|Arizona (Apache County), Alpine — The Old Bushvalley Fort|
The Old Bushvalley Fort
For protection against
Renegade Apaches — Map (db m36274) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Eagar — 8 — 26 Bar Hereford Ranch|
|Once owned & often visited by film legend John Wayne, the ranch with the prominent white show barn came to fame in the 1940's as the Milky Way Hereford Ranch, owned by the Mars Candy Family. — Map (db m36611) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Eagar — 9 — Amity School|
|This stone chimney is all that remains of a one room country school house that served pioneer Amity pop.119 from the early 1880's until closing in April 1930. The Amity Cemetery & Amity Ditch are the only other remains of this early Mormon settlement. — Map (db m36614) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Eagar — 11 — Benjamin B. Crosby Home|
|An early 1900's adobe home built by the son of Eagar's first Mormon Bishop. Crosby, a major sheep & cattle rancher, was a railroad contractor who in 1917 laid the track for the Santa Fe Railroad north of here. — Map (db m36626) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Eagar — 7 — Colter Ranch|
|Below among the large cottonwood trees are the historic hdqtrs of Fred T. Colter's Cross Bar Ranch. Originally homesteaded in 1881 by Texan Micajah Phelps, Colter built the ranch into one of the largest cattle operations in Northeastern AZ. — Map (db m36609) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Eagar — 13 — Eagar Elementary School|
|After the original frame school house burned in 1950, this building served Eagar's children for 53 years. Mothers prepared hot lunch across the street creating Eagar's own depression era "soup lines" at 5 cents a cup for the children. — Map (db m36628) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Eagar — 15 — Harry Colter Home|
|Completed in 1912 by J.P. LeSueur manager of the Eagar ACMI, this frame house with a skin of pressed metal wall sheathing is best known as home to one of the Colter bros. Important Round Valley Ranchers. — Map (db m36643) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Eagar — 14 — Joseph Udall Barn|
|Built in the early 1900's by one of Eagar's prominent civic, religious & business leaders, this barn was constructed with wooden pegs & retains remarkable architectural integrity. The 2-story brick farmhouse no longer stands. — Map (db m36640) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Eagar — 12 — Oscar Jepson Home|
|Built c.1892, this adobe structure once housed the Eagar School & later a bootlegger's still. Jepson purchased & enlarged the home in 1925 & moved his family from Alpine so his daughters could attend Round Valley High School. — Map (db m36627) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Eagar — 10 — Rencher Home|
|On July 24, 1900, the Peter P. Rencher family arrived from Texas in four wagons & set about building their place in Eagar. Completed in 1913, this 5 bedroom, red brick Colonial Revival home was the crown jewel of their labors. — Map (db m36618) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Eagar — 6 — Snyder-Cavanaugh Shoot Out|
|In 1878, this notorious outlaw gang clashed over dividing their loot. A heated gunfight occurred in the saddle of this hill and it is said that at least seven died. Here lie their last known remains. — Map (db m36607) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Eagar — 16 — William LeSueur Home 1913|
|This handsome example of Colonial Revival architecture was home to the manager of Round Valley's ACMIs. His wife, the area's first registered nurse, boarded expectant mothers & teachers from the high school. — Map (db m36645) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Lupton — Max Ortega 1905-1979|
|In Memory of
Life-long resident of this area, son of a pioneer Arizona family, and early tradesman who was friend and neighbor to all. — Map (db m36562) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Lupton — One Days Ride to Zuni|
|In November of 1776 a party of Spanish explorers and Indian guides passed through this area on their way to the Zuni Mission in what is now New Mexico. Franciscan Fathers, Francisco Atanasio Dominquez and Silvestre Velez De Escalante, had embarked from Santa Fe with hopes of discovering an overland route to the presidio at Monterey. However, cold weather and rugged terrain forced them to turn south and return to Santa Fe. While they never succeeded in finding a shorter route to California, the . . . — Map (db m36577) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Navajo — At Navajo Springs|
|December 29, 1863 Arizona's Territorial officials took the oath of office during a snowstorm. Governor John N. Goodwin and other officials arriving from the east by wagon train, took their oaths of office and raised the U.S. flag "to establish a government whereby the security of life and property will be maintained throughout its limits, and its varied resources be rapidly and successfully developed". — Map (db m36334) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Springerville — 25 — Arizona Cooperative Mercantile Institution|
|Built of adobe in 1901 with a cast iron front shipped from St. Louis, the ACMI was a branch of the Mormon Cooperative Store system for 17 yrs. It later served the community as a saloon, variety store & furniture emporium. — Map (db m36652) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Springerville — 22 — Baca Home|
|Gregorio Baca bought this house from G. Becker in 1907 for his bride, Chona Ortega. It's walls are 16" thick adobe. The wealthy Bacas & Ortegas ran large herds of cattle & sheep on vast tracts of land in Concho, St. Johns & The R.V. area. — Map (db m36383) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Springerville — 21 — Baldonado Home|
|Part of the Spanish migration from northern New Mexico to Round Valley, Faustin Baldonado & his son Pedro bought this adobe home w/1 foot thick walls in the 1890's. Originally a cantina, Pedro added rooms when he married in 1900. — Map (db m36382) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Springerville — 27 — Becker's Transcontinental Garage 1910|
|The oldest continuously operated Ford dealership west of the Mississippi began in the west building in 1910. A pathfinding auto trip blazed the first "ocean to ocean highway" through here. — Map (db m36379) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Springerville — 17 — Bertha Wahl Shooting|
|In 1899, 14 year old Bertha Wahl was murdered here by a shepherd. Just south of here was the original Becker Store. Beyond lie the graves of the Becker family. Due west stood Henry Springer's Mercantile. — Map (db m36647) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Springerville — 4 — Brawley Boarding House|
|H.T. Brawley, teacher and principal of R.V.H.S. began construction on this house in approximately 1925. The unfinished shell sold to the M.J. Wiltbank Family in 1935. M.J. & son Clive completed the home. Through the years teachers, newlyweds & others lived in the rented rooms upstairs. — Map (db m36595) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Springerville — 20 — El Rio Theatre|
|Built c.1915 & originally called the Apache Theatre, this adobe movie house once showed silent flickers with a hand-cranked projector. Renamed the El Rio in 1937, Round Valley's first theatre is still operating with its original popcorn machine. — Map (db m36381) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Springerville — 1 — Escudilla Mountain|
|Due south rises the 3rd tallest peak in AZ, revered by conservationist, Aldo Leopold Escudilla was home to Ike Clanton of OK Corral fame & Arizona's last grizzly bear. In fall, the north slope is golden with Aspen covering the 23,000 acre fire of '51. To your right, "Valle Redondo" nestles against the mountains. — Map (db m36592) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Springerville — 19 — James Hale Shooting|
|On Dec. 25, 1886, James Hale was gunned down here in front of the Brighton Saloon. His accused was never brought to trial. In 1894 this site, then called Hunter's Hall, held the first Presbyterian services in the Round Valley. — Map (db m36651) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Springerville — 28 — Madonna of the Trail|
|This 10 foot high, 5 ton statue cast by St. Louis sculptor August Leimbach is one of 12 identical monuments to the bold spirit of the pioneers erected in 1928-29 along the National Old Trails Road from Maryland to California. — Map (db m36380) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Springerville — 5 — Old Grist Mill Site 1876|
|Just west on the river, W.R Milligan built the first grist mill & sawmill in Round Valley, later a brick kiln was added. Subsequent owners included the Udall Bros. & J.P. Rothlisberger who built the barn just ahead. — Map (db m36597) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Springerville — 24 — Peter Thompson Home & Blacksmith Shop|
|These log structures built by Thompson, a Danish convert to Mormonism, are Round Valley's oldest surviving buildings (1879). The cabin hosted the first Mormon services in Springerville. — Map (db m36385) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Springerville — 23 — Presbyterian & Catholic Churchs|
|Begun as missions in the late 1800's, Community Presbyterian Church here, and St. Peter's, a block east, moved into these permanent homes built respectively of brick (1918) & adobe (1928). — Map (db m36384) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Springerville — 2 — Slaughter Family Cemetary|
|First cousin to famed "Texas John Slaughter", Peter Slaughter & his rough trailhands brought the first Texas cattle to the White Mtns. C.1881 & built his P Lazy S Ranch on the Black River. Pete is buried here with 3 sons & extended family. — Map (db m36593) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Springerville — 26 — Springerville Schoolhouse 1884-1983|
|This bronze school bell summoned children until 1950. This 2 room adobe with high pitched roof & bell tower was added onto with brick, altering the entry & roof in 1927 & again in 1950. The school served the community 99 years. — Map (db m36653) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Springerville — 3 — White Mountain Historical Park|
|This park contains buildings restored by the White Mtn. Historical Society. They preserve early settler Hispanic & Native American cultures, along with farming, forestry and ranching heritage. — Map (db m36594) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Springerville — 18 — White Mountain Hospital|
|Built during the great depression using native stone & W.P.A. labor, this twenty-bed facility finally opened in 1939 when a doctor agreed to come to Round Valley to finish, lease & run the hospital for 10 years. — Map (db m36649) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), St. Johns — 194 — Pioneer Public Buildings|
|The old "Bowery" was the first place of worship used by the members of the Latter Day Saints Church who came to St. Johns in 1879-1880. The Assembly Hall, located on the northwest corner of the public square was erected in 1882. It was built of logs and served the community for school, church, and all public assemblies. Here St. Johns stake of the L.D.S. Church was organized July 23, 1887. The church academy was founded January 14, 1889 and the building dedicated December 16, 1900.
Camp Salem Apache County, Arizona — Map (db m36586) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Teec Nos Pos — Arizona (Four Corners)|
|The line separating the territories of New Mexico and Arizona was established as 32 degrees of longitude west of the Washington Meridian by Congressional Act of February 24, 1863, signed by President Abraham Lincoln.
The Washington Meridian bisected the Old Naval Observatory dome at the longitude of 77 degrees 03 minutes, and was the referenced longitude for 11 western states until the Greenwich Meridian was adopted in 1912, conveniently designated as zero degrees longitude.
In 1875 . . . — Map (db m36625) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Window Rock — About the Navajo Code Talkers|
|About the Navajo Code Talkers
During World War II the Japanese possessed the ability to break almost any American military code. Over 400 Navajos, with 29 being the original Navajo Code Talkers, stepped forward and developed the most significant and successful military code of the time using their native language. So successful was this innovative code that military commanders credited it with saving the lives of countless American soldiers and with the successful engagements of the U.S. . . . — Map (db m51537) HM|
|Arizona (Apache County), Window Rock — In Remembrance of Our Warriors / Navajo Warrior Memorial|
In Remembrance of Our Warriors
Who Made the Ultimate Sacrifice and/or
Missing in Action,
They will never be forgotten
and to us they will always be young in our thoughts.
Nelson Lewis Walter Nelson Willie A. Notah Edie Charlie Begaye Lee D. Tsosie John C. Nelson Calvin D. Largo Bobby J. Martinez Wilson Begaye Kee Edmund Smith Hosteen Plum* Leonard Tellowhair Lee Duane Todacheene Norman Graham Ralford J. Jackson Paul Kinlacheeny Raymond ***lie . . . — Map (db m27911) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Benson — Benson Jail 1938 - 2006|
|These doors and windows were used to build a jail on the Northwest corner of Huachuca & 5th Street during April – May 1938. Needing jail material, Benson obtained approval to remove cell doors & windows from the no longer used jail in Courtland, AZ. Using these items the new jail was completed at a cost of $1,800.00. The walls were made of large rocks, metal rebar and concrete 12" thick. During the late 1940's Benson obtained approval to visit the old jail in Gleeson and removed . . . — Map (db m48508) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Benson — Benson Pioneer Cemetery Known as "7th Street Cemetery" 1881-1975|
|This land was deeded to the City of Benson as a cemetery by the Pacific Improvement Company, the California based land company of the Southern Pacific Railroad, in March 1929.
