|Turkey, İzmir (Selçuk District), Ephesus — Last Home of the Blessed Virgin, the Mother of Jesus Christ|
| Notice About The Shrine
This place is considered to be the last home of the Blessed Virgin, the Mother of Jesus Christ.
The Facts According to the Scriptures: St. John, in his Gospel, tells us that Jesus, before dying on the Cross, entrusted to him the care of His Mother when He said: “Here is your Mother,” and from that hour St. John took Her to his own. The “Acts of the Apostles” relate how, after the death of Christ, His followers were persecuted . . . — Map (db m44049) HM|
|Turkey, İzmir (Selçuk District), Ephesus — Processional Way|
Dini Alay Yolu [text in Turkish
Processional Way [text in English]
Annual festivals named Artemisia or Ephesia in antiquity were undertaken in honour of Artemis, the city goddess of Ephesos. The festivities, which lasted for several days, were framed by sportive and musical competitions, although the focus was the procession accompanied by sacrifices. The procession, in which a festively adorned and bedecked cult figure of Artemis was carried, also served . . . — Map (db m44269) HM|
|Turkey, İzmir (Selçuk District), Ephesus — The Celsus Library|
Celsus Kutuphanesi [text in Turkish
The Celsus Library [text in English]:
The Celsus Library, certainly the most well-known monument in Ephesos, was built between A.D. and 110 by Gaius Iulius Aquila for his father, the senator Tiberius Iulius Celsus Polemaeanus. The library can actually be interpreted as a heroon which was built over the burial chamber of the deceased.
A flight of nine steps at the façade, flanked by statue bases, led to a . . . — Map (db m43992) HM|
|Turkey, İzmir (Selçuk District), Ephesus — The Great Theatre [Ephesus]|
| Büyük Tiyatro [text in Turkish...]
The Great Theatre [text in English]
The Great Theatre goes back to a preceding structure of the Hellenistic period (3rd-1st century B.C.). In the Roman period there was an extensive rebuilding under the Emperors Domitian (A.D. 81-96) and Trajan (A.D. 98-117) with at first a two-, later three-storeyed impressive facade. In addition to theatre performances, assemblies also took place there; in the later Imperial period, . . . — Map (db m84362) HM|
|Turkey, İzmir (Selçuk District), Selçuk — St. Jean (Aziz Yahya) Kilisesi/The Church of St. John|
| [Left column: text in Turkish]
[Right column: text in English]
According to the written sources, the basilica with wooden roof which includes St. Johns grave was in a poor situation in 6th century AD. Emperor Justinian (527–565 AD) and Queen Theodora constructed instead the six-domed church whose ruins are visible today. This church, which is cruciform and measures 130 by 65 meters, was one of the most impressive religious structures built after Artemis Temple in . . . — Map (db m43721) HM|
|Turkey, İzmir (Selçuk District), Selçuk — St. Jean'in (Aziz Yahya) Kimliği Ve Hayatı/The Life of St. John|
| [Left column: text in Turkish]
[Right column: text in English]
According to an opinion that is based on the decision of, and thus at least as old as the council of Ephesus in 431 A.D., it is generally accepted that St. John came to Ephesus together with The Virgin Mary somewhere between 37 and 48 A.D., where they spent the remaining [days] of their lives. While he was being crucified, Jesus entrusted his mother to St. John, his most loved disciple, and “After these . . . — Map (db m43715) HM|
|Turkey, İzmir (Selçuk district), Selçuk — The Basilica of St. John|
| St. John was the youngest of the 12 Apostles of Jesus, often referred to as the “Evangelist” or “Beloved.” After the death of Jesus, the followers of Christ were subjected to persecution. St. Johns own brother, James, was the first martyr among the Apostles, having been “put to death with the sword” by King Herod Agrippa I about 42-44 A.D. (Acts 12:2). When Herod saw that this pleased his people, he sought to seize other Apostles. To avoid persecution, St. . . . — Map (db m43712) HM|
|Turkey, İzmir Province (Selçuk (district)), Selçuk — The Bouleuterion Bouleuterion|
|English: The Bouleuterion housed the meetings of the council (boule) as well as musical performances and contests. The originally roofed semi-circular auditorium is bonded to a stage wall. The building was erected around A.D. 100. In A.D. 150, Publius Vedius Antoninus sponsored a new stage building which displayed a portrait gallery of the Imperial family and letters of Emperor Antoninus Pius (A.D. 138-161).
Turkish: Bouleuterion, kent meclisinin (boule) oturumlarına ev . . . — Map (db m84282) HM|
|Turkey, İzmir Province (Selçuk (district)), Selçuk — The 'State Agora' 'Devet Agorasi'|
|English: Probably in the 15th century B.C., an enclosure was set up in the saddle between the two city mountains; at the beginning of the 1“century A.D. it covered an area of 160 x 58 m. The area was surrounded by porticoes on three sides. The location was bordered at the west by an ashlar wall, against which numerous individual monuments were erected. At the latest since the time of Emperor Augustus (27 B.C. - A.D. 14), the `State Agora' with its surrounding buildings constituted . . . — Map (db m84281) HM|
|Turkey, Aksaray Province (Aksaray (district)), Sultanhani — Aksaray - Sultanhanı Caravanserai (1229) Aksaray - Sultanhanı Kervansarayı (1229)|
Situated on Konya - Aksaray highway, Sultanhanı is the largest and best caravanserai of the seljuks. It was built by Alaattin Keykubat 1. in 1229. After a fire, it was restored and extended in 1278 by the governor Siracettin El Hasan during the reign of Giyasettin Keyhüsrev. Af(t)er this extension it became the larges caravanserai of Turkey.
It consists of two sections: Open and covered ones. The open courtyard was used in summer and the covered one was used in . . . — Map (db m84169) HM|
|Turkey, Ankara (Ankara Metropolitan Municipality) — Ankara Castle Ankara Kalesi Tarihçesi|
Its construction date is not known clearly. It it thought to be constructed by Hittites who placed a manial area in the city. But this thought has not been verified with archeological findings. Before Hittites, Ankara Castle had been restored countless times by Romans, Byzantiums and Seljuks and it is formed of inner castle which surrounds the higher part of hills and outer castle which surrounds its around (Outer Castle have 20 towers). Outer castle covers ancient Ankara . . . — Map (db m83912) HM|
|Turkey, Ankara (Ankara Metropolitan Municipality) — Çengel Han Yapin 1522 - Restorasyon 2005|
The Çengel Han was built in 1522-1523 during the reign of Kanuni Sultan Süleyman by Damat Rüstem Paşa who was married to the Sultans daughter Mihrimah Sultan. Though it was built close to 500 years ago, the Çengel Han still stands upright and is one of the few buildings of the Han district of Ankara to have retained its original form.
The Çengel Han functioned as a typical Anatolian Caravanserai: in other words it was an Inn with a market place in the . . . — Map (db m83891) HM|
|Turkey, Ankara (Ankara Metropolitan Municipality) — History of the Museum Buildings Müze Yapılarının Tarihi|
The museum consists of two buildings, the Bedesten and the Kurşsunlu Han. The Bedesten (covered market), not arranged as the exhibition hall, was built by Mahmut Pasha, Grand Vizier (1455-1466, 1472-1473) under Mehmet II, the Conqueror. The building is formed by a central space covered by ten domes, and supported on four pillars. The market was surrounded by 102 shops. Alpaca clothes, unique to Ankara, were sold there.
The Kurşunlu Han lies to the east of the . . . — Map (db m83995) HM|
|Turkey, Antalya (Serik (district)), Serik — Aspendos|
|English: In antiquity, central part of Antalya was known as “Pamphylia”, the land of all tribes, and is thought to have been settled originally by migrating people from Anatolia. Pamphylia grew into a populous region and many fine cities were established. None was more impressive, however, than the city of Aspendos. Aspendos was divided into two areas; upper and lower. The lower city provided access for busy river traffic, and contained mainly the shipping and commercial . . . — Map (db m84193) HM|
|Turkey, Antalya Province (Aksu (district)), Aksu — Macellum / Agora|
|English: The building complex that measures 75 x 75 m includes a central area limited by porticoes and shops. The macellum has an entrance on all four sides. The shops on the north and west face alternately the macellum or the street outside, while
those on the east do not have any connection with the street. The shops on the south originally had two stories. The porticoes were paved with mosaics. The function of the round building in the center is still under discussion.
In . . . — Map (db m84207) HM|
|Turkey, Antalya Province (Aksu (district)), Aksu — Perge|
|English: The earliest archaeological finds at Perge, a very important city in the region of Pamphylia, date from the end of the fifth millennium B.C. and come from the acropolis. These are followed by uninterrupted layers of habitation beginning in the third millennium B.C. Evidently receiving migration from the Greek mainland, Perge nourished a culturally hybrid environment. In the middle of the first millennium B.C it came under the rule of the lydian and Persian kingdoms . . . — Map (db m84210) HM|
|Turkey, Antalya Province (Aksu (district)), Aksu — Perge|
|The first dig at Perge had been made by Ord.Prof.Dr.Arlf Müfit Mansel and his team under his leadership in the year of 1946. Between the years of 1975-1986, the digs were made under the leadership of Prof.Dr.Jale Inan. During the digs the remains of formal buildings and many sculptures which had been made by people of Perge were found out. In the year of 1988, Prof.Dr.HaIuk Abbasoğlu became the head of the diggings and they began to dig for houses to understand social life of people and . . . — Map (db m84215) HM|
|Turkey, Antalya Province (Aksu (district)), Aksu — Roman Door Roma Kapısı|
|English: There are four doors opening into four directions on the walls of the ancient city of Perge. However, in the south, there are two doors which were made at Hellenistic and Roman periods and there is a courtyard of 72.2m between two of them. One of these two doors in the south is called as the Roman Door.
When danger of caos (sic) and war started to threaten the peace, People of Perge built new walls to strengthen the defense system of the City like the other Pamphylia cities . . . — Map (db m84209) HM|
|Turkey, Antalya Province (Aksu (district)), Aksu — Southern Baths Güney Hamami Süd-Therme|
|English: The complex, one of the best preserved buildings in Perge, is noteworthy because of its size and monumentality when compared with its counterparts in Pamphylia. Rooms that served different functions like the dressing room (apodyterium), cold bath (frigidarium), warm bath (tepidarium), hot bath (caldarium), and exercise area (palaestra) were lined side by side and offered maximum utility to the bathers who had the chance to pass from one room to another of their choice. The . . . — Map (db m84208) HM|
|Turkey, Antalya Province (Serik (district)), Serik — The Theatre of Aspendos Aspendos Tiyatmsu|
|Theatre of Aspendos is the best preserved ancient theatre in Asia Minor and the most Magnificent Roman building of the province of Pamphylia as well. It was designed by the architect Zeno, son of Theodorus. This theatre by Zeno shows the final culmination of the practical as well as representative ideas of Roman theatre architecture.
Two-storied scaenae front is the most impressive part of the theatre. It was covered by marble and luxuriously decorated with forty free-standing columns and . . . — Map (db m84194) HM|
|Turkey, Çanakkale Province (Eceabat district), Eceabat — 57th Infantry Regiment 57. Piyade Alayı Tarihçesi|
|English: The 57th Infantry Regiment was formed during the Balkan War in 1912. On 1 February 1915, it was reconstituted under the command of the 19th Infantry Division as part of the Turkish Fifth Army.
The regiment showed outstanding valour under the leadership of Colonel Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) during the Allied landings at Ari Burnu on 25 April 1915, when the regiment played a significant role in preventing the advance of ANZAC forces inland on that day.
