|Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Anchorage Aloft!|
|Few places on earth need air transportation more than Alaska. Towns and villages are isolated, with few roads and even fewer places to build them. Since 1913, when the first tractor biplane was brought to the Anchorage area, Alaskans have pioneered northern flying and tied together a geographically diverse and difficult territory.
In 1923, Anchorage boasted its first airport - where Delaney Park is today. Merrill Field was built in 1930, and in 1945 recorded more civilian flights then New . . . — Map (db m69797) HM|
|Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Ancient Traditions of the Athabascan People|
|Athabascans were highly nomadic, traveling in small groups to fish, hunt, and trap.
Athabascan territory, the largest area of all the Alaska Native peoples, was home to 11 different linguistic groups who lived along five major riverways: the Yukon, the Tanana, the Susitna, the Kuskokwim and the Copper River drainages.
Small groups of 20 to 40 people traveled through their vast territory, connected by numerous rivers and other waterways. From winter villages to summer fish camp, they . . . — Map (db m72795) HM|
|Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Athabascan Family Lodges and Cabins|
|“Our people had log houses without nails and we all lived the same. We lived subsistence way of life, and love it that way. We have our fish houses, drying racks and all that.”
Alberta Stephan, Eklutna.
Athabascan pole and log dwellings were similar to historic log cabins that they later adopted. In colder areas, lodges were sunk two to five feet into the ground. On the milder shores of Cook Inlet, Athabascans built log houses above ground. They slept in . . . — Map (db m72796) HM|
|Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Atlantic Salmon-A Threat to the Chugach National Forest?|
|Commercial farming of Atlantic salmon using ocean net pens is important to the economy in several areas of the Pacific Northwest, especially along the coast of British Columbia.
However, net pen fish farming has been banned in Alaska since 1990 because of concerns about impacts to native salmon and steelhead.
As Atlantic salmon escape from pens, primarily during large storms, these fish have the opportunity to colonize where they do not naturally occur. The threats to native fish from . . . — Map (db m70735) HM|
|Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Captain James Cook — R.N., F.R.S. — Navigator, Explorer, Chartmaker, Scientist, Humanist / 1728 – 1779|
|James Cook was born in Yorkshire, England, on October 27, 1728. He was apprenticed to serve on sailing ships built in Whitby, near his birthplace, to carry coal along the English coast. At age 26, he joined the Royal Navy, took part in actions against France and, through his natural flair for mathematics and science, was promoted “King’s Surveyor” and given command of vessels performing survey work on the coast of Newfoundland. Chosen as commander to lead an expedition of discovery . . . — Map (db m72493) HM|
|Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Coho Salmon Life Cycle|
|1 to 4 years in fresh water
Most coho migrate to sea after one or two years in fresh water.
Sept 1-Nov 15 The adult cohos are the last of the Pacific salmon to arrive in the river to spawn.
Nov 15-April 1 The eggs incubate over the winter.
April 1-May 1 In the spring, the alevins emerge from their eggs, using the remnants of the yolk as a portable food source.
May 1-June 1 Even though 90% of the eggs are fertilized, only 20% of the fry survive.
June 1-July 1When the smolt go . . . — Map (db m70734) HM|
|Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Measuring the Magnitude of Damage|
| Measuring the Magnitude of Damage
The Good Friday Earthquake destroyed or severely restricted all forms of transportation, utilities and communications over a large part of south-central Alaska.
Communications and Utilities
The complete or partial loss of necessary services greatly affected Alaskan’s emotional and physical well-being. Telephone, water, sewer, electricity and gas systems were disrupted throughout Southcentral Alaska. Despite wide-spread damage, the telephone . . . — Map (db m69766) HM|
|Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Mobile Architecture|
|Athabascans were masters at designing a variety of shelters--simple and functional--that kept them both warm and mobile as they set out to hunt and trade.
Emergency shelters were constructed in minutes.
A wandering hunter could pile up brush to crawl under at night, dig a hole in as snow bank and ice over the interior with the heat of an oil lamp, or construct a conical tent by bending over and lashing together several alders, covering them with bark or caribou skin. Dirt and moss . . . — Map (db m72792) HM|
|Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Raven the Creator — Created by John Hoover in 1998|
|Raven is the Creator in many Alaska Native and American Indian legends. Elements from my different legends are incorporated into this sculpture including "Raven Stealing the Stars, Sun, and Moon." The human figures in the claws symbolize icons used by the Russian Orthodox faith and the face in the belly of the Raven is symbolic of Mother Earth. The face on the back of Raven's head is representative of many transformations Raven could perform. — Map (db m72793) HM|
|Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Resolution Park 1776 / 1778|
Two events destined to change the history of the world took place the first week of July 1776.
On the fourth day of July, the Representatives of the United States of America, in general congress assembled at Philadelphia, declared their independence from Great Britain, setting out upon a course of constitutional government which carry a new concept of personal and political freedom from the east of North America to the western shores of the continent.
In the same July . . . — Map (db m69767) HM|
|Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — The Earth Did Quake|
|“And, behold … The earth did quake and the rocks rent;”
A description of the first Good Friday
The gruesome dance of the earth finally stopped, leaving much of downtown Anchorage in ruins.
