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Arkansas Markers
359 markers matched your search criteria. The first 250 markers are listed. Next 109
Arkansas (Baxter County), Mountain Home — Old Military Road
About 1800 near this spot white man established the first trail from East to West across Baxter County. Later some of the Cherokee Indians were moved to Oklahoma using this route which was known as the Trail of Tears. — Map (db m62248) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Avoca — Sesquicentennial Trail of the Centuries — Benton County Arkansas Sesquicentennial Monument 1836 - 1986 — Arkansas Sesquicentennial 1836 - 1986
800 AD • Trace of the Rock People 1808 • Osage Boundary 1815 • Lawrence County 1827-28 • Lovely County 1838 • Trail of Tears 1840 • Trott's Stand 1858 • Old Wire Road 1858-61 • Butterfield Stage Route 1861 • Troop Trails 1862 • Civil War Earth Works 1882 • St. Louis and San Francisco Railroad 1896 • Birthplace of Field Kindley, WWI Ace 1913 • Coin Harvey's Ozark Trail 1926 • U.S. Highway 62 1956 • Poet Edsel Ford's "Sunday Creek" — Map (db m62485) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — Air Force Cross – Navy Cross – Distinguished Service Cross

The Distinguished Service Cross (Army), Navy Cross, and Air Force Cross are equivalent awards. They are given to any service person who, while serving, distinguishes himself or herself by extraordinary heroism not justifying the award of the Medal of Honor. The action must have occurred while engaged in combat with an enemy of the United States. The acts of heroism must have been so notable and have involved risk of life so exceptional as to set the individual apart from his or her comrades. — Map (db m90867) HM WM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — Bronze Star Medal

The Bronze Star Medal is awarded to any person who, while serving in any capacity in or with the military of the United States after 6 December 1941 distinguished himself or herself by heroic or meritorious service or achievement, not involving aerial flight, while engaged in an action against the enemy of the United States; while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force; or while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in armed conflict against . . . — Map (db m90855) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — Cold War

The Cold War was a period of East-West competition, tension, and conflict short of full-scale war. It was characterized by mutual perceptions of hostile intention between military-political alliances or blocs. Quoting from a Veterans of Foreign Wars publication, "By definition the Cold War would seem to exclude the concept of combat. And for 45 years of its duration, this fiction was maintained----". "The cold fight to contain communism worldwide (which excludes the full-fledged wars in . . . — Map (db m92218) HM WM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — Distinguished Flying Cross

A bronze patee on which is superimposed a four-bladed propeller, the Distinguished Flying Cross is awarded to any person who, while serving in any capacity with the Armed Forces of the United States distinguishes himself or herself by heroism or extraordinary achievement while participating in aerial flight. The achievement must have resulted in an accomplishment so exceptional and outstanding as to clearly set the individual apart from his/her comrades or other persons in similar . . . — Map (db m90865) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — Dug Hill Community Center

So called because steps were dug into the hill so settlers could reach the top.

Once existed two churches, a school and a cemetery. Area named and cemetery started about 1867. — Map (db m90572) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — Korea

On June 25, 1950, North Korean troops started the Korean War by invading South Korea. Two days later, the United Nations Security Council adopted a resolution calling member nations to help defend South Korea. In all, 16 nations sent troops to assist South Korea; over 90 percent were American. By September, United Nations forces had been pushed back to the Pusan Perimeter. On September 15, 1950, UN forces landed at Inchon, cutting off North Korean forces in the south. They pushed all the . . . — Map (db m92219) HM WM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — Legion of Merit

The Legion of Merit was the first American decoration awarded to citizens of Foreign Nations. There are four degrees of award. They are Chief Commander, Commander, Officer, and Legionaire/Legion of Merit. Only the Legion of Merit is awarded to members of the Armed Forces of the United States. Individuals receive this award for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding service and achievements. The duty must have been such as to merit the recognition of key individuals. — Map (db m90866) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — Lewis & Clark Expedition

The Lewis & Clark Expedition was accomplished by Captain Meriwether Lewis, Captain William Clark, and their fellow explorers, and was the visionary journey of President Thomas Jefferson. The journey was to become one of America’s greatest adventure stories. Remarkably, while plans for the travel were being made, the Louisiana Purchase became a reality. In 1803 Jefferson obtained approval from Congress to form a small Army unit to explore the Missouri and Columbia Rivers. The small . . . — Map (db m91477) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — Medal of Honor

The Medal of Honor is the highest Military decoration awarded by the United States. It is bestowed on a member of the American Armed Forces, who distinguishes himself or herself conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while engaged in an action against an enemy. The Army, Navy, and Air Force each have a slightly different design for their award, and each presentation is made by the President to the individual or family in case of a posthumous award. — Map (db m90869) HM WM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — Mexican War

War with Mexico was the result of the annexation of the Republic of Texas to the United States in March 1845, which the Mexican government regarded as an act of war since they had refused to recognize Texas' independence. Following the capture of the Citadel of Chapultepec by the American Army, the President of Mexico resigned and the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo was signed in early 1848. It was in this war that the beginnings of close cooperation between the Army and Navy became effective . . . — Map (db m91501) HM WM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — Operation Iraqi Freedom

After Iraq's defeat in the Persian Gulf War, the Iraqi dictator ignored numerous United Nations Resolutions which resulted in America declaring a "regime change" as an official goal of U.S. policy. In the context of the new terrorist threat after 9/11, the Bush administration accused the Iraqi regime of gross wrongdoing: oppressing its own people, frustrating the U.N. weapons inspectors, developing weapons of mass destruction, and supporting terrorist organizations like Al Qaeda. . . . — Map (db m92337) HM WM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — Persian Gulf War

In 1961 and again in 1973, Iraq had claimed that the nation of Kuwait was part of Iraq. On August 2, 1990, Iraq troop invaded the disputed area claimed by Kuwait. Iraqi invaders looted Kuwait, then headed toward Saudi Arabia. For several months, the United States organized an international coalition against Iraqi aggression. On January 16, 1991, the U.S. and it's allies launched Operation Desert Storm by staging a massive assault against Iraq. On February 23, a successful air and ground . . . — Map (db m92241) HM WM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — Purple Heart

In 1782 General George Washington created a new military badge for Enlisted Men and Non-Commissioned Officers called the Badge of Military Merit. This was the forerunner of the Purple Heart that we know today. The award fell into disuse until General [Douglas] MacArthur changed the award criteria. "A wound which necessitates treatment by a medical officer, and which is received in action with an enemy, may, in the judgement of the commander authorized to make the award, be construed as . . . — Map (db m90776) HM WM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — Revolutionary War

The American Revolution was a conflict between England and thirteen of her colonies in North America. Following years of taxation, suppression, and subjugation by the British, fighting began at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts in 1775. A scant two months later the British attempted to break the colonial siege of Boston, and the Battle of Bunker Hill took place, but the gallant American defense heightened the colonists[’] morale. It was immediately preceding this battle that the phrase, . . . — Map (db m91470) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — Silver Star Medal

Criteria: The Silver Star Medal is awarded to any person who, while serving in any capacity with the Armed Forces of the United States is cited for gallantry in action while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing armed force, or while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in armed conflict against an armed force in which the United States is not a belligerent. The required gallantry, while of a lesser degree than that required for the Navy Cross or the . . . — Map (db m90778) HM WM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — The Alamo

Any discussion of the Battle of the Alamo must begin with the Siege of Bexar, named after San Antonio de Bexar which ocurred [sic] in December 1835. In early December, Bexar was controlled by the Mexicans. On December 5th, a group of Texas volunteers attacked against heavy odds, engaged in hand-to-hand combat, and were successful. Under the terms of a truce the volunteers gained much public property as well as many guns and stores of ammunition.

After losing San Antonio to the Texans, . . . — Map (db m91496) HM WM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — The Terrible Cost of World War II

SACRIFICE: In 1939 the active United States military totaled 335,000, and during the conflict more than 16 million men and women had served. Tens of millions of men and women throughout the world were in military service in other nations of the world.

HUMAN SUFFERING: At war's end America had sustained 1,000,000 casualties, nearly 300,000 killed and 700,000 wounded. Throughout the world it is estimated that the total of military and civilian deaths amounted to over . . . — Map (db m91985) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — The War Between the States

The immediate cause of the War Between the States was the election of Abraham Lincoln to the Presidency of the United States in 1860. The deeper cause, however, was the issue of states' rights. The question of states' rights was based on the belief that the United States was a union of independent commonwealths, and that the general government was merely their agent. Thus, when matters could not be resolved, the South felt free to assert their independence and form a new government. The . . . — Map (db m91678) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — The War in Afghanistan

The devastating September 11, 2001, attacks on American soil rattled the nation's morale as it became clear the Al Qaeda terrorists sought nothing less than the destruction of the United States of America.

Leaders of Al Qaeda had taken refuge in landlocked Afghanistan, controlled by Islamic fundamentalists called the Taliban. When the Taliban refused to hand over leaders of Al Qaeda, the United States launched attacks against the Taliban and Al Qaeda forces, and began to provide . . . — Map (db m92258) HM WM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — The Years Between

The periods from the end of World War I to 1929 could be accurately described as 'boom to bust'. Great new technologies such as the family automobile, talking pictures, radio, and commercial air service were being woven into American lives. Compared to pre-war standards Americans were confident and prosperous. Suddenly in October 1929 the bottom fell out of the stock market, precipitating the Great Depression. At the same time a new president started America on the road to recovery in . . . — Map (db m91952) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — Triumph in Europe — "Europe - Liberty's Victorious Conflict"

Following World War I, the United States remained isolated from world affairs as economic and political factors led to the rise of nationalistic powers in the Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, and Japan. A series of bold moves by Germany and weak countermoves by Allied leaders triggered World War II in Europe when Germany invaded Poland in September 1939. Hoping to remain insulated, the United States provided aid to nations resisting the Axis Powers, but was drawn into the war when Japan . . . — Map (db m91954) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — United States Commanders in Chief

Our Constitution names the President of the United States the Commander in Chief of all the Armed Forces. Presidents who have served in our military are displayed on the following plaques. Each has served either on Active Duty, in the National Guard or in the Reserves. History will judge their performance as President and as Commander in Chief, usually long after they have served. Each President is to be commended for their service and each fill the office of President in a particular . . . — Map (db m92382) HM WM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — United States Commanders in Chief

[Written on the initial marker, provided for context] Our Constitution names the President of the United States the Commander in Chief of all the Armed Forces. Presidents who have served in our military are displayed on the following plaques. Each has served either on Active Duty, in the National Guard or in the Reserves. History will judge their performance as President and as Commander in Chief, usually long after they have served. Each President is to be commended for their . . . — Map (db m92384) HM WM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — United States Commanders in Chief

[Written on the initial marker, provided for context] Our Constitution names the President of the United States the Commander in Chief of all the Armed Forces. Presidents who have served in our military are displayed on the following plaques. Each has served either on Active Duty, in the National Guard or in the Reserves. History will judge their performance as President and as Commander in Chief, usually long after they have served. Each President is to be commended for their . . . — Map (db m92389) HM WM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — United States Commanders in Chief

[Written on the initial marker, provided for context] Our Constitution names the President of the United States the Commander in Chief of all the Armed Forces. Presidents who have served in our military are displayed on the following plaques. Each has served either on Active Duty, in the National Guard or in the Reserves. History will judge their performance as President and as Commander in Chief, usually long after they have served. Each President is to be commended for their . . . — Map (db m92400) HM WM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — United States Commanders in Chief

[Written on the initial marker, provided for context] Our Constitution names the President of the United States the Commander in Chief of all the Armed Forces. Presidents who have served in our military are displayed on the following plaques. Each has served either on Active Duty, in the National Guard or in the Reserves. History will judge their performance as President and as Commander in Chief, usually long after they have served. Each President is to be commended for their . . . — Map (db m92421) HM WM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — United States Commanders in Chief

[Written on the initial marker, provided for context] Our Constitution names the President of the United States the Commander in Chief of all the Armed Forces. Presidents who have served in our military are displayed on the following plaques. Each has served either on Active Duty, in the National Guard or in the Reserves. History will judge their performance as President and as Commander in Chief, usually long after they have served. Each President is to be commended for their . . . — Map (db m92423) HM WM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — United States Commanders in Chief