Burial plots were sold to residents by the City of Benson and the cemetery continues to be maintained by the City. The first person buried was William McDonald, October 10, 1881. His grave is unmarked. The first marked grave is Charles H. Fullerton, buried October 13, 1883. The last burial was Nicholas Solis in 1975. . . . — Map (db m48512) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Benson — Council Rocks|
Four miles southeast at
Apache peace treaty with Cochise
was ratified in 1872
Near Dragoon Springs on October 12, 1872, General O.O. Howard and Cochise, Chief of the Chiricahua Apache Indians, ratified a peace treaty ending years of warfare between that tribe and the white settlers. Cochise's stronghold was hidden deep in the Dragoon Mountains beyond. — Map (db m27877) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Benson — Mormon Battalion LDS Church|
| Dec 14, 1846
Last camp on
Erected 1960 — Map (db m27878) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bisbee — Brewery Gulch|
|In the early 1900's the rough edges of Bisbee's mining camps could be found here in notorious Brewery Gulch with its dozens of saloons, gambling halls and crib houses. The street got its name from a common activity in Bisbee's early days, represented by Muheim's Brewery building, which still stands today. The "Gulch" was also the location of the Bisbee Stock Exchange, making it the center of activity in more ways than one. One of the popular spots was St. Elmo Bar, the oldest bar in Bisbee, which is still in business to this day. — Map (db m28278) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bisbee — Calumet and Arizona Mining Company Office Building|
|The Calumet and Arizona Mining Company developed a new town site in this area in 1905 to ensure the continued success of its mining interests. Using the "City Beautiful" model, the new town site – Warren – provided affordable housing. In 1909 this building was built by Calumet and Arizona Mining Company to house its main offices. In 1931 Phelps Dodge Corporation bought out the Calumet and Arizona Mining Company and this building was used by a variety of businesses. In 1974 the City . . . — Map (db m48574) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bisbee — City of Bisbee Warrior Memorial|
|The City of Bisbee honors by this memorial her warriors who died in defense of the principles of American Democracy against enemies of freedom in World War I, World War II, the Korean War and the War in Vietnam that their patriotic sacrifice will be an inspiration to safe guard liberty in the United States forever. — Map (db m28279) WM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bisbee — Copper Queen Plaza|
|The extent of the power and influence of the copper mining industry in Bisbee's early history is evident here in the Copper Queen Plaza. The buildings were built by the Copper Queen Consolidated Mining Company, later to become Phelps Dodge Corporation, to serve the company's and community's needs; Copper Queen Consolidated Mining Company Headquarters building (1897), Copper Queen Hotel (1902), Copper Queen Hospital (1914), Copper Queen Store (later rebuilt as the Phelps Dodge Mercantile Store) . . . — Map (db m28276) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bisbee — Discovery of Ore|
|.......On this site in the year of 1877, Sgt. Jack Dunn,
with a detail of the Tenth U.S. Cavalry pursuing renegade Apaches, discovered rich out croppings of copper & silver ore. The discovery led to the staking of the first mining claim & the subsequent development of the great southwest mining industry. The Glory Hole on this mountainside was the first mine developed here & was also used by the early settlers as a stronghold & sanctuary when the camp was threatened by Indian attack. — Map (db m48561) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bisbee — Mule Pass|
| Front of obelisk
Road Constructed by
Prison Labor 1913-14
Board of Control
Geo. W.P. Hunt Governor
C. Callaghan Auditor
U.R. Osburn Member
R.E. Sims Supt of Prison
Right side of obelisk
Left side of obelisk
Board of Supervisors
A. Hickey Chrmn
J. Rock — Map (db m48552) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bisbee — Phelps Dodge General Office Building|
|This building was the general office for the Bisbee operations of Phelps Dodge Corporation from 1895 to 1961.
In 1971 it was given to the City of Bisbee by Phelps Dodge and was designated as a National Historic Site by the National Park Service.
The building has been converted to a civic center and mining and historical museum by the Bisbee Council on the Arts and Humanities. — Map (db m28275) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bisbee — The Lavender Pit|
This open pit mine is named
The Lavender Pit
In honor of
Harrison M. Lavender
1890 – 1952
Who as vice president and general manager of Phelps Dodge Corporation conceived and carried out this plan for making the hitherto unprofitable low grade copper bearing rock of the area into a commercial copper producing ore.
His dynamic leadership, his comprehensive knowledge of all phases of mining will continue to be an inspiration to his fellow engineers. — Map (db m28281) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bisbee — The Warren Ball Park|
|Originally constructed of wood in 1908, the Warren Ball Park is the oldest in the state of Arizona and stands as testimony to Bisbee's rich heritage. The Warren Company, a subsidiary of the Calumet & Arizona and Pittsburgh & Superior Mining Companies, built the park at a cost of $5,000.00. The first backfield wall was inside the bleachers and stood at 380 feet. In 1930, the WPA re-built the park comprised of a cast-in-place concrete grandstand and wooden fence surrounding the outfield. The . . . — Map (db m48573) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bisbee — United States Border Station Naco, Arizona|
This property has been
placed on the
National Register of Historic Places
By the United States
Department of the Interior — Map (db m28258) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bisbee — Walter Douglas House Architect: Henry C. Trost|
Has been placed on the
of Historic Places
by the United States
Department of the Interior.
Built 1907 — Map (db m48562) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bowie — Centennial of Chiricahua Apache/U.S. Cessation of Hostilities 1886|
| [Side 1: In English :]
September 4-8, 1986, Arizonans marked the return of the Chiricahua Ex-Prisoners of War and their descendants in ceremonies that completed a spiritual circle. We remembered and reflected on the clash between National Expansion and the Chiricahua's determination to resist and remain free on their land, and on how so few could have so great and lasting impact on so many. Together we struggled with notions of equality and cultural differences and achieved a . . . — Map (db m42513) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bowie — First Fort Bowie|
|To your right, a spur trail follows a military road 300 yards to the first Fort Bowie ruins.
On July 28, 1862, a 100-man detachment of the 5th California Volunteer Infantry began construction of the primitive fort, completing it two weeks later. A four-foot-high stone wall surrounded a collection of tents and a stone guard house. The camp was named after Col. George Washington Bowie, the 5th Infantry commander.
General James Carleton, commander of the Department of New Mexico, ordered . . . — Map (db m42004) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bowie — Fort Bowie National Historic Site|
|A Regional Legacy
Cochise. Geronimo. Though their reputations were fierce, the Chiricahua Apaches didn't stop explorers, prospectors, settlers, and merchants from Westward immigration. To establish a lifeline between the East and California, the Butterfield Overland Trail was built in 1858, directly through the heart of Apache Pass. But as the Apaches' land and lifestyle became threatened, they retaliated with attacks on traveling parties and raids on settlements.
The Bascom Affair, a . . . — Map (db m37761) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bowie — 086-352 — Old Fort Bowie Guardian of Apache Pass|
|Established 1862 following the battle of Apache Pass, largest conflict in Arizona Indian Wars. Massed Apaches under Cochise and Mancas Coloradas were routed by howitzers fired by California volunteers attacked in the pass. Fort Bowie overlooked only spring for miles. — Map (db m6994) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Bowie — The Bascom Affair / Bascom-Cochise Meeting Site|
|The Bascom Affair
On February 4, 1861, 2nd Lt. George Bascom, and his detachment of 54 men encamped two hundred yards east of here. Bascoms mission was to find Cochise, recover a kidnapped boy and return livestock assumed taken by the Chiricahua Apaches.
During the meeting with Cochise and members of his band, Bascom ordered Cochise held hostage until the boy and his livestock were returned. Knowing neither he, nor his people had committed the acts, the Apache chief was insulted . . . — Map (db m42008) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Cochise — Sulphur Springs|
|This valley owes its name to the two springs located one mile north of this monument. From 400 A.D. to 1450 A.D. Indigenous Indians farmed the region. Their bedrock mortar pits remain on the nearby hill. Later Chiricahua Apaches, Spaniards, Mexicans, Anglo-American immigrants and U.S. soldiers used the Springs as a camping ground. Between 1857 and 1878 several stage lines, including the Butterfield Overland Stage Company, operated a relay station here. In 1872, with Tom Jeffords as agent, the . . . — Map (db m37768) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Douglas — Douglas International Airport|
|At this location on June 5, 1933, First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, wife of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, dedicated Douglas International Airport as the first international airport in the United States.
Designed by J. P. Sexton as the first and only truly international airport in the America's, Douglas International Airport began operations in 1929. The Douglas airfield was connected with the Auga Prieta, Mexico, airport by a common north-south runway.
Early air travel between the . . . — Map (db m28357) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Douglas — Douglas Police Headquarters Douglas, Arizona|
Elizabeth W. Ames, Mayor
Hector M. Salinas, Ward 1
Richard A. Arzate, Ward 2
Ramon H. Jordan, Ward 3
Harry F. Ames , Ward 4
Margaret Shannon, Ward 5
Rudy Quinonez, Ward 6
R. Delbert Self, City Manager
Charles E. Austin, Chief of Police
Albert N Hooper, Jr., Architect
Price Woods, Inc., Contractor
Paul Heidel, Superintendent
Building listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Built as the El Paso & Southwestern Railroad . . . — Map (db m28295) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise county), Douglas — Library Hall - The Douglas Public Library|
|Library Hall was built in 1901 and has served as a Town Hall, a Church, a School and a Library. The building was given to the City of Douglas in March, 1973, by the Phelps Dodge Corporation. — Map (db m28298) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Douglas — Mormon Battalion LDS Church|
two mile south
Dec 7 1846 — Map (db m28294) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Douglas — Mormon Battalion LDS Church|
march on record
Dec 6, 1846 — Map (db m28299) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Douglas — Mormon Battalion LDS Church|
Dec 5 1846 — Map (db m28300) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Douglas — Mormon Battalion|
in 1846 — Map (db m40693) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Douglas — San Bernardino Ranch|
Has been designated a
This site possesses National significance
in commemorating the history of the
United States of America
1964 — Map (db m28301) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Dragoon — Confederate Graves at Dragoon Springs|
|On May 5, 1862, a Confederate foraging party rounding up cattle near the abandoned Butterfield Overland Mail Station battled a group of apaches. The soldiers were members of Company A, Governor John R. Baylor's Regiment of Arizona Rangers, under the command of Captain Sherod Hunter. Captain Hunter's command was based at Tucson and engaged in operations against Union forces from California. Four of Hunter's men were killed, and the Apaches took 25 horses and 30 mules. It is unknown whether any . . . — Map (db m57792) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Dragoon — Dragoon Springs Stage Stop Land of Legends Coronado National Forest|
|Coronado National Forest
Land of Legends
The Dragon Springs Stage Stop
The San Antonio and San Diego Mail Line began service across Arizona to the Pacific coast in July, 1857. Its route included a stop here near the Dragoon spring. The San Antonio Line was commonly known as the "Jackass Mail" because mules were used to pull the coaches, and passengers were packed on mule-back across the Colorado Desert.
The Overland Mail Bill was passed by Congress in 1857 to begin twice weekly mail . . . — Map (db m44636) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Elfrida — Camp John A. Rucker A Military Outpost Stood on This Site 1878 - 1880|
|Lt. John A. Rucker, 6th Cav. U.S.A. perished in poximity in flooded White River July 11, 1878 attempting to save life of Lt. Austin Henely
Also on this site 1884-1943 ranch headquarters of Gray - Hampe - Rak — Map (db m42057) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Elfrida — Camp Rucker and the Indian Scouts|
|Camp Supply served as the base for two companies of Indian Scouts: Company C commanded by 2nd Lieutenant John A. Rucker, and Company D led by 1st Lieutenant Austin Henely. Each Company included between 32 and 40 Scouts who enlisted for 6 months at a time. During the first few months of the Camps operation the nighttime chanting and singing of Henelys Scouts resulted in complaints by enlisted soldiers. An order to relocate the Indian Scouts at least Ύ mile from Camp was subsequently issued. . . . — Map (db m42080) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Elfrida — Camp Rucker Timeline|
| June , 1876 - The Chiricahua Apache Indian Reservation is abolished. Apaches who are not relocated to other reservations are labeled renegades. Military patrols are sent throughout southeastern Arizona in search of them.
March, 1878 - Camp Supply is established just north of the International Border near San Bernardino Ranch to provide supplies and assist patrols pursuing renegade Indians. The camp is poorly situated for grazing needs and the Governor of Sonora protests the . . . — Map (db m42087) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Elfrida — Chief Cochise|
|Greatest of Apache Warriors
Died June 8, 1874
In this his favorite stronghold
Interred secretly by his followers
The exact place of burial was known to only
One white man – his blood brother
Thomas J. Jeffords — Map (db m37766) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Elfrida — Old Camp Rucker Ranch|
|Camp Rucker was a ranching headquarters for over 80 years. The first owner was Michael Gray, a Justice of the Peace in Tombstone, Arizona. He moved to Camp Rucker in 1883 under the privileges of a “Squatters Claim.” Gray was strongly committed to controlling Indian depredations and the loss of cattle from cattle rustling. With his family, he created Old Camp Rucker Ranch covering about 22,000 acres.
Theodore Hampe, a German artist, and his wife Mathilde purchased . . . — Map (db m42077) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Elfrida — Soldiers Hole|
|During the Chiricahua Apache Campaign (1861-1886) cavalry troops on maneuvers camped here at a permanent source of water known as Soldiers Hole.
W. C. Sanderson and Ambrose Lyall struck artesian water nearby in 1883.
In 1892 a twelve-battery stamp mill was erected and a post office was established under the name "Descanso", meaning a haven of rest. A school was built which the Mormon settlers also used for their church.