In four minutes of violent shaking, many buildings, roads, and waterfront structures were destroyed. On 4th Avenue, Anchorage's Main Street, commercial buildings and pavement dropped as much is 15 feet. Some multi-story structures were able to withstand the . . . — Map (db m69795) HM|
|Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Tsunami!|
|More devastating than the Good Friday Earthquake itself, the seismic sea waves or tsunamis, that followed caused the major loss of life and property in Alaska.
Tsunamis are generated by the sudden upward movement of the seafloor along the rupturing fault. These waves can travel thousands of miles and can strike low-lying coastal areas hours after an earthquake with violent force. In the Good Friday Earthquake, some areas like Anchorage were barely affected by tsunamis. Other coastal . . . — Map (db m69769) HM|
|Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — Turnagain Heights Slide|
|You are standing on the edge of the Turnagain Heights Slide, the largest and most destructive landslide in Anchorage.
Ninety seconds into the Good Friday Earthquake, an 8,000-foot strip of bluff, 1,200 feet wide began cracking apart into larger blocks which slid toward Cook Inlet. With a savage and grinding roll, the slide transported some homes 500 feet seaward, and broke apart or crushed other homes. Residents rushed outside their homes only to be thrown to the ground as the blocks . . . — Map (db m69770) HM|
|Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Anchorage — What is this “Rock Man”?|
|For generations the Inuit people of Northern Canada, Greenland, and Alaska have constructed these rock monuments for hunting and navigational purposes. Our inuksuk is a giant version based on similar monuments found throughout the Arctic.
Inuksuk or Inunnguaq?
An “inuksuk” is usually constructed from un-worked rocks and used for marking a location or communicating directions.
Some inuksuk have been built to resemble people and are given the name inunnguaq. Most of . . . — Map (db m69768) HM|
|Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Fort Richardson — Fort Richardson National Cemetery-Gate|
|This gate is dedicated to men of the Armed Forces of the United States who died while serving their country in war and in peace.---In Memory of Kermit Roosevelt. Born 1859-Died 1943-Who fought in the British and American Armies during World Wars I and II
(bronze plaque below the marker): Acknowledgement this National Cemetery has been made possible through the cooperation of Eklutna, Inc. in yielding its native claim and legal rights to the land, for this noble and patriotic gesture . . . — Map (db m72794) WM|
|Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Girdwood — 1964 Earthquake|
|This cabin was part of the original Portage town site. The small coastal towns of Girdwood and Portage located on Turnagain Arm were destroyed in the 1964 earthquake. Girdwood was later relocated a few miles inland, while Portage, which subsided below the high-water level, was abandoned entirely. — Map (db m70719) HM|
|Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Girdwood — A Prickly World — Alaska Wildlife Conservation Center|
| Some Points about Quills:
*Porcupines have approximately 30,000 quills which cover every part of the body except the underside, face and ears.
*Quills are modified hairs that are barbed, lightweight, and filled with spongy substance.
*Quills from different parts of the body vary in length, flexibility, color shaft diameter, and barb length.
*Quills cannot be thrown. They are loosely attached to the skin and come out easily if touched. When forced to fight, a porcupine erects its . . . — Map (db m70718) HM|
|Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Girdwood — Brown Bears of AWCC — Alaska Wildlife Conservation Center|
| Good Clean Livin The largest bear enclosure in the United States is found here at the Alaska Wildlife Conservation Center. Solar electricity powers the electric fence that encloses 18 acres of land, and water is pumped into the pond by the rotations of a nearby windmill. Bears are fed local Alaskan salmon, road killed moose, dog food, carrots and apples. With such a large enclosure, bears can be observed displaying their natural, “wild” behaviors.
Conservation Brown bears . . . — Map (db m70721) HM|
|Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Girdwood — Moose Calves — Alaska Wildlife Conservation Center|
|Calves are born mid-May to early June. Cows give birth to twins 15 to 75 percent of the time and triplets occur about once in every 1,000 births.
Calves stand within minutes and begin eating vegetation a few days after birth.
Calves stay with their mothers for 12 months, at which time the mother aggressively chases her offspring away just before giving birth again. — Map (db m70720) HM|
|Alaska (Anchorage Borough), Girdwood — Our Living National Symbol — Alaska Wildlife Conservation Center|
| Top Predators
Eagles will prey on any animal they are capable of overtaking including ducks, gulls, porcupines, foxes and rabbits. The primary tool used to catch and kill prey are its feet. Equipped with needle sharp talons and powerful tendons, the bird is able to get a secure grip on squirming prey. The pressure of this grasp alone is often enough to kill prey. The eagle then uses its sharp curved beak for tearing flesh while eating.
Where Do All the Eagles Go?
Most eagles migrate . . . — Map (db m70722) HM|
|Alaska (Denali Borough), Denali National Park — Ice Age Hunters — The Deadliest Predators|
|High above river valleys, at overlooks like this, Denali’s first human visitors watch for mammoth, giant bison, and caribou. Ridge tops made the best game launching platforms; herds tend to follow sheltered stream corridors.
Hunters had to be expert, deadly; the climate was too harsh for year-round edible plants. Caribou fur made the warmest clothing. Its microscopically hollow hairs are a natural insulator.
While they waited the hunters made knives and repaired and sharpened . . . — Map (db m69724) HM|
|Alaska (Denali Borough), Denali National Park — Mountains in Motion / Hot Rocks|
Mountains in Motion
Though the visible glaciers appear remote - gleaming between distant peaks - the valley below is strewn with signs of masses glaciation: stranded boulders, gouged-out ponds, and gravel outwash plains. The last big glacial advance plowed through this valley about 10,000 years ago. To a geologist’s eye, the landscape is still active with glaciers. Denali’s wandering meltwater rivers, cloudy with glacial silt and rock fragments, are evidence of ongoing glaciation and . . . — Map (db m71362) HM|
|Alaska (Denali Borough), Denali National Park — Tunnels Lost to Time|
|The train track along the Healy Canyon wall provides an exhilarating view down to the Nenana River below. Imagine the challenge of constructing this grade in 1921. Three tunnels at the south end of the canyon made the job a little easier by cutting through rock points. The rock was so soft, however, that erosion caused continual collapses and slides. One tunnel (milepost 354.7) caved in and was abandoned in the 1940s, another (Garner tunnel, milepost 356.2) was removed . . . — Map (db m71361) HM|
|Alaska (Fairbanks North Star Borough), Fairbanks — "The Line"|
|Noticeable among the earliest pioneers settling in Fairbanks were prostitutes, women of the demimonde who stampeded to the new Fairbanks gold camp from Dawson, Circle City, Rampart and points beyond. In a city where men far outnumbered women, earnings from prostitution were normally higher than wages for other, more respectable jobs available to women. Still the prostitute’s life and work were hard. Pimps and hangers-on lived off some of the women and squandered their money.|
Tales of the . . . — Map (db m47404) HM
|Alaska (Fairbanks North Star Borough), Fairbanks — Alaska's Gold Rush Era|
|Gold discoveries brought Alaska and the Yukon to the attention of the world. A series of stampedes occurred over more than three decades. Drawn by dreams of gold, men and women from many places and all walks of life participated in an adventure that would change their lives. Only a few would become wealthy.
Prospectors made the first significant gold discovery in Alaska at Juneau in 1880. This discovery encouraged others to look throughout Alaska and the Yukon for . . . — Map (db m59836) HM|
|Alaska (Fairbanks North Star Borough), Fairbanks — James A. Maple — P. E. Arctic Pipeline Pioneer — 1937 - 2001|
|Dr. Maple was a structural engineer and principal designer of the trans-Alaska pipeline. He holds three patents for his development of innovative pipe supports that enabled the warm oil pipeline to safely traverse areas of permafrost. He pioneered the use of sophisticated structural analysis for pipelines, now used on arctic pipelines worldwide. A graduate of Purdue University, he was a major contributor not only during design and construction but also continued to provide engineering expertise . . . — Map (db m58949) HM|
|Alaska (Fairbanks North Star Borough), Fairbanks — Lacey Street Theater (1939) — 504 Second Avenue — (the corner of 2nd & Lacey St)|
|Construction of the Lacey Street Theater began in 1939, and this Art Deco style building opened in 1940. Austin E. “Cap” Lathrop, Fairbanks businessman and financier, was its owner. The Lacey Street Theater, with its distinguished neon sign, ornamental concrete details, and architectural style is a prominent building in downtown Fairbanks. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places on June 14, 1990, the theater is a popular social center in town, showing movies into the . . . — Map (db m58989) HM|
|Alaska (Fairbanks North Star Borough), Fairbanks — Tanana Valley Gold|
|The gold deposit found in 1902 north of present-day Fairbanks proved to be the richest in Alaska. Prospector Felix Pedro and trader E.T. Barnette played key roles in the discovery and initial rush. A second strike made the following summer catapulted a temporary trading post into the largest city in the territory.
A Prospector and Trader Meet
Felix Pedro, an Italian immigrant, claimed he made a rich gold strike in 1898 in the Tanana Valley foothills. While trying to find it again in . . . — Map (db m59826) HM|
|Alaska (Fairbanks North Star Borough), Faribanks — Barnette's Landing|
|Captain E.T. Barnette, a passenger on the riverboat Lavelle Young, debarked near this site on August 26, 1901, and established a trading post which in 1902 became known as Fairbanks.
Alaska Centennial 1867-1967
State of Alaska
Governor Walter J. Hickel
Alaska Centennial Commission — Map (db m59831) HM|
|Alaska (Fairbanks North Star Borough), Faribanks — Clay Street Cemetery|
From 1905 to 1916 at least 83 men died and 400 were injured in gold mining accidents in the Fairbanks area. Underground mining was dangerous during this pioneer era. Most died from cave-ins, falling down shafts, being struck by material while in the shaft and by gas asphyxiation. The miners were often young, single, foreign-born “pick and shove” laborers. They were far from home. Those with an asterisk (*) are buried here in the Fairbanks Clay Street Cemetery.|
- . . . — Map (db m47383) HM
|Alaska (Fairbanks North Star Borough), Faribanks — Cushman Street|
|“Instead of row after row of empty houses (Dawson), they are building new stores. The place is alive and busy-a little too crowded when we got there.” – a tourist in Fairbanks, 1928 — Map (db m47406) HM|
|Alaska (Fairbanks North Star Borough), Faribanks — Fairbanks Public Schools|
|In the winter of 1904, the first Fairbanks Public School was opened. Ten students finished the spring term. In the fall of 1905, the school enrolled 50 students. The next year, 150 students attended.