[Written on the initial marker, provided for context] Our Constitution names the President of the United States the Commander in Chief of all the Armed Forces. Presidents who have served in our military are displayed on the following plaques. Each has served either on Active Duty, in the National Guard or in the Reserves. History will judge their performance as President and as Commander in Chief, usually long after they have served. Each President is to be commended for their . . . — Map (db m92424) HM WM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — Veterans Wall of Honor

Founder’s Statement All Who Serve Sacrifice Some Who Serve Sacrifice All

Welcome to the Veterans Wall of Honor, honoring all veterans of our Armed Forces who have served in peace and war since the Revolutionary War. In the spring of 2001 Leonard Eisert, one of the founding Directors, presented the idea for a monument to a group of six (6) interested veterans. Out of that meeting was formed the Veterans Council. The Veterans Council of Northwest Arkansas was incorporated in the . . . — Map (db m92585) HM WM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — Victory in the Pacific

The Japanese attack on our military installations in Hawaii was only one of a series of victories in late 1941 and early 1942 gained by them. By the summer of 1942 Japan controlled huge portions of Asia and the Pacific. Fortunately for the United States, the Pacific Fleet's submarines and aircraft carriers were not destroyed by the Japanese sneak attack. By the middle of 1942 America had stopped Japanese expansion in the Battles of Coral Sea and Midway and Guadalcanal. The strategy of . . . — Map (db m91992) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — Vietnam

The 1954 Geneva Accords temporarily divided Vietnam into Communist-controlled North Vietnam and nationalist-controlled South Vietnam. Three years later South Vietnamese Communists, called Vietcong, began rebelling. To try to halt the spread of Communism, America sent military advisors to Vietnam. In 1964, Congress passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution which granted the President the power to escalate American military involvement. In 1965, massive bombing of North Vietnam began and the first . . . — Map (db m92239) HM WM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — War of 1812

Still reeling from the loss of its North American colonies and fighting in a European war, England began to stop and search American ships on the high seas. During such searches, American sailors would be impressed against their will into the British Navy. Resolved once and for all to demonstrate its independence, America declared war against England in June of 1812 and fought battles from Canada to Louisiana. One of the war's darkest hours was the British invasion of Washington, and the . . . — Map (db m91478) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — War on Terrorism

The paradox of power is that a weaker nation will seek help from a stronger nation to resolve a problem, then hate the stronger nation because the weaker nation could not solve the problem themselves.

Though it was not realized at the time, America's war on terrorism began in 1983 when Marine Corps barracks in Lebanon were bombed, killing 266 and wounding 169. Other acts of terrorism occurred over the next two decades. Most notable of these were the atrocity in Somalia, the tragedy at . . . — Map (db m92254) HM WM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — War with Spain

There were two principal causes for the war with Spain. The first was the brutality of the methods by which the Spanish Colonial authorities sought to suppress the revolution that began in Cuba in 1859 - methods that outraged the American sense of morality. The second was the mysterious explosion on the battleship USS Maine, which occurred on February 15, 1898, while on a goodwill visit to Havana. Investigations after the war concluded the explosion was accidental, but at the time almost . . . — Map (db m91849) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — Women in World War II

During the war more than 300,000 women would join the armed forces, many helping to free men to fight on the battlefronts. They served in both the European and Pacific Theaters of Operation as clerks, radio operators, mechanics, ferry pilots, and, of course, nurses. More than 60,000 served as nurses in the Army Nurse Corps. Of this number more than two hundred died, sixteen were killed by enemy action, sixty-eight became prisoners, and many were decorated for bravery. The majority of Navy . . . — Map (db m91956) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — World War I

'The war to end all wars' began following the assassination of the Archduke of Austria-Hungary in the summer of 1914. Before the summer was over Great Britain, France, Russia, and their allies were at war with Germany, Austria-Hungary, and their allies. Despite its invasion of France, the [C]entral [P]owers were unable to capture Paris; and were forced to entrench north of the Marne River. There followed years of trench warfare which would only end with the cessation of hostilities.

In . . . — Map (db m91850) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bella Vista — World War II Home Front