When the railroad by-passed Soldiers Hole in 1909, its . . . — Map (db m28363) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Gleeson — Historic Gleeson Jail 1910 - Jail Gleeson, Arizona|
|This jail, built in 1910, replaced a tiny wooden jail which once stood nearby. Constructed entirely of reinforced concrete, it has withstood a hundred years of weather, escape attempts, vandals, neglect, and pillagers (official and otherwise): It stands at the center of the town of Gleeson, whose populations at one time exceeded one thousand residents, stretching north for over a mile, and east-west along Gleeson Road as well.
Primarily a mining town, Gleeson's fortunes largely rose and . . . — Map (db m64206) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Hereford — Lehner Mammoth Kill Site|
|At this location in 1952, a large bone bed was discovered containing the remains of extinct mammoth, tapir, bison and horse. Found with the bones were the weapons and tools of the Indians who had killed and butchered these animals. The bones and weapons date back 11,000 years.
The discoverer of this bone bed was Ed Lehner, on whose ranch it was located. Ed had observed the bones eroding out of the banks of a side drainage of the San Pedro River near his home. In 1955 and 1956, . . . — Map (db m43633) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Hereford — The Coronado Expedition, 1540-42|
[The first section of marker is in Spanish:]
En el aρo 1539, recordando aϊn el anuncio de la conquista del imperio inca que occurriσ en 1533, el virrey Antonio de Mendoza receloso pero con te a la vez, envoν a un sacerdote para comprobar los rumres sobre ricas ciudades no descubiertas.
Casi diez aρos mas antes, un indio llamadσ lejo informo de la existencia de siete ciudades tan grandes como la ciudad de Mexico, con talleres de platerνa en cada calle. Pero habνa que hacer un . . . — Map (db m28255) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Huachuca City — Fort Huachuca (1877)|
|Situated on the southern route to the Pacific Ocean, it brought law and order to the Arizona Territory, protecting settlers, miners, travelers and immigrants. Its troops won the surrender of Geronimo. Generals Pershing and Wood served here.
As the Army's electronic proving ground Huachuca alone of all our military posts remains on active status. — Map (db m27897) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Naco — Bisbee Golf Club|
|* USA *
Bisbee Gold Club
Erected A.D. 1936
In Cooperation With The
City of Bisbee
O.P. No. 65-2-81 — Map (db m48576) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Pearce — John Ringo|
|The remains of this noted gunman and outlaw lie here. A teamster traveling from West Turkey Creek found the body sitting in the fork of a nearby oak tree with a bullet hole in the right temple.
A coroner's jury reported the death to be suicide, and Ringo was buried on the spot. There were others who viewed the body and maintained that the July 13, 1882, death of Ringo was murder. — Map (db m28365) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Pearce — Old Pearce Post Office|
|A Post Office was established in the Pearce Camp in 1896. At that time the Soto Bros and Chattman Store served as the first Post Office location with Thomas Chattman as the first appointed postmaster. The Post Office was later relocated to this adobe building. Gladys McLeod was the last post mistress to serve at this location. The Post Office was moved to the Sunsites area in 1967. — Map (db m64204) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Saint David — Mormon Battalion LDS Church|
Camp Dec 13 1846
Capt P.C. Merrill
San Pedro 1877
Erected 1960 — Map (db m27880) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), San Simon — Geronimo Surrender Monument|
|"Near here Geronimo, last Apache Chieftain and Nachite with their followers surrendered on Sept. 6th 1886 to General Nelson A. Miles. U. S. Army. Lieutenant Chas. B. Gatewood with Kieta and Martine Apache scouts, risked their lives to enter the camp of the hostiles to present terms of surrender offered to them by General Miles.
After two days Gatewood received the consent of Geronimo and Nachite to surrender.
The surrender of Geronimo in Skeleton Canyon, on that historic day, forever . . . — Map (db m28355) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), San Simon — The San Simon Rest Area - Percy Jones, Jr.|
|Dedicated to the
Engineering Achievements of
Percy Jones, Jr.
Chief locating engineer who by sheer genius personally located more miles of Arizona highways than any other person. His college training in mining and geology combined with instincts as a pioneer desert traveler to give him uncanny abilities at pushing roads across virgin country.
The spectacular drive through Salt River Canyon on U.S. 60 is considered a high point of this "born locator's" career. . . . — Map (db m37899) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), San Simon — The San Simon Rest Area - Percy Jones, Jr.|
|Dedicated to the
Engineering Achievements of
Percy Jones, Jr.
Chief locating engineer who by sheer genius personally located more miles of Arizona highways than any other person. His college training in mining and geology combined with instincts as a pioneer desert traveler to give him uncanny abilities at pushing roads across virgin country.
The spectacular drive through Salt River Canyon on U.S. 60 is considered a high point of this "born locator's" career. . . . — Map (db m37900) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — "Unknown Soldiers"|
|In Memory of those who stood and fought,
But names have been forgotten.
May they rest in peace. — Map (db m28252) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — Alvarado Hall|
Built 1979 – 1980
1893 – 1974
In memory of all Americans who served their country with valor and gallantry during World War I and World War II in the pursuit of freedom and liberty for all. — Map (db m49433) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — Apache Scout Memorial|
|Eyes of the Army
Presented by the
Huachuca Museum Society
Sculpted by Dan Bates — Map (db m28231) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — Buffalo Soldier Legacy Plaza|
Dedicated 23 April 2009
Honoring the stamina, courage, and
tenacity of soldiers assigned to the
9th Cavalry Regiment 10th Cavalry Regiment 24th Infantry Regiment 25th Infantry Regiment 92nd Infantry Division 93rd Infantry Division
372nd Infantry Regiment (NG)
Who Served with Distinction
at Fort Huachuca
1892 – 1946 — Map (db m28201) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise county), Sierra Vista — Carmichael General Store/U.S. Post Office Bill's Trading Post/G & M Stronghold Steakhouse Daisy Mae's Steakhouse|
| 335 North Garden Avenue
Built in 1905
This is perhaps the oldest building still standing in Sierra Vista. Mr. John Reilly homesteaded the property and received the patent for the land in March of 1911. John Reilly and his wife Ellen sold the property to Margaret Ziegan in December of 1911. Margaret, who later married William Carmichael, then ran it as a store and post office. This building served as the post office when the community was called Overton; the name was later changed to . . . — Map (db m27895) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — Carmichael House/Sierra Vista Realty|
| 301 North Garden Avenue
Built in 1927
The Carmichael House was built by William and Margaret Ziegan Carmichael on 131.05 acres. On December 11, 1911, Margaret, a single woman at the time, purchased the property from John and Ellen Reilly for $8,000. As the years passed, the Carmichael complex grew to include a windmill, water tower, outhouse, garage, and a storage area for tools. Just east of the house was a horse racing track. A vacant house was used as a riding stable. The original . . . — Map (db m27894) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — Counter Intelligence Corp Memorial|
Dedicated on the fifth day of August, the year 1962, to the eternal and glorious memory of those men of the Corps who made the supreme sacrifice while securing the blessings of liberty for the United States of America — Map (db m28233) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — Fort Huachuca|
Landmark — Map (db m28232) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — Ice Hall|
|Dedicated 9, July 1993
In honor of
Command Sergeant Major
Clovis D. Ice
United States Army
1933 – 1991
CSM Ice was a pioneer in military intelligence, airborne and special forces operations. He was a principal developer of direct support tactical SIGINT operations and instrumental in the design of the MANPACK intercept equipment, which revolutionized SIGINT support to tactical commanders. A soldier's soldier, CSM Ice possessed tactical and technical proficiency . . . — Map (db m28234) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — La Casita Restaurant 465 East Fry Boulevard Built in 1937|
|This site is within the Oliver Fry 280-acre homestead, which was filed August 11, 1912; the patent (or deed) was received August 11, 1916. Erwin Fry, the second oldest of Oliver and Elizabeth Fry's ten children, became the owner of this site. In 1937 Erwin and his wife Lillian built this store, which was adjacent to their general store and post office. This building is one of the oldest standing buildings in the community. From 1937 into the 1950s, no accurate information exists about the use . . . — Map (db m27892) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — Mormon Battalion LDS Church|
Dec 12 1846
Battle of the Bulls
Erected 1960 — Map (db m27882) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — Mormon Battalion Campsite|
Dec. 11, 1846
Herd of Wild
Erected 1960 — Map (db m27884) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — POW/MIA Monument Missing in Action in Cochise County|
|Sergeant William Wheeling
Co. F, 1st Calif. Inf.
18 June 1862, Apache Pass
Private Henry J. Dosher
Co. I, 5th Calif. Inf.
4 May 1864, Doubtful Canyon
Private Daniel S. Whitley
Co. L, 1st Calif. Cav.
20 June 1864, Apache Pass
Private George English
Co. L, 1st Calif. Cav.
17 Febr. 1865, 15 miles east of Fort Buchanan
Private John L. Jones
Co. L, 1st Calif. Cav.
14 July 1865, Croton Spring.
By remembering them, we honor all Cochise County . . . — Map (db m36775) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — RC – 12G Crazyhorse|
|The Crazyhorse system was fielded in 1985 to meet the need for a capability to locate unique electronic emissions in Central America. It consisted of three RC – 12G airframes converted from C – 12D aircraft by Sanders Associates, Inc. It was deployed to Honduras in 1986 to support U. S. Southern Command and Task Force BRAVO in counterinsurgency and counterdrug operations for the next nine years. The system was retired from service in 1998. — Map (db m29587) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — U. S. Army Mohawk (OV -1D)|
|The Mohawk is a high-performance, two-seat, observation aircraft made by the Grumman Corporation. The first model flew in 1959 and the last came off the production line in 1970. First deployed in 1968, it became the mainstay of Army aerial surveillance during the Vietnam War. Since then, it has always been at the forward borders with East Germany, Czechoslovakia, North Korea, and other danger spots in the world. During the 1991 Gulf War, Mohawks were credited with location and maintaining watch over Iraq's elite forces. — Map (db m29588) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — Union Soldiers Buried in Historic Cemetery Southern Arizona Veterans Memorial Cemetery|
holds the remains of
18 California Volunteers who died
at Fort Lowell during the Civil War and a
Civil War Veteran of the U.S. Colored Troops.
Their graves are marked with a GAR star.
Sgt. John C. McQuade - Co.B, 2 Calif. Calvary - July 12, 1862 1st Sgt. Elijah Perry - Co. A, 1 Calif. Calvary - Aug. 12, 1862 Pvt. Jacob Smith Co. G, 5 Calif. Infantry - Oct. 3, 1862 Pvt. Samuel Riddle - Co. E, Calif. Infantry Pct. George W. Ward - Co. B, Calif. Calvary Pvt. . . . — Map (db m33745) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — USO Club / NCO Annex / Army Service Club Landmark Restaurant|
| 400 W. Fry Blvd.
Built in 1942
Originally constructed as a USO Club on land purchased by the U.S. Government from Mrs. Margaret Carmichael for the sum of $1.00, this facility served military personnel during World War II. It was closed during periods when Fort Huachuca was deactivated but reopened in 1954 to serve again as an NCO Annex and an Army Service Club. The building was purchased by Tony Shaieb and Roger Barnett in 1975 and was subsequently remodeled and reopened as the . . . — Map (db m27893) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Sierra Vista — Wheel of Progress|
|Dedicated to the
Arizona Mining, Sand and Gravel Industry
by E.J. Cyr on 1/1/93
History: Built in 1905 by Ingersoll Rand for the Inspiration Consolidated Copper Co. in Miami, Arizona to power a 150 ton air compressor.
Antique wheel weighs 60,000 pounds
Engineered and assembled by E.J. Cyr and Staff
Shaft size 16" diameter
Bearing size 8"
Driven by: 3 HP electric motor with 2.2 RPM
1400 South Hwy 92, Sierra Vista, Arizona — Map (db m48595) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Tombstone — Bird Cage Theatre|
|This structure has been
recorded by the
of the United Stated Department
of the Interior for its
archives at the Library of Congress. — Map (db m48526) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Tombstone — 1 — Boothill Graveyard 1878-1884|
|This Tombstone Cemetery gives mute testimony to the hardships of Western frontier life. The people buried here were housewives, painted ladies, outlaws, gamblers, miners, business men and women, blacksmiths, cowboys and those "who died with their boots on". Among its occupants are Billy Clanton, Tom and Frank Mclaury of OK Corral gunfight fame, Dutch Annie, the "Queen of the Red Light District', Quong Kee and other famous and not so famous residents that contributed to Tombstones early history. . . . — Map (db m27926) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Tombstone — 18 — Campbell & Hatch Saloon and Billiard Parlor 1881|
|Bob Hatch and John Campbell opened a billiard parlor in 1880. Bob Hatch was a colorful character and an amateur thespian. It was said he kept a jar of frogs on the counter as their croaking helped him predict the weather. He followed the Earps to the famous gunfight, assisted in removing the gun from dying Billy Clanton's hand, and testified at the hearing. A few months later, he was playing a game of billiards with Morgan Earp when the back window was shattered by a gunshot and Morgan fell, . . . — Map (db m48516) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Tombstone — 14 — Can Can Restaurant 1879|
|The Can Can Restaurant was established in 1879 by Quong Kee. It was one of Tombstone's best known restaurants. In 1886 it was purchased by John Henninger who turned it into a first class eating establishment. It had a number of proprietors until 1921. In 1928, it became the Piggly Wiggly Market. In 1945 a Dr. Paul Zin and Father Aull opened the Tombstone Medical Center in this building. It was a facility for the treatment of asthma and other respiratory ailments. It was very successful and . . . — Map (db m48513) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Tombstone — City Marshall Virgil Earp|
|Virgil Earp was ambushed here and crippled for life as an aftermath of the OK battle-Dec 28, 1881 — Map (db m61873) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Tombstone — 15 — Cochise County Bank 1881|
|The first business in Tombstone was opened on this corner by J.B. Allen. In 1879 it was purchased by Phillip Smith who opened the Pioneer Store and an agency of the Pima County Bank within the store. When Cochise County was established, Smith changed the name to the Cochise County Bank and erected a new adobe building. The interior boasted black walnut furnishings and a burglar proof safe with a time lock. After Smith went bankrupt, it became Cochise Hardware & Trading; Bunker Hill Mining Co.; . . . — Map (db m48514) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Tombstone — 33 — Curly Bill Brocius|
|Curly Bill Brocius killed Marshal Fred White here on October 28th, 1880. — Map (db m53408) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Tombstone — Edward Schieffelin 1847-1897|
|The son of a miner, Ed learned everything about prospecting from his father, except how to strike it rich! For twenty years, Ed prospected the west. He tried the "regular life," but after 18 months remarked: "No better off than I was prospecting, and not half as well satisfied."
He arrived at the foot of the Huachuca Mountains in March 1877 working as a supplier for the cavalry. Soldiers told Ed that all he would find would be his "tombstone or his graveyard" if he kept . . . — Map (db m27933) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Tombstone — Grand Army of the Republic Memorial Tombstone, Arizona|
Dedicated May 30, 1887
In Memory of
the Comrades of
G.A.R. — Map (db m33141) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Tombstone — 31 — M. Calisher General Store 1879|
|M. Calisher was a California company that opened a store in Tombstone in 1879. They sold general merchandise as well as lumber. Eighteen year old David Calisher managed the store. He was a member of a grand jury that indicted William Claiborne for a shooting but was criticized for failure to indict the Earps and Doc Holliday after the gun fight. David incurred the ire of the community when a fire broke out in his store on a night when it had been announced the water would be shut off. Policemen . . . — Map (db m48528) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Tombstone — 28 — Owl Cafe and Tourist Hotel|
|On December 28th of 1881 while crossing 5th St., Virgil Earp was ambushed and shot. Would be assassins hidden in a new building under construction opened fire with shotguns. Virgil was severely wounded. He survived, but lost the use of his left arm. Meyer's Brothers Clothing and the Huachuca Water Co. moved into the new building. Later it became a popular saloon called the Bucket of Blood. In 1909 it was remodeled into a tourist hotel. In 1928 it became the Owl Cafι and Tourist Hotel. The . . . — Map (db m48517) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Tombstone — 35 — Rose Tree Museum|
|In 1934, Robert Ripley
declares the Rose Bush
the World's Largest in the
"Believe it or Not".
The fire of May 26th, 1882, destroyed the dwellings located here. In 1885, Mrs. Amelia Adamson built the Cochise House Hotel. That same year, Mrs. Adamson and Mrs. Mary Gee, a hotel guest, planted the rose bush in the hotel patio. The Rose bush had been sent to Mrs. Gee by a relative in Scotland. By 1909, the Cochise House was renamed as the Arcade Hotel and Annex. It was . . . — Map (db m53406) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Tombstone — Sacred Heart Church 1881-1945|
|In 1881, Nellie Cashman aided in building an adobe structure which served as a combination church and rectory; the first Pastor was Father Emmanuel P. Schneider. Another church was built in 1882 and Bishop John B. Salpointe dedicated it in 1883. The present church was built in 1945. — Map (db m27916) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Tombstone — 38 — Southern Pacific Train Depot 1903|
|The railroad reached Tucson in March of 1880. Richard Grid had a railroad spike crafted of solid silver from the Toughnut Mine. It was presented to the President of the Southern Pacific Railroad as an inducement to bring a railroad spur to Tombstone. The solid silver spike disappeared into the gentleman's collection and so did Tombstone's hopes for railroad service for many years. Spurs were built in Nogales, Benson, Contention and Fairbanks in the early 1800s and finally reached Tombstone in . . . — Map (db m53401) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Tombstone — St. Paul's Episcopal Church Built on this site 1882|
|The First Protestant Church in Arizona Territory under the direction of Endicott Peabody who conducted the first services in this building on June 18, 1882.
The structure is of hand formed adobe brick, stuccoed in 1970 to protect the adobe. The ceiling and roof were constructed of timber hauled in by ox carts from the Chiricahua Mountains and are still protecting this historic landmark.
The stained glass windows, the pews, altar rail are all the originals unchanged over the years. The . . . — Map (db m27920) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Tombstone — 20 — The Grand Hotel Opened in 1880|
|In September of 1880 a new adobe structure, the Grand Hotel, opened for business. It boasted all the luxury and comfort that 1880 had to offer. It displayed Brussels carpets, a black walnut baluster, walnut furniture and rare oil paintings. John Behan was a bartender here and it quickly became the Cowboys hangout. Among it's clients were the Clantons and McLaurys. The hotel burned in the 1882 fire that left only the adobe walls standing. After the fire a new building was erected that housed . . . — Map (db m48515) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Tombstone — 27 — The Oriental Saloon 1880|
|The Oriental Saloon was opened in 1880 by Milton Joyce with the gaming concessions run by Lou Rickenbaugh. The Epitaph News described it as "the most elegantly furnished saloon this side of the Golden Gate". Wyatt Earp bought a share of the gaming tables. The Oriental became one of Tombstone's most notorious saloons due to several shooting deaths on the front walk. It was also the scene of confrontations, one involving gunfire, between Milt Joyce and Doc Holliday and later with Virgil Earp. The . . . — Map (db m48524) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Tombstone — Tombstone City Hall Opened in 1882|
|Architect Frank Walker designed this building in Victorian style adapted to Western Territorial. It is constructed of fired red brick. It has been in continuous service since 1882 for Mayors, Marshals and official city offices. In the 1880's it housed the fire department's Rescue Hose Company #2. It was placed on the National Register of Historic places in 1972. — Map (db m27918) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Tombstone — 36 — Tombstone Engine Co. No. 1|
|The devastating fires of 1881 and 1882 brought major changes to the Tombstone Fire Department. A new fire station was completed in 1881, a new Rescue Hook and Ladder Co. was formed, and a new water source was obtained. Thirty six miles of fifteen inch pipe was laid to bring water from the Huachuca Mts. to Tombstone resulting in water pressure that would "blow down an adobe wall". Over the years, this building has had many uses including a museum, a theatre and a Senior Center. This is the original 1881 structure, worn, but still standing. — Map (db m53403) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Tombstone — Tombstone, Arizona "The Town Too Tough To Die"|
|In 1877 prospector Ed Schieffelin searched for silver in Apache land. He was told he would only find his own tombstone. Schieffelin ignored the advice. The result was a strike worth at least forty million dollars.
This brought not only miners and businessmen, but gamblers, prostitutes and gunmen to the new town. The most famous gunfight in the western history occurred at the OK Corral, October 26, 1881, when the Earps shot it out with the Clantons and the McLaurys.
In 1882 the mines . . . — Map (db m48507) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Tombstone — Veterans Pioneers Settlers|
In Memory of
Settlers — Map (db m27924) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Willcox — Erickson Family Cemetery Sacred To the Memory of These Pioneers|
|They came when only the brave dared come: They stayed where only the valiant could stay. Born in Sweden. Americans by choice - not by accident of birth, they loved their adopted country and served her well.
Served five years in the Army during the Indian Wars and then twenty five years as an officer in the United States Forest Service.
As wife, mother, friend, God's spirit was imbued within her. Perils of Indian warfare incessant toil and loneliness of a . . . — Map (db m28368) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Willcox — Faraway Ranch|
| Faraway Ranch represents a
transition from the wild, unsettled
frontier to a peaceful cattle and
guest ranch of the 20th century.
In 1887, shortly after the final surrender of Geronimo, Neil and Emma Erickson set up a homestead here. When Neil became the first ranger of the Chiricahua Forest Reserve, Faraway Ranch served as his headquarters for several years.
Life at Faraway Ranch centered around cattle, but . . . — Map (db m28370) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Willcox — Headquarters Saloon|
|It was at this location the Headquarters Saloon stood from the 1890's until it burned down in 1940. Warren Earp was shot and killed at the Saloon on July 6, 1900. — Map (db m28179) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Willcox — In Memory of Lt. Robert G. Westlund United States Air Force|
|On 30 December, 1951, during a routine training flight from Merced, California, to Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, Lt. Robert G. Westlund lost his life when his F-51 "Mustang" fighter plane crashed near Sunset Peak in the Galiuro Mountains northwest of Wilcox.
A combat veteran of the European theatre of Would War II, Lt. Westlund was dedicated officer and a decorated fighter pilot. The wreckage was removed from the mountainside in 1991, one day another "Mustang" will take to the skies. . . . — Map (db m28414) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Willcox — 6 — Palace Saloon and Pool Hall, 1905|
|Earliest panel brick style commercial building in Willcox. Was a meat market during prohibition. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places. — Map (db m28175) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Willcox — Railroad Avenue|
|Railroad Avenue became the Commercial center for the growth of Willcox and the Sulpher Springs Valley from the time of the construction of the Southern Pacific Railroad through the area in 1880. — Map (db m28174) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Willcox — Rex Allen Memorial|
| [Marker mounted to the left of sculpture:]
Born December 31, 1920 to Horace and Faye Allen in Willcox, Rex Elvie Allen was cross-eyed at birth.
As a young boy, Rex sang in the barber shop on this very street. He and his Dad played for dances and rodeos in the 30's and he excelled in glee clubs and church choirs.
Rex left home determined to find his place in the career he loved – music. In 1945 at WLS Radio in Chicago, he gained nationwide popularity on "The National . . . — Map (db m28199) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Willcox — The Ericksons: Pioneer Settlers|
"Sacred to the memory of these pioneers, they came when only the
brave dared come: they stayed
where only the valiant could stay."
Lillian Erickson Riggs
Swedish immigrants, Neil and Emma Erickson married in 1887 and established a homestead not far from here. Known as Faraway Ranch, it was one of the first permanent settlements in this area. The ranch is located about a mile east of here along the park road.
The Ericksons' first child, Lillian, was born at Fort Bowie. . . . — Map (db m28366) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Willcox — 1 — The Schwertner House, 1880|
|Built by Delso Smith as an Army Officer reception center during the Indian wars. Bought by Mr. Schwertner in 1893 and donated to the local Historic Society in 1980.
It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. — Map (db m28418) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Willcox — The Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, 1880|
|This is the only remaining original redwood frame Southern Pacific R.R. Station in Arizona. It is also the only known, original, on site, passenger depot still extant on the Southern – Trans – Continental Railroad route, between Los Angeles and Chicago.
Listed on the National Register of Historic Places. — Map (db m28180) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Willcox — The Toggery, 1925|
|Built by Thomas A. Huffman. The Toggery was originally constructed as a single unit and later Mr. Huffman built the adjacent building. Huffman's Toggery was established in 1916 as part of the Commercial Development of Willcox.
Listed on the National Register of Historic Places. — Map (db m28200) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Willcox — The Willcox Women's Community Center|
Was constructed by P. Howard Pregenzer and crew
In Memory of
P. Howard Pregenzer
Resident of Willcox, Arizona 1927-1980
Construction began in 1934 and completed in 1936
Construction sponsored by the City of Willcox, Arizona in year 1936
United States of America work project administration (WPS)
Construction project O. P. No. 65-2-166 — Map (db m28415) HM|
|Arizona (Cochise County), Willcox — 8 — Willcox Commercial Hotel, 1916|
|Primarily used as headquarters for traveling salesmen using the Southern Pacific R .R. for transportation. Restored in 1987 by the Brown Family to be used as an ice cream parlor and office suites.
Listed on the National Register of Historic Places — Map (db m28173) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Cameron — Cameron Originally Tanner's Crossing|
|Named for one of Arizona's first U.S. Senators. A pioneer in development of trails and copper mines in Grand Canyon. Near here was the site of Tanner's Crossing of the Little Colorado River on the Mormon Trail from Utah via Lee Ferry to settlements in Arizona and New Mexico. — Map (db m59189) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — "The Gandy Dancer"|
|Section crews were the laborers who built the railroads in the beginning and have continued throughout the years to maintain them. These crews were most efficient in moving heavy sections of rails when they all worked in unison. To accomplish this they sometimes used songs or some other method of keeping a beat. The tools used were manufactured by the Gandy Tool Company, hence the term, "Gandy Dancer." The tools shown here are the spike maul, rail gauge, wrench, clawbar, and rail tongs.
Clyde "Ross" Morgan, Sculptor — Map (db m33265) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Gathering Place|
| ]Panel 1:]
Between 1100 and 1200, more people lived in this area than ever before, or since. Located along routes linking large populations to the northeast and south, villages here were well situated for trade. As people, goods, and ideas converged on the area, a complex society of several thousand evolved. This particular village became the heart of a thriving community and was a landmark, a gathering place, and a ceremonial center.
It is remarkable that this land, so dry and . . . — Map (db m60079) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Legacy of the Past|
|Box Canyon and Lomaki ruins are a short 15-minute walk from here, along the edges of ancient earthcracks. The 1/4-mile trail will take you back in time over 800 years to the remnants of this once-thriving community. You will see the few native plants that grow in this high-desert environment; how the eruptions of Sunset Crater Volcano affected the ancient inhabitants; and the plaza where daily activities such as cooking and grinding corn took place.
The whole picture of this prehistoric . . . — Map (db m60114) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Village/Abandonment|
You are entering the “Citadel,” a ruin from the late 1100s. Research has not been completed so it is important that we leave things as they are. Will there be extra storage spaces found, possible evidence for the defense theory? We do know this is one of the larger pueblos in Wupatki National Monument and could have been the home for many families. You are welcome to speculate about what will be found here, as we do.
What happened? Exact . . . — Map (db m60089) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Ancient Landscapes|
|Eight hundred years ago, a savannah-like grassland covered much of this high desert with abundant grasses. The residents would have collected and burned much of the nearby fuel, necessitating long walks to adjacent areas to gather wood. Sparse annual rainfall forced the inhabitants to catch and save as much water as they could, or walk miles to other sources.
Since the use of the area by modern ranchers, the land has undergone other dramatic changes. Cattle grazing stripped much of the . . . — Map (db m60105) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Aubineau / Andreatos Building 1893/1952|
Aubineau Building: The earliest buildings on this site were wood frame saloons, which burned in 1886 and 1888 and 1892. In 1892, ownership passed to Julius Aubineau, who later became Mayor of Flagstaff and is credited with installing the town's first water system, a pipeline from the Peaks. Aubineau built the present brick building in 1893, using it as a liquor store. It was later a saloon, a cafe, and a market.
The El Patio Cafe was located here from 1930-1965. A stucco exterior . . . — Map (db m33267) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Aubineau Building 1912|
|Because of its prime location, this corner, containing two lots, was one of the earliest in Flagstaff to be developed. Pioneer merchant J. R. Kilpatrick built New Town's sixth building here in December 1883. This wooden store building burned in the big Valentine's Day fire of 1886.
Kilpatrick rebuilt, erecting a two-story brick store on the west lot in 1886. In 1887 he built a one-story brick building on the east lot, increasing it to two stories in 1888. Fire destroyed the east building . . . — Map (db m33269) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Babbitt Brothers Building 1888|
|In 1888, David Babbitt, who had been running a lumber yard on this site, decided to construct a general store. Starting in late summer, he built a 35 X 70 foot structure on this corner, with the long side of the building running west along Aspen Avenue. He used red Moencopi sandstone, locally quarried, as his principal material.
His brothers William, George, Charles and Edward eventually joined him in the enterprise. In 1891, when Coconino County was formed, it had no office building, so . . . — Map (db m59504) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Beale Road|
|In 1857 Congress authorized Navy Lieutenant Edward F. Beale to survey a wagon road along the 35th parallel from Fort Defiance, New Mexico Territory, to the Colorado River. A secondary mission was to test the feasibility of using camels in the Southwest. In the fall of 1857, the Beale survey party passed through what is now Flagstaff, Arizona, with approximately 50 men, 100 mules, 10 wagons, 22 camels, and over 300 sheep. The eventual route passed by this location, and later became Fort Valley . . . — Map (db m33348) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Beale Wagon Road 1857 - 1882|
|From 1857-60, Lt. Edward F. Beale and crew of 100 men completed the first federal highway in the southwest from Fort Smith, Ark. to Los Angeles, Calif. at a cost of $200,000. The wagon road was used extensively by immigrants en route to California and livestock men with large herds of cattle and sheep until 1882. — Map (db m33346) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Box Canyon Ruins|
|The Box Canyon ruins are typical of many pueblos found in this region. Early inhabitants constructed walls of nearby sandstone and limestone, and used local soils to cement the stones together. The flat roofs were built of timbers laid side-by-side, covered with smaller branches and finally plastered over with mud.
Smoke was vented from the rooms through a square hole in the ceiling, which frequently served as the only access to the room. Doorways were small and windows almost . . . — Map (db m60094) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Buffalo Park|
|The City of Flagstaff purchased this land in 1959 from the United States Forest Service.
In 1964, James Potter, Sr., long-time resident, entrepreneur and Flagstaff Chamber of Commerce President, led the effort to form a non-profit organization, lease the site from the city, and operate Buffalo Park as a tourist attraction and wildlife refuge for elk, deer, antelope, and of course, bison. A blend of Old West and Navajo culture was represented with stagecoach rides, cowboy storytellers and . . . — Map (db m33347) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Bushmaster Park|
|Bushmaster Park is named in memory of Flagstaff's Company I-158th Infantry Regiment, Arizona National Guard, and their sacrifices for freedom made in New Guinea, the Phillipine Islands and Japan from 1941 to 1945.
"No greater fighting team ever deployed for battle."
General Douglas MacArthur — Map (db m60932) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Church of the Nativity 1888-1930|
|In 1888, at the insistence of a group of Catholic
Laymen, The First Catholic Church in Flagstaff was built of brick on the south side of town. It was moved in 1911 to a temporary site just west of and across the street from the present permanent gothic structure, of native volcanic rock, which was completed and dedicated in 1930. — Map (db m33336) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Coconino Chop House 1898|
|The Hoxworth family was the first to develop this lot, when H. H. Hoxworth built a hardware and furniture store here in January 1884. The property was owned by his father, George Hoxworth, a wounded Union veteran of the Battle of Shiloh.
Like all the other buildings on this block, the original store was destroyed in the fire of 1886. George Hoxworth replaced the building with a two-story wooden storefront, which burned in the fire of 1888. Soon afterward ownership passed to Dr. G. F. . . . — Map (db m33268) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Daily Life|
An open area in the pueblo near the rim of the earthcrack is known as the plaza. In pueblos, the plaza was the center for many daily activities including grinding corn, making pottery, working obsidian into arrowheads, processing other plants for food, and cooking. It would have also been used for meetings, conducting trade, and as a controlled play area for children. During the warmer months, the plaza received extensive use from dawn until after dusk; rooms inside the pueblo were . . . — Map (db m60110) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Donahue Building 1888|
|This building for many years was the home of J. J. "Sandy" Donahue's famous Senate Saloon. After earlier frame buildings on the site had been destroyed by fire, Donahue built the present brick structure in 1888.
An important figure in Flagstaff's early history, Donahue held public office and participated in many civic improvements; but he was also a free-wheeling gambler, drinker and spender. Donahue became overextended and lost the property on a mortgage foreclosure.
A small number . . . — Map (db m33266) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Downtowner 1921 - 1935|
|The K.J. Nackard family came to Flagstaff in 1912 and opened a small general store at 106 E. Railroad Avenue. The store was successful. In 1921, Nackard built a home on this property, just a stone's throw from the store.
Soon afterwards, automobile travel began to increase in Flagstaff as Route 66 was created and advertised. Until 1932, when the underpass was built, traffic on Route 66 came by this location, making it a natural place for a motel.
The Nackards converted their home into . . . — Map (db m59499) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Dry Land Farming|
|Volcanic activity to the south produced giant fissures or earth cracks throughout the Wupatki area in the Kaibab Limestone. This formation covers most of the western half of Wupatki National Monument. The Sinagua and Anasazi Indians who inhabited these ancient pueblos probably found the earthcracks to be the most productive farming sites. There is no evidence of streams close by which could be used for water. All of the farming was dependent on the rainfall.
Corn, squash and other crops . . . — Map (db m60098) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Flagstaff|
|Named for a pine tree stripped of its branches by a party of immigrants and used as a flagpole for a patriotic celebration on July 4, 1876. Nearby Antelope or Old Town Spring provided water and led to the establishment of a railroad construction camp when the Atlantic & Pacific pushed west in 1882. — Map (db m33330) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Flagstaff Flag - Raising|
|Historians generally agree that Flagstaff derives its name from a flag-raising ceremony held July 4, 1876, by a group of settlers from New England who were camped within sight of this historic monument.
In February and May of 1876, two groups of settlers left Boston and traveled westward, intent upon establishing a colony in the valley of the Colorado Chiquito (Little Colorado River) near present-day Winslow. Known as the first and second Boston parties, these colonist had been lured by . . . — Map (db m33365) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Flagstaff Presbyterian, Federated Community, Mexican Methodist Mission and United Methodist Churches|
|Flagstaff Presbyterian Church
1892 - 1916
Flagstaff Federated Community Church
Mexican Methodist Mission – El Divino Redentor
United Methodist Church 1927-present
The First Presbyterian congregation of Flagstaff was organized in 1891 and built this church on San Francisco and Cherry Streets. Although unfurnished, services began the following year. In 1916 Presbyterians and Methodist joined to become the Flagstaff Federated Community Church. In 1927 the . . . — Map (db m33364) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Flagstaff's Founding|
| Flagstaff was a name on a map before the area had any significant population. The first permanent settler was Thomas F. McMillan who arrived sometime in 1876. On July 4, 1876, a party of emigrants traveling from Boston to California was camped at Antelope Springs, near McMillan's homestead and in the vicinity of present-day Marshall Elementary School. In honor of the nation's Centennial, the emigrants stripped the limbs from a tall Ponderosa Pine tree and hoisted Old Glory. This event gave . . . — Map (db m41717) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Logging Wheels|
|Logging wheels were originally an integral part of the early lumber industry in Northern Arizona. Originally designed in 1870 by Silas Overpack, a Manistee, Michigan wheelwright, the wheels were used by a local farmer to help him clear his land. When logging operations began in the early 1880's, they became a vital part of the process. The wheels, originally pulled by horses, were used into the early 1900's and were even pulled by early steam tractors.
When lumberjacks felled the large . . . — Map (db m33331) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — McMillan Building 1887|
|Thomas F. McMillan (also spelled McMillon) was the father of Flagstaff. Born in Tennessee, he sought gold in California and raised sheep in Australia before moving to northern Arizona in 1876. Here he established a sheep ranch and farm just north of the present city. He prospered and became one of the leading stockmen of Arizona. It was at a spring he used as a sheep camp on July 4, 1876, that the Second Boston Party raised the flag staff that gave Flagstaff its name.
McMillan played an . . . — Map (db m33271) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Methodist Episcopal Church 1906-1916 Flagstaff Federated Community Church 1916-Present|
|Flagstaff's first congregation was formed by the Methodist in 1883 and they raised the first church five blocks east of here in 1887. In 1906 they moved here and constructed this Gothic style building of locally quarried red sandstone. The interior, originally in the Akron architectural style, featured semi-circular seating sloping down toward the elevated pulpit in the northwest corner. Services began the next year. In 1916 the Methodist and Presbyterians joined to become the Flagstaff . . . — Map (db m33337) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Railroad Depot 1926|
|The facility was originally constructed in 1925-1926 by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad as the passenger station for the Flagstaff stop. The City of Flagstaff acquired the building in 1992 using city of Flagstaff Bed, Board & Booze tax funds. The facility was renovated in 1994 whit every attempt made to protect the architectural integrity of the building. The striking paint scheme reflects the southwest heritage of the station and was developed based on research and paint analysis of . . . — Map (db m33335) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Raymond Building 1911|
|As the keystone shows, this building was constructed in 1911. Its owner was R.O. Raymond, M.D., one of Flagstaffs first doctors. Raymond came west for his health. After a short stay in Williams, he moved to Flagstaff in 1906.
He was the doctor for the Arizona Lumber and Timber Company, the towns largest employer, at their company town known as Milton, where he established and ran the Milton (Mercy) Hospital, which served the whole community from 1912 -1935.
Raymond branched out into . . . — Map (db m59511) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Ricket & Brooks Bldg. 1911|
|The first building on this site was a wooden structure located at 22 N. San Francisco Street dating from the early 1890s. It was the home of a saloon with a cute name, The Office. (“Honey I cant come home just yet, Im still at The Office.”)
In 1905 T.A. Rickel bought the property. F.E. Brooks bought a half interest from Rickel in 1910 and the pair added a slogan to The Office name, “A Resort for Gentlemen.”
In March 1911 Rickel and Brooks bought the lot to the . . . — Map (db m59510) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Sunset Crater Volcano|
|The distant San Francisco Peaks would have looked much like they do today. To the east, however, Sunset Crater Volcano would still have been belching black smoke and cinders when the Sinagua and Anaszi lived here. The thick layer of cinders over the sandy soil helped hold moisture, which was beneficial to the growing of crops.
Eventually, even Sunset Crater Volcano grew quiet, and the winds blew the cinders away and dried out the soil.
Why the Lomaki residents departed is not . . . — Map (db m60107) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Telephone Exchange 1909|
|This building was constructed in 1909 by John W. Weatherford, the man who earlier built the adjacent Weatherford Hotel. It was the headquarters for the Arizona Overland Telephone Company, housing its offices and physical plant.
Construction started in July 1909 and was finished that fall. Locally produced materials were used, including lumber, Moenkopi sandstone and red brick.
The Overland Company replaced the Flagstaff Mutual Telephone Company, which had been a strictly in town . . . — Map (db m59966) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — The Citadel / Natural Features|
It was a remarkable achievement, to use primitive mortar and local stones to build the walls above you straight up from the edge of the top of the rock. “The Citadel” is the modern name given to this ruin because of its location, but archeologists wonder why the Anasazi often built in high, hard-to-get-at places. Some theories say it was defensive. Others say it was to avoid building on croplands, or for sun and breeze. Or was it more simple? Today we often . . . — Map (db m60087) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — The Historic Basque Handball Court|
|Historic Basque handball court (cancha) built in 1926 by Jesus Garcia, a Spaniard who migrated to Flagstaff in 1912. He owned and operated the adjacent Tourist Home. The Basque would reportedly herd sheep, drink, chase women, or play their beloved pelota games (hard sheep skin ball). The Basque migrated westward in the late 1800s following the railways.
The 40 foot high sandstone court is one of a reported 14 remaining in America, and is the only one left standing in Arizona. — Map (db m59498) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — The Navajo Code Talkers|
|The original thirty-two Code Talkers were organized to develop codes based on their native language which were used extensively during World War II. These and many other Native Americans served bravely throughout the Pacific and other combat zones.
Charlie Y. Begay Roy Begay Samuel Begay John Benally Willsie Bitsie Cosey S. Brown John Brown John Chee Benjamin Cleveland Eugene Crawford David Curley Lowell Damon George Dennison James Dixon Carl N. Gorman Ross . . . — Map (db m33344) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Transcontinental Railroad Centennial|
|In 1866 the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad was formed to construct a railroad from Springfield, Missouri to the Pacific Ocean, a distance of 2,000 miles.
In the summer and fall of 1882 the railroad was directly responsible for the founding and development of the City of Flagstaff.
This plaque is to commemorate one hundred years of service to this community by the Transcontinental Railroad.
October 2, 1982 — Map (db m33333) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Two Spots Arizona Lumber and Timber Company Steam Engine|
| Arizona Lumber and Timber Company purchased this Baldwin steam engine in 1917 for lumbering operations in and around Flagstaff, where the engine spent its entire working life. The City of Flagstaff purchased No. 25 in 1995.
Canvas water bags hung out the engine's window & eventually rubbed off the Number 5 on each side, resulting in Two Spot's affectionate nickname.
This display is dedicated to those who worked in the Flagstaff timber industry over the last 110 years.
June 1999 — Map (db m41720) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Verkamp Building 1899|
|John G. Verkamp came to Flagstaff in the 1890s. He first worked for the Babbitts (three of his sisters were married to Babbitt Brothers), then succeeded in a number of business on his own, including lumber, livestock and merchandising. He is best known today for the Verkamp curio store at the Grand Canyon.
In 1899, Verkamp and T.A. Rickel constructed this brick building. The men rented the upper floor to the Elks, so it was known as the Elks Hall.
The ground floor was occupied most of . . . — Map (db m59505) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Walkway of Flags 1994|
|Flags have been important to the history of Flagstaff. It was a pine tree used as a flag staff that gave the town its name when Old Glory was flown at a spring (that later became the site of Flagstaff) on the occasion of the nation's centennial—July 4, 1876.
When the city celebrated its own centennial during the year 1994, the City Council and Centennial Commission decided to fly the flags of every state, and the flags of Flagstaff's sister cities as a way of showing how Flagstaff . . . — Map (db m33338) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Weatherford Hotel 1898/1899|
|John Weatherford, who was raised in Weatherford, Texas, came to Flagstaff in 1886. He decided to stay here because he fell in love with the San Francisco Peaks at first sight. He tried his hand in several occupations, everything from saloon keeper to livery stable operator. Finally he found his niche in the mens clothing business, operating a “gents furnishing” store for many years. He was active in political, social and civic affairs.
In 1898, he built the first part of this . . . — Map (db m59507) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Wukoki|
|Wukoki, a modern Hopi word for “Big House” was once home for two or three prehistoric Indian families. The inhabitants are believed to have been of the Kayenta Anasazi culture, judging from the types of artifacts found during excavation and stabilization. This site, occupied from approximately 1120-1210 A.D. afforded its occupants a commanding view of the surrounding terrain. The unusual three-story height, combined with its position atop this Moenkopi Sandstone outcrop, lends . . . — Map (db m60078) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Albright Training Center History|
| The Horace M. Albright Training Center is a National Park Service facility for employee development. Established in 1963 and named for the National Park Service's second director, the training center serves as an educational program center for employees throughout the nation. — Map (db m39602) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Blacksmith Shop Constructed in 1908|
| In the early days of Grand Canyon Village, the blacksmith shop served as a focal point of activity. The blacksmith was a highly skilled craftsman who welded the machinery, sharpened the tools, built water tanks, repaired the wagon wheels and shod the horses and mules. In addition, he manufactured branding irons and fashioned metal into ornamental iron work. Today, the blacksmith shop still serves many of the original purposes for which it was built. — Map (db m39582) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Bright Angel Lodge|
| Bright Angel Hotel (below) was built around 1895 to serve stagecoach passengers. In 1905 the hotel became Bright Angel Camp, which eventually included cabins and an adjoining tent village.
In 1935 the Fred Harvey Company replaced the camp with Bright Angel Lodge, which stands here now. The lodge is one of six historic structures at Grand Canyon designd by architect Mary Colter. — Map (db m39510) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Bright Angel Lodge First Constructed in 1885|
| The Bright Angel Lodge, as it is known today, began as a cabin and several tents on this site in 1896. The central unit designed by Mary Jane Colter, was built in 1935. This lodge contains some of the oldest buildings in the Grand Canyon Village, which are now used as cabins. Two unusual fireplaces were constructed with the rock native to the Grand Canyon. The lodge's name is derived from Bright Angel Creek which was named by John Wesley Powell, the first explorer through the Inner Gorge of the Grand Canyon. — Map (db m39565) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Bright Angel Trail|
| Each year thousands of hikers enter Grand Canyon on the Bright Angel Trail. They follow a tradition - and a trail route - established by prehistoric people. For centuries humans have used this route for two key reasons: water and access. Water emerges from springs at Indian Garden, and erosion along the Bright Angel Fault creats a break in the cliffs, providing access to the springs.
When prospectors arrived here in the late 1800s, Havasupai Indians were using the route. Prospectors . . . — Map (db m39563) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Buckey O'Neill Cabin|
| In the early 1890s (exact date unknown) Buckey O'Neill built a log cabin here on Grand Canyon's south rim. It stands in front of you; it is Grand Canyon's oldest surviving historic structure.
Grand Canyon's modern era began with people like O'Neill - prospectors and adventurers who quickly found tourism more lucrative than mining. Many of their structures became rugged tourist facilities; in 1898 O'Neill's cabin became part of the Bright Angel Hotel. In 1935 when Mary Colter designed a new . . . — Map (db m39545) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — El Tovar Hotel Begun 1903, Completed 1905|
| Named for Don Pedro de Tovar, the first European to visit the Hopi Indian villages in 1540, the hotel was constructed by Hopi Indian craftsmen at a cost of $250,000 employing logs shipped by train from Oregon and native Kaibab Limestone. The El Tovar Hotel has been host to thousands of visitors since its dedication in 1905 and is operated by the National Parks Division of Fred Harvey, Inc. The El Tovar Hotel has been listed in the Historical Registry of the United States since September 6, 1974. — Map (db m39477) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Grandview, 1898|
| "No language can fully describe, no artist paint the beauty, grandeur, immensity and sublimity of this most wonderful production of Nature's great architect. [Grand Canyon] must be seen to be appreciated."
C.O. Hall, Grand Canyon visitor, 1895.
Reports like this from early tourists aroused curiosity and stimulated Grand Canyon tourism.
The year is 1898, and you have come to decide whether the lofty reports you've heard about Grand Canyon are true. Pete Berry, . . . — Map (db m39659) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Historic Kolb Studio|
| Established in 1904 by the Kolb Brothers as a photographic studio and operated by Emery Kolb until his death in 1976. Kolb is now operated as a book store and information center by the Grand Canyon Association, a non-profit organization. Proceeds go directly to Grand Canyon National Park. — Map (db m39546) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Hopi House Mary Elizabeth Jane Colter|
| Hopi House opened on January 1, 1905, the first Grand Canyon work of architect Mary Colter. To complement El Tovar, their new hotel, the Fred Harvey Company commissioned Colter to design a building to display and sell Indian arts and crafts. Colter designed Hopi House to resemble a true Indian dwelling, modeling it after structures in the Hopi village of Old Oraibi.
When it opened, Hopi House contained sales areas and a museum. Upper floors housed Hopi families who worked here. Visitors . . . — Map (db m39478) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Hopi House Constructed in 1905|
| Designed as living quarters for Hopi artisans and as a place to sell Hopi crafts and souvenirs, this building represents the efforts of the Fred Harvey Company to revive Southwest Indian arts and crafts. Designed by Mary Jane Colter, the building was modeled after part of the Hopi village at Third Mesa, in Oraibi. It retains much of its original appearance. — Map (db m39509) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Horace M. Albright|
| Albright's contributions to the National Park Service can hardly be overstated. While working with the agency's first director, Stephen Mather, in the early years of the National Park Service, Horace Albright played a decisive role in guiding the agency. Upon Mather's departure Albright became the agency's second director.
President Jimmy Carter presented Horace Albright the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor, in 1980. — Map (db m39600) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Kolb Studio|
| The Kolb Brothers: daring, persistent, Grand Canyon legends. Their studio stands before you.
Ellsworth Kolb arrived here in 1901, Emery in 1902. First located in a tent, their photo business grew with Grand Canyon tourism. They eventually produced more than 250,000 photos. Adverturers, they explored remote areas of the canyon - always with camera in hand. In 1911-1912 they shot the first motion picture of a river trip through the canyon, a film that Emery presented here for nearly 60 years. . . . — Map (db m39549) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Lookout Studio|
| The Fred Harvey Company built Lookout Studio in 1914, in part to compete with the Kolb Brothers Studio located slightly west along the rim. Called "The Lookout," Fred Harvey's studio offered telescopic views, photographs, and books about the canyon.
Designed by Mary Colter, Lookout Studio is an early example of a park structure that blends with its setting. Its low, rough-cut limestone design adheres to ideas expressed by pioneer landscape architect Frederick Law Olmstead, who felt that any . . . — Map (db m39544) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Mining on Horseshoe Mesa|
| In 1890 prospector Pete Berry staked the Last Chance copper claim 3,000 feet below you on Horseshoe Mesa. The Last Chance Mine began a 17-year flurry of activity here at Grandview Point.
For a while the Last Chance Mine thrived. The ore was rich; it claimed a World's Fair prize in Chicago in 1893 for being over 70% pure copper. But the high cost of packing ore to the rim, then shipping it to be refined, doomed the operation. Berry and his partners sold the mine in 1901. The new owners . . . — Map (db m39662) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Mission 66|
| Responding to mounting political and public pressure, Congress authorized a ten-year program in 1955 to regenerate and modernize the national parks dubbed "Mission 66" for the target date of 1966, the National Park Service's 50th anniversary. The Albright Training Center is among the hundreds of new facilities built to accomodate the needs of the public and the National Park Service in the post World War II years.
[Drawing below text is of the Fort Necessity National Battlefield visitor center, 1964] — Map (db m39587) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Mule Barns Constructed in 1907|
| The mule barn and the nearby livery stable were two of the most important building in the original Grand Canyon Village. In the early 1900's, when all travel within the village was by horse-drawn carriage, these huge barns were the center of all activity. Today, the daily mule rides into the canyon are one of the most popular activities in the park. — Map (db m39585) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Mules and the Canyon|
| Behind you is the Bright Angel mule corral, where each morning mules greet riders and another adventure begins. Mules have carried people into Grand Canyon since sightseeers first visited here in the 1890s. For many people - including those who cannot hike - mules provide access to the inner canyon.
What is a mule?
Mules are hybrids, a cross between a male burro and a female horse.
How long do mules live? How old are the ones visitors ride?
Mules live about . . . — Map (db m39551) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Santa Fe Depot|
| "Won't you be one of the 25,000 visitors at the Grand Canyon of Arizona this summer? It is the world's scenic wonder - nothing like it."
Santa Fe Railroad brochure, 1914.
The Santa Fe train whistle that was heard here on September 17, 1901, signaled the end of Grand Canyon's frontier days. A $3.50 train ride now replaced a $20.00, full-day, jolting stagecoach ride. In coming decades, Santa Fe promotions nationwide would encourage visitors to come by rail. By the thousands, they . . . — Map (db m39569) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — The Watchtower Mary Elizabeth Jane Colter|
| Build a structure that provides the widest possible view of Grand Canyon yet harmonizes with its setting: this was architect Mary Colter's goal when the Fred Harvey Company hired her in 1930 to design a gift shop and rest area here at Desert View. Colter's answer was the Watchtower.
A perfectionist, Colter scrutinized every detail, down to the placement of nearly every stone. Each stone was handpicked for size and appearance. Weathered faces were left untouched to give the tower an ancient . . . — Map (db m39616) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Trans-Canyon Telephone Line|
|Trans-Canyon Telephone Line,
built in 1935 by CCC workers,
maintained by Mountain Bell,
has been placed on the
National Register of
by the United States
Department of Interior. — Map (db m4484) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Tusayan Museum and Ruin|
| Cohonina and ancestral Pueblo (Kayenta Anasazi) people lived in this area in prehistoric time. The ancestral Puebloans built Tusayan about AD 1185. A visit to the museum and a short walk through the remains of the village will furnish a glimpse of the way of life of people at Grand Canyon more than 800 years ago.
Excavation of the Tusayan ruin was conducted in 1930 under the direction of Harold S. Gladwin and the staff of the Gila Pueblo of Globe, Arizona. They named it Tusayan . . . — Map (db m39631) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Tusayan Ruin Trail|
| Allow about 30 minutes to tour Tusayan Ruin. The 0.1 mile loop trail through the main ruin is paved and wheelchair-accessible; the side loop to a prehistoric farming site is not. Signs along the way explain the site's features. An interpretive trail guide with greater detail about Tusayan's inhabitants is available to your right.
Tusayan Ruin is a remnant of a small village of about 30 people who lived here for 25 to 30 years in the late 1100s. The architecture was typical for that period. . . . — Map (db m39633) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Verkamp's Curios|
| John G. Verkamp rented a tent from the Bright Angel Hotel in 1898 and began selling curios and Indian crafts for Babbitt Brothers' Trading Company. After several slow weeks he closed and sold his stock to the hotel. But he sensed Grand Canyon's potential and returned in 1905, building Verkamp's Curios here. The Verkamp family still owns and runs the business, now a Grand Canyon landmark. — Map (db m39571) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Yavapai Observation Station 1928|
|This observation station was developed so that visitors to the Grand Canyon National Park may gain appreciation of scientific values, the earth's beauty and magnitude, and the significance of time as exemplified in the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River. Toward that purpose the National Park Service was aided by the generous contributions of funds and efforts of the Laura Superman Rockefeller Memorial, the American Association of Museums, the National Academy of Sciences, the Carnegie . . . — Map (db m41530) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Marble Canyon — Dominguez y Escalante Expedition 1776 - 1976 Treacherous Descent|
| Text from: Historical Markers with The Arizona Department of Transportation right of way. Prepared by: Roadside Development Section April 1, 1997
Fatigued by a thirty mile ride, the padres picked their way down the rocky north slope of the Kaibab Plateau toward the light of Paiute campfires near what is now Coyote Spring, 15 miles north. The timid natives fled the approaching Spaniards. No white man had ever been in this region before.
Coaxed to return, the Indians brought . . . — Map (db m39917) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Marble Canyon — Lee Ferry|
|From 1872 to 1929
principal route of travel
across the Colorado River
to Utah Settlements
First crossing made at the mouth of Paria Creek in 1864 by Jacob Hamblin. Regular ferry established by John Doyle Lee in 1872. Purchased by Latter-Day Saints Church after his death in 1877. Maintained continuously by private and public operators until 1929 when Navajo Bridge was completed. — Map (db m41998) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Marble Canyon — Lees Ferry|
|Because of long, deep canyons, Lees Ferry was the best crossing point along 500 miles (800 km) of the Colorado River.
In 1873, Mormon Church members opened a wagon road from Kanab, Utah, and built a ferryboat here. John D. Lee was the first ferryman and namesake of the site.
Pioneers, sent to settle the Little Colorado River in northern Arizona, used the ferry service. Lees Ferry grew to include a post office and a trading post. Because of the conflict between the settlers and the . . . — Map (db m41999) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Marble Canyon — 350 — Lee's Ferry|
|John D. Lee settled here in Dec. 1872 and established ferry service thirteen months later. After her husband's death, Warren M. Johnson ran the oar-driven ferry for Emma Lee, 1875 to 1879, when the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints purchased her interest. Johnson served until 1895. He was followed by James S. Emett who sold to the Grand Canyon Cattle Company in 1909. Coconino County operated the ferry from 1910 to 1928. — Map (db m41997) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Marble Canyon — Navajo Bridge Erection Toggle Screw/Navajo Bridge State of Arizona 1927/1928|
|This Erection Toggle Screw was used in the construction of the historic Navajo Bridge to maintain bridge vertical elevations and as a means of lowering bridge sections in place.
[Plaque Mounted on Bridge]:
State of Arizona
Arch 616 feet Total Length 834 feet Height 467 feet
Arizona State Highway Commission
Geo W.P. Hunt, Governor
L.P. Mcbride, Chairman - H. Thompson, Vice Chairman - F.C. Steger, Commissioner
J.F. McDonald, Commissioner - Floyd . . . — Map (db m38469) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Mormon Lake — Mormon Dairy|
Between 1876 and 1886, Hyrum Judd, under the direction of Lot Smith, supervised a Mormon Dairy one
mile northeast near Dairy Spring.
Beginning with a herd of 115 cows, large quantities of butter and cheese were produced. During the 1880's the herd almost doubled in number and dairy products were delivered to residents of distant
Brigham City, Sunset and St. Joseph, Arizona.
Judd closed the dairy in 1886 and moved his family to the Mormon colony at Chuichupa, Chihuahua, Mexico. — Map (db m35187) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Bureau of Reclamation Memorial Fountain|
| This fountain is dedicated to the memory of our fellow employees who died October 8, 1997 in a plane crash near Montrose, Colorado.
Their names encircle the fountain just as the accomplishments of their careers and lives encircle us.
Dedicated on behalf of all employees of the Bureau of Reclamation
November 7, 1997
[Honor Roll of Employees]
James L. Bloomfield, Electrical Engineer, Glen Canyon Field Division
William H. Duncan Jr., Branch Manager, Glen Canyon Division . . . — Map (db m40325) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Colorado River Storage Project / Glen Canyon Dam Reclamation: Managing Water in the West|
| Colorado River Storage Project
In recognition of the vision of the Colorado River Storage Project Act of 1956 and the significant contributions the act has made to the development of the Upper Colorado River Basin states, this plaque commemorates the 50th anniversary of the start of construction of the Colorado River Storage Project. Construction of the project has been a key factor in the development and management of water and hydropower generation in the Upper Colorado River Basin . . . — Map (db m40350) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Concrete Bucket / Concrete Core Sample Reclamation: Managing Water in the West|
| Concrete Bucket
This is one of several concrete buckets that poured the concrete in Glen Canyon Dam. Each bucket held 24 tons (22 metric tons) of concrete and it took over 400,000 buckets to complete the dam. The first pour of concrete occurred on June 17, 1960, the start of an around-the-clock process that continued uninterrupted until September of 1963.
Concrete Core Sample
The polished core cylinder shows the kind of materials that make up the dam. The imbedded rocks are . . . — Map (db m40342) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Crossing of the Fathers Dominguez y Escalante Expedition 1776-1976|
| Within sight of this place the Franciscan priests Dominguez and Escalante and their ten companions experienced two of the most difficult challenges among many along the 1,800 miles of their epic journey from the Spanish presidio at Santa Fe, New Mexico to Utah Lake and return.
The first white men to enter what is now "Lake Powell Country" the explorer-priests made an all but impossible ascent of the Paria River gorge via Dominguez Pass, then descended into Wahweap Basin and Padre Canyon . . . — Map (db m40324) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Dinosaur Tracks|
| The imprints were made by a one ton, twenty foot long, meat-eating dinosaur. The slab of sandstone came from a nearby side canyon.
When Dilophosaurus tracked through the silt 170 million years ago, this was a different landscape. Shallow streams meandered across a marshy plain.
Throughout Glen Canyon the red-orange layer of Kayenta sandstone appears - a lost world turned to stone, then river-cut and weathered into view. — Map (db m40326) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Emma Dean|
| A slightly larger, but reasonable replica of the 16 ft. pine rowboat in which Major John Wesley Powell first explored the canyons of the Colorado River in 1869. This craft was constructed by Walt Disney Productions and used in the river running sequences of "Ten Who Dared," a motion picture version of Powell's River Expedition — Map (db m40323) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Glen Canyon Dam Colorado River Storage Project|
the First Lady
Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson
September 22, 1966
United States Department of the Interior
Stewart L. Udall, Secretary
Bureau of Reclamation
Floyd E. Dominy, Commissioner
[The following marker is inside the
Powerplant Gallery area]
Major John Wesley Powell led scientific exploration parties down the Green and Colorado Rivers in 1869 and in 1871-72. Years later Powell became a leader in government science programs, headed the U.S. . . . — Map (db m40370) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Hydroelectric Power - A Green and Renewable Energy Source Reclamation: Managing Water in the West|
| Glen Canyon Dam and other dams along the Colorado River provide critical water and power resources for millions of Americans in the Southwest. Recreation at the reservoirs is enjoyed by visitors from around the world.
This turbine runner was one of the original eight installed in Glen Canyon Powerplant. It was replaced as part of an efficiency upgrade in 2007. Less water is now needed to produce the same amount of energy. Water that flowed through this turbine came from . . . — Map (db m40344) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Intake Structures Reclamation: Managing Water in the West|
| The eight small "buildings" on the upstream face of the dam contain equipment to operate the penstock gates. Each penstock is 15 feet (4.6 meters) in diameter and carries water to one of the turbine generators in the powerplant. — Map (db m40349) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Rock Bolts / High Scaling Reclamation: Managing Water in the West|
| Rock Bolts
Since Navajo sandstone tends to fracture vertically, rock bolts lock rock slabs together, thereby minimizing rock falls into the canyon. These bolts extend from 45 to 75 feet (14-23 meters) into the canyon wall. They are assembled in 10 foot (3 meter) sections. An expansion device on the end ties the bolt solidly to the wall. The plate is 14 inches (36 centimeters) square and 2 inches (5 centimeters) thick. The bolts are cement grouted into the wall.
High . . . — Map (db m40346) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Saurischia Dinosaur Tracks|
| These tracks were made by a three-toed dinosaur known as a Saurischia therapod. It lived here about 170 million years ago during the Jurassic era when the environment was tropical. The footprints are raised natural sandstone castings of the original dinosaur tracks. After the dinosaur walked through sandy mud, its dried tracks were filled by more mud which eventually hardened into rock of the Kayenta formation. Later, the Kayenta layer tilted and spalled revealing the castings as well as the . . . — Map (db m40321) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Turbine Runner|
| This stainless steel turbine runner was removed in 1989 from the Bureau of Reclamation's Crystal Dam Powerplant in Montrose, Colorado. Weighing about 8½ metric tons, it is the rotating part of a Francis-type reaction turbine (named after its invenor James B. Francis) and is the type most widely used by Reclamation. Although this runner is five times smaller than the runners inside the Glen Canyon Powerplant, it operates in the same way.
To generate hydropower, Glen Canyon Dam creates a . . . — Map (db m40371) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Parks — Beale Wagon Road Americas Great Camel Experiment 1857-1858|
|In the summer of 1857 former Navy Lt. Edward F. Beale was chosen by the Buchanan Administration to develop a wagon road from Fort Defiance, New Mexico Territory (now Arizona) to the Colorado River along the 35th parallel. Secretary of War John B. Floyd also charged Beale with conducting a test to determine the suitability of camels for use by the U.S. Army in the deserts of the American Southwest. To this end, the army issued Beale 25 camels from its herd stationed at Camp Verde, Texas. Syrian . . . — Map (db m48347) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sedona — Indian Gardens Homesite of the First Settler in Oak Creek Canyon|
|In 1876 or 1877, Jim Thompson built a log cabin here and began cultivating the old Indian Gardens where the Indians had grown corn and squash long before Oak Creek was known to white men. Thompson remained here at his Indian Gardens Ranch until his death in 1917. — Map (db m33203) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sedona — 5 — Jordan Sales Building City of Sedona Landmark No. 5|
| Built circa 1938 by George Jordan as a co-op retail outlet for fruit produced and marketed by local orchard farmers, including George and his brother Walter. It was a key part in the early commercial development of Uptown Sedona and is a good example of the use of native red rock in architecture. — Map (db m40921) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sedona — No. 12 — The Hart Store, 1926|
|L.E. "Dad" Hart established Sedona's first real store in this building in 1926. The general store sold Oak Creek fruit and tourist supplies and was considered modern with gravity-drained gas pumps and the first commercial power in town. When the road out front was re-routed, Hart moved the store operations and this store became a duplex for decades. "Dad" Hart was known for generously extending credit during the Great Depression and working to get the roads to Sedona modernized. — Map (db m33202) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — "The Peaks"|
| They dominate the horizon, rising 12,633 feet (3851 m) to Arizona's highest point. Visible for miles from all directions, they stand guard over a land which has long sustained people in spirit and natural resources. All of the region's Native peoples revere them.
Spanish friars christened these peaks as San Francisco Mountain in 1629 to honor their St. Francis of Assisi. The first wave of Spanish explorers, surprised that such large mountains did not spawn lakes or streams, charted them the . . . — Map (db m41664) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — As Powerful as a Volcano|
| Cinder cones erode easily and scars are slow to heal. In 1973, Sunset Crater was closed to climbing when 2-foot-wide trails eroded to 60-foot-wide swaths. Tons of cinder were shoveled back up the cone to fill hip-deep trenches. Notice the scars still visible today.
Plants will eventually return to areas where cinders are left undisturbed. Walking in barren areas dislodges soil particles forming between the cinders. Give plants a chance; stay on the trail.
...Flagstaff . . . — Map (db m41676) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — Changes to Come|
| Buried under Sunset Crater's lava and cinders are perhaps dozens of pithouses. Those excavated revealed few artifacts; even building timbers had been removed. This suggests people had ample warning of the impending eruption.
The changed environment forced new adaptations, which included migration from the area. Those who stayed nearby had to adapt their traditional agricultural technology to lower elevations and cinder-covered land.
Wherever we live, changes occur around us. Some changes . . . — Map (db m41693) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — Geological Infant|
| Erupting less than 1,000 years ago, Sunset Crater is the youngest in an impressive field of volcanoes all around you. The 1,000-foot-high (305m) cinder cone we see today formed when basalt magma rose directly to the surface through a primary vent. Gas pressure produced a roaring fountain of lava estimated at 850 feet (260m) high.
Pressure blasted the lava into pieces, which cooled in flight and piled into this cone-shaped hill. As gas pressure decreased, lava oozed several times from the . . . — Map (db m41665) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — Life and Landscape Transformed|
| The landscape before you has existed on Earth for less than 1,000 years, less time than Romanesque architecture or paper money. Consequently, this environment has unique scientific value.
Geologists come here to study weathering processes and soil formation. Ecologists are learning what it takes - and how long - to recolonize a new, hotter, dryer, nutrient-poor environment.
The harshness of this environment may mimic the effects of global warming and long-term drought. What we learn here . . . — Map (db m41691) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — The Birth of a Mountain|
| About 1,000 years ago, something spectacular happened in the lives of local Native peoples. Perhaps they first observed a change in animal behavior. Maybe they noticed the ground warming. Then the tremors increased in number and intensity. By the time the earth cracked open, people had their belongings packed. What followed impacted life profoundly in this corner of the Southwest.
A 1,000-foot-high (305m) cinder cone, known today as Sunset Crater, grew where open parks and forests had been. . . . — Map (db m41689) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — The Power to Symbolize|
| As a living ancestral homeland to the Hopi, Zuni, Yavapai, Havasupai, Navajo, Western Apache, and Southern Paiute, Sunset Crater is remembered, revered, and cared for.
People return often, bringing prayers and engaging in timeless traditions. Through the land, the past comes into the present, stories are recalled and values are evoked.
Hopi people believe that their ancestors' spirits, the Katsinas, travel from the San Francisco Peaks to the Hopi villages and back each year via . . . — Map (db m41678) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Community Sharing the Land|
This was a community of relatives and neighbors. Its members worked together to haul water, hunt animals, and gather plants. They likely assisted each other with large fields on the rims. They shared walls and resources, joy and sorrow, success and failure.
While cross-canyon dwellings may seem difficult to reach, a network of paths quickly closed the gaps. Close communication between households would have been common and necessary to a cooperative lifestyle.
At least five cliff . . . — Map (db m61366) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Complex Community|
The Island Trail, visible below you, follows the sharp meander of Walnut Creek. Many cliff dwelling rooms, unique in this area, were built throughout the canyon at the level of this trail. On both rims are numerous pithouses and pueblos.
On the very top of the rock promontory or "island" before you, are more rooms. Walls were constructed to block easy access to them.
Maybe this intriguing arrangement of sites met seasonal, security, social, or ritual needs.
Walnut . . . — Map (db m61304) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Days Work|
Puebloan traditions reach far back in time and are the basis for the social organization portrayed here. What responsibilities might you have had in this community, given your age and gender?
[Photo captions read]
Hopi men plant and tend the fields; women are the expert potters and piki bread makers.
Hopi life early 1900s
Photos: Cline Library Special Collections, NAU — Map (db m61350) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Ribbon of Life|
Perhaps people living here 800 years ago called this place Wupatupqa ("long canyon"), as it is known to some of their descendants, the Hopi. It was no doubt known as a place of abundance, given its wealth of plant and animal life and the presence of water.
A creek flowed intermittently through the gorge below you. Use the pictures to orient yourself; you are looking upstream. Walnut Creek rarely flows anymore, its waters impounded for use by the city of Flagstaff.
Significant . . . — Map (db m61305) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Time of Change|
When a volcanic eruption occurred near what is now Flagstaff, Arizona, people lost homes and lands they had cultivated for at least 400 years. A major life events for locals, the eruption was also visible to large population centers across the Southwest. Many people knew something significant had happened.
In the decades that followed, sparsely inhabited areas like Walnut Canyon and nearby Wupatki became densely settled.
By 1150, clustered communities replaced scattered farming . . . — Map (db m61325) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — An Efficient Design|
Overhanging ledges protected rooms from snow and rain, and shaded them during summer months. Thick walls of stone and mud insulated them from harsh winds and retained essential heat in winter.
Small doors were covered with animal skins, mats, cotton cloth, or sticks woven together. Air entered at the bottom, circled past a small fire, and carried most of the smoke out a hole above the door. — Map (db m61365) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Cliff Homes and Canyon Life|
As recently as the mid-1200s, families lived, worked, and played in Walnut Canyon. Tending crops on the rim, traveling to gather food, and collecting water from the canyon bottom were part of a daily routine.
It may be difficult to imagine living here, constantly negotiating this rugged terrain. Our motorized lives make it easy to forget that, throughout most of history, peoples' existence was much more physical.
Who Were They?
Walnut Canyon's farming community flourished . . . — Map (db m61302) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Departure|
Despite all it had to offer, in time Walnut Canyon became a difficult place for farmers to live. Drier, colder conditions meant crop failures. More people and diminished resources meant nutritional stress, disease, and conflict.
However, these stressful time brought new means of coping. By 1250, people joined others in bigger villages to the south and east where archeological evidence suggests new beliefs and rituals arose.
"Many reasons are given for clan migration in Hopi . . . — Map (db m61370) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — From Ocean to Alcove|
| Limestone forms the massive overhang above you and the ledge you are standing on. In between, softer layers of silty limestone have retreated, eroded away. All of the cliff dwelling rooms in Walnut Canyon — more than 300 — were built in natural alcoves like this.
If you have visited Grand Canyon, you have met these rocks before. This is the Kaibab Formation, the rim rock of both canyons. Below, as in Grand Canyon, are the Toroweap Formation and Coconino Sandstone.
[Diagram . . . — Map (db m61342) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Migration is not abandonment.|
Walnut Canyon was once filled with the sounds of a busy community as families hunted, planted, and harvested with the seasons. Children were born, grew up, and raised children of their own. They were neither the first nor the last to use and value what this canyon has to offer. But they left behind the greatest legacy.
When they moved on they did not give up their responsibility to care for this ancestral village and those left behind. Sites were and are revisited by descendants. Prayers . . . — Map (db m61328) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Problem Solving|
Time has worn away details that once made these rooms complete. Still, bits of evidence tell us people devised ways to make their homes comfortable, durable, and suitable for changing circumstances.
Rooms were added as families grew or storage needs increased. Some rooms in Walnut Canyon show a surprising degree of remodeling at various times suggesting generations of reuse.
Regular replastering of outside walls kept moisture out and walls sound.
Inside walls were plastered too, . . . — Map (db m61341) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Room Functions|
Most rooms in this community did not house people. Archeologists think many rooms, like the one to your left, were used to store tools, food, and water. Residents could have stored a 100-day water supply without much difficulty, given large pottery vessels and the abundant storage rooms found in the canyon.
The larger rooms here are typical of living spaces, where people slept and sought shelter from bad weather. Family size is unknown, but several people probably lived together in one . . . — Map (db m61347) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Tension and Harmony|
With its steep and sheer walls, Walnut Canyon provided homebuilding advantages along with controlled access. Living here, people were situated to monitor their world. This was not uncommon; most villages of the time had some form of passive defense and line-of-sight communication.
Horizontal ledges served as pathways connecting home to home, such as those visible across the canyon. Game trails, natural breaks, and side canyons were the avenues linking the rim to the canyon floor. . . . — Map (db m61326) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — The Perfect Shelter|
For each room tucked into this rock alcove, nature provided the back wall, floor, and leak-proof ceiling; no excavation was needed. Builders simply laid up unshaped blocks of limestone for side walls, enclosed the front, and opened their doorway to the canyon. Here, only two walls remain.
How to Treat a Wall
Many hands have been at work on these walls: the women who first skillfully plastered them, the vandals who defaced them, and the preservation specialists who now repair them. . . . — Map (db m61340) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — The Quest for Water|
During the spring thaw, snowmelt rumbled through the narrow passage below you. Water flowed again during the summer monsoon. Shaded pools held precious water after the flow ebbed. Walnut Creek was the lifeblood of the community.
Still, people had to store large quantities of water for the dry months. They likely supplemented their supply by packing snow into large pots and collecting runoff from overhanging cliffs.
Women and children probably had the task of retrieving water from the . . . — Map (db m61356) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — What Happened Here?|
"It is very dusty work to dig for relics....We dug for an hour or more, and found...cornstalks, corncobs in abundance, beans, gourds, nuts, reeds, arrows, bowstrings,...coarse cloth, a child's sandal, a measuring stick with notches at regular intervals, smoothly worn sticks of hard wood, bone needles, a fish line, soapweed needles, broken pottery, etc. In visiting other dwellings we added to these relics, and came away heavily laden."
One woman's account of her trip to Walnut Canyon as . . . — Map (db m61368) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Adam's Grocery|
|In 1926, the Old Trails Highway was officially designated U.S. Highway 66, and it became the "Main Street of America." In 1984, Williams was the last Route 66 town in America to be bypassed by the interstate highway system. Built in 1907, this building has welcomed several generations of travelers. — Map (db m33375) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Babbitt-Polson Building|
|The wood framed 1894 Polson Bros. General Store burned down in the 1901 fire and was replaced by this brick building in 1907. The Babbitt and Polson families were pioneer merchants in the area. In 1930 the building was stuccoed to create the only Art Deco style building in the Historic District. — Map (db m33384) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Bill Williams Mountain Elevation 9,264 Ft|
|This mountain was named for a colorful mountaineer, guide, and trapper who is generally credited with being the first American to explore northern Arizona – 1830 or earlier. Williams lived at different times among the Osage and Ute Indians, and earlier had been a Baptist circuit rider in Missouri. He was killed by Indians in 1849. — Map (db m33418) HM|