, long after the street had fallen into complete disuse. — Map (db m64445) HM|
|Israel, Galilee, Capharnaum — Capharnaum|
|Capharnaum the town of Jesus
He left Nazareth and went to live in Capharnaum by the sea (Gospel of Matthew 4:13). He entered a boat, made a crossing, and came into his own town (Gospel of Matthew 9:1).
The House of Simon Peter
On leaving the synagogue he entered the house of Peter and Andrew with James and John (Gospel of Marc 1:29).
In Capharnaum the house of the Prince of the Apostles was changed into a church; the original walls, however, are still standing (Etheria, . . . — Map (db m44108) HM|
|Israel, Galilee, Capharnaum — The Synagogue of Capharnaum|
The synagogue is made up of four units, namely the prayer hall, the eastern courtyard, the southern porch, and a side-room near the northwestern corner of the prayer hall.
The prayer hall, with the faηade toward Jerusalem, is rectangular in ground plan. A stylobate divides the spacious central nave from the aisles. Stone benches were set along the eastern and western aisles. The focal point of the prayer hall was in the Jerusalem-oriented wall of the central nave.
The trapezoidal . . . — Map (db m44055) HM|
|Israel, Galilee, Tabgha — Church of Heptapegon The Seven Springs|
The Judeo-Christians of Capharnaum venerated a large rock upon which Jesus is said to have laid the bread and fish before he fed the five thousand (Mk 6:30-44)
ca. 350 AD
Used as an altar, the rock was the very center of the first church at this site, built be a Jewish nobleman from Tiberias. Oriental communities venerated him as Saint Josipos. The church was built in close alignment with the ancient Via Maris.
ca. 480 AD
A Byzantine . . . — Map (db m44034) HM|
|Israel, Galilee, Yardenit — Yardenit The Baptismal Site on the Jordan River Close to where Jesus was baptised|
According to the Gospel of John, scripture indicates that Jesus was baptized very close to this part of the “Jordan River”. Of the four Gospel writers, John was the only one present when Jesus was baptised by John the Baptist.
In the King James version of the Bible “Bethabara” was where Jesus was baptised. Archaeologists agree that the City of Bethabara is located somewhere between the Sea of Galilee and Beit Shean. A few meters from this spot is a . . . — Map (db m44228) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Caesarea — A Collection of Architectural Artifacts|
|This garden presents a collection of architectural artifacts discovered during the excavation of Caesarea, or found by chance.
The source of much of present day knowledge of the styles and building methods of the classical world of Greece and Rome is the work of the Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius, who wrote his major text, De Architectura, some two thousand years ago.
The architecture of this region combines Hellenistic and Roman traditions with local and . . . — Map (db m64466) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Caesarea — Architectural Elements|
|The gable, cornice, frieze and architrave are some of the architectural elements that were typical of the facades and other monumental structures. The ornamentation of these buildings changed according to the adopted style.
In the Roman world, pedestals were not only used as columns supports but also as stands for statues and representative elements. — Map (db m64487) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Caesarea — Column Capitals|
|In the Classical World, Planning and Aesthetics principles were clear and unambiguous. The Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders were elaborated by the Greeks and later, adopted by the Romans, with some variations. Each order bears its own rules and particular ornamental elements. Columns capitals express these different orders. — Map (db m64499) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Caesarea — Dedicatory Inscription|
|"(Po)ntius Pilatus, the prefect of Judaea, (erected) a (building dedicated) to (the emperor) Tiberius".
Replica. The original inscription, found in secondary use during the excavations of the theater, is on display at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.
Pontius Pilatus was the Roman prefect who presided over the trial of Jesus of Nazareth (Matt. 27: 11-26). The content of the inscription and the use of the Latin language hint at the level of Romanization . . . — Map (db m64520) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Caesarea — I Appeal Unto Caesar|
|"For if I be an offender, or have committed any thing worthy of death, I refuse not to die; but if there be none of these things whereof these accuse me, no man may deliver me unto them. I appeal unto Caesar. Then Festus, when he had conferred with the council, answered, Hast thou appealed unto Caesar? Unto Caesar shalt thou go". (Acts 25: 11-12)
"And on the morrow, when Agrippa was come, and Bernice, with great pomp, and was entered into the place of hearing, with the chief . . . — Map (db m64534) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Caesarea — King Herod's Hippodrome|
|"Herod built (...) on the south quarter, behind the port, an amphitheater also capable of holding a vast number of men and conveniently situated for a prospect to the sea" Josephus
This edifice, whose location perfectly matches Flavius Josephus's description, was built for the inauguration of the city in 10/9 B.C. This hippodrome (circus, in Latin), was the venue for the Actian Games instituted by King Herod in honor of the Roman emperor Augustus. . . . — Map (db m64538) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Caesarea — Sarcophagi|
|Sarcophagi (coffins in Greek) made of stone (granite, marble, limestone) lead or wood were widely used among different people including Jews, throughout he Greco-Roman world. Sarcophagus means "flesh eater".
Stone coffins were made out of two huge blocks - a cavity in which the corpse was placed and a double-slopped roof lid on which a Greek inscription was engraved: "the grave of Prokopios the Deacon". The coffins were decorated with flora, hunting mythological scenes or with geometric . . . — Map (db m64501) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Caesarea — The Chariot-Races The Meta Prima|
|The chariot races thrilled the crowds. The counterclockwise seven-lap race commenced at the starting gates (carceres) (1) and ended at a finishing line situated in front of the dignitaries' tribune (2). At each end of the axial rib (spina) were the two turning points (meta prima and meta secunda). Their sharp curves posed a major challenge to the skilled charioteers and the galloping horses. — Map (db m64537) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Caesarea — The Promontory Palace Herod's Palace & the Roman Praetorium|
|The edifice consists of two main units: the Lower Palace comprising the private wing, and the Upper Palace, housing the public wing. The latter, built around a large peristyle courtyard, was associated with the ruler's judicial and administrative functions, as well as the reception and the entertainment of dignitaries. The Upper Palace was built shortly after the erection of the Lower Palace.
Who built this palace? Was it King Herod, on the occasion of the inauguration of the . . . — Map (db m64517) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Caesarea — The Roman Well|
|Some sixty lead scroll fragments dating to the 4th. c. A.D., probably execrations tablets and binding spells, were recovered from this well, where they had been intentionally thrown as a magical practice. In his address on the dedication of the Holy Sepulchre in 335 A.D., Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea, firmly condemned these widespread practices and what he called "curse tablets of forbidden sorcery". — Map (db m64532) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Caesarea — The Theater התיאטרון|
|The only remnants left from the Theater of Caesarea are rows of seats, the orchestra, the stage and the scene-frons which is an ornamental wall behind the stage. How did it look like? Comparisons show that it might resemble the facade of a two or three-story building with elegant doorways decorated with columns, niches and sculptures. — Map (db m64498) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — A Public Grain Silo|
|A public grain silo from the time of King Jeroboam II (8th century BCE). The silo had a capacity of 450 cubic meters. Straw found between the stones attests to the function of the installation. — Map (db m65196) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — A Unique Continuity|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
The deep section dug by the University of Chicago Expedition (1925-1939) provides a unique glimpse into the nearly thirty settlements built one on top of the other at the site. Due to the unique continuity of its occupation from the Neolithic period through the Persian period - and the scope of its excavations, Tel Megiddo is considered the 'cradle' of biblical archaeology and the 'laboratory' of modern research methods.
[Text on the . . . — Map (db m64908) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — From Megiddo to Armageddon|
|The city of Megiddo played a prominent role in the history of the ancient Near East. Strategically located at the mouth of the Nahal Iron Pass, Megiddo controlled access to the road that linked Egypt with Mesopotamia and Anatolia - the most important trade and military route of that time. Megiddo is the only site in the Land of Israel mentioned in the records of all Near Eastern ancient powers and was one of the most fought-over cities in the region. The first fully-recorded battle in history, . . . — Map (db m64782) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — Schumaker's Excavations|
|The first excavations at Tel Megiddo were directed by Gottlieb Schumacher on behalf of the Deutscher Palastina-Verein, between 1903 and 1905. After excavating the Tempelburg ('temple-fortress') in the eastern section of the mound, Schumacher dug a 25m. wide trench running north to south across the mound. The remains of several monumental buildings, as well as burial chambers vaulted in fine-stone corbelling, were exposed in the trench. — Map (db m65019) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — Tel Megiddo National Park World Heritage Site The Biblical Tels - Megiddo, Hazor, Beer Sheba|
|The biblical tels of Megiddo, Hazor and Beer Sheba were inscribed in 2005 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as World Heritage Sites with outstanding universal value. They are fitting representatives of the 200 biblical tels in Israel, which were flourishing cities in the past.These cities were established alongside ancient commercial roads and near prosperous agricultural areas, and were ruled by a central government. They made their mark on the . . . — Map (db m64811) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The City-Gate (The Late Bronze Period)|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
The Late Bronze period (1550-1150 B.C.) is marked by Egyptian rule of Canaan. At that time, Megiddo was one of the country's major city-states and its king a loyal vassal of the Egyptian pharaoh. The city-gate and the elaborate palace located just inside the are the best-known remains of this period. The city-gate was apparently incorporated into the Middle Bronze (2000-1550 B.C.) fortifications that were still in use at the time.
[Text . . . — Map (db m64821) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The City-Gate (The Iron II Period)|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
Megiddo became an Israelite city sometime between the 10th and 9th centuries B.C., and functioned as an administrative center for he fertile Jezreel Valley. Some time later, a massive wall (1) and a monumental city-gate (2-4) were built. According to one opinion, the gate dates to the reign of Solomon (10th c. B.C.). Other scholars postdate the gate to the reign of either Ahab (9th c.) or Jeroboam II (8th c. B.C.).
[Text across the . . . — Map (db m64882) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Northern Palace|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
The foundations of this palace, first investigated by Y. Yadin in 1960, are presently being excavated by 'The Megiddo Expedition'. The edifice was apparently laid out as a bit hilani (North Syrian palace) whose architecture included a monumental porticoed entrance and a large central ceremonial hall.
[Text across the Bottom of the Marker]:
"And he made the hall of pillars (...) there was a porch in front with . . . — Map (db m64898) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Northern Stables|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
Architectural complexes dating from the same period (9th or 8th c. B.C.) and of similar design were found near the northern and southern edges of the mound. Through the years they variously interpreted as stables, storehouses or marketplaces. Recent research seems to corroborate their identification as horse-stables.
[Text across the Bottom of the Marker]:
"I besieged and conquered Samaria. Led away as booty 27,290 . . . — Map (db m64889) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Sacred Area|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
This area served as a focus of worship for over two thousand years, from the Early Bronze through the Iron I periods. The University of Chicago excavation section a series of temples (1, 3-5) built one on top of the other. The Megiddo Expedition, led by a team from Tel Aviv University, uncovered an additional temple (2) unique in the Levant in its monumentality and the thousands of sacrificial animal bones found in and around it.
[Text . . . — Map (db m64985) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Southern Palace|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
An elaborate ashlar-built palace (1) stood near the southern edge of the mound. A monumental entrance (2) - the only visible remains still standing - led to the courtyard (3). Like the northern palace, this edifice may have been built along the lines of a North Syrian bit hilani. One interpretation dated its construction to King Solomon (10th c. B.C.), whereas another one postdates it to Ahab's reign (9th c. B.C.).
[Text across . . . — Map (db m65198) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Southern Stables|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
The southern stables' five units could accommodate 150 horses. As in the northern complex, each unit consists of a rectangular building divided into three sections by two rows of alternating pillars and troughs. It seems that the Northern Kingdom established a major horse-breeding and training center at Megiddo in the 8th c. B.C., and this was apparently one of the reasons for its prosperity. Assyrian records from the 9th and the 8th c. B.C. . . . — Map (db m65204) HM|
|Israel, Haifa District, Megiddo — The Water System|
|[Text on the Left Side of the Marker]:
The problem of supplying water to large cities, a serious issue even in times of peace, could become acute in times of siege. Megiddo's main water source was located at the foot of the mound, beyond the city's fortifications. In order to ensure access to the spring from within the city, a hidden gallery was built on the slope of the mound in the 10th or 9th c. B.C. This gallery was later blocked and replaced by an elaborate water system, which . . . — Map (db m65215) HM|
|Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — Absalom's Tomb|
|This splendid burial monument dates to the end of the Second temple period. The lower part of the monument is hewn and the upper part is constructed. The name derives from the biblical verse that tells of Absalom's construction of a monument for himself during his lifetime, which he called Absalom's Monument. However, there is no connection between the Bible story and the structure you see here, which was built 1,000 years later. The style in which it was hewn combines varied architectural . . . — Map (db m63866) HM|
|Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — Beit Hatzofeh Lookout A Journey to the Source|
|"Jerusalem, hills enfold it, and the Lord enfolds his people now and forever" (Psalms 125:2)
Jerusalem was first established on the hill on which you are now standing almost 4,000 years ago, during the Canaanite Period (Middle Bronze Age II). Flanking the hill are the Kidron Valley and the Central Valley and Mt. Moriah rises to the north.
A journey to the City of David, the ancient core of Jerusalem, is a journey to the source. The City of David was the . . . — Map (db m63924) HM|
|Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — Double Gate Monumental Stairs and Observation Plaza|
|The Restoration Project
of the Second Temple Period
Double Gate Monumental Stairs
and Observation Plaza — Map (db m63963) HM|
|Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — Gethsemane|
Garden of Olives
Jesus went out with his disciples across the Kidron valley to a place where there was a garden, which he and his disciples entered. (Gospel of John 18:1)
“Gethsemane, a place where the Savior prayed before the passion. It is at the foot of the Mount of Olives, and today the faithful eagerly go to pray there.” (Eusebius of Caesarea: end of 3rd Cent. A.D.)
Campus Florum (since 13th Cent. A.D.) – Flower Garden
Old Olive Trees . . . — Map (db m44596) HM|
|Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — Jaffa Gate Old City Jerusalem|
| [Text in Hebrew
[Text in English:] Jaffa Gate is the westernmost of the gates in the walls of Jerusalem. It is so named as the starting point of the road to Jaffa port. Its Arabic name, Bab al-Khalil, meaning “Hebron Gate,” indicates that the road to Hebron, the ancient city of the Patriarchs, also started there. An Arabic inscription in the gate structure commemorates its construction: “In the name of Allah, the merciful and the compassionate, our lord . . . — Map (db m44853) HM|
|Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — Jehoshaphat's Cave מערת יהושפט مغارة يهوشافاط|
|This is a burial complex from the Second Temple period. The facade of the cave features the relief of a gable resembling the roof facade of a sacred building. The decorative style is drawn from Hellenistic art, which influenced Jewish burial architecture at the end of the Second Temple period. The complex contains a number of burial niches; the identity of those interred here is not known. The cave's name comes from the identification of this part of the Kidron Valley as the biblical Valley of Jehoshaphat. — Map (db m63932) HM|
|Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — Ketef Hinnom|
|The Burial Caves date from the First Temple Period. Throughout many generations, they served affluent Jerusalem families as a location to bury their dead. The deceased was placed on a stone slab with a special indentation for the head. At the end of the twelve-month mourning period, the skeletal remains were transferred to a repository located beneath the stone slabs. This evokes the image of the Biblical phrase "he was gathered unto his forefathers."
The most important and most ancient of . . . — Map (db m63881) HM|
|Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — Ritual Baths and Water Conduits|
|The Restoration Project of the Second Temple period
Ritual Baths and Water Conduits
in the area south of the Temple Mount Enclosure — Map (db m63951) HM|
|Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — The Burnt Room and the House of the Bullae Destruction and Ruin|
|"He burned the House of the Lord, the king's palace, and all the houses of Jerusalem; he burned down the house of every notable person." (II Kings 25: 9)
This residential quarter went up in flames with the rest of the city during the Babylonian during the Babylonian destruction of 586 BCE.
The floors of the houses were covered by a thick layer of ash. Beneath the heap of rubble in one room, Yigal Shiloh uncovered Babylonian and Israelite arrowheads and . . . — Map (db m63933) HM|
|Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — The House of Ahiel|
|Here Dwells Ahiel in a Four Room House
"He (David) had houses made for himself in the City of David..." (1 Chronicles15: 1)
The name 'Ahiel' appears on potsherds found among the ruins of this house. The House of Ahiel is a 'four-room house' - a typical Israelite dwelling, consisting of three parallel spaces closed off by a fourth. The roof beams were supported by pillars, part of which can be seen here. It is reasonable to assume that this was a two-story . . . — Map (db m65296) HM|
|Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — The Large Stone Structure The Remains of King David's Palace? מבנה האבן הגדול|
|"And Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar - trees, and carpenters, and masons; and they built David a house" (II Samuel 5: 11)
Excavations in progress at this site since May 2005 conducted by Eilat Mazar, have revealed the remains of a large building, known as the Large Stone Structure. Finds uncovered in relation to the structure indicate that it was built in the early 10th century BCE during the reign of King David. In Mazar's opinion the building can . . . — Map (db m64064) HM|
|Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — The Pool of Shiloah (Siloam) Second Temple Splendor|
|"The other events of Hezekiah's reign, and all his exploits, and all his exploits, and how he made the pool and the conduit and brought the water into the city, are recorded in the Annals of the Kings of Judah" (II Kings 20:20)
Remains from the pool that King Hezekiah built in the First temple period have yet to be found. However, in the summer of 2004 remains of a very large pool (covering an area of three dunams, or three-quarters of an acre) from the Second Temple . . . — Map (db m63905) HM|
|Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — The Royal Quarter (Area G)|
|"...the city shall be rebuilt on its mound, and the fortress in its proper place" (Jeremiah 30:18)
The inhabitants of ancient Jerusalem once built their homes on this hillside. The earliest structure unearthed here was part of an enormous Stepped Stone Structure that supported King David's Palace or the Canaanite fortress that preceded it. In the early First Temple period, stately homes and an official archive were built upon the Stepped Stone Structure. . . . — Map (db m63928) HM|
|Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — The Water System (Warren's Shaft) Into the Depths of the Earth Through the Ancient Water System|
|"And David said on that day: 'Whosoever smiteth the Jebusites, and getteth up to the gutter...'" (II Samuel 5:8)
We are standing at the entrance to a subterranean water system. The Gihon Spring was Jerusalem's main water source from the city's earliest days. However, the spring's location near the bottom of the eastern slope forced the city's builders to leave it outside the city walls and to create a protected passageway that led to the water source.
In . . . — Map (db m63947) HM|
|Israel, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem — Western Wall Temple Mount [Old City of Jerusalem]|
|The Divine presence never moves from the Western Wall.
Jewish tradition teaches that the Temple Mount is the focal point of Creation. In the center of the mountain lies the “Foundation Stone” of the world. Here Adam came into being. Here Abraham, Isaac and Jacob served God. The First and Second Temples were built upon this mountain.
The Ark of the Covenant was set upon the Foundation Stone itself. Jerusalem was chosen by God as the dwelling place of the . . . — Map (db m44722) HM|
|Israel, North District, Nazareth — Basilica of the Annunciation|
“And the Word became flesh”
Historians tell that the Grotto and its surroundings, being the site of the Annunciation were turned into a worship place in the 1st and 2nd Century.
-Early sources referred to the place as being “The House of the Virgin Mary” What supports this claim are the numerous inscriptions on the walls, mentioning Mary, which were left by pilgrims and visitors in
-In 427 AD, the first Byzantine church was built . . . — Map (db m44298) HM|
|Israel, North District, Nazareth — The Church of St. Joseph [Sanctuario di Nazareth]|
| [Text in Hebrew
[Text in Arabic
This church was built in 1914 on the site of an earlier 12th century church.
-The caves, granaries and wells in the lower level were used by the early dwellers of Nazareth. Later, Christians turned the site into a worship place.
-Travellers who had visited the place in the 7th Century pointed out that this had been the location of the “Carpentry Shop of Joseph”
-Later traditions identify the place as being . . . — Map (db m44353) HM|
|Israel, Northern District, Capharnaum — The Synagogue of Jesus|
|The Late Fourth Century A.D.
Built Upon the Remains of the
"Synagogue of Jesus" — Map (db m64091) HM|
|Israel, Northern District, Nazareth — Mount of Precipice The Leaping Mountain|
|Rising above the southern part of the
Nazareth Mountain Mt. of Precipice (397 meters)
Look out over Nazareth, Mt. Tabor and
The Yizrael Valley at its foot.
Mt. of Precipice is also known as "The
Leaping Mountain" - according to old
tradition, Jesus jumped from this mountain
when fleeting his pursuers.
At the foot of the mountain is the "Oafzer"
cave where neolithic remains were found
(7000 - 10000 B.C) into the remains of the
Mosterian Piriod (80000 - 10000 years . . . — Map (db m65395) HM|
|Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — "Magic on the sea of galilee..."|
|Tiberias the capital of the Galilee, one of the four Holy Cities of Israel Which was built by Antipas in the year 17-20, C.E. Antipas named the city Tiberias in honor of the Roman Ceasar, Tiberius. The institution of Jewish Leadership, the Sanhedrin and the Presidency moved to Tiberias from Tzipori. The Jerusalem Talmud was complied in Tiberias in the 5th century. Schools of poets, Rabbies and Scholars are thriving during the period of Geonim. "The Tiberias Vowel Punctuation" was developed in this period and still is in use today. — Map (db m65327) HM|
|Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — Domestic Building|
|This building was part of Tiberias' northern quarter between the 6th and 11th centuries CE. The quarter occupied by Jews and the synagogue stood in its center. This building has three rooms and a courtyard with a well. — Map (db m65359) HM|
|Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — Doors of Burial Caves / Burial Customs - Sarcophagi|
|[Text at the top of the marker]: Doors of Burial Caves
Burial caves were frequently sealed by stone doors in order to prevent bad smells and looting. In 2nd-3rd centuries CE Tiberias, basalt doors were used in mausolea and decorated with relief of panels and iron nails that imitated wooden doors.
[Text at the bottom of the marker]: Burial Customs - Sarcophagi
Burial in stone coffins (sarcophagi) was common from the second to the fifth centuries CE. The . . . — Map (db m65341) HM|
|Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — The Architecture of Tiberias|
|The Architecture of Tiberias
The columns, bases, cornices and capitals attest to the superb architecture of the public buildings in Tiberias. These were built according to the 2nd-3rd centuries CE Roman Imperial tradition. The architectural elements were made of local limestone and basalt as well as marble and grey granite imported from Asia Minor and North America.
Columns created large spaces in public building. They stood up to 4.5 m. high . . . — Map (db m65352) HM|
|Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — The Crusader-Ottoman Building / Millstones|
|[Text at the top of the marker]: The Crusader-Ottoman Building
This was built in the 12th century CE and remained in use until the Ottoman period. The hall has typical pointed vaults and embrasures in the walls, with remains of another two perpendicular halls. These halls were part of the Tiberias fort that was the capital of the Crusader 'Galilee Principality', and was integrated into Daher el-Omar's fortifications in the 18th century CE.
[Text at the bottom of the . . . — Map (db m65331) HM|
|Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — The Southern Wall|
|The wall was erected by the Beduin Governor of the Tiberias Region, Daher El-Omer, in the 18th century on the basis of the ruins of an earlier wall built by the Crusaders.
The wall was destroyed in the 1837 earthquake and since then only partially rebuilt. In the beginning of the 20th century, new settlements were established for the first time, outside the walls. The remaining ruins were once again struck by the great flood of 1934. — Map (db m65326) HM|
|Israel, Northern District, Tiberias — The Synagogue|
|This is one of the thirteen synagogues existed in Tiberias according to the Talmud. It was a square building divided by two rows of columns. One of the mosaics bears a dedication inscription decorated with Jewish symbols: Lulav and Etrog. The dedication mentions "Prokolos son of Crispos" who either made the mosaic or donated it. The synagogue was built in the 6th century CE and lasted until the 11th century CE. — Map (db m65333) HM|
|Israel, Northern District, Tsipori — The Citadel|
|The Citadel (perhaps a watch tower) was built during the crusader period on foundations from an earlier period. Some of the cornerstones are rubble-filled Roman sarcophagi.
In the 18th Century the building was renovated by Dahr El-Omar, the Bedouin ruler of the Galilee.
At the end of the Ottoman Period it was rebuilt for use as a schoolhouse and was renovated again during the British Mandate. — Map (db m65412) HM|
|Israel, Northern District, Tsipori — The Theater|
|The Roman theater was built in the late first or early second century C.E. Carved into the bedrock on the steep northern slope of the hill. It's diameter is 72 m., and it seated 4000.
The rows of seats constructed on the hewn bedrock were robbed in antiquity. The lowest three rows are partly reconstructed with original stones.
Behind the orchestra (place of the choir during the Greek period, and reserved for honored guests in Roman times) stood a stage. It's floor was made of wooden . . . — Map (db m65405) HM|
|Israel, Northern District (Upper Galilee Regional Council), Snir — The Court of Nemesis|
|Nemesis was the goddess of vengeance and Roman imperial justice. Her long and narrow court was built in 178 CE in front of a great niche in which her statue was placed. A Greek inscription above the niche mentions the names of the goddess and of the donor. The pavers of the court were arranged in a checker pattern of white and reddish stones. — Map (db m64781) HM|
|Israel, Northern District (Upper Galilee Regional Council), Snir — The Court of Pan & the Nymphs|
|The stepped and paved courtyard on which you are standing was built in the mid-first century CE. An artificial cave was quarried in the cliff-face opposite the courtyard, and there the statue of Pan was placed. Pagan worship was carried out in this courtyard, as illustrated below. In 148 CE, two more niches were added to the rock face. According to the Greek inscriptions chiseled on the rock scarp, one niche housed a sculpture of Echo, the mountain nymph and Pan's consort, and the other, a . . . — Map (db m64754) HM|
|Israel, Northern District (Upper Galilee Regional Council), Snir — The Grotto of the God Pan מערת האל פאן|
|The cave is the nucleus beside which the sacred sanctuary was built. In this "abode of the shepherd god," pagan cult began as early as the 3rd century BCE. The ritual sacrifices were cast into a natural abyss reaching the underground waters at the back of the cave. If the victims disappeared in the water, this was a sign that the god had accepted the offering. If. however, signs of blood appeared in the nearby springs, the sacrifice had been rejected. — Map (db m64738) HM|
|Israel, Northern District (Upper Galilee Regional Council), Snir — The Sanctuary of Pan|
|The conquests of Alexander the Great (3rd c. BCE) brought the Greeks to the East, and to Banyas. The Greeks were taken by the natural beauty of the site, touched particularly by the cave in which the springs welled. It is no wonder that they sanctified this cave, dedicating it to Pan, god of the forest and the shepherds. Thus came the name Panyas, later becoming "Banyas" in Arabic pronunciation.Towards the end of the first century BCE, the Romans incorporated Banyas into Herod's empire. To show . . . — Map (db m64764) HM|
|Israel, Northern District (Upper Galilee Regional Council), Snir — The Temple of Augustus|
|Built in 19 BCE, during the reign of Herod the Great, in honor of the Roman Emperor Augustus. The coin at the top of this text, shows the facade of the temple. In front of you is the western wall of the hall with semicircular and rectangular niches housing the statues of the deities. The back wall of the temple served as a passage to the Grotto of Pan - the holy of holies of this site.
The passage was decorated with the carved stones displayed to your right. — Map (db m64632) HM|
|Israel, Northern District (Upper Galilee Regional Council), Snir — The Temple of Zeus|
|Built around 96 CE in the days of Emperor Trajan, for the city's 100th anniversary. A marble inscription found at the site implies that it was a temple for Pan and for Zeus of Heliopolis (the city of Ba'albek). Only the foundations of the temple survived. Originally it included a columnar portico behind which there stood a "cella" (hall) where rites were conducted. The splendid Corinthian capital seen nearby once crowned one of the four columns of the facade. The Panias city coin above shows . . . — Map (db m64768) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — Bathing in Roman Style|
|"The fittings of the interior - apartments, colonnades and baths - were of manifold variety and sumptuous ..."
Beyond the human need for cleanliness, the bathhouse also had a social function. Bathing and the associated physical activities were an important element in Roman social and cultural life, to which Herod aspired. This was where the king and his guests met, bathed and exercised. The sophisticated bathing arrangements, which are reminiscent of a dry . . . — Map (db m64079) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — Columbarium Tower (dovecot)|
|Why did the king raise doves on the mountain?
There were three columbarium towers on Masada. The one in front of us was used as a dovecot in its ground floor, and as a watchtower in its upper story. In the walls of the dovecot are several hundred niches in which the doves roosted. They supplied meat for Masada's inhabitants and guests, and probably also fertilizer for agricultural crops. — Map (db m64068) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The "Casemate of the Scrolls"|
|A large and rare concentration of finds from the time of the revolt was found in a corner of the room of the wall in which we stand: inscribed sheets of papyrus, fragments of scrolls, silver shekel coins, textiles, sandals, and glass vessels and bone implements. Among the finds was the pay record of a Roman cavalryman in the Tenth Legion. The most interesting finds were the scroll fragments, some of which show that during the siege there were members of different sects on the mountain. The . . . — Map (db m64071) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The Breaching Point נקודת הפריצה|
|Here the siege of Masada ended. The ramp that the Romans had built up to the summit of the mountain reached to below this point. At the top of the ramp rose the siege tower, and in it was the battering ram with which the Romans assaulted the casemate wall. However, the rebels had built a wall of earth and wood, against which the battering ram was ineffective:
"Observing this, Silva, thinking it easier to destroy this wall by fire, ordered his soldiers to hurl at it showers of burning . . . — Map (db m64069) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The Discovery Location of the "Lots"|
|"...then, having chosen by lot ten of their number to dispatch the rest... these, having unswervingly slaughtered all, ordained the same rule of the lot for one another, that he on whom it fell should slay first the nine nd then himself last of all."
Here several hundred inscribed pottery shards (ostraca) were found. Outstanding among them was a group consisting of names and nicknames, including the name "Ben Ya'ir." Yigael Yadin, the most distinguished of . . . — Map (db m64101) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The Rebel's Community Life|
|How to organize community life under siege?
Near the western entrance square were discovered large concentrations of inscribed pottery shards (ostraca) from the period of the revolt. They bear names, combinations of letters or single letters in Hebrew. These shards were apparently used as food-rationing coupons, as a substitute for money, or to register fighting units or the families that lived on the mountain. Both types demonstrate the community life of the rebels in Masada. It is probable . . . — Map (db m64077) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The Synagogue|
|"Long since, my brave men, we determined neither to serve the Romans nor any other save God ..."
The rebels' way of life on Masada required a building suitable for community meetings and Torah readings. This building, which became a synagogue during the revolt, was built in Herod's time, most likely as a stable.
The rebels changed its internal structure and even closed off a small room in the corner of the hall, which apparently served for storage of Torah . . . — Map (db m64076) HM|
|Israel, Southern District (Mehoz HaDarom), Arad — The Water Gate שער המים|
|The path that climbed to Masada from the west via the cisterns terminated at this gate. Visitors to the mountain and the beasts of burden that carried water took this path to the summit of Masada. A channel starting at the gate carried to some of the cisterns on the mountain.
The stone paving of the gate was intended to prevent damage to the surface from the animals' hooves. — Map (db m64148) HM|