Following the sneak attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the massive American production might was mobilized. After that attack the production of most non-essential consumer goods was halted or curtailed, and manufacturing facilities were converted to war production. A typewriter company produced machine guns, and auto plants produced bombers. Millions worked in these plants, and with so many men in the armed forces 6.5 million women eventually became factory workers. It has been . . . — Map (db m92187) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bentonville — 1 — Benton County First Court House
The first court house in Benton County, built of hewed logs was erected on this site (at Bentonville) in 1837, the year after the county was created. It was named for Thomas H Benton. — Map (db m19880) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Bentonville — Benton County Hardware
circa 1893, W.J. Doke proprietor. First Motor Co. and first gas station in alley beside store. Recently housed Bentonville Furniture — Map (db m54310) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Bentonville — Benton County National Bank
Civil Court and Bentonville City Hall, circa 1934 Site formerly the Benton County National Bank circa 1906 — Map (db m54312) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Bentonville — Big Tree — Largest Sycamore in Arkansas
Circumference 21.45 ft. height 106 ft. diameter BH 82 in. spread 120 ft. To insure protection during its lifetime, owner Bill Bradford on April 11, 1975, legally willed to itself this tree and all land within a radius of 10 feet from its trunk and donated its use to the city of Bentonville as a mini-park in celebration of the heritage '76 phase of the bicentennial. — Map (db m50368) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Bentonville — Confederate Memorial
All 4 sides Confederate Side 1 To the Southern Soldiers Side 2 Their names are borne on honor's shield. Their record is with God. Side 3 They fought for home and fatherland. Side 4 1861 - 1865 Metal Plaque added later James H. Berry 1841-1913 Soldier and Statesman Beloved of Arkansas 2nd Lieutenant Co. E. 16th Ark. Infantry, C.S.A. Legislator-Jurist Governor of Arkansas United States . . . — Map (db m21242) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Bentonville — Eagle Hotel
On the morning of March 6, 1862, Gen. Franz Sigel was eating his breakfast at the Eagle Hotel which stood on this site. He had remained here with 600 men and a battery of six pieces after the main column of his army had passed through Bentonville on its way to Sugar Creek. Confederate troops under Gen. Van Dorn surprised him and forced a hasty retreat. In 1887 Sigel returned to retrace his route and remarked that he had come back to finish his breakfast. — Map (db m22447) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Bentonville — Terry Block
Terry Block Bldg. circa 1888, named for Col. William Terry housed the Benton County Bank and a Mercantile Company — Map (db m54309) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Bentonville — Walton's 5 &10
At this site on May 9, 1950, Sam Walton opened his original "Walton's 5-10" store - the forerunner of Wal-Mart Inc. Dedicated October 8, 1983 — Map (db m54307) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — "Dat De Shpot, Sergent!" — March 8, 1862 - Morning
I saw General Sigel sight one piece...and send a shot at the [rebel] guns that had driven us back...It went tearing in among the men and horses, killing and wounding both, and then exploded in one of the caissons...Placing his glass to his eye to note the effect of his shot, the General said 'Dat de shpot, Sergent; just put 'em right in dare.' Samuel McKay, private, 37th Illinois Infantry Regiment General Franz Sigel ordered the Union gunners positioned here to concentrate on first one . . . — Map (db m35684) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — A Crisis in Command — March 7, 1862 - Afternoon
We must not let the men know that General McCulloch is killed. Benjamin Pixley, Lieutenant, 16th Arkansas Infantry The general in charge of this half of the Confederate army - Texan Ben McCulloch - had formed his division, some 7,000 strong, just out of sight behind the trees you see in the distance. Before ordering a massive charge into Oberson's cornfield, "Old Ben," as his troops called him, rode alone to the edge of the trees for a final scout. Yankee skirmishers behind a rail fence . . . — Map (db m35559) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — A Fierce Tangle in Morgan's Woods — March 7, 1862 - Late Afternoon
...this battle...was a mass of mixed up confusion from beginning to end...Would to God it was night or reinforcements would come. William Watson, sergeant, 3rd Louisiana Infantry Regiment Four regiments of volunteers from Arkansas and Louisiana, moving "with all the vim and vigor [of] regulars," ran headlong and unawares into two Illinois regiments near here. The close-range fighting was so intense that men from both armies threw themselves flat on the ground to survive the hurricane of . . . — Map (db m35566) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — A Long, Cold Hungry March — March 4, 5, 6, 1862
I don't believe they ever made a harder march during the Revolution than we made that night. Jack Bower, private, 2nd Missouri Regiment The 16,000-strong Confederate Army of the West spent most of the first week of March 1862 trudging on muddy roads through northwest Arkansas. They traveled some 60 miles from their winter camps deep in the Boston Mountains, beyond the low ridges you see in the distance, to get to Pea Ridge. General Earl Van Dorn pushed his troops hard to sweep . . . — Map (db m35614) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — A Perfect Storm of Shot and Shell — March 8, 1862 - Morning
...[the Yankees] opened a perfect storm of round and shrapnell shot and shell...[the ground] was literally ploughed up by cannon ball...It is a perfect miracle that any of us ever came out. John J. Good, captain, Dallas Texas Light Artillery, Good's Battery Here two armies lined up for a second day of fighting after a long, bitterly cold night. Confederate artillerists set up their guns along the edge of these woods. The Union battle line was only 500 yards away - a 5-minute walk - . . . — Map (db m35672) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — A Village Full of Wounded Men — March 7, 1862 - Late Afternoon
Entering a little clearing, we discovered the yellow hospital flags fluttering from the gables of every house in the hamlet of Leetown, and the surgeons busy with the sad, yet humane task that was theirs to perform. Lyman G. Bennett, private, 36th Illinois Infantry Regiment The quarter-mile-long trail you see ahead leads to the site of Leetown, Arkansas. Today the woods and meadows of the Pea Ridge battlefield appear to be an uninhabited wilderness. During the Civil War, this whole area . . . — Map (db m35503) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — City of Soldiers
In early March 1862, these now quiet fields bustled with the clamor and constant motion of an army headquarters in time of battle. Soldiers drilled, cleaned guns, and checked ammunition. Scouts and couriers rode in to report. Officers convened for councils of war. Mules brayed and teamsters swore. Teams pulling wagons and artillery rattled by. Here, across the road from Samuel Pratt's store, decisions were made that would determine the fate of two armies - and the state of Missouri. A . . . — Map (db m35476) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — Confederate Sunset — March 7, 1862 - Sunset
As the sun set on the first day of battle, about 3,000 rebels from Missouri made their final charge here. Crossing Ben Ruddick's stubbled cornfield, they ran straight toward the muzzles of Federal cannon set wheel hub to wheel hub against a line of trees. After hours of fighting withdrawals, this last Union line held firm. Rebuffed Confederates ebbed back to Elkhorn Tavern. In the dusk, men of both armies feared they were standing on the brink of collapse. was almost dark and we got . . . — Map (db m35671) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — Disastrous Retreat — March 8, 1862 - Afternoon
It took two weeks for the stunned survivors of the Confederate Army of the West to make their way from here back to rendezvous on the Arkansas River. In late March 1862 General Van Dorn was ordered to take his army east to Mississippi. This left northern Arkansas in the hands of the Union. "[Our] regiment straggling squads, tired, hatless, barefooted, hungry, dirty, and ragged. They had been in rain-storms, climbed steep mountains along narrow and rugged foot-paths, waded deep . . . — Map (db m35666) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — Elkhorn Tavern Taken — March 7, 1862 - Early Afternoon
Confederate commander Earl Van Dorn had pushed his army relentlessly for a week to catch the Union army by surprise. Now, after hours of hard fighting up the Telegraph Road, here in sight of Elkhorn Tavern, Van Dorn gambled by committing all his reserves. As the Missouri State Guard regiments drove back the last Federal defenders, Elkhorn Tavern appeared to be a bold Confederate victory. Like magic the word 'Charge!' ran along the line... a battery [of six Union cannon] opened upon . . . — Map (db m37756) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — Fiery Finale on Ruddick's Field
The first day's fighting ended at sunset on the large open field you see in the distance below. The half of the Confederate army that had circled completely around Big Mountain - where you now stand - had fought hard all day to force their way up the long mountain hollow that leads to Elkhorn Tavern. As the late winter sunlight faded, Union troops pulled back from Elkhorn Tavern and prepared for a last-ditch defense along the tree line that bordered Benjamin Ruddick's cornfield below. Federal . . . — Map (db m35616) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — Getting Ready To Fight — March 6, 1862 - Late Afternoon
General Samuel Curtis had only 10,500 troops to hold back a Confederate army of more than 16,000 men moving toward him. Curtis had asked army headquarters in St. Louis for reinforcements. None could be sent. At the last minute, Union soldiers dug in the bluffs just north of Little Sugar Creek, about three miles southwest of here on the Telegraph Road. There - Curtis thought - his army would await Van Dorn's Confederates. — Map (db m35496) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — Hard Fighting Near Leetown
The families who lived outside Leetown, Arkansas first heard shots fired on the far side of Little Mountain, the low wooded rise you see to the right. Half of the Confederate Army of the West was marching eastward on Ford Road, moving this way. To delay their link-up with the other half of the Confederate army nearing Elkhorn Tavern, a small Federal force opened fire across the fields of Wiley Foster's farm. The fighting intensified as Texas and Arkansas regiments moved south from Foster's . . . — Map (db m35639) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — It was the Grandest Thing I Ever Saw...
It was extremely rare in the Civil War to be able to see an entire army lined up for a fight, with all the regiments within sight of each other. Had you stood here on Saturday, March 8, 1862, you could have see 10,000 Union men in battle lines stretching for a mile over the open fields below. It was a sight that few veterans of the battle of Pea Ridge ever forgot. Forward quick time guide right. Halt make ready take aim fire. After first shot load at will. Our guns a-booming. The battery . . . — Map (db m35622) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — Leetown
The small hamlet near here included two stores, a blacksmith shop, Masonic hall, church, school and several residences. During the fighting some of the buildings were used by the Union Army as hospitals. — Map (db m35505) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — Lifeline for Two Armies
Elkhorn Tavern overlooks a highway of vital importance for Arkansas and Missouri during the Civil War. Union and Confederate leaders both wanted this 20-foot-wide dirt road to move men and supplies. Alongside the road ran 3-year-old telegraph wires, the latest way to send information and fast. In the week before battle broke out here, both armies had hurriedly marched southward past this crossroads and tavern. The night before the shooting started, Union troops from Missouri set up a small . . . — Map (db m35660) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — Night Moves
I have ordered Generals Sigel and Davis to move with their divisions during the night and form on the left of Carr's division ... and be ready to renew the battle at daylight. The enemy will concentrate his whole force at Elk Horn; we will fight him there tomorrow...[I am] certain of success on the coming day. Samuel Curtis, major general commanding, United States Army of the Southwest From this overlook you can see the great challenge facing General Samuel Curtis as two armies grappled . . . — Map (db m35619) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — Pea Ridge — Confederate Monument
(Front):The Brave Confederate dead who fell on this field Mar., 6,7, & 8 1862.The graves of our dead with the grass evergreen May yet form the footstool of Liberty's throne; And each single rock in the war-path of Alight. Small yet be a rock in the Temple of Right. (Right):General James McIntosh of ArkansasOh give me the land with a grave in each spot. And names in the graves that shall not be forgot; Give me the land of the wreck and the lamb, There's a grandeur in graves - . . . — Map (db m35652) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — Pea Ridge and the Trail of Tears — Trail of Tears National Historic Trail — National Trails System
"Decr 23rd 1837, Buried Rainfrogs daughter. Marched at 8 o'c A.M. halted at Reddix, 3 o'c. P.M. encamped and issued corn & fodder & beef, 16 miles today. -B.B. Cannon, Detachment Leader Not Far to Go Here, members of William Ruddick's family witnessed more than 11,000 Cherokee people passing by between 1837 and 1839 on their forced removal to Oklahoma. About 356 Cherokee in the detachment led by B.B. Cannon, camped near here on December 23, 1837 - the first removal contingent to . . . — Map (db m21085) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — Remembrance and Reunion
The two stone monuments you see here reflect the long-lasting grief - and the hopes - of the generation of Americans who survived the Civil War. After the war, young men whose lives had been forever changed by this battle began returning to these bullet-shattered forests and blood-soaked fields. They mourned comrades lost and reflected on the meaning of their trial by fire. In 1914 veterans began the call to preserve this battlefield as sacred ground. Their descendants again strove for national . . . — Map (db m35642) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — Reunited Soldiery Monument
(Front):Angel AloftSpirit of eternal light Keep silent vigil o'er the brave The untarnished blue. The unsullied gray. In peace and love unite. Proud heroes have fallen And over their grave Our hearts are united Our country to save. Over the dead the living bend. And up to their God their voices send. That in Liberty's crown or Eternity's day He may palace as far Jewels The Blue and the Gray. A Reunited Soldiery The Blue The Gray (Upper Right Side):Blue Maj. Gen. S.R. . . . — Map (db m35644) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — Save the Cannon! — March 7, 1862 - Mid-Morning
Like maddened hornets, Confederate infantrymen boiled out of Morgan's Woods, crossed Leetown Road, and swarmed toward the six Federal cannon that had unlimbered in this corner of Oberson's cornfield. Captain William Black stood in front of the cannon and fired his Colt repeating rifle to single-handedly delay the fierce assault until he fell wounded. Black bought the artillerymen time to save four of the six guns from being captured. (Caption Under Black's Portrait): William Black was . . . — Map (db m35562) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — Slaughter in the Rocks — March 8, 1862 - Morning
Below you here stand 30-foot-tall columns of stone. Bone-tired Confederates of the 2nd Missouri Brigade took shelter amid these rocky dens after the first day's hard marching and fighting. What at first seemed like a good natural defense became a deathtrap. As the second day's fighting began, 21 Union cannon in Cox's field below fired a punishing barrage toward this mountainside. A hurricane of artillery projectiles, rock fragments, and timber splinters tore through the infantrymen posted near . . . — Map (db m35638) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — Stand to Your Posts! — March 7, 1862 - Mid-Morning
Officers and men, you have it in your power to make or prevent another Bull Run affair. I want every man to stand to his post! Nicholas Greusel, colonel, 36th Illinois Infantry Regiment Yankee cavalrymen, mauled from a sharp fight with 7,000 Confederates, raced back across Samuel Oberson's cornfield from the belt of trees you see in the distance. "Turn back! They'll give you hell!" some troopers shouted as they sped by the infantrymen moving into line of battle. Two predominately . . . — Map (db m35591) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — That Beautiful Charge — March 8, 1862 - Mid-Morning
That beautiful charge I shall never forget; with banners streaming, with drums beating, and our long line of blue coats advancing upon the double quick, with their deadly bayonets gleaming in the sunlight, and every man and officer yelling at the top of his lungs. Eugene B. Payne, captain, 37th Illinois Infantry Regiment When the bugles sounded the charge at 10:00 a.m., standing here were 10,000 Union men - an entire army visible from one place. During the Civil War such a sight was so . . . — Map (db m35677) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — The Butterfield Overland Mail Route
John Butterfield was born in Berne, New York in 1801 and grew up on a farm amid the technological revolution of the first steamboat, the Erie Canal, the steam locomotive, and the electric telegraph.      In 1857, John Butterfield won a lucrative $600,000 contract that called for six years of semiweekly mail service to deliver the mail from St. Louis to San Francisco in 25 days. As soon as the contract was signed, 56 year old John Butterfield set out to complete a rapid survey of the route, . . . — Map (db m84484) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — The Enemy Is Behind Us! — March 7, 1862 - Mid-Morning
It was still below freezing at 10:30 a.m. March 7, 1862, when an alarmed messenger thundered into Union headquarters. The news he carried was startling: Confederates were moving down the Telegraph Road a mile north of Elkhorn Tavern. All of General Curtis's careful troop positioning for a battle at Little Sugar Creek - to the south - was now useless. As gunfire from the far side of Elkhorn Mountain and the fields north of Leetown grew louder, Curtis had to move his remaining troops to . . . — Map (db m35459) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — They Passed This Way — Trail of Tears National Historic Trail — National Trails System
"Long time we travel on way to new land.... Womens cry... Children cry and men cry...but they say nothing and just put heads down and keep on go towards West. Many days pass and people die very much." -Recollection of a survivor of the Trail of Tears The Trail of Tears - Land Route After passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830, the United States government forced tens of thousands of American Indians to leave their ancestral lands in the southeast for new homes in Indian Territory . . . — Map (db m35436) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — Two Armies Collide
Imagine 7,000 Confederate troops crowded in close order along Ford Road, the lane you see on the right edge of this field. As they trudged east toward Elkhorn Tavern, a small Union force of Iowa cavalrymen - only 600 men - unexpectedly appeared from the thick belt of trees you see on the left. Neither force expected to fight here. Three Union cannon unlimbered and fired into the massive rebel formation. Within minutes, 3,000 cavalrymen from Texas and Arkansas turned off the road. With war . . . — Map (db m37755) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — U.S. Army Headquarters 1862
This site was the camp-ground for commanding officers and headquarters of U.S. Army for Battle of Pea Ridge. Here councils of war were held. Camp for 10,500 soldiers. U.S. Army located 1 ½ miles south. Depot of supplies 1 mile north of this site. — Map (db m35688) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — Vulnerable in Victory — March 7, 1862 - Mid-Night
It was the fiery end of the best day of Earl Van Dorn's 20 years as a professional soldier. Bone-tired from the jarring of a week-long ambulance ride and still feverish from pneumonia, the Confederate commander lay down here in the side yard of Elkhorn Tavern amid the wreckage of the day's battle. Because he now controlled his enemy's sole supply line, General Van Dorn assumed he had the battle of Elkhorn Tavern won. No one yet knew that the rebel wagons bearing food and ammunition for the . . . — Map (db m35661) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Garfield — Where I Knew I Might Make the Best Fight
The high bluffs here on Little Sugar Creek were a scene of frantic activity on the morning of March 6, 1862 as Federal soldiers shoveled out rifle pits and cut down trees for hasty field fortifications. With no hope of reinforcements from St. Louis, General Samuel Curtis had only 10,500 men to confront a Confederate army of more than 16,000 marching toward him. Curtis ordered his men to use this creek and the line of steep hills to prepare a strong defense. Sugar Creek's trenches were never . . . — Map (db m35690) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Lowell — Canning Factory

January 1936, Tom Farish & Joe Steele started building a canning factory using a lot of donated labor. The first run of green beans was June 26, 1936, tomatoes July 22, 1936, followed by spinach and other products later on.

After Tom Farish died, in August of 1946, his daughter, Maudine Farish Sanders, managed it for two years before her family sold to Joe Steele. Several years later Steele sold to Allen Canning Company. Operations ceased in mid 1990's when equipment was moved out and . . . — Map (db m93283) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Lowell — Evaporator Near Railroad Track

This evaporator dried apples over wooden racks with wood fired furnace heat. After drying, the peeled, sliced apples were sprinkled with powdered sulphur as a preservative. They were shipped out in big barrels by railroad cars. This work was nearly all done by hand. There was a sandbox out front for children to play in while their mothers worked. Elza Tucker, age 90 in 2009, remembers playing in the sandbox as a young child. It was operated by J. W. Kimmons at that time. — Map (db m93259) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Lowell — Lowell Postal Service

The earliest postal area was at Cross Hollows. Records show the Bloomington Post Office was changed to Lowell, March 9, 1881 with Paul F. Lewis, Postmaster. Insets show a 1900 Post Office building on North Jackson Street. The one next door to Green & Henry Store was probably before 1900. Personal knowledge places a post office north of the Lowell Bank in 1929, downstairs in IOOF building in 1949, and later south of that building, where Electric Company is in 2009. The next move was to the . . . — Map (db m93274) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Lowell — Old City Jail