Construction of a much-needed new school on the corner to Turner and Cushman streets between Eighth and Ninth avenues, was started in the last half of October 1907. The school was completed the night before it opened on December 3. Designed by Aloysius Friedrich, it was the pride of the community. . . . — Map (db m47407) HM|
|Alaska (Fairbanks North Star Borough), Faribanks — Harding Car|
|Used by President Warren G. Harding on his trip to Alaska in 1923 to drive the Golden Spike for the Alaska Railroad. “Denali is the Indian name fro Mt. McKinley, the “Great One.” — Map (db m47352) HM|
|Alaska (Fairbanks North Star Borough), Faribanks — Suter House|
|Suter, “The Live Jeweler” and E.R. Peoples, owner of E.R. Peoples General Merchandise, married two sisters in 1910.They built these two adjoining houses, together one of the first modern homes in town. — Map (db m47408) HM|
|Alaska (Fairbanks North Star Borough), Faribanks — The Founding of Fairbanks|
|Captain E.T. Barnette, whose trading post on the Chena River became the city of Fairbanks, arrived here on the sternwheeler Lavelle Young with Captain Adams on August 26, 1901.|
Felix Pedro and partners, mining for gold in the hills above town, saw the Lavelle Young on the river, some twenty miles away ferrying supplies. Once they struck gold, the future of the trading post was assured.
Fairbanks eventually won out over the City of Chena on the Tanana River when Judge Wickersham chose . . . — Map (db m47382) HM
|Alaska (Fairbanks North Star Borough), Faribanks — Wickersham Cabin|
|This is the site of the original cabin of James J. Wickersham. He was an author, pioneer judge, congressional delegate and Alaska Visionary.
Alaska Centennial 1867-1967
State of Alaska
Governor Walter J. Hickel
Alaska Centennial Commission — Map (db m47384) HM|
|Alaska (Fairbanks North Star Borough), Fox — Pipeline History|
|On November 16, 1973, through Presidential approval of pipeline legilation, Alyeska Pipeline Service Company received
permission to begin construction of the 800-mile trans Alaska pipeline, its pump stations and the Marine Terminal at
Valdez. The 360-mile road from the Yukon River to Prudhoe Bay was built, and construction of the Valdez Terminal was
begun in 1974.At the same time, work started on pump stations and the pipeline work pad.
The lengths of pipe were placed under the . . . — Map (db m20215) HM|
|Alaska (Fairbanks North Star Borough), North Pole — "The North Pole"|
|This pole is one of two poles manufactured in 1951 as part of a campaign to properly mark the top of the Earth. After a grand tour of the United States, its twin was pushed out of the tail hatch of an Alaska Airlines DC-4 over the geographic North Pole on the arctic night of December 11th. After being rediscovered in 1972 (in an old junkyard), this pole has been prominently displayed in its current location since the dedication of the park on July 4th, 1976, by the North Pole Jaycees. — Map (db m58912) HM|
|Alaska (Fairbanks North Star Borough), Wiseman — Welcome to Coldfoot Camp|
| This Sign Greeted New Arrivals As They Arrived At The Pipeline Construction Camp Located One Mile West Of Here. We Salvaged This Sign When The Camp Was Being Dismantled.
You are about 55 miles north of the Arctic Circle on the East Bank of the Middle Fork Koyukuk River at the mouth of Slate Creek, which drains to the east.
—> ——— <—
This is the site of the former gold mining community of Coldfoot, which was built here at the turn of the century. . . . — Map (db m49597) HM|
|Alaska (Haines Borough), Haines — Fort William H. Seward — A National Historic Landmark|
|Fort Seward was the first permanent military base in Alaska. Completed in 1904 on 100 acres of land donated by the Presbyterian Church, it remained active until 1944. Named for William H. Seward, the U.S. Secretary of State who arranged the purchase of Alaska from Russia. The Fort was renamed Chilkoot Barracks in the 1920’s to avoid confusion with Seward, Alaska.
(Inscription under the photo on the bottom left) :
Continuing up the hill on the right side, you will pass . . . — Map (db m70810) HM|
|Alaska (Haines Borough), Haines — Founders of Port Chilkoot|
|Commemorating the Founders
World War II Veterans
and their families
who bought Fort Wm. H. Seward in 1947
and pioneered their futures here.
Steve Homer • Ted and Mimi Gregg • Carl and Betty Heinmiller • Marty and Allie Cordes • Clarence and Hilma Matson. — Map (db m70803) HM WM|
|Alaska (Juneau Borough), Juneau — 3 — Alaska Juneau Mill|
|At the Alaska Juneau mill from 1917-1944, ore was sorted, crushed, and treated to extract gold. Electric-powered engines hauled trains of 40 ore cars along the main haulage route form the mine two miles away in Silver Bow Basin to the AJ mill, steepest in the world. Ore fell between levels. Water came via flume from Gold Creek; in winter, the steam power plant pumped sea water from Gastineau Channel. Mill tailings or waste rock built the airport, Egan Drive, and one-third of downtown Juneau. . . . — Map (db m42823) HM|
|Alaska (Juneau Borough), Juneau — Alaska Native Veterans Memorial|
| Monument against east wall of house off Whittier Way:
This memorial is dedicated to all
Alaska Native Veterans,
Southeast who served in the
United States Armed Forces. Let us not dwell on their passing
but remember their shining Spirits that will live on forever.
World War I, World War II, Korea
Vietnam, Gulf War era, Panama,
Granada, Bosnia, and Afghanistan
We honor all Veterans who served their country
US Army, US Marine Corps, US Navy, US Air Force, US . . . — Map (db m69127) WM|
|Alaska (Juneau Borough), Juneau — Archie Van Winkle — Medal of Honor — Colonel U.S. Marine Corps|
|Born: 17 March 1925 Juneau, Alaska. Died: 22 May 1986 Ketchikan, Alaska
Sudong, Korea 2 November 1950-For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a platoon sergeant in Company B-1-7, 1st Marine Division, S/Sgt. Van Winkle boldly spearheaded a determined counter attack though numerically superior enemy forces. Grenades and automatic weapons fire, wounded, he organized the remnants of his platoon and succeeded in enabling them to hold . . . — Map (db m61871) WM|
|Alaska (Juneau Borough), Juneau — Hard Rock Miners|
|This bronze sculpture was commissioned by the city and borough of Juneau during its centennial anniversary year, and is dedicated to the mine whose work provided the lifeblood of Juneau during it first six decades.
In the late 1800’s, compressed – air machine drills replaced hand drills as the principle tools of hard rock miners. This development enabled miners to handle great quantities of ore at an acceptable low cost. As a result, lodes containing low-grade ore deposit, such as . . . — Map (db m42809) HM|
|Alaska (Juneau Borough), Juneau — Liberty Bell Reproduction|
|This reproduction of the Liberty Bell was placed on permanent display at the Treasury by direction of Secretary of the Treasury John W. Snyder. It is a duplicate of the original Liberty Bell in tone as well as in structural details and dimensions.
Identical reproductions were exhibited through the nation during the Independence Saving Bonds Drive, May 15-July 4, 1950, the Liberty Bell having been inspirational symbol for the drive. At the conclusion of the drive, Secretary Snyder, . . . — Map (db m70759) HM|
|Alaska (Juneau Borough), Juneau — Manila Square|
| Panel 1:
The City and Borough of Juneau Assembly Honors the Contributions of Filipinos in Juneau by naming this downtown location MANILA SQUARE
Juneau Assembly Members: Dale Anderson - Don Etheridge, Jr. - Jeannie Johnson - Ken Koelsch
Frankie Pillifant - Jim Powell - Randy Wanamaker - Marc Wheeler
John Mackinnon, City Manager -- Sally Smith, Mayor
Filipino Community of Juneau:
Dannie Lazaro, President, 2002 – Morris Carrillo, President, 2003
August 19, 2002 . . . — Map (db m68849) HM|
|Alaska (Juneau Borough), Juneau — Patsy Ann: her statue|
|Fifty years after Patsy Ann met her last ship, admirers led by June Dawson organized the Friends of Patsy Ann. The group raised funds and commissioned a statue so Patsy Ann could once again greet visitors on the dock.
Sculpted by Ann Burke Harris of Albuquerque, New Mexico, the statue was cast at the Shidoni Foundry in New Mexico. Bits of their own hair and pets’ fur were sent from all over the globe by those who fondly remembered Patsy Ann. Those tokens were pressed into the wax before . . . — Map (db m69663) HM|
|Alaska (Juneau Borough), Juneau — Pelton wheels|
|Pelton wheels are among the most efficient types of water wheels. It was invented by Lester Allan Pelton (1829-1908) in the 1870s, and is an impulse machine, meaning that it uses Newton’s second law to extract energy from a jet of fluid. It should be noted that the original one piece cast impulse water turbine was invented by Samuel Knight in Sutter Creek, CA in the California Mother Lode Gold Mining Region. Pelton modified his design to create his more efficient design, after an accidental . . . — Map (db m70762) HM|
|Alaska (Juneau Borough), Juneau — St. Nichlolas Russian Orthodox Church|
| A building rich with history
Juneau’s gold rush in the 1880s initiated efforts by various missionaries to convert the Native peoples to their faith. American missionaries were instructed to suppress the use of native languages and as a result, many Tlingits chose to embrace the Orthodox Church which used native languages in worship. St. Innocent Veniaminov, was the first to translate the Christian Scripture into that language and taught Native Alaskans to read and write in their own . . . — Map (db m70758) HM|
|Alaska (Juneau Borough), Juneau — USS Juneau (CL-52) Memorial — 'Lest We Forget'|
| Center Marker Panel: [Rendering of the cruiser USS Juneau(CL-52)]
'Lest We Forget'
The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal was as ferocious and decisive as any battle of World War II. It was not won cheaply. The night action of Friday the thirteenth of November, 1942 was the last day of life for eight ships and hundreds of sailors including the USS Juneau CL-52. Juneau was in the thick of the battle until an enemy torpedo knocked her out of action. Retiring from . . . — Map (db m77160) WM|
|Alaska (Juneau Borough), Juneau — Wagner Mine|
|In 1880 a local inhabitant, Chief Kowee, revealed to prospectors Joe Juneau and Richard Harris the presence of gold in what is now named Gold Creek in Silver Bow Basin. The city of Juneau was founded there that year. The strike sparked the Juneau gold rush which resulted in the development of many placer and lode mines including the largest gold mines in the world, in their time, the Treadwell complex of lode mines on Douglas Island (across a narrow sea channel from Juneau) and the AJ lode . . . — Map (db m70765) HM|
|Alaska (Kenai Peninsula Borough), Moose Pass — Gold Discoveries Trigger Stampede|
|Prospectors found gold in 1895 under the present Canyon Creek Highway Bridge and on Mills Creek. Those discoveries launched a rush to Turnagain Arm more than a year before the Klondike Gold Rush.
Prospectors Poke Around
After gold was discovered near Hope in 1890, prospectors organized the Turnagain Arm Mining District. The number of gold seekers grew to 300 by 1895. Some searched along Sixmile Creek, and its tributaries. Sanford J. Mills and Benedict C.[bullet hole] found gold . . . — Map (db m49599) HM|
|Alaska (Ketchikan Gateway Borough), Ketchikan — Chief Johnson Totem Pole|
Totem poles are carved to honor deceased ancestors, record history, social events, and oral tradition. They were never worshipped as religious objects.
This totem, carved by Israel Shotridge and raised in 1989, is a replica of the Chief Johnson, or Kajuk, Totem Pole raised in this general location in 1901 for the Ganaxadi Tlingit of the Raven moiety of the Tanta Kwan (Tongass) group. The original memorial pole stood until 1982.
Except for Kajuk atop the pole, the figures symbolize . . . — Map (db m79703) HM|
|Alaska (Ketchikan Gateway Borough), Ketchikan — Chief Kyan Totem Pole|
|Totem poles are carved to honor deceased ancestors record history, social events, and oral tradition. They were never worshipped as religious objects.
This totem is the second replication of the Chief Kyan Totem Pole. The original pole was carved in Ketchikan in the early part of the century and stood n Barney Way until the late 1920’s, when it was moved to the Pioneer Hall. In 1964, the aged pole was removed and replicated for the first time. This second replication was commissioned by the . . . — Map (db m70746) HM|
|Alaska (Ketchikan Gateway Borough), Ketchikan — Creek Street — ‘Cat’houses & Sporting Women|
|Ketchikan’s notorious Creek Street, early Alaska’s most infamous red-light district, still retains traces of the gaudy rouge of a half-century of speakeasies and sporting women. Here the fame of Black Mary, Thelma Baker and Dolly Arthur outlived the turnover of many of the girls with “stage” names such as Frenchie, Prairie Chicken, Deep Water Mary and Dirty Neck Maxine. The glow of their porch light globes—inscribed with their names—lured the crews of the North . . . — Map (db m42631) HM|
|Alaska (Matanuska-Susitna Borough), Wasilla — Balto — Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race|
Dedicated to the indomitable spirit of the
sled dogs of the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race.
“The Last Great Race on Earth”
Endurance • Fidelity • Intelligence
Dedicated the first Saturday of March, 2012
Historic replica of Balto donated by
Monument base donated by
Horizon Lines — Map (db m80411) HM|
|Alaska (Matanuska-Susitna Borough), Wasilla — Father of the Iditarod — Joe Redington, Sr. — Iditarod Trail Race Headquarters|
|Joe Redington, Sr.
Born in Oklahoma, February 1, 1917 • Died in Alaska, June 24, 1999
Joe was an accomplished man; homesteader, big- game guide. bush pilot,
commercial fisherman, boat builder, fish- plant manager, and mountain climber.
But most of all, he was a man who loved dogs and dog mushing.
After service in the Army during World War II, Joe came to Alaska in 1948
to homestead. Here he established Knik Kennels. Until 1966, he and his
dog teams performed search-and-rescue . . . — Map (db m80410) HM|
|Alaska (Matanuska-Susitna Borough), Wasilla — Iditarod Cabin — In loving memory of Dean H. Christopherson|
|In loving memory of
Dean H. Christopherson
Made possible by a generous
Mrs. Elaine G. Christopherson
in memory of her husband
The cabin is similar to the cabin at Rohn
the eighth checkpoint on the Iditarod
Trail Sled Dog Race. Nestled along the
north side of the Alaska Range at the
confluence of the Tatina and the South
Fork of the Kuskokwim Rivers. The
original Rohn cabin was built in 1910 as a
roadhouse which served the interior . . . — Map (db m80413) HM|
|Alaska (North Slope Borough), Barrow — Paġlagivisi! — Welcome to the Ancient Village of Ukpiaġvik — “The Place Where We Hunt Snowy Owls”|
| Sharing Food, Sharing Life – Then and Now
Ukpiaġvik, which means ‘the place where we hunt snowy owls,’ was one of several ancient villages in the Barrow area. Our ancestors settled here primarily to hunt the great bowhead whales. But their diet – just like ours today – was supplemented by the harvest of Nature’s other gifts, including the highly valued snowy owl. Even with the conveniences of the 21st century, it is the gathering and sharing our Native foods that . . . — Map (db m49595) HM|
|Alaska (Sitka Borough), Sitka — 250th Anniversary of the Bering- Chirikov Expedition — 1741-1991|
К 250 летию экспедиции В. И. Беринга и А.И. Чирикова
Commemorating the 250th Anniversary of the Bering-Chirikov Expedition
(English version on left):
May the wheel of change forever turn with peace, justice and opportunity
(Russian . . . — Map (db m8448) HM|
|Alaska (Skagway Borough), Skagway — Arctic Brotherhood Camp Skagway|
|Built in 1899 as headquarters for the Arctic Brotherhood Camp Skagway No. 1. The Brotherhood was established February 26, 1899 for the purpose of fraternal enjoyment and mutual aid. Over 30 camps were established throughout Alaska and the Yukon and Northern British Columbia.
Alaska Centennial 1867 – 1867
State of Alaska
Governor Walter J. Hickel
Alaska Centennial Commission — Map (db m72784) HM|
|Alaska (Skagway Borough), Skagway — Bank of Alaska — Skagway, AK — Est. 1916|
This Wells Fargo Store began as the Bank of Alaska on March 20, 1916.
In 1950, Bank of Alaska took on a national character as National Bank of Alaska, and went on to become a pioneer and leader in branch banking in Alaska.
In 2000, National Bank of Alaska merged with Wells Fargo & Company.
Today Wells Fargo Bank of Alaska remains deeply rooted in the heritage of this state. — Map (db m73328) HM|
|Alaska (Skagway Borough), Skagway — Captain William Moore — The Visionary|
|Captain William Moore first saw the Skagway River Valley and the White Pass in the spring of 1887 when he came with a Canadian survey team to determine the exact position of the 141st meridian separating Alaska and what is now Canada’s Yukon. He was so impressed that he returned with his son, Ben, in October 1887 to claim a 160-acre homestead in the Skagway valley. The Moores laid a foundation for a cabin and began construction of a wharf before leaving in November for the winter.
A former . . . — Map (db m72783) HM|
|Alaska (Skagway Borough), Skagway — Fatal Duel|
|Frank Reid, guarding the approach to Sylvester's Wharf, where the vigilantes were meeting to restore law and order, shot "Soapy Smith" who failed to stop when challenged, July 8, 1898. — Map (db m72790) HM|
|Alaska (Skagway Borough), Skagway — Inspector Charles Constantine — and Staff Sergeant Charles Brown — Northwest Mounted Police|
| [Seal of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police] In Commemoration of Inspector Charles Constantine and Staff Sergeant Charles Brown North West Mounted Police First members of this historic Canadian police force who landed at Skagway, Alaska on June 29th, 1894. These two men entered Canada by the Chilkoot Pass and traveled over 500 miles down the Yukon River to the area of Forty Mile. Their orders were to establish Canadian sovereignty and determine law enforcement requirements in view . . . — Map (db m69014) HM|
|Alaska (Skagway Borough), Skagway — Jeff. Smith’s Parlor|
|The building before you is an historical structure known as “Jeff. Smith’s Parlor.” It has recently been acquired by Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, a unit of the National Park Service. Jeff. Smith’s Parlor, a part of the extensive Rapuzzi collection, was very generously donated to Skagway and the National Park Service by the Rasmuson Foundation. It was once the saloon and headquarters for Jefferson Randolf [sic] Smith, better known as “Soapy.” Soapy Smith . . . — Map (db m72785) HM|
|Alaska (Skagway Borough), Skagway — Mollie Walsh — 1872-1902|
|Mollie was a resourceful and independent young woman with a wanderlust and love of frontiers. In 1890, she left home at 18 for Butte, Montana where she spent seven years. Landing in Skagway in 1897, Mollie became popular as a waitress and member of humanitarian activities of the Union church. When her efforts crossed Jefferson “Soapy” Smith, she feared retaliation and moved up the White Pass Trail near a Canadian Mountie station where she established a grub tent.
Over the . . . — Map (db m72786) HM|
|Alaska (Skagway Borough), Skagway — Skagway and White Pass|
|has been designated a
Under the provisions of the Historic Sites Act of August 24, 1935, this site possesses exceptional value in commemorating and illustrating the history of the United States — Map (db m72791) HM|
|Alaska (Skagway Borough), Skagway — Skagway Centennial Statue — 1897|
|Skagway was originally spelled S-K-A-G-U-A, a Tlingit Indian word for “windy place.” The first people in the area were Tlingits from the Chilkoot and Chilkat villages in the Haines-Klukwan area. From a fish camp in nearby Dyea, they used the Chilloot Trail for trading with the First Nations people of the Yukon Territory. The windy Skagway valley was favored for hunting mountain goats and bear, but no one settled here until 1887. That June, Skookum Jim, a Tlingit from the . . . — Map (db m69128) HM|
|Alaska (Skagway Borough), Skagway — Skagway Remembers|
|The citizens of Skagway, Alaska wish to forever remember the sacrifices of our military servicemen who died in wartime. These young men left home and community to answer the call to help preserve peace and freedom in the world.
World War I
Vincent Dortero • Lenard Haslett
World War II
Bill Phelps • Harry Lee • Harry Dallas • Ed Kast
Lloyd Sullivan • Michael Tierney — Map (db m72787) WM|
|Alaska (Skagway Borough), Skagway — Skagway's Historic Waterfront|
|Skagway had a deep-water harbor and was the starting point of the White Pass trail, which began in the river valley and let through the mountains. Skagway was the place where thousands of stampeders started their journey to the Klondike gold mines. Captain William Moore had wisely predicted a coming gold rush stampede and had tried to prepare for its impact by building a wharf and sawmill and making other improvements. In July 1897, almost one year after the discovery of gold in the Klondike, . . . — Map (db m72782) HM|
|Alaska (Skagway Borough), Skagway — The Vining and Wilkes Warehouse|
|Measuring 50’ X 100’, this was once the largest buildings in Dyea. I was built on pilings for fear of high tide coming up that far in 1898. Warehouses were used to sort out massive piles of mining supplies and bring order to the chaos that had previously occurred on the beachfront.
Caution: Wooden pieces and rusting metal bits that you see are important reminders of the Gold Rush stampede. Please avoid handling or stepping on these fragile pieces.
Today, the . . . — Map (db m72788) HM|
|Alaska (Skagway Borough), Skagway — Three Thousand Pack Animals|
| [Rendering of a loaded pack horse and pack mule] The dead are speaking in memory of us three thousand pack animals that laid our bones on these awful hills during the Gold Rush of 1897-1898. We now thank those listening that heard our groans across this stretch of years We waited but not in vain.
Placed by the Ladies of the Golden North and the Alaska–Yukon Pioneers — Map (db m69126) HM|
|Alaska (Skagway Borough), Skagway — Trail of '98 Museum — Alaska Centennial 1867 - 1967|
| Built as McCabe College for Women in 1899-1900. This is the first granite building in Alaska. It served as a Federal Court House from 1901 until statehood when it was purchased by the city of Skagway for a museum. — Map (db m72789) HM|
|Alaska (Southeast Fairbanks Borough), Big Delta — Gold Rush Crossroads|
|The community of Big Delta began during the Gold Rush era as a trading post and roadhouse serving prospectors and travelers.
Known for many years as McCarty, Big Delta was a link in the paths of travel and trade. It was located at the intersection of waterways, trails and telegraph lines.
Opening a Trading Post
Prospectors and traders blazed a trail through here in 1903 to the new town of Fairbanks following gold discoveries in the interior. Travelers crossed the Tanana River at . . . — Map (db m49598) HM|
|Alaska (Southeast Fairbanks Borough), Delta Junction — Delta Junction, Alaska — Northern Terminus of the "Alcan" Highway|
|This highway was constructed during World War II as a military supply route for interior Alaska Military and Airfields in 1942. 7 Army regiments and 42 Contractors and Public Roads Administrators working from Delta Junction South and Dawson Creek North completed it when they met at Soldiers’ Summit at Kluane Lake Yukon Territory in November 1942. At the peak of construction, 77 Contractors employed 15,000 men and 11,000 pieces of road building equipment. The total construction cost for 1422 miles was $115,000,000. — Map (db m59840) HM|
|Alaska (Southeast Fairbanks Borough), Tok — Taylor Highway|
|The Taylor Highway leads through some of the earliest and richest gold mining country in Alaska to the City of Eagle on the Yukon River. Gold was discovered by Franklin in 1886 and the old town of Forty Mile was located on the Yukon River at the mouth of the Forty Mile River. A river boat trip from Eagle will take you to this historic town. The Chicken Creek area was also a rich gold mining area at about the same time. Wade Creek was another rich area and the remains of an old dredge still . . . — Map (db m49596) HM|
|Alaska (Valdez Cordova Borough), Valdez — Goat Trail|
|The U.S. Army arrived at Valdez during the Gold Rush to build a trail into the interior. They found the Valdez Glacier impassable much of the year. To bypass the glacier, they cut a narrow trail along the walls of rugged Keystone Canyon. The “Goat Trail” quickly became a popular route to the interior.
There Must be a Better Way
In 1898 the Army found a route though Keystone Canyon as an alternative to Valdez Glacier. Despite dense vegetation, high walls, and a fast, icy . . . — Map (db m49611) HM|
|Alaska (Valdez Cordova Borough), Valdez — Horse and Sled Trail|
|On the far side, just above the water are the remains of the old sled trail, used in the early days. It was cut out of the rock, just wide enough for 2 horses abreast. 200 ft. above can be seen the old goat trail. This road was used till 1945. — Map (db m49610) HM|
|Alaska (Valdez Cordova Borough), Valdez — Old Railroad Tunnel|
|“The Iron Trail” by Rex Beach describes these events and this area.
This tunnel was hand cut into the solid rock of Keystone Canyon and is all that is left of the “railroad era” when nine companies fought to take advantage of the short route from the coast to the Copper Country. However a feud interrupted progress. A gun battle was fought and the tunnel was never finished. — Map (db m49609) HM|
|Alaska (Yukon Koyukuk Borough), Nenana — First Presidential Visit|
|President Warren G. Harding, first U.S. President to visit Alaska traveled here to pound the Golden Spike signalling completion of the Alaska Railroad from tidewater to the interior July 15, 1926.
State of Alaska
Governor Walter J. Hickel
Alaska Centennial Commission — Map (db m42948) HM|
|Alaska (Yukon Koyukuk Borough), Nenana — Golden Spike|
|A Golden Spike was
driven at this point by
on completion of
the Alaska Railroad
July 15 1923 — Map (db m4286) HM|