The 57th . . . — Map (db m85113) HM|
|Turkey, Çanakkale Province (Eceabat district), Eceabat — Lone Pine Cemetery|
| To the glory of God and the lasting memory of 3268 Australian soldiers who fought on Gallipoli in 1915 and have no known graves, and 456 New Zealand soldiers whose names are not recorded in any other areas of the peninsula but who fell in the Anzac area and have no known graves; and also of 960 Australians and 252 New Zealanders who fighting on Gallipoli in 1915, incurred mortal wounds or sickness and found burial at sea. — Map (db m85110) WM|
|Turkey, Çanakkale Province (Eceabat district), Eceabat — The Gallipoli Campaign of 1915 Gelibolu Harekâtı --1915|
|English: The Allied objectives in the Gallipoli Campaign were, by capturing Istanbul, to force Turkey out of the war, to secure an ice-free sea supply route to Russia and to open another front against Germany and Austria-Hungary. The campaign fell into four phases the first being the naval operations of early 1915 culminating, on 18th March, in the unsuccessful attempt by battleships to force the Dardanelles. The second was the landings, beginning on 25th April, by British and French . . . — Map (db m85111) HM|
|Turkey, Çanakkale Province (Eceabat district), Eceabat — The Nek Cemetery|
This was a ﬁercely contested part of the front-line at Anzac. A narrow passage across the ridge known as the Nek' lay just below a hill designated Baby 700 by Commonwealth forces. After the Armistice. the remains of several hundred men were discovered on this ground and in the surrounding gullies. This is the final resting place of some 320 Commonwealth servicemen. Among them are casualties of an attack by New Zealand forces on 2 May l9l5. but most fell during an . . . — Map (db m85115) HM WM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Beyoğlu district), Istanbul — Galatasarayı Hamami|
İnşaası: Sultan Bayazıt.II.1481-1541
ilâve ve tamirler: Sultan Selim II.
avcı Mehet. IV. Ahmet.III. mahmu dı
restorasiyon Hüseyin Yumuşak
The Galatasaray Bathhouse
Construction of Sultan Bayazıt.II.1481-1541
Additions and repairs: Sultan Selim II.
avcı Mehet.IV., Ahmet.II. The mahmer di
Restoration by Hussein . . . — Map (db m84877) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Beyoğlu district), Istanbul — Maksem Taksim Taksim Maksem|
The settlement increased on the shores of the Bosphorus in the period of (1703-1730) Ahmed III and brought the problem of water supply. To solve this problem, development activities were initiated but these development activities could not go beyond an early stage due to the Patrona Halil revolt. In 1730, Mahmud I who passed to throne continued these undertakings and completed Taksim Water Plants in 1731. With some additions and corrections made then, the plant had taken its . . . — Map (db m84831) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Beyoğlu district), Istanbul — The Tunnel Tünel|
The story of the Tunnel. which is the second oldest underground system in the World after the London Underground, started with the French engineer Eugene Henri Gavands initiative. Engineer Gavand observed people shuttling between Galata and Pera. the financial and trade centers of the city at that time and thought about an alternative way to Yüksek Kaldırım and Gaiip Dede Street, two streets connecting these centers. He was accepted by Sultan Abdülaziz, the Ottoman . . . — Map (db m84829) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — Şimkeşhane|
This building is one of the first construction works in the city after the conquest of Istanbul. according to its epigraph. The place where Şimkeşhane (a place where thread was produced for fabric) was built, used to be the Forum Tauri in the Roman period, built by Theodosius with a tripartite triumphal arch. The forum was ruined during the conquest, and the Chief of Sekban (mercenaries of peasant background) Yakup Aga commissioned a mosque on the ruins of the . . . — Map (db m84950) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — Admiral Hayrettin Kaptan-i Derya Hayrettin Paşa (Barbarossa / Barbaros) (1473 -1543)|
This place belongs to "The Foundation of the Sons and Servants of Great Turkish Admiral Hayrettin (Barbarossa) Pasha." The sailors of the Pasha were resting here without losing sight of the sea. In the XVI Century, one of the biggest fires utterly ruined these buildings. Fifteen wooden houses built afterwards, were overthrown in 1986. The Armada Hotel was built in 1994 with the restoration project which kept the original facade of the building under the supervision of the . . . — Map (db m84709) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — Alay Pavillion Alay Köşkü|
Alay Pavilion was the building constructed above the outer wall of Topkapl Palace for the sultans to watch the ceremonies. Before the construction of Alay Pavillion, there was a timber pavilion in 16th century. The recent building of the pavilion was constructed by Mahmud II in Western European style.
The pavilion that was reached by a wide ramp passing from Gulhane Park, was composed of a round sultan room and service buildings.The top of the pavilion was covered by . . . — Map (db m85044) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — Basilica Cistern Yerbatan Sarnıcı|
The Basilica Cistern was constructed by Eastern Roman Emperor I. Justinianus (527-565) in 542 A.D. to provide water requirement of the Great Palace. Due to the brilliance among the marble columns arising within the water, it was called as Yerebatan Cistern by the public. The name Basilica in foreign sources was said to come from the Ilius Basilica being close to the cistern.
Basilica Cistern is a huge building covering the area of 9.800 m2. Here there are 336 columns . . . — Map (db m84740) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih District), Istanbul — Cistern of Philoxenos Binbirdirek (Fileksenos) Sarnıcı|
|English: The cistern was constructed in 4th century. As the Emperor Constantinus I reestablished the city, some members of the senate were forced to migrate here and Philoxenos that was one of them constructed his palace next to the Hippodrome. In order to meet water requirement of this palace, he also constructed this cistern.
The rumors about its use in Ottoman era were contrary. Because German voyager R. Lubenau who visited Istanbul in 16th century, stated that silk spinning . . . — Map (db m84689) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — Firuz Aga Mosque Firuz Aǧa Camii|
Firuz Aga Mosque was constructed by Firuz Aga who was Chief-treasurer of Sultan Bayezid II. The mosque was a bigger yard before the extension of Divanyolu, was constructed in 1491 as it was shown at the tablet on its door. The script at the tablet was written by Sheikh Hamdullah Efendi. The mosque that is a typical small mosque with a single dome and a simple mixture of Bursa style has square plan. Four sconces were constructed at the upper part of four edges formed by the . . . — Map (db m84948) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — German Fountain Alman Çeşmesi|
|English: German Fountain is a monument dedicated to the second visit of the Prussian King and German Emperor Wilhelm II in 1898. The monument, which was presented in the name of Turkish-German friendship, extending its function of being a fountain with its political meaning and content, is today mostly known for its monumental value.
The plans for the fountain were drawn by the private consultant of the Kaiser, Architect Spitta and its construction was overseen by the architect . . . — Map (db m84692) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — Gulhane Park Gülhane Parkı|
Gulhane Park used to be the exterior yard of Topkapi Palace during the
Ottoman Period, encompassing rose gardens and a grove.
Gulhane was landscaped and transformed into a park in 1912 during the period of Cemil Topuzlu, former Mayor of Istanbul, and became public. Its total area is around 163 decares. On the right side of the entrance lie the busts of former mayors. A path of trees on both sides passes through the center of the park. Right and left to this path, there . . . — Map (db m85041) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — Haseki Hurrem Bathhouse Haseki Hürrem Hamamı|
|English: This building that was one of the great and gorgeous buildings of Ottoman bathhouses in Istanbul, was constructed by Hurrem Sultan in 1556-57. The architect of the building, that was called "Hagias Sophia Bathouse", was Architect Sinan.
The building that lost its genuine use in the beginning of Republican era was used as gas tank of the municipality, and was warehouse of State Printing Office for a while. It was ruined due to negligence; also a door was opened in-between . . . — Map (db m84632) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — March 16th Martyrs On Altı Mart Şehitleri|
The ”March 16th Martyrs" is an event that took place on 16th March 1920 when the military station in Şehzadebaş was raided and six soldiers killed during the British occupation of Istanbul. After the Armistice
of Mudros was signed on 30th October 1918, the Entente Powers fleets anchored their battleships in front of Dolmabahçe Palace and landed troops.This was not a complete occupation, however. As a result of these events, the nationwide movement which took . . . — Map (db m84857) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — Million Milion|
Constantine I built a forum adorned with sculptures, pillars and marble arches known as the Constantine Forum in Mese which is today called Çemberlitaş. The emperor preserved the entire Strategion, the main square of the ancient Byzantine city. The initial foundation of the Great Palace on the hills extending to the Marmara Sea on the south of the Hagia Sophia Square and the Sultan Ahmed coincides with this era. Mess Street extended right from the Hagia Sophia, which was . . . — Map (db m84739) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — Mimar Sinan Kayseri. Agornas 1492- İstanbul 1588|
Mimar Sinan was the head-architect during the periods of Kanuni Sultan Suleyman, Selim II and Murad Ill. He had a very important role on designing and building the architectural masterpieces those were symbolizing the power of the empire.
According to the sources, Sinan was sent to Conscript Military Forces from Kayseri to İstanbul in 1912 (sic) permuted. After the Çaldiran War in 1514, he was taken to Janissary Corps. Then, he was promoted as a Sekban Rider, . . . — Map (db m84876) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — Pasakapisi|
It was the building that was constructed by Sultan Osman III. in 1756 and the first official building for the grand vizier. The building faced several fires and was reconstructed every time after the fires.
In the first instance. It was called "Pasa Kapısı"and "Bâb-ı Âsafi”. As the building was totally destroyed due to an explosion that occurred during the rebellion in the era of Alemdar Mustafa Pasa when he was the grand vizier in 1808, it was . . . — Map (db m85033) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — Ruins of Bucoleon Palace Bukoleon Sarayı Kalıntıları|
|English: Bucoleon Palace is a Byzantine coastal palace. It is located on the Marmara Sea shore, at Catladikapi location between Cankurtaran and Kumkapı today in the east of Little Hagia Sophia. Only the ruins of the palace have survived until present. It is believed that its history dates back long ago considering its name, which is thought to be a pre-Christianity name. In fact, the Bucoleon Palace was constructed on the order of Emperor Theodosius II (408-450). The parts that are . . . — Map (db m84979) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — Rustem Pasha Mosque Rüstem Paşa Camii|
Rustem Pasha, who was both the grand vizier and son in law of Suleiman the over the Masjid of Haci Halil. Rustem Pasha Mosque is a recherché work of Mimar Sinan with its mosque, shops, inns, and fountains. The mosque is built in a square and ascended design. There are semi-domes around the main dome that is seated over four large feet and columns. The mosque, which is one of the most embellished mosques of the Ottomans, is famous with lznik encaustic tiles. The last . . . — Map (db m84812) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — Serpent Column Burmalı Sütun Veya Yılanlı Sütun (Sultanahmet)|
|English: It is a Bronze monument which is well-known under the name of Serpentine Column survived to the present day from the Roman Hippodrome.
While I. Constantine's establishing the
Constantinople; i.e. the new capital of Rome, he brought some of the monumental obelisks established in order to commemorate important historical events previously and with the aim to celebrate to the Hippodrome in order to decorate the new city. One of these obelisks is the Serpent Column. . . . — Map (db m84712) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — St. Euphemia's Martyrion Eufemia Martirionu|
|English: St. Euphemia who was known to be a saint in the era of Ancient Chalcedon, was killed because of her religious belief on 16 September 303. Euphemia was buried within a martyrion (burial place), out of the city in Chalcedon, done by her family.
The word "martir" meant being martyr for religion in Greek and the churches they were buried in (burial chapels) were called "martyrion".
It was estimated that the church constructed for Euphemia from Chalcedon was the beginning of . . . — Map (db m84691) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — The Basilica Cistern Yerbatan Sarnıcı|
Constructed in the 6th century during the reign of Emperor Justinianus, the most prosperous period of the East Roman Empire, the cistern Basilica is 70m. in width and 140m. in length. The dome, covering an area of 9800 m2, is supported by 336 marble columns arrenged (sic) in 12 rows each consisting of 28 columns placed at a distance of 4m 90cm. from one another. The capitals of these 9 m. high columns are a blend of the Ionic and corinthian styles with a few exceptions which . . . — Map (db m84745) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — The Building of Ministry of Post and Telegraph (Grand Post Office) Posta ve Telgraf Nezarti Binası (Büyük Poatane)|
The construction of this building, the largest post office of Turkey, was started in 1905, to serve as the building of Ministry of Post and Telegraph.
The construction was completed in 1909 and the name of the building was first "New Post Office" in 1930s, and then "Grand Post Office". The structure is the first work of the architect Vedat Tek. It is one of the first examples of the 1st National Architecture Movement. Above the entrance gate, “Ministry of Post and . . . — Map (db m84980) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — The Fountain of Ahmed III III. Ahmed Çeşmesi|
|English: The Fountain was constructed by Mimar Ahmed Aga on the order of Ahmed III following the recommendation of Nevsehirii Damat
Ibrahim Pasha, replacing a Byzantine fountain named Perayton. The fountain which is one of the most beautiful samples of Turkish rococo style was constructed in 1729.
The fountain had a square plan with rounded edges.The fountain with its taps at the edges was covered by a timber canopied roof. The domes that were seen from the outside on the upper . . . — Map (db m84610) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — The History of the Egyptian Bazaar Misir Çarşispnin Tari̇hçesi̇ L'histoire du Bazaar Egyptian|
The construction of the bazaar began in 1597 by order of Safiye sultan, the wife of the Ottoman Sultan Murat the 3rd and the mother of Sultan Mehmet the 3rd.
67 years later, it was completed by order of Hatice Turhan Sultan, the mother of Sultan Mehmet the 4th by the famous architect Mustafa Agha, as a part of the yeni camii complex.
Bu çarşının inşasına, padişah 3. Murat'in eşi̇ ve padişah 3- . . . — Map (db m84814) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — The Milion Stone Million Taşı|
|English: In Ancient Rome, It used to be the starting point of all the roads reaching to Constantinople and the origin point used for the calculation of the distance of other cities to this city. It has the same function as the Milliarium Aureum monument in Rome, Italy. Similar to the other spectacular monuments erected during the reconstruction and capitalization of New Rome, it is thought to be erected by Emperor Constantine I during the 4th century.
The Milion was constructed to . . . — Map (db m84738) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — The Ruins of the Triumphal Arch of Theodosius Theodosius Zafer Takı Kalıntıları|
The marble pieces that are located here belong to the Triumphal Arch and the Forum built by and named after the last emperor of the Roman Empire; Theodosius the Great (4th Cent. A.D.). The Triumphal Arch was situated on the corner of the Theodosius Forum (today's Beyazit Square). This area used to be called "Forum Tauri" (The Bull Square) but in the 4th century A.D. the name was changed into the "Forum of Theodosius". During this period. the forum was surrounded by marble . . . — Map (db m84952) HM|
|Turkey, Istanbul Province (Fatih district), Istanbul — The Türbe (Tomb) of Sultan Selim II Sultan II. Selim Türbesi|
It is the first burial construction in the graveyard of Ayassofya made by the Architect Sinan, in 1577. The external walls of the building are covered with marble panels and there is a three-arched small porch (riwaq) at the front. The building has an octagonal plan covered with two domes, supported by half-domes and eight columns facing the internal walls.
The building is a masterpiece together with its 16th century iznik tile inscription, tile panels and calligraphic . . . — Map (db m84757) HM|
|Turkey, Izmir Province (Selçuk (district)), Selçuk — Graffiti in Terrace House 2 Yamaç Ev 2'deki Grafitiler Graffiti Im Hanghaus 2|
|English: Several wall paintings feature drawings and graffiti which offer an insight into the everyday life of the inhabitants. The drawings mainly show gladiators, caricatures, and animals. The graffiti include names of persons, poems and declarations of love. Especially interesting is a group of 30 lists conferring to goods and necessities of everyday life including their prices.
Turkish: Bazı duvar resimlerinin üzerlerine antik dönemde çizimler ve yazılar . . . — Map (db m84556) HM|
|Turkey, Izmir Province (Selçuk (district)), Selçuk — Hellenistic Fountain House Helenistik Çesme Yapısı Hellenistisches Brunnenhaus|
|English: The fountain house of Ionic order located at the back wall of the Great Theatre's stage building dates to the Hellenistic period (3rd-1st century B.C.). During the Roman period its depth was extended ca. 2 m and the new anteroom which was thereby created was separated from the street at the front by two unfluted columns. As an inscription on one of the columns states, the water collected here was brought in from the Marnas River. The water basin has not survived. . . . — Map (db m84361) HM|
|Turkey, Izmir Province (Selçuk (district)), Selçuk — Hydrekdocheion (Water Palace / Su Sarayı/ Wasserschloss)|
|English: The monumental fountain building donated by the Proconsul Gaius Laecanius Bassus in ca. A.D. 80 is situated at the intersection of two main streets. The rectangular 105 m2 large basin was framed by sumptuous two- to three-storey aediculated façades on three sides, whereas the fourth side had a draw basin in front. The interplay of rich and colourful architecture, sculptural decoration with flowing water, and the dynamic element of water all resulted in making the fountain an . . . — Map (db m84342) HM|
|Turkey, Izmir Province (Selçuk (district)), Selçuk — Peristyle Courtyard of Dwelling Unit 6 Oturma Birimi 6'nın Peristil Avlusu Peristylhof der Wohneinheit 6|
|English: Originally the perıstyle courtyard (31a) of Dwelling Unit 6 featuring 8 columns had at least two floors. The perıstyle made accessible the Northern and Western rooms, but also the large hall (31) in the south. Floors and walls are decorated with marble fittings, a basın is installed along the south side of the courtyard. According to the aedicula and to traces of a wooden wall cupboard on its North sıde room 31b was used for religious activities. . . . — Map (db m84555) HM|
|Turkey, Izmir Province (Selçuk (district)), Selçuk — Pollio Monument and Fountain of Domitian Pollo Yapisi ve Domitianus Çeşmesi|
|English: The 8 x 6.5 m large and 6.4 m tall socle is the remainder of an honorific burial, which was erected ın the 1st half of the 1st century A.D. in memory of Gaius Sextilius Pollio by his stepson, on land provided by the city for that purpose: in this manner, the city commemorated the donor both of the Basilica at the State Agora and of an aqueduct.
To the south of the Pollio Monument the Fountain of Domitian was constructed 92/93 A.D.; its grand apse opened onto the . . . — Map (db m84337) HM|
|Turkey, Izmir Province (Selçuk (district)), Selçuk — Terrace House 1 Yamaç Ev 1 Das Hanghaus 1|
|English: Terrace House 1 is a housing block which, since its foundation period in the 1st Century B.C., was divided into six parcels, each representing a residentıal unit. The rooms of each individual resıdentıal unit are grouped around a Central colonnaded courtyard.
Residential Unit 6, measuring 1,400 m2, is noteworthy: beneath its colonnaded courtyard part of a house from the foundation period was discovered. After the completion of archaeological investigations . . . — Map (db m84520) HM|
|Turkey, Izmir Province (Selçuk (district)), Selçuk — Terrace House 2 Yamaç Ev 2 Das Hanghaus 2|
|English: The traces of settlement on the northern slope of Mount Bülbül
go back to the Archaic period (7th/6th century B.C.) when this area was used as a cemetery. During the Hellenıstıc period (ca. 200 B.C.) this slope was articulated with extensive terraces and, in addition to this, a detailed and unstructured development was built.
Terrace House 2 is today defined as a 4,000 m2 insula (a rental house for several parties): over three terraces six separate . . . — Map (db m84543) HM|
|Turkey, Izmir Province (Selçuk (district)), Selçuk — The Hellenistic Fountain and the Hexagon Helenistik Çeşme ve Heksagon (Altıgen) Hellenistischer Brunnen und Hexagon|
|English: The Taberna II (Shop II) of Terrace House 2 was built over a fountain installation from the 3rd century B.C. The east, south and west walls, constructed of marble blocks, are preserved. Above the socle zone, a water channel and traces of the broken lion-head spouts can be seen. Chronologically and with regard to construction technique this fountain is similar to the fountain house near the Theatre. The flight of steps to the west was built over the remains of a little . . . — Map (db m84554) HM|
|Turkey, Izmir Province (Selçuk (district)), Selçuk — The Inscriptions Museum Yazıtlar Galerisi Das Inschriftenmuseum|
|English: The Inscriptions Museum is housed ın the vaulted substructure of the Temple of Domıtıan. In the corridors, more than 3,000 complete or partial inscriptions are currently preserved. A selected exhibition contains approximately 60 exceptionally instructive examples, including a death sentence against sacriligious persons, Hellenistıc citizenship rights, Imperial letters, honourific inscriptions for the members of the imperial and cıvıc aristocracy, . . . — Map (db m84343) HM|
|Turkey, Izmir Province (Selçuk (district)), Selçuk — The Latrine Latrina (Tuvalet) Die Latrine|
|English: The public Latrine could be reached from the covered `Academy Street'. The free public toilet served the citizens as well as
the visitors of the adjacent Varius Bath. The seats of the Latrine were arranged round three sides of the open colonnaded courtyard; fresh water flowed in the channel in front of the seats for cleaning.
The Latrine was restored by the Ephesos Museum, Selçuk.
Turkish: Üzeri kapalı olan `Akademi Sokağı'ndan umuma açık . . . — Map (db m84542) HM|
|Turkey, Izmir Province (Selçuk (district)), Selçuk — The Memmius Monument Memmius Anıtı Der Memmiusbau|
|English: The Memmius Monument was built between 50 and 30 B.C. at a particularly prominent site: it is an honorific monument for Gaius Memmius, a grandson of the Roman Dictator Sulla. The reconstruction proposes a tower-like structure with a cone-shaped roof; reliefs between the columns of the upper storey depicted the virtues of the individual honoured. At present there is no reconstruction at the site, but instead a Cubistic modern architectural collage.
Turkish: . . . — Map (db m84345) HM|
|Turkey, Izmir Province (Selçuk (district)), Selçuk — The Nymphaeum Traiani Trainanus Çeşmesi Das Nympheaum Trainani|
|English: The fountain building was donated by Tiberius Claudius Aristion and his wife between A.D. 102 and 114 in honour of Artemis of Ephesos and Emperor Trajan (A.D. 98-117). The original height of the building reconstructed as an architecture! trial is 9.5 m. A two-storey façade surrounded the fountain on three sides, while the statue base of Trajan, with a globe under his feet, stood over the water outlet in the middle.
Turkish: Çeşme yapısı Tiberius . . . — Map (db m84519) HM|
|Turkey, Izmir Province (Selçuk (district)), Selçuk — The 'Rhodian Peristyle' and The Prytaneum 'Rodos Tıpı Peristil' ve 'Prytaneion|
|English: The courtyard (33 x 28 m), lying to the west of the Bouleuterıon and enclosed on all three sides corresponds to the type of the 'Rhodıan Perıstyle' with its elevated columnar architecture at the east. An altar or two smaller temples were located on a raısed podıum to the west sıde. The sacred quarter, probably built ın the Augustan period (27 B.C. - AD. 14), was dedicated to the deified Caesar and Goddess Roma or Artemis and Emperor Augustus. . . . — Map (db m84335) HM|
|Turkey, Izmir Province (Selçuk (district)), Selçuk — The So-Called Alytarchs' Stoa 'Alytarchus Stoası' Die 'Alytarchenstoa'|
|English: A 4.7-5.5 m-wide hall (stoa) dated to the late antique period (4th /5th century A.D.), according to an inscription, borders the
two Terrace Houses along the Curetes
Street. The hall, built over honourific Imperial monuments, overcomes a difference in level of 2.5 m via steps to the east. A polychrome mosaic floor with geometric, floral and figurative designs covers the floor of the hall.
Turkish: Bulunan bir yapım yazıtı sayesinde Geç Antik . . . — Map (db m84521) HM|
|Turkey, Izmir Province (Selçuk (district)), Selçuk — The Temple of Domitian Domitianustapinaği|
|English: The temple and altar served the Imperial cult and were dedicated to Emperor Domitian (A.D. 81-96); after his death and condemnation of his memory ( damnatio memoriae), however, they were dedicated to the Flavian family. The temple, with its 8 x 13 columns constructed upon a six- stepped substructure (24 x 34 m), was erected on a terrace supported by mighty buttresses. After the victory of Christianity it was torn down to its foundations and today it has almost completely . . . — Map (db m84336) HM|
|Turkey, Izmir Province (Selçuk (district)), Selçuk — The Temple of Hadrian Hadrianus Tapınaǧı Der Hadrianstempel|
|English: P. Vedius Antoninus Sabinus donated the small, temple-like monument which, according to a building inscription, honoured Emperor Hadrian (A.D. 117-138).
The colonnade in front of the cella supports a so-called Syrian gable. The reliefs over the door lintel depicting the Ephesian foundation myth belong to a late antique rebuilding. Around A.D. 300 statues of the emperors Diocletian, Constantius, Maximianus and later Theodosius I were erected, of which inscribed bases are . . . — Map (db m84541) HM|
|Turkey, Izmir Province (Selçuk District), Selçuk — Tetragonos Agora - The Commercial Market Tetragonos Agora - Ticari Pazar Yeri Die Tetragonos Agora - Der Handelsmarkt|
|English: The Commercial Market was already founded in the 3rd century B.C. Its visible form goes back to an expansion under Emperor Augustus (27 B.C. - A.D. 14) into a square ensemble (side lengths 154 m) with three gates in the north, west and south, a central courtyard (side length 112 m) enclosed on all sides by two-aisled, two-storey halls with business and administrative offices. To the east, on the `Marble Street', a two-aisled Doric basilica was built in the upper storey of the . . . — Map (db m84363) HM|
|Turkey, Izmir Province (Selçuk District), Selçuk — The So-Called House of Pleasure Aşk Evi Olarka Adlanırılan Yapı Sogenanntes Freudenhaus|
|English: In this area three private houses have been identified: in the middle stood House 2, a two-storey peristyle house which was mistakenly interpreted as a house of pleasure for a long time. Used from the 15' century B.C. into the 3” century A.D., its centre, as at House 1, was an open courtyard surrounded with columns around which rooms were grouped; shops (tabernae) opened onto the street. The exterior appearance of the southern part (House 3) was characterized by . . . — Map (db m84364) HM|
|Turkey, Konya Province (Konya (district)), Konya — Mevlâna Museum Mevlâna Müzesi|
Following the passing of Mevlâna on December 17th, 1273, Alâmeddin Kayer and Gürcü Hatun the wife of Süleyman Pervade the Seljuk Emir made Bedridden from Tebriz build a tomb one year later.
Three sections of the tomb that rise on four elephant-feet are open; top of its is cuspidate and covered with chinas. Inside of the tomb was covered with hand-drawn ornaments on the gypsums, The tomb was restored during the periods of Karamanids and Ottomans. The tiles on the external . . . — Map (db m84274) HM|
|Turkey, Konya Province (Konya (district)), Konya — The Tomb of Ahmed Eflâkî Dede Ahmed Eflâkî Dede Türbesi|
Date: 13th Century
Built by: Unknown
Ahmed Eflâkî Dede narrated detailed and important information about Hz. Mevlâna and Mevleviyeh with his book called “Menâkibül-Ârifîn” (Anecdotes of Intellectuals). Eflâkî Dede joined the entire travels of Ulu Ârif Çelebi who was grandchild of Mevlâna and exerted himself to expand Mevleviyeh all over the Anatolia.
In the porch planned tomb remains only pieces of two walls with chinas in . . . — Map (db m84275) HM|
|Turkey, Muǧlai Province (Ortaca (district)), Dalyan — Caunus Kaunos|
|English: " ...Harpagos, after subduing, Ionia, make an expedition against the Carians, Caunians and Lycians... " This statement informs us of the significance of Caunus with respect to ancient geography and political relations during the third quarter of the 6th century B.C. Caria and Lycia were large territories including many cities and villages and the name of Caunus is mentioned as another territory between these two adjacent territories. It points to the fact that Caunus was . . . — Map (db m84257) HM|
|Turkey, Muǧlai Province (Ortaca (district)), Dalyan — The Domed Church Kubbeli Kilise|
|English: It is one of the earliest and best preserved of its type in Anatolia. The date of the original construction of this church must be placed at the 6th century AD. It is an approximately square plan (14 x 14.5 m) and has three naves. The central nave was covered by a dome, while the side naves were vaulted. The apse has a round inner and three-faceted outer face. The entrance to this church is through the three doors at the west. Through the north and south oriented gates in the . . . — Map (db m84567) HM|
|Turkey, Muǧlai Province (Ortaca (district)), Dalyan — The Roman Bath Roma Hamami|
This bath house is one of the best preserved examples which survive from the Roman Imperial Period. The building was originally planned as two complexes: the courtyard (palaestra) and the Bath House, both on the same axis with a southwest-northeast orientation. The courtyard preserves only the foundation which measures 56.80x31.40 m and was flanked by colonnades on three sides. Only the corresponding side galleries were divided into rooms. The bath building, which measures . . . — Map (db m84566) HM|
|Turkey, Muǧlai Province (Ortaca (district)), Dalyan — Theater Tiyatro|
|English: The Theater of Caunus, with a seating capacity for 5000 spectators, faces southwest, complying with the Anatolian tradition and follows Hellenistic tradition with respect to its plan. The Theatron (sic) having a diameter of 75 m and with an inclination of 27 degrees is supported by the Analemma, which rises up to 15 m in places free of the slope. Analemma is separated from the stage building (Skene) by open entrances at two sides (Parados). Theatron is divided into 9 . . . — Map (db m84569) HM|
|Turkey, Muǧlai Province (Ortaca (district)), Dalyan — Theater Fountain Tiyatro Çeşmesi|
|English: The theater fountain is located within vaulted niche of 11.85 m inserted into the supporting wall of the theater (Analemma). This fountain, without doubt, not only serves the audience of the games in the theater, but also to the dense human traffic strolling on the upper terrace where the monumental public buildings of the city are located. Dated to the 4th century B.C. and covering an area of 10.60 x 6.00 m, this monumental fountain has a very special design. In "⨅" . . . — Map (db m84568) HM|
|Turkey, Nevşehir Province (Avanos (district)), Avanos — Özkonak Underground Town Özkonak Yeralti Şehri:|
Underground towns, one of the most interesting assets among the cultural heritage of the region, are carved out of the relatively soft tufa. The main reason of existence for these town was to provide refuge during the recurring threat by the invading armies. These underground town are easily accessible from the corresponding towns above.
There are living quarters, grannaries, stables, wine cellars, shrines, all clustered around the ventilation shafts, and wells to make . . . — Map (db m84034) HM|
|Turkey, Nevşehir Province (Nevşehir (district)), Göreme — Çarıklı (Sandals) Church Çarıklı Kilise Léglise Çarıklı / Die Çarıklı-Kirche|
This two columned church (two other columns being in the form of pillars), is cross vaulted, and
has three apses and four domes. The well preserved frescoes show the life of Jesus, hospitality of Abraham, and images of the saints and donors of the church. Although it resembles the Karanlık (Dark) and Elmalı (Apple) Churches, the scenes of Way of the Cross make this church different from the others. The figures are generally large. The footprints under the . . . — Map (db m84151) HM|
|Turkey, Nevşehir Province (Nevşehir (district)), Göreme — Chapel of St. Barbara Azize Barbara Şapeli La Chapelle de Sainte Barbe / Die St. Barbara-Kirche|
This church is situated behind the rock housing Elmalı (Apple) Church, It has a cruciform plan, with two columns. The north, south and west arms of the cruciform are barrel vaulted, and the centre, the east arm, and the east corners are domed. there are a main, central apse and two side apes.
Motifs were painted in red directly onto the rock. The walls and the dome are decorated in a variety of motifs including geometrical patterns, mythological animals and military . . . — Map (db m84117) HM|
|Turkey, Nevşehir Province (Nevşehir (district)), Göreme — Chapel of St. Basil Aziz Basıl Şapeli La chapelle de Saint Basile / Die St. Basileus-Kapelle|
|English: This church is situated at the entrance of the Göreme Open Air Museum. Graves are to be found in the columned narthex area. The nave is transversally rectangular and barrel vaulted, and has three apses situated on the left, long side of the rectangular nave. The church dates back to the 11th century.
Scenes: on the main apse is a portrait of Jesus, and next to this is a portrait of Mary and baby Jesus. On the north wall is a picture of St. Theodore, while St. George and . . . — Map (db m84155) HM|
|Turkey, Nevşehir Province (Nevşehir (district)), Göreme — Chapel of St. Catherine Azize Catherine Şapeli La Chapelle Sainte Catherine / Die St. Katharine-Kirche|
|English: Situated between the Karanlık (Dark) Church and the Çarıkı Church, the Chapel of St. Catherine has a free-cross nave and narthex. The central bay is covered by a dome and the cross arms are barrel-vaulted. Its apse is closed by a templon. The narthex has nine floor graves and two arcosolia (burial niches). Only in the nave of the chapel are some decorations with figures. The pendentives are decorated with carvings. The chapel of St. Catherine, built by a donor . . . — Map (db m84126) HM|
|Turkey, Nevşehir Province (Nevşehir (district)), Göreme — Elmalı (Apple) Church Elmalı Kılıse Léglise Elmalı / Die Elmalı (Apfel)-Kirche|
This church featuring four columns, nine domes and three apses is of the closed cruciform type. Access to the church is through a tunnel on the north side. The original entrance was on the south side. The original decorations in this church consist of geometrical designs and crosses painted in red ochre directly onto the rock. This technique is also found in the Chapels of St. Barbara and St. Basil. The church has been dated back to the mid 11th century and the beginning of . . . — Map (db m84152) HM|
|Turkey, Nevşehir Province (Nevşehir (district)), Göreme — Karanlık (Dark) Church Karanlık Kilise Léglise Karanlık / Die Karanlık-Kirche|
|English: To the north, a winding stairway leads into the rectangular, barrel vaulted narthex of the Dark Church. This church has a cruciform plan, the arms of which are cross vaulted. There is a center dome, with four columns and three apses. This church gets its name from the tiny window in the narthex which only allows a small amount of light in. Due to the absence of light the colours of the frescoes are still vivid.
The church and the narthex are richly decorated in scenes . . . — Map (db m84121) HM|
|Turkey, Nevşehir Province (Nevşehir (district)), Göreme — Larder/Kitchen/Refectory Kıler/Mutfak/Yemekhane Les Dépots, Cuisines et Réfectories / Küchen-, Lager- und Eßräume|
|English: These three areas lie side by side and are connected by passageways. The first section was used as a larder, with recesses hollowed from the rock being used as storage spaces. In the kitchen there is a “tandır”, a type of oven still found in local village houses. The final section was the refectory. A long table carved from the rock extends from the left of the entrance. This would have seated 40 - 50 people. To the right of the table is a winery hollowed in . . . — Map (db m84120) HM|
|Turkey, Nevşehir Province (Nevşehir (district)), Göreme — Nunnery and Monastery Rahibeler ve Rahipler Manastırı Les Couvents-Monastères / Die Mönchs-und Nonnenkloster|
The 6-7 storey rock mass to the left of the museum entrance is known as the “nunnery”. The dining hall, kitchen and some rooms on the first floor, together
with the ruined chapel on the second level, can still be visited. The church on the third storey, which can be reached through a tunnel, has a cruciform plan, a dome with four columns and three apse is rarely found in Göremes churches. Besides the fresco of Jesus, painted directly onto the rock, designs . . . — Map (db m84035) HM|
|Turkey, Nevşehir Province (Nevşehir (district)), Göreme — Tokalı (Buckle) Church Tokalı Kılıse Léglise Tokalı (Lélise a la Boucle) / Die Tokalı -Kirche|
This is the oldest known rock-cut church in the region, and consists of four sections: the Old Church with one nave; the New Church; the Lower Church under the old church; and the Parecclesion to the north of the New Church.
The single-nave, barrel-vaulted Old Church, built in the 10th century, today acts as the entrance to the New Church. Its Apse collapsed when the New Church was added to the east wing. Frescoes are to be found on the vault and at the top of the walls. . . . — Map (db m84156) HM|
|Turkey, Nevşehir Province (Nevşehir (district)), Göreme — Yılanlı (St. Onuphorius) Church Yılanlı (Aziz Onuphrıus) Kılıse Leglise Yılanlı (Saint Onuphrius) / Die Yılani Oder St. Onouphrios-Kirche|
|English: The main section is transversally rectangular and barrel vaulted, whereas the extended space to the south, which houses the graves, has a flat ceiling. The apse was hollowed out of the long wall on the left and the church was left uncompleted. The entrance to the church is from the north. Portraits of the respected saints of Cappadocia are on either side of the vault. The church dates back to the 11th century.
Scenes: Opposite the entrance is a portrait of Jesus holding a . . . — Map (db m84119) HM|