Location: West of the railroad tracks on Lincoln Street between McClure & Monroe, almost directly across from Allen Canning Company Warehouse. It was about 12' x 12', made of native stone, cemented together. One small window on the north side was covered with iron bars. One thick wooden door faced east. Inside, on the south wall were two box-like wooden bunks with no mattress. This "no frills" jail built without toilet or lavatory was a poor place to house violators for very long. In the . . . — Map (db m93282) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Lowell — Original Site of Bloomington (Mudtown) Arkansas
Front Mar. 20, 1839 Trail of Tears Mar. 8, 1847 Robinson's Crossroads First Post Office Feb. 5, 1858 Name changed to Bloomington Sept. 18, 1858 Butterfield Stage Stop to 1861 Dec. 9, 1862 Civil War Skirmishes Aug. 24, 1864 "Camp Mudtown" Mar. 9, 1881 Moved near railroad after village destroyed by tornado Known now as Lowell Back Lowell Sesquicentennial 1836-1986 Committee Chairperson Vera Lou Goree Fowler Committee Members Helen Nail Bolen Jo Vantine Elza Tucker Alma . . . — Map (db m33712) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Lowell — Rev. James M. Ingram — (abt. 1826 - Sept. 4, 1870)
James Miller Ingram was a captain in the Confederate 6th Provisional Cavalry Partisan Rangers. Years after the war ended, as a self-taught minister he went to preach at a church and was murdered - shot in the back by 19 year old John M. Stone. During the Civil War, John Dudley Stone (John M.'s father) was a Union soldier killed by Ingram in retaliation for Stone having killed some Confederate soldiers in a cave along the White River. Young John M. witnessed his father's wartime killing and . . . — Map (db m68790) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Lowell — The Bank of Lowell

Humphrey Barr, brother of Mrs. L. P. Davis, was an early banker. We know Henry Neal was the banker in 1918. He loaned Elza Tucker's mother $75 to buy a family sewing machine. He charged 10% interest and had a loan limit of $100. Elza has the receipt dated the same year he was born. Bank transactions moved at a steady but cautious pace for several years. That pace changed quickly in 1929 when the bank was robbed. Jude Austin tells, in his "Lowell Memories," how he was locked in the vault. . . . — Map (db m93279) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Lowell — The Butterfield Stagecoach Road — Established 1858
This marker, set on the Butterfield Stagecoach Road, is placed near the spot where the trail crossed the east-west road between Huntsville and the Robinson settlement in western Benton County. John Robinson, a Revolutionary soldier, settled here about 1837 and the "road to Robinson" was designated at this point as "Robinson Cross Roads". — Map (db m68781) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Lowell — Train Depot

The St. Louis & San Francisco Railroad was established in 1881. Lowell was a village at that time. The 1889 Goodspeed's History of Benton County says greens, fruits, poultry, timber and railroad ties shipped extensively from the depot. The 1892-93 Springdale News reported Lowell shipped more raspberries than any line from Fort Smith, Arkansas to Monett, Missouri. A favorite event for Lowell teenagers was coming to the depot to see the train go by or who got off. Toby Tucker was the . . . — Map (db m93263) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Maysville — Battle of Maysville — Or the Battle of Old Fort Wayne
Occured on Oct. 22. While Gen. James G. Blunt was encamped on the old Pea Ridge battlefield, word came that Gen. Douglas H. Cooper and Col. Stand Watie's Indian regiment were at old Fort Wayne across the line from Maysville. On Oct. 20 he advanced his 2nd and 3rd brigades to Bentonville. On Oct. 21, they moved toward Maysville. Crossing the prairie they found the Confederates lined up on the edge of some timber a quarter mile from the town. Before this superior force they retreated in disorder . . . — Map (db m52281) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Maysville — Camp Walker
This camp was established in June, 1861, by Brig. Gen. Nicholas Bart Pierce, a Benton County man, to train recruits from Western Arkansas and the Indian Nation. He was a West Point graduate. Many Arkansas units, Greer's Texas regiment, Herbert's 3d Louisiana, went from this camp to Camp Stephens and on to join in the battle of Wilson's Creek. This training ground covered about two square miles. The marker is set near the officers' quarters on the ridge and a large rocked-up well used by them. — Map (db m77950) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Rogers — All Vietnam Veterans Memorial — In Memory Of
This memorial was erected in memory of the young individuals who went to war as kids and lost their youthful dreams, and some their lives, for a cause - freedom and honor - and came back as men with the horrors of war instilled in every fiber of their being and were never given the respect and honor they so dearly deserved from the public or United States government. God will one day judge our actions. Until then, He will shine on the lives of each veteran now and forever more because He . . . — Map (db m62588) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Rogers — Arvest Bank

The American National Bank built a new building on this corner in 1962. Prior to that year, it was located at 114 S. First Street and was the only bank in Rogers from 1931 until 1956. The bank was under the leadership of T.E. Harris, and his sons, Lawrence, Ray, and Gene Harris from 1925 until 1975.

In 1964, the name of the American National Bank was changed to the First National Bank. In 1975, Sam Walton and his family acquired the bank, and the new president was Carl Baggett.

In . . . — Map (db m93332) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Rogers — Cross Hollows
This post office was established in 1843. Nov. 29, 1861, Gen. Ben McCulloch moved his army into winter quarters here. Numerous, large, two-room, plank barracks were built in two rows facing each other, extending eastward more than a mile. Ten or twelve thousand soldiers wintered here. Feb. 22, 1862, the Union army of Gen. Curtis entered Cross Hollows to find abandoned barracks and commissary stores still smouldering. Curtis pitched his tent near McGarrah's house. His soldiers tented east, . . . — Map (db m68788) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Rogers — Cross Hollows
This site was donated to the Benton County Historical Society by Scarlett Biggs Wilson and Lara Wilson Rosenblum in honor of their parents/grandparents, Guy and Nell Biggs, early pioneers of the Cross Hollows area. Cross Hollows is recognized for its historical significance of: Confederate winter quarters in 1861, and Union staging area in 1862 before the Battle of Pea Ridge during the Civil War The Heritage Trail and the Butterfield Stage Coach Route The Cherokee Trail of Tears — Map (db m68789) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Rogers — Daisy Airgun Museum — [Juhre Building]

Charles Juhre built this building in 1894 for the Rogers Grocery Company. In 1900, the building was occupied by the J.W. Ford Grocery and Feed Store. In 1918, McGill's Drug Store was here and then, in 1925, it became The Corner Drug Store, which was owned by Fred Applegate, followed by Harold Applegate, and finally Kenneth Petway. When the drug store closed in the late 1990s, the building had been a drug store for over 82 years.

Upstairs was the home of famous doctors including Dr. . . . — Map (db m93335) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Rogers — F-101B Voodoo
USAF Century Series aircraft flown by active interceptor squadrons, the Air Defense Command, and the Air National Guard from 1959 - 1983. The Voodoo is well known for its NATO role as a nuclear deterrent during the Cold War. The RF-101 variant is famous for performing reconnaissance missions in Cuba during the 1962 Missile Crisis and in Southeast Asia. McDonnell Douglas Corporation Designer and builder of over 800 F-101s 12 July 1991 — Map (db m62520) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Rogers — First United Methodist Church — A.O. Clarke, Architect — Built 1908

This building is a pinnacle of A.O. Clarke's interweaving use of limestone and brick, Romanesque arches, and stained glass window detail. In 1996, the historic sanctuary was renovated and is one of the highlights of the church. The trademark steeple was rebuilt at the same time to replace the original, which was destroyed by fire in 1911. The beautiful stained glass windows inside the sanctuary were conserved and restored by Norton Arts Conservator in 2003. — Map (db m93331) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Rogers — Harris Baking Company — 1936

This property has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places by the United States Department of the Interior — Map (db m93328) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Rogers — Historic Rogers Post Office Building — 1919

This building constructed in 1918-19 cost a total of $75,000 including the site, furnishings, and fixtures. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it served as the U.S. Post Office for Rogers for over four decades. These 1918 photographs show the building under construction.

In 1963 the building became home to the Rogers-Hough Memorial Library, named in honor of Daisy Manufacturing Co. president, Cass Hough. When the library moved in 1993, the structure was remodeled for . . . — Map (db m90744) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Rogers — 83 — Van Winkle's Mill

Peter Van Winkle’s saw mill cut lumber for Confederate soldiers’ winter quarters at Cross Hollow and Oxford Bend in early 1862. Gen. Earl Van Dorn’s Confederates used the mill to grind corn after their March 1862 defeat at Pea Ridge, and wounded men were sheltered in the mill and nearby houses. Van Winkle and his family fled to Texas, and the mill was burned on Dec. 3, 1863. Van Winkle built an improved mill after the Civil War and it provided much of the lumber to rebuild war-ravaged . . . — Map (db m90738) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Rogers — Victory Theater

The Rogers Victory Theater Opened Monday, December 5, 1927, to a packed crowd of 750. First Production: "American Beauty" Notable Performers Over the Years: Will Rogers, Conway Twitty Designed by A.O. Clarke Built by John Myler It was the second theater in Rogers. It was the first to have a fire proof projection booth. The sound system was added in 1929 for "talking pictures". First air-conditioned building in Rogers. 10,526 square feet - $35,000 original cost . . . — Map (db m90740) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Rogers — War Eagle Mill — 1832 ~ 1838 ~ 1873 ~ 1973
In 1832, Sylvanus Blackburn left Tennessee with a wagon and four oxen, and came to the War Eagle River valley in Arkansas. He spent the winter building a log home and clearing the land of his homestead. He brought his wife from Tennessee the next year. One of Sylvanus' first projects was a water-powered grist mill. In 1838, a flood on War Eagle destroyed the mill. A second mill, four stories tall, was soon erected. Five of Blackburn's sons joined the Confederate Army and the rest of the family . . . — Map (db m50367) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), Rogers — War Eagle Mills Farm
The Ozark Arts and Crafts Fair was founded on War Eagle Mills Farm by Lester and Blanche Elliott and friends in October 1954 for the purpose of giving recognition to Ozark artists and craftsmen who work with their hands and hearts to preserve the rich Ozark heritage. Dedicated to the memory of Lester and Blanche Elliott. The fair was made possible through their devotion to each other and the people they loved. They gave freely of their time, labor and the use of this historic farm for the . . . — Map (db m52066) HM
Arkansas (Benton County), War Eagle — War Eagle Mills
Sylvanus Blackburn came to the War Eagle in 1832. By 1838 he had a saw mill, a grist mill, and a house. Peter Van Winkle came about 1850. By 1860, this was a thriving crossroads. March 8, 1862, Generals Van Dorn and Price, retreating from the battlefield, bivouacked 10 miles south of Elkhorn. The next day they reached the Blackburn - Van Winkle area where abandoned homes housed the sick and exhausted. While Curtis was in camp at Cross Hollows before the battle Col. Grenville M. Dodge ground corn in Blackburn's mill. — Map (db m19492) HM
Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — "Mud" Street and "Underground Eureka"

Professor KALKLOSCH’s Guidebook, published in 1880, states: “The first street of the town was surveyed down the gulch below the spring. A broad avenue connects this street with the famous EUREKA BASIN SPRING. It being the first street it was named MAIN STREET. Owing to its low elevation and the law of gravitation, water would find a level in the street and as immense travel created an abundance of mud, the street was nicknamed “MUD,” a name without music or . . . — Map (db m79755) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — 85 South Main Street

This property has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places by the United States Department of the Interior — Map (db m90670) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — A Timeless Place — Upper Spring

The buildings, the bluffs, the spring and The Boulevard all make this a special place in Eureka Springs which has kept a peaceful beauty of earlier times.

The front of the McLaughlin Block has changed little since it was built in 1900 to house a very modern grocery and meat market. Stone to construct the building was blasted out of the bluff and cut on-site. Congress Spring flows behind the building. An early writer describes the store: "The grocery store was as clean, polished . . . — Map (db m80138) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Avarana

Resort home built 1899 by William Henry Reid of Chicago. Architect Theodore C. Link of St. Louis. Design reflects simplicity favored at end of Victorian era. Upper floors are wood with verandas on four sides. Lower floor is Beaver Limestone. In 1892, Reid donated a central school named in his honor. ——————————— This property has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places by the United States . . . — Map (db m80118) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Bank of Eureka Springs

Bank of Eureka Springs was established in May, 1912, in the Klock and Clark Building at 75 Spring Street. In 1946 it was relocated to 40 Spring Street.

In 1966, the bank purchased the McGinnis property at 70 South Main Street. The old livery barn and store building were torn down. A spacious brick building was constructed and opened for business November 25, 1967, with the first free parking, drive-up window and community room of any bank in the county.

The George M. McGinnis and . . . — Map (db m90573) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Bank of Eureka Springs Community Room

Ellis Murphy established Murphy's Firestone Tire Service at this site about 1923. Called "Murphy the Tire Man", his services were frequently required to patch inner tubes and repair tires for hundred[s] of automobiles bringing tourists to Eureka Springs. The limestone building was an auto repair shop until July 1973 when it was purchased for use as a community room for the Bank of Eureka Springs. They brought back and placed the first old-time awning on the building, beginning a . . . — Map (db m90706) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Calif Spring — South Main

Calif Spring was originally called Table Rock Spring, named for the rock formation above the spring area. This area was set aside as a spring reservation in 1886 by City Ordinance. S. L. Calif established a residence and general store next to the spring, which he excavated and cleaned. He was given a 99 year lease on the land where his house was located. It was then referred to as "Calif Spring."

The odd round stone building in this park covers Calif Springs itself. It was built . . . — Map (db m90703) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Carnegie Library

This is one of only four free public libraries in Arkansas funded by philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. It was built of native limestone and completed in 1912 on this site which was donated by Eureka Springs resident Richard C. Kerens. The architect was George W. Hellmuth of St. Louis. — Map (db m80137) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Chandler Mall Buildings

Richard H. James and Charles S. Beck built the three story brick and limestone Beck and James Building in the year 1888 to house a clothing and apparel store.

F. H. and Avarilla James and their family resided in the upper rooms and C. S. Beck was a boarder in their household. He was a practitioner of the art of “magnetic healing.”

Zadock P. Freeman, well known civic leader and mayor, built the Freeman Block, another brick and limestone structure, in which F.A. Pickard . . . — Map (db m79738) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Citizen's Bank Building

Ornate brick and limestone structure built after Great Fire of 1888 for Citizen's Bank established 1887 by J.T. Waddell. The bank failed in 1907. First National Bank occupied building until 1931 when it failed due to Great Depression. Bank of Eureka Springs relocated to site 1946-1967. Converted to gift shop space in 1968. — Map (db m79736) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — 18 — Civil War Healing
The Eureka Springs area's reputation as a health resort has its origins in the Civil War. Late 19th-century accounts claim Dr. Alvah Jackson treated sick and wounded soldiers during the war. In early 1865, Maj. J. W. Cooper, who led Confederate troops in the Indian Territory, came to Carroll Co. with four comrades seeking Jackson's aid to recover form the effects of hard service. They holed up in the "rock house" near the area's abundant springs and recuperated. Cooper and his companions . . . — Map (db m59967) HM
Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Clayton-Becker House

Crescent Cottage on the National Register of Historic Places

Built in 1881 Home of Powell Clayton, the first governor of Arkansas after the state was readmitted to the Union following the War Between the States

Owners Ray & Elise Dilfield

——————————— This property has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places by the United States Department of the Interior . . . — Map (db m80139) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Crescent Spring and Trail

Crescent Spring was revered for its healing waters almost as much as the basin, the legendary Indian Healing Spring. Situated beside the Wagon Road on a hillside with a rocky outcropping described as "crescent" shaped, the spring was soon given that name, as was Crescent Hotel, the fine limestone structure built at its summit in 1886.

Street maps dated 1886 show a stone retaining wall and a circular enclosure of stone at the spring. Adjacent to it, twelve stair steps of dressed Beaver . . . — Map (db m80135) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Eastview Cottage

Eastview is situated adjacent to Harding Spring on a lot originally registered by Absalom M. Thomas after the town site survey of 1879. John E. and Bell Perrin purchased the lot and residence in October, 1881, then sold to David R. and Harriett N. Whitcomb who also owned the adjacent house named Whitcomb Cottage.

Eastview was next sold to Royal F. and A. E. Elliott whose heirs sold it to Robert C. Ramey in August, 1919. It's most long-term resident was Katherine S. Wheelock, an artist . . . — Map (db m80140) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Eureka Springs Historical Museum — Established 1971 in Calif House

This three-story limestone building with metal-clad roof enclosing the top story was constructed in 1889 by Samuel L. Calif. For fifty years it served as a residence, general merchandise store, and boarding house. About 1948 the building was converted for use as a meeting hall for the B.P.O.E., and was known as the Elks Lodge until 1970 when the organization relocated.

Since 1947 the original Ozark Folk Festival is held annually in Eureka Springs, directed by a non-profit corporation . . . — Map (db m90699) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Fire and Brick & Stone — Upper Spring

The neighborhood above the current First Baptist Church burned in the Great Fire of 1883, the first of four Great Fires which destroyed most of the town's early wooden structures. New commercial buildings were built of more fire-resistant materials such as brick and limestone. This block, originally called Rice Avenue, is one of the most interesting downtown. Beautiful spring parks anchor both corners.

[Inset photo captions read] [1.] The Wadsworth Building was the first . . . — Map (db m80106) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Grotto Spring

The words "esto perpetua" emblazoned upon a stone above the entrance to Grotto Spring declare the prevailing belief that these healing waters would flow forth forever. Early townspeople discovered the spring under an overhanging rock ledge, a short distance from the well-known Dairy Spring.

Extensive street construction on "The Boulevard", as Spring Street was then called, began in 1890. This necessitated construction of an enclosure of limestone and ornamental stonework hand-worked by . . . — Map (db m80121) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Harding Spring

Named for J. Emmett Harding, a photographer who began the tradition of making photographs of people in front of the spring as souvenirs. He built a small dwelling near the spring in the summer of 1879.

In 1879, the spring was accessed by a narrow wagon track along a rocky ledge, leaving little room for gathering. Hand labor was required to move a great deal of earth to create a level area in front of the spring. A wide boardwalk and a wood stairway to the top of the cliff were built at . . . — Map (db m80151) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Kentucky House

Kentucky House Hotel established on this site 1880, Mrs. E.D. Andrews, proprietor. Building survived Great Fire 1888, disappeared by 1900. Street work 1915 created stone wall. Sharp’s Continental Oil Company gas station constructed 1928. Epley and Epley Law Firm established 1964, preserved in renovations 1973 and 1977. Parker Law Firm established January 1, 1999 by Tim S. Parker. — Map (db m79756) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Laundry Spring

The site of this spring was outside the area included in the 1879 survey. Known as East Mountain, this area was crowded with wood structures by 1885. The spring, which flowed from a small cave lined with projections of onyx stone, was already recognized for the healing waters.

Water made a stream down over the rock ledges to the creek below. The overflow of Little Eureka Springs, Cave Springs and others joined this stream further up the ravine. The spring overflow was very accessible . . . — Map (db m80152) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Law Offices of F. O. Butt

Festus Orestes Butt was born in 1875 in Illinois just before his family moved to Carroll County, Arkansas. He became a licensed attorney before he was of legal age. The Arkansas General Assembly set aside his "disability of minority", and he set up a practice in Eureka Springs in 1894. Elected to the legislature, Butt served four years, then two successive terms in the state senate before 1910. He was elected mayor of Eureka Springs in 1911, 1916 and 1920. During a second term in the . . . — Map (db m79735) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Mud Street to Main Street — North Main

"It being the first street in town... it was named Main Street. But owing to its low elevation and the law of gravitation, the water would find a level in the street, and as the immense travel created an abundance of mud, the street was nicknamed 'Mud Street' a name without music or elegance." L.J. Kalklosch, The Healing Fountain, 1880

This long view shows North Main Street before the Great Fires when all the buildings were made of wood. Note the openness under the Grand . . . — Map (db m80153) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Spanish-American and World War Veterans Memorial
In memory of our deceased World War Veterans Western District of Carroll County In Memoriam United Spanish War Veterans 1898 — Map (db m59973) HM
Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Steam Locomotive — (0-4-0)

Built in Berlin, Germany 1934, 600 millimeter gauge (24 inch) (same engines are used at Silver Dollar City). Engine was found near Orlando, Fla. in 1989. Was bought by gentleman from Switzerland and hauled to Eureka Springs same year. Plans are to possibly rebuild engine here in America and be shipped to Switzerland where he would maybe lay track & run it on his farm. Other plans include possible rebuild for sale to interested party. Originally coal burner now an oil burner. — Map (db m80172) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Sweet Spring

This spring derived its name from early townspeople who declared the water to have a pleasant, sweet taste. The spring was originally located in the deep ravine below the present site. A long wooden stairway led from the spring to the narrow wagon road then known as Rice Street, which is now called Spring Street. Sweet Spring was also referred to as Spout Spring.

Around 1885 workmen dug into the mountainside above the street to locate the stream of water in a more accessible location. . . . — Map (db m80115) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Sweet Spring Hotel - Huntington Infirmary - Sweet Spring Home

Sweet Spring Hotel The Sweet Spring Hotel was established about 1887 at the corner of Pine Street and Spring, then known as Rice Street, with A.S. Capps as proprietor. The spacious three-story frame structure was painted white with dark trim color accenting the simple decorative details of multiple large windows and verandahs. The glass-enclosed dining room and parlor conservatory for guests occupied a two-story wing.

The hotel was situated adjacent to the Sweet Spring and . . . — Map (db m80112) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Basin Bath House
Basin Bath House was established 1879 adjacent to Basin Spring by Dr. Alvah Jackson's son, Thomas. John S. Tibbs succeeded Jackson about 1880, operated bath house and Eureka Water Shipping Company. Building was destroyed by Great Fire of 1888, replaced with limestone and brick structure 1889. Skillful, authentic restoration after 1986 Fire preserved this historic structure. — Map (db m59969) HM
Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Basin Park Sycamore
I stood here growing so many years, I shared your laughter, I shared your tears. My life was good, beginning to end, and this is a wish I'd like to send. Be happy and kind to all around, and let not sorrow be ever found. The spirit of me is in this park, I watch over you in light and dark. This little old bench is just a part. I love you all with all my heart. So please hold back your tears for me, and just go out and plant a tree. The Basin Park Sycamore Bench . . . — Map (db m59971) HM
Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Berlin Wall — Actual 10 x 10 Section

• Between 1945-1961 2.7 million escaped East Germany • In 1960, 200,000 East Germans escaped to Freedom • Order given to build Wall - Sunday, Aug. 13, 1961 Construction began Aug. 16, 1961; completed 2 mos. later • Initially 6 ft. high bricks topped with barbed wire • 1970 - Wall raised to 10 ft. steel-reinforced concrete • Length 103 miles • 200 East Germans killed trying to escape • Most artwork on wall done at night • In darkness, this artist saw light; in . . . — Map (db m80171) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Civic Center — South Main
These two large limestone public buildings anchor this part of downtown Eureka Springs. They span the deep ravine cut by Leatherwood Creek which flows in a tunnel beneath all the buildings on this entire part of Main Street. [Photo 1.] This view shows South Main Street toward Basin Park in the 1890s before the Auditorium was built. The large Southern Hotel is shown in the center. This very early lodging survived all the great fires in the 1880s and 1890s which destroyed most of the . . . — Map (db m59964) HM
Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Crescent Hotel & Spa

May 20, 1886... America's newest and most luxurious hotel built at a cost of $294,000.

It was two years ago that Powell Clayton and his associates chose the site of the new Crescent Hotel... twenty seven acres at the north end of West Mountain, a majestic location overlooking the valley. The commissioning of Isaac S. Taylor as architect was announced and construction commenced. Special wagons were constructed to transport the huge pieces of limestone from the quarry site on White . . . — Map (db m80116) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Perry House - Basin Park Hotel

1884 - Cutter's Guide The Eureka Springs of Arkansas The hotels and boarding houses of Eureka Springs are numerous. The Perry House is the only real first-class hotel in the city; and we say this with no disparagement of the Southern, Hancock, Harper or other houses that would be the first-class houses but for the Perry House.

The Perry House 1881-1890 This first-class hotel was built around two-years ago, by Mr. Joseph Perry, of Colorado, a gentleman who . . . — Map (db m79733) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Railroad Depot

The Eureka Springs Railroad opened in February, 1883. As the first trains arrived at the original station house, a finely crafted wooden structure, passengers were met by horse[-]drawn carriages and hacks which quickly carried them to the best hotels.

The railroad, an 18-mile line from Seligman, Missouri, connected to the Frisco railroad system and assured the success of the resort which could easily be reached from great population centers nationwide.

By 1900 the railroad was . . . — Map (db m80173) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Southern Hotel
The Southern was built in the year 1880 adjacent to Basin Spring and some 25 feet above it on the hillside. L.M. Rainey of Missouri, its original owner, sold the hotel to W. E. Beatty in 1886, at which time it was acclaimed to be one of the city's two finest hotels, the other being Perry House, situated on the opposite side of the spring. Damaged in the Great Fire of 1890, The Southern was repaired and enlarged to one hundred rooms, gas lighted throughout, and boasting for a time an . . . — Map (db m59970) HM
Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Springs
"It is sometimes called The Basin Springs, and is invariably the first resort for visitors. If there is any one in the city you desire to find, if no other way, go to the Basin Springs, seat yourself comfortable, and await his coming." Prof. L.J. Kalklosch, The Healing Fountain, 1881. [Inset photo captions read] The earliest visitors to this place in the wilderness that would become Eureka Springs were here in desperate need of better health. Long known as a healing spring . . . — Map (db m63300) HM
Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Stone Walls
Eureka Springs claims an estimated fifty-six miles of stone walls. Skilled stonemasons constructed most of the walls between 1885 and 1910. The limestone used was sometimes quarried on site but the majority was transported to the town site by horse drawn wagons or railroad flatcars from the quarry near Beaver, six miles away and the railroad junction 2 miles north of Eureka Springs. In the first census of Eureka Springs in 1880, thirty men gave "stonemason" as their occupation. They were . . . — Map (db m63299) HM
Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Three Flat-Irons
The original Flat-Iron Building was constructed within sight of Basin Springs in the year 1880. It housed the town's first banking establishment and was the first structure made of brick among hundreds of wood buildings. The unusual three-sided, four story structure featured wood trim and a wraparound porch between second and third floors. In 1890 a fire began in the nearby Perry House Hotel which destroyed several buildings, including the Flat-iron. A second Flat-Iron was constructed . . . — Map (db m63302) HM
Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Town that Water Built — North Main

First by horseback, wagons or on foot, invalids from all over this region flocked to Eureka Springs in 1879 to seek cures from the miraculous healing springs. But soon there were easier ways to arrive - stagecoaches, then trains. This laid a base for an early "industrial park."

Bringing railroad service through the rugged mountains and across the White River was no easy feat. A passage was blasted out of a cliff near Beaver, north of town, a high trestle bridge erected over the . . . — Map (db m80211) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Western District Courthouse
Eureka Springs was incorporated on Valentine's Day in 1880. At that time, the only courthouse was in the county seat of Berryville, some 12 miles to the east. This was a great distance at the time, the roads were bad, and the King's River had to be forded if it was passable. As a result, the citizens of Eureka Springs petitioned for their own courthouse, and in 1883, the Arkansas General Assembly enacted legislation to create the Western Judicial District of Carroll County. In 1906 Claude A. . . . — Map (db m59962) HM
Arkansas (Chicot County), Lake Village — G18 — Chicot County — County Seat
The county seat of Chicot County was located at Columbia in 1823, where it remained until 1855. The county took its name from Point Chicot, on the Mississippi. — Map (db m89773) HM
Arkansas (Chicot County), Lake Village — Chicot County Confederate Monument — CSA — 1861 - 1865
Front (West side) "To the Confederate soldiers of Chicot County, the record of whose sublime self sacrifice and undying devotion is the proud heritage of a loyal posterity." Rear (East side)   We care not whence they came,   Dear, in lifeless clay; Whether unknown or known to fame, their cause and coun- try still the same, they died and wore the gray.   Father Ryan. Erected by the Captain McConnell and George K. . . . — Map (db m90255) WM
Arkansas (Chicot County), Lake Village — Col. Charles A. Lindbergh
Col. Charles A. Lindbergh Made his first night flight here April 1923 — Map (db m89780) HM
Arkansas (Chicot County), Lake Village — Colonel Charles A. Lindbergh
In April 1923 Lindbergh, then an unknown 21-year-old mail pilot, experienced engine trouble and landed his airplane on the now-abandoned golf course behind this site of the old Lake Village County Club. He remained in Lake Village overnight. During the evening he took his host, Mr. Henry, for a moonlit flight down the Mississippi and over Lake Village. It was the first time that Lindbergh had flown after dark. — Map (db m89779) HM
Arkansas (Chicot County), Lake Village — Italian Immigrants On Sunnyside Plantation
In 1895 Austin Corbin, a New York banker and land developer, working with immigration officials brought 100 families from north central Italy to grow cotton at Sunnyside, a plantation located between the Mississippi River and Lake Chicot. These Italians struggled against exploitation, prejudice and language barriers, and many died of malaria and other lowland diseases. Many of their descendants are now among the leading citizens of Arkansas and the nation. — Map (db m89774) HM
Arkansas (Chicot County), Lake Village — 79 — Lakeport in the Civil War
Side 1 When Arkansas went to war in 1861, Lycurgus and Lydia Johnson and their family stayed with their home at Lakeport. By 1862, U.S. gunboats were common on the Mississippi River, and on Sept. 6, 1862, Confederate troops burned 158 bales of cotton at Lakeport to prevent its seizure. Union raids targeted plantations such as Lakeport in 1863 and 1864, and the Johnsons claimed losses of 200 cattle, 8 mules and 2 horses, leaving "one haul wood for the children." The . . . — Map (db m89797) HM
Arkansas (Chicot County), Lake Village — Lakeport Plantation House
Side 1 The Lakeport Plantation house was constructed circa 1859 for Lycurgus and Lydia Taylor Johnson. The skilled craftsmanship and lasting character are testaments to those who built the house. It is preserved in remembrance of all who lived and worked on the plantation. Side 2 The survival of Lakeport Plantation is a tribute to the Sam Epstein family, who acquired the property in 1927. Listed on the National Register of Historical Places in 1974, it was gifted to . . . — Map (db m90491) HM
Arkansas (Chicot County), Lake Village — New Hope Missionary Baptist Church
Jim Kelley, a slave, organized this church in 1860. His owner allowed the use of this plot of this plot of ground on which to build a church. On May 15, 1873, Mr. and Mrs. William B. Street deeded the property to the trustees of the church. New Hope Missionary Baptist Church claims to the the oldest Black church in the State of Arkansas. — Map (db m89777) HM
Arkansas (Chicot County), Lake Village — The Battle at Ditch Bayou
It is the morning of June 6, 1864. Rain has created a muddy mess. To your left are four cannon. To your right are 600 cavalrymen and two more cannon. These men served under Confederate Colonel Colten Greene. To your front is Ditch Bayou, and 700 yards beyond that 3,000 troops under Union Major General A.J. Smith. Among them is the 8th Wisconsin with its mascot, Old Abe, the War Eagle. As the Union troops advance, the cannon thunder with grape and canister. The seasoned troops closed the . . . — Map (db m90432) HM
Arkansas (Chicot County), Lake Village — The Casualties at Ditch Bayou June 6, 1864
The battle at Ditch Bayou was a Federal effort to drive Confederates away from the Mississippi River, where the Confederates had been harassing Union shipping. Even though the Confederates were outnumbered here, they were able to inflict heavy damage to their enemy. They had the advantage of six cannons, the protection of heavy timber and knowledge of the area. Muddy conditions caused the Northern infantry to attack across an open field without artillery support. After crossing the field . . . — Map (db m90418) HM
Arkansas (Clay County), St. Francis — Chalk Bluff
Named for the white clay which resembles chalk, this magnificent bluff is one of the most important historical landmarks in Arkansas. At this point the St. Francis River cuts through Crowley's Ridge from west to east and forms the boundary between Arkansas and Missouri. In 1857 David Dale Owen began the first geological survey of the state here. — Map (db m18136) HM
Arkansas (Clay County), St. Francis — Chalk Bluff Crossing and Town
Since Crowley's Ridge provided the only natural route for north-south travel across the lowlands of northeastern Arkansas, an Indian trail and later a military road crossed the river here. About 1840 Abraham Seitz established a ferry which was later operated by Timothy Dalton. The town which grew up near the crossing faded away after 1882 when the railroad bridged the river downstream at the new town of St. Francis. — Map (db m4912) HM
Arkansas (Clay County), St. Francis — Chalk Bluff in the Civil War — Raids of March-April 1863
On March 10, 1863 Union cavalry captured the ferry after a three-hour fight. They burned buildings and stores of corn in Chalk Bluff and destroyed a large uncompleted ferry boat. Two weeks later on March 24 Union cavalry returned to Chalk Bluff and pursued retreating Confederates as far as Scatterville south of present day Piggott. On April 20 Confederate cavalry surprised and routed a Union encampment across the river from Chalk Bluff. — Map (db m4906) HM
Arkansas (Clay County), St. Francis — Chalk Bluff in the Civil War — Battle of May 1-2, 1863
In April 1863 a Confederate army of 5000 men commanded by General John S. Marmaduke advanced into Missouri. Forced to retreat before superior Union forces, the Confederates on May 1-2 fought a successful delaying action here while their army crossed the swollen St. Francis River on a makeshift floating bridge. — Map (db m4911) HM
Arkansas (Clay County), St. Francis — Chalk Bluff in the Civil War — Skirmish of May 15, 1862
Chalk Bluff occupied a strategic position during the Civil War. Its cliffs commanded a vital river crossing on the only major road from Missouri into the Crowley's Ridge country. Provisions were collected here and shipped downstream to Confederate forces. At daybreak on May 15, 1862 Union troops seized the ferry, crossed the river under fire, captured the town and drove the Confederates into the woods. — Map (db m18186) HM
Arkansas (Drew County), Monticello — F-17 — Drew County — County Seat
Drew County, named for Governor Thomas S. Drew, was organized in 1845 and Monticello was laid out in 1849 as the county seat. Many pioneer families whose sons and daughters became prominent in the affairs of State and Nation lived here. — Map (db m85085) HM
Arkansas (Drew County), Monticello — 91 — Drew County Troops
(side 1) Sixteen Confederate companies were raised in Drew County during the Civil War. Two, the "Confederate Stars" and "Selma Rifles," joined the 3rd Arkansas Infantry and fought with the Army of Northern Virginia. Three, the "Cut-off Guards," "Confederate Grays" and "Dixie Guards," joined the 9th Arkansas Infantry, dubbed the "Parsons Regiment" because it held 42 ministers. The "Monticello Guards" of the 1st Arkansas Infantry and "Monticello Cavalry" of the 6th Battalion were raised . . . — Map (db m85087) HM
Arkansas (Drew County), Monticello — Monticello Confederate Monument
To the Confederate Soldiers of Drew County. 1861—1865 Furl that banner! True, 'tis gory, yet 'tis wreathed around with glory, and 'twill live in song and story, though its folds are in the dust. Father Ryan "Lest We Forget." — Map (db m85093) WM
Arkansas (Drew County), Monticello — Walls of War — Drew County Veterans Memorial
Erected by the citizens of Drew County in honor of all who served or who may serve and dedicated to those who gave their lives that we might be free. Veterans Day 1988. World War I B.C. Bast, George F. Cater, Chisley Garrison, Forrest Johnson, Oscar G. Miles World War II Henry K. Adcock, Odell Allison, Thomas E. Andrews, Malon Barnes, Levert W. Bell Jr., Robert J. Brewster, Lawrence Brookings Jr., Allen D. Brown, Edward B. Brown, Earl Burton, Kennon L. Chapman, Marvin . . . — Map (db m85089) HM
Arkansas (Garland County), Hot Springs — An American Spa — Hot Springs National Park
Bathhouse Row is the historic heart of an American spa. Since the 1830s the city of Hot Springs has channeled much of its energy into becoming a national health resort. The Federal Government made “taking the waters” available to all by providing baths and health services to veterans and the poor, and the National Park landscaped many of the exercise paths that were considered essential to good health. Some of the bathhouses have closed—locally, demand for the medicinal . . . — Map (db m61775) HM
Arkansas (Garland County), Hot Springs — Bathhouse Row — Hot Springs National Park
The buildings along Bathhouse Row are the latest stage in a succession of bathhouses. In the 1830s Hot Springs’ earliest facilities were makeshift shelters perched over individual springs. Later, elaborate Victorian bathhouses flourished along the avenue, but the wooden structures were susceptible to rot and devastating fires. The present mix of Spanish mission and neoclassical architecture dates from 1911 to 1939, the Golden Age of Bathing. The Buckstaff remains open for traditional . . . — Map (db m61774) HM
Arkansas (Garland County), Hot Springs — Buckstaff Bathhouse — Hot Springs National Park
From its opening the handsome Buckstaff Bathhouse aggressively promoted its image. To gain customers the owners mounted a huge sign on the roof to attract people from the large hotels a block away. Other bathhouses lost character as they modernized, but the Buckstaff kept its historic appearance and emphasized its reputation for service. Although many of its competitors closed between 1962 and 1985, the Buckstaff continues to operate as a bathhouse. On Bathhouse Row it is the sole operating . . . — Map (db m61793) HM
Arkansas (Garland County), Hot Springs — Fordyce Bathhouse — Hot Springs National Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior
Inspired by the spas of Europe, Colonel Samuel Fordyce opened this Renaissance Revival bathhouse in 1915. With its copper-framed glass marquee and elegant window design, the Fordyce reflects a crowning achievement of the Golden Age of Bathing. Its interior features are also ornate. A stained glass ceiling in the men’s bath hall creates and underwater atmosphere. Terra cotta fountains and other stained glass panels provided artful and luxurious surroundings. Captions: The Fordyce . . . — Map (db m61771) HM
Arkansas (Garland County), Hot Springs — Hollywood Cemetery — Entrance presented by National Society Colonial Dames
Presented by Arkansas Col. John Washington Chapter, National Society Colonial Dames, XVII Century, honoring War Veterans, Early Pioneers, 1998 — Map (db m61770) WM
Arkansas (Garland County), Hot Springs — Lamar Bathhouse — Hot Springs National Park
The present masonry Lamar Bathhouse, completed in 1923, has a symmetrical, California style of architecture. The large lobby contains nostalgic murals of historic landscapes, and country scenes. Art Deco stairs, signs, and lights decorated the building. Advertising “a tub for every-sized person,” the Lamar Bathhouse also featured a large sun porch to promote “natural health”. Like many Victorian bathhouses, the wooden 1890s Lamar Bathhouse had “stickwork” . . . — Map (db m61777) HM
Arkansas (Garland County), Hot Springs — Ozark Bathhouse — Hot Springs National Park
The mission style of the Ozark Bathhouse may relate to the claim that Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto visited the hot springs. The building’s twin towers are strictly decorative. On Bathhouse Row, the Quapaw, the Fordyce, and Hale Bathhouses, with their red clay roof tiles, also reflect this Spanish association. The Ozark’s scroll and shield decorations and classical designs on window planters suggest a relationship with Roman baths. Caption: The Ozark as it appeared in 1915 (above) and in 1882 (right). — Map (db m61794) HM
Arkansas (Garland County), Hot Springs — Quapaw Bathhouse — Hot Springs National Park
The Caddo, Quapaw, and Choctaw tribes lived in or visited the area during the 1700s and 1800s. This edifice pays homage to their lasting influence. The owners named the bathhouse for the Quapaw Indians, and incorporated an Indian head design over the entrance. The towering building dominates Bathhouse Row. Captions: Dome tile. The Quapaw’s ceramic tile dome was inspired by the bathhouse domes in North Africa and southern France. The Quapaw Bathhouse was completed in 1922. It . . . — Map (db m61795) HM
Arkansas (Grant County), Leola — Battle of Jenkins' Ferry
Erected in memory of the soldiers of the Confederacy, who gave their lives for the cause at the Battle of Jenkins Ferry, April 30, 1864, Dedicated September 19, 1928, by the James F. Fagan and Jenkins Ferry Chapters of the United Daughters of the Confederacy. We honor their valor and sacrifice. — Map (db m37303) HM
Arkansas (Grant County), Leola — Red River Campaign — Battle of Jenkins' Ferry
Tablet #1 Jenkins' Ferry State Park Act 10 of 1961 authorized this 37-acre state park as a commemorative site and recreation area. The park includes the ferry site where you are standing. The ferry was operated by the Jenkins' family prior to the Civil War and aided travelers on the Camden Road - a major travel route in pioneer Arkansas. In April of 1864, this site gained Civil War fame. Retreating from Camden to the safety of Little Rock, the Union Army was attacked by Confederate . . . — Map (db m37304) HM
Arkansas (Hempstead County), Hope — William Jefferson Clinton — First Home of the 42nd President of the United States
Dedicated March 12, 1999. Mike Huckabee Governor, Jim Hill State Senator, Sandra Rodgers State Representative. Major Benefactors-Century Tube, Inc, Swepco, Entergy, Sanyo Manufacturing Corp, Future Tech Intel, Nina Wang, Ben & Martha Bryant, Nissan North America, Reliant Energy Arkla, International Paper Co., Dr Elias & Jody Ghanam Family, Selma & Walter Kaye, United Parcel Service. — Map (db m61796) HM
Arkansas (Independence County), Batesville — F - 32 — Arkansas Methodist Conference — Independence County
The Arkansas conference of the Methodist Church, created 1836, composing Arkansas and parts of Louisiana and Indian Territory, held its first session November 2, 1836 in Batesville at corner of Main and Broad Streets. Bishop Thomas Morris presided. 42 ministers were assigned appointments, including 8 admitted that session, one of whom was Andrew Hunter. Burwell Lee was made presiding elder and ministered in this section 43 years, including early pastorates of the first Methodist Church here. . . . — Map (db m70559) HM
Arkansas (Independence County), Batesville — No. 14 — Batesville During The Civil War
Union soldiers occupied Batesville twice during the Civil War. Gen. Samuel Curtis's Army of the Southwest camped near this site in May 1862 while threatening Little Rock. Union troops were impressed with the town's culture and appearance, saying that "a more lovely place cannot be found anywhere." Confederate forces then occupied the area, using the same campsite, until Col. R. R. Livingston's Union troops used Batesville as a base from which to pacify the region in spring 1864. Confederate . . . — Map (db m70557) HM
Arkansas (Independence County), Batesville — F 2 No. 1 — Independence County First County Court House
The town of Batesville was selected as the county seat and the first county court house built in 1821, a year after the county was organized. — Map (db m66720) HM
Arkansas (Independence County), Batesville — Independence County Office and Library
This building was constructed in 1904 by the federal government for the U.S. Post Office and the Batesville division of federal court for the Eastern District of Arkansas and was in use by federal agencies until 1974 when a new building was built a block south. The building was purchased for Independence County in 1975 by Judge Jess Carpenter and converted to use for the library and county offices. — Map (db m70558) HM
Arkansas (Independence County), Batesville — Lafferty Memorial Church
Lafferty disbanded in 1969 and its members requested the church at 8th and Neeley be sold and funds divided between Philander Smith College and the First United Methodist Church of Batesville. The known history of Lafferty, organized in the Methodist Episcopal Church, dates from 1870 when trustees, one being Elisha Baxter who became governor of Arkansas in 1872, purchased a lot for the church at 3rd and Boswell. The church was moved to 8th and Neeley in 1917. Mrs. Benita Smily and David Pope . . . — Map (db m70560) HM
Arkansas (Independence County), Batesville — Pfeiffer Community
A light-colored crystalline limestone known as Batesville marble has been mined in this area since 1836 and most of the material used in the Arkansas State Capitol under construction from 1899 to 1915 originated here. Pfeiffer was also a railhead with wagons coming from many points to pick up freight. The community is named for the Pfeiffer family which began a quarry here about 1903. — Map (db m85504) HM
Arkansas (Jefferson County), Pine Bluff — Auguste La noir de Serville
To honor Auguste La noir de Serville Hero of the American Revolution French Marine served under Count de Grasse Wounded Yorktown, VA Oct. 14, 1781 Died Jefferson Co. Ark. Dec. 30, 1828 — Map (db m30579) HM
Arkansas (Jefferson County), Pine Bluff — Barraque Street
This street was named for Antoine Barraque (1773-1858), native of France, soldier of Napoleon, and one of this area's earliest settlers. Founder of New Gascony in this county, he was a man of property and Indian sub-agent. Trusted and liked by the Quapaw nation, he led that tribe to their new home pursuant to the Treaty of 1824. A distinguished citizen of early Jefferson County, Antoine Barraque has descendants still living in Pine Bluff. — Map (db m30577) HM
Arkansas (Jefferson County), Pine Bluff — Battle of Pine Bluff
During the morning and early afternoon of October 25, 1863, Colonel Powell Clayton commander of federal troops occupying Pine Bluff, successfully repulsed a three-pronged confederate attack of forces of General John S. Marmaduke. Cotton bales hastily placed around the courthouse and surrounding streets provided an effective barricade for union defenders. Confederate loss: 41 killed, wounded, and captured. — Map (db m30578) HM
Arkansas (Jefferson County), Pine Bluff — Bayou Bartholomew
Beginning 10 miles northwest of Pine Bluff, this storied bayou flows 300 miles through 6 Arkansas counties and 2 Louisiana parishes before emptying into the Ouachita River in north Louisiana. Indian mounds dotted its banks. Immigrants travelled it by flatboat and settled in Jefferson County. While the origin of its name is uncertain, it was so known as early as 1786. Baron De Carondelet referred to it by name in a 1795 letter, and Don Carlos Trudeau, surveyor general of the Spanish Province of . . . — Map (db m30581) HM
Arkansas (Jefferson County), Pine Bluff — 1 F 6 — Jefferson County First Court House
The first court house in Jefferson County created in 1829 and named for President Thomas Jefferson was erected on this site at (Pine Bluff) in 1833. Meanwhile, sessions of the county court had been held first at the house of Joseph Bonne and second at the home of Antoine Barraque. Three miles below Pine Bluff and on the same side of the Arkansas River. — Map (db m30580) HM
Arkansas (Jefferson County), Pine Bluff — Joseph Bonne Cabin
In 1818 a French trapper, Joseph Bonne landed on the south bank of the Arkansas River with his dog and gun near the location of the original Jefferson County Courthouse. Driven to this high bluff after flood waters had threatened his homesite at Arkansas Post, Bonne and his family erected a cabin and became one of the first white settlers in the region which has become Pine Bluff. The Bonne hand-constructed log cabin became the first seat of government, and history reports that Joseph Bonne operated the first tavern in the area. — Map (db m30576) HM
Arkansas (Jefferson County), Pine Bluff — Joseph Carter Corbin — 1833-1911
In 1875, Joseph Corbin the son of former slaves, became the founder and principal of Branch Normal College (now UAPB) where he served until 1902. A profound mathematician, outstanding musician, linguist, and holder of bachelor and masters degrees from Ohio University, Corbin was elected State Superintendent of Public Instruction and served as Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Arkansas Industrial University (now the UA system). He later served as principal of Merrill School in Pine Bluff until the time of his death in 1911. — Map (db m70701) HM
Arkansas (Lonoke County), Lonoke — A Gun for All Reasons — 3-inch Gun was light, accurate and lethal
The 3-inch Ordnance Rifle was also known as the ordnance rifle, the ordnance gun, the Griffen gun, and was sometimes erroneously referred to as the Rodman rifle. The gun was invented by John Griffen, superintendent of the Safe Harbor Iron Works in Pennsylvania. His initial design was built by the Phoenix Iron Company of Phoenixville, Pennsylvania, which manufactured most of the 3-inch Rifles used in the Union Armies. Griffen developed a process whereby strips of wrought iron 3/4 inches thick . . . — Map (db m65711) HM
Arkansas (Lonoke County), Lonoke — 16 — Hicks' Station in the Civil War
Hicks' Station, located on the Memphis & Little Rock Railroad between DeValls Bluff and Huntersville (N Little Rock), guarded the eastern approaches to the capital city. During the Little Rock Campaign, Confederate cavalry used it as a staging area before the Aug. 25, 1863, battle at Brownsville. Union forces set up a field hospital there after the fights at Brownsville and at Reed's Bridge on Aug. 27. Union forces established a permanent presence there, and the Third Michigan Cavalry . . . — Map (db m72142) HM WM
Arkansas (Lonoke County), Lonoke — Lonoke County Confederate Monument
West Side Below an image of two crossed flags and the dates 1861-1865 In memory of our Confederate Soldiers North Side Erected by the T.C. Hindman Chapter U.D.C. Lonoke, Ark. East Side Lonoke County commends the faithfulness of her sons to future generations. South Side Love maketh memory eternal. — Map (db m65714) WM
Arkansas (Lonoke County), Lonoke — Lonoke Landmarks
Joseph Taylor Robinson Home - 204 NE Front St. Practiced law in Lonoke - 1893-1912 U.S. Congressman - 1902-1913. Governor of Arkansas - January - March 1913. U.S. Senator - 1913-1937. Lonoke was named for lone oak tree, surveyor's landmark for Memphis-Little Rock Railroad - 1858. The tree grew at 106 McKinley. Eberts Field, U.S.Signal Corps Aviation Training School on 640 acres Hwy 89N, donated by citizens, was named for Lt. M.M. Eberts, aviator killed - 1917. — Map (db m65710) HM
Arkansas (Lonoke County), Lonoke — F 25 — Senator Joe T Robinson — Lonoke County
Senator Joseph Taylor Robinson, Arkansas' outstanding statesman was born six miles northwest of this place in 1872. He lived in Lonoke and practiced law; was elected to Congress and served ten years; moved to Little Rock in 1912; served as Governor in 1913 until he resigned to qualify as United States Senator in the same year. Served as Chairman of the Minority Conference 1922 until 1933, when he became Chairman of the Democratic Majority in the Senate, which position he still holds this centennial year of 1936. — Map (db m65713) HM
Arkansas (Marion County), Yellville — Double Turbine Water Wheel
Used to power the Hollinsworth Grist Mill on Little North Fork River in North Fork Township of Marion County. Mill was built by Robert and Lemuel Hollinsworth in 1885 and operated until 1933.

This Leppel or double turbine water wheel and the coupling knuckle weighed more than 7,000 lbs. Donated to Marion County, Arkansas be Ed Morrison in 1978. — Map (db m93812) HM

Arkansas (Marion County), Yellville — Marion County — First County Seat
Marion County, created in 1835, was first named Searcy County. In 1836 its name changed to Marion by the first state legislature. That same year Yellville was laid out as a town and made the permanent seat of county government. The county was named for General Francis Marion. — Map (db m93803) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Gosnell — Brave Men from the 97th Bombardment Wing
To honor the memory of these brave men from the 97th Bombardment Wing at Blytheville Air Force Base who did not return after their B-52 aircraft was shot down over Hanoi, North Vietnam in December 1972 Col. Keith R. Heggen Lt. Col. Donald L. Rissi Major Bobby A. Kirby Capt. Randall J. Craddock Capt. George D. Lockhart Capt. Ronald D. Perry Capt. Robert J. Thomas Capt. Charles E. Darr SmSgt. Walter L. Ferguson — Map (db m24056) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Manila — Herman Davis — Pvt. Co. I 113th Inf. — Sharpshooter and Company Runner
Enlisted March 14th 1918; Honorably discharged May 29th 1919 Cited for bravery for extraordinary heroism in action and decorated with: U.S. Distinguished Service Cross: Oct. 10th 1918 French Croix de Guerre with Palm: Apr. 19th 1919 Gilt Star for Croix de Guerre: Apr. 23rd 1919 French Medaille Militaire: May 10th 1919 "A most courageous runner who singlehanded attacked a machine gun nest which was preventing the advance of his platoon and killed the four gunners." From Citation . . . — Map (db m30388) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Albert King
Moving to Osceola with his family at age 8, Blues legend Albert King (1923-1992) earned an early living picking cotton on nearby farms. King began his magnificent professional career in Osceola with his group, In The Groove Boys. King's T99 Club, once located here, hosted musical icons traveling between St. Louis and Memphis. — Map (db m36412) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Bank of Osceola
Built in 1909, the Bank of Osceola shared this building with various enterprises over the years, including a cotton brokerage firm and small movie theater. While much of the original architecture remains intact, four circular stone profiles of Seminole Chief Osceola along the second story were relocated to the Osceola High School. — Map (db m36670) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Battle of Plum Run Bend
On May 10, 1862, Confederates defeated the Union navy in one of only two Civil War gunboat fleet engagements on the Mississippi River, ramming and sinking two Union ironclads, Cincinnati and Mound City. A reinforced Union armada routed the outnumbered Rebels a month later, however, downriver at the Battle of Memphis. — Map (db m36320) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Billy Lee Riley
Billy Lee Riley began picking cotton at age 7 on the Jacksonville plantation in Osceola. Influenced by local bluesmen, Riley became a 1950s rockabilly star, recording his first hit, Flyin' Saucers Rock & Roll, at Sun Studios. Retiring from music after performing worldwide, he was coaxed out of retirement by Bob Dylan in 1992. — Map (db m36420) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Calvary Episcopal Church
Built in 1902, the Calvary Episcopal Church is one of the oldest still in use in the county, serving many farmers, laborers, and professionals along the Cotton Highway for over a century. The bell tower and main entrance formerly resided on Hale Avenue but were completely reconstructed with a taller tower on the Ash Street side. — Map (db m36704) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Confederate Veterans of Mississippi County
1861 - 1865 In memory of the Confederate Veterans of Mississippi County erected A.D. 1934 United Daughters of the Confederacy Elliott Fletcher Chapter Bytheville Arkansas — Map (db m36531) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Coston Building
Built in 1915, the ground floor of this building once housed a barber shop and, later a hardware store. J.T. Coston, a Vanderbilt-educated attorney representing R.E.L. Wilson's farming interests, maintained his offices upstairs and was instrumental in establishing drainage districts in Mississippi County. — Map (db m36453) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Drug Store
This corner building has been home to a drug store dating back to 1913. Once a two-story building with an elevated parapet and cornice, a fire in the early 1960s destroyed the second floor. The building's longest-running occupant is Newcomb's Drug Store, established in 1955 by prominent cotton farmer, Guy Newcomb. — Map (db m36669) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — East Hale Storefronts
The potential for commerce related to cotton payrolls attracted a robust cadre of Jewish merchants to Hale Avenue in the early 1900s. Harwarg's opened in "Old Town" before moving to "New Town," followed by Beehive's, Nickol's, and Weinberg's. Silverfield's (1915) operated over 80 years in downtown Osceola. — Map (db m36668) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Florida Brothers Building
Thomas J. Florida established the Florida Brothers Company in 1926, supplying farm and home loans to families along the Cotton Highway. Mr. Florida built this Art Deco-influenced structure in 1935, featuring Indiana limestone. The building subsequently became home for the Gibson Law Firm. — Map (db m36612) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Jimmy "Popeye" Thomas
Osceola native Jimmy Thomas split his youth working in cotton fields and playing local juke joints. As a teenager, he joined Ike Turner's Kings of Rhythm as lead singer, later performing with the Ike and Tina Turner Review. Settling in London, England, in 1969, Thomas launched the Osceola Records production studio. — Map (db m36419) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Mark Twain's Plum Point Landing & Overlook
Mark Twain referred to Osceola as "the famous and formidable Plum Point" in his book, Life on the Mississippi, as well as other writings. First established in 1837 as Plum Point, Osceola was incorporated in 1853. From this vantage point, one could view steamboats hauling cotton and other goods along the Mississippi River. — Map (db m36301) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Mississippi County Bank
In a spot once home to the Mercantile Opera House, this Classical Revival-style building was built in 1936 as Mississippi County Bank, showcasing Italian marble and rich wood throughout. Continuing to finance farming interests, First National Bank, then, Union Planters Bank operated here until 2006, when City Hall relocated. — Map (db m36610) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — J 2 — Mississippi County Court House
The county seat of Mississippi County, created in 1833, was located at Osceola in 1836. Since about 1900 the county has maintained another court house at Blytheville for the northern district. The county was named for the great river which flows along its eastern border. — Map (db m36489) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Mississippi County Courthouse — Osceola
This Neoclassical Courthouse was built in 1912 on land donated by Judge W.J. Driver. Constructed of unusual brick, the building features a flat roof supporting a copper dome with large concrete terra cotta decorations and round polished inserts on the face. The columns on the front and the moldings at the top contribute to the beauty of this building. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the building houses much of the history of Mississippi County, including contentious, . . . — Map (db m36434) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Mississippi River Levee
Floods of 1927 and 1937 overwhelmed eastern Arkansas, destroying cotton crops and countless homes. To prevent future loss of life and economic devastation, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the St. Francis Levee District built an extensive levee system that has worked effectively since its construction. — Map (db m36330) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Old Bell Telephone Building
Built in 1911 by a local attorney, R.C. Rose, as Osceola's first telephone office, the building features two louver-covered windows, a cornice dividing the two floors and two square pilasters with corbelled brick separating the upper 8-over-8 windows. The Episcopal Church converted the building to a parish hall in the 1950s. — Map (db m36707) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Osceola Hornets
Upon the Civil War's outbreak, Capt. Charles Bowen raised a company known as the "Osceola Hornets," participating in the battles of Belmont and Shiloh. Initially 100 strong, only seven returned. During Reconstruction, Bowen was instrumental in quelling carpetbagger-inspired lawlessness in the "Black Hawk War" of 1872. — Map (db m36328) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Patterson Store
Established in 1904 the Fred G. Patterson Store was famous as a general mercantile, specializing in shoes and cotton pick sacks. A shoe at the entrance indicated the store was open for business. In 1993 the family donated the buildings for use as a historical center. The original fixtures are part of the museum and a shoe is still used to indicate the museum is open. — Map (db m36425) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Planters Bank Building
The Neo-Classical style 1920 building, designed by noted architect Uzzell Branson, originally housed Citizens Bank, then, First State Bank, a mercantile store, and City Hall. A citizens group, including Congressman W.J. Driver, opened Planters Bank in May 1944. The property later was used as a funeral home, then, as a church. — Map (db m36702) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Reggie Young
Called the most prolific session guitarist of all time, Reggie Young grew up along the Cotton Highway in Osceola in the 1940s. Joining a multitude of famous artists, such as Johnny Cash, Elvis Presely, the Beatles, and Willie Nelson, Young has performed all types of music, including many songs dealing with his cotton heritage. — Map (db m36409) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Sans Souci
The 10,000-acre Sans Souci plantation established in 1854 by John Harding McGavock, served as a Civil War hospital as the Union fleet docked across from the home. In addition to farming cotton, much acreage was devoted to hunting deer, bear, and other wild game. In French, "sans souci" means "without care" or "no worries." — Map (db m36298) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Son Seals
Osceola native Frank "Son" Seals (1942-2004) began playing professionally at 13 with Robert Nighthawk, then, formed his own band at 17, touring with Albert King. Winner of three W.C. Handy Awards for best blues recording of the year, Seals' riveting guitar riffs made him a perennial favorite along the Cotton Highway. — Map (db m36414) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — South Mississippi County War Memorial
In Memoriam To those men from South Mississippi County who gave their lives in World Wars I & II, Korea, and Southeast Asia Lt. John McGavock Grider - PVT. William A. Charles PFC Clarence Croft - CPL. Billie W. Craine PFC Hershel Brock - PVT. Billy E. Hooper PFC Abe Nichols - PFC Billy R. Aven PVT. O.M. Hill - SGT. G.D. Hollins PVT. Robert Kersey - LT. Geo. F. Anderson LT. Clay Hampson - LT. Elliott B. Sartain, Jr. SGT. Gerald Leslie - CPL. Charles L. Reece PFC. Valvie . . . — Map (db m36534) WM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — The Osceola Times Building
This 1901 office was the first building in "New Town," having been used continuously as a newspaper office since that time and remains the oldest and tallest commercial building in the city. The "Osceola Times," reporting on life along the Cotton Highway since its inception in 1870, is the oldest newspaper in eastern Arkansas. — Map (db m36408) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — U.S. Post Office Building
Constructed in 1915, this building served as the post office on the Cotton Highway until 1936. County Judge S.L. Gladish made sure that the Post Office contained European tiles like those used in the then-new courthouse. The building later housed a pool hall where men congregated while their wives shopped downtown. — Map (db m36454) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Violet Cemetery
Violet Cemetery predates Arkansas statehood, the county, and city, with the oldest grave dating 1831. Initially secluded, the cemetery found itself in the middle of downtown as Osceola grew west because of cotton farming and manufacturing. Many elected officials and war veterans from the Civil War through Vietnam rest here. — Map (db m36709) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — William J. Driver
In memory of the honorable William J. Driver.Former Circuit Judge and Congressman, a lifelong citizen of Osceola, Arkansas. Born March 2, 1873. Died October 1, 1948. As a member of the Rivers and Harbors and Flood Control Committees of the Congress of the United States, he shaped and, by his superb leadership, caused the enactment of laws which curbed the mighty Mississippi, the St. Francis, and the other rivers of this area and minimized the danger of devastating floods. Recognized as the . . . — Map (db m36532) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — Willie Bloom
Osceola's own "Sweet Man," Willie Bloom, captured Southern cotton workers' sentiment with his legendary Blues music dating back to 1918. Bloom, whose recordings included "Osceola Blues," played alongside musical giants such as W.C. Handy, Jimmy Lunceford, Fats Pichon, Louis Armstrong, Count Basie, and Fats Waller. — Map (db m36416) HM
Arkansas (Mississippi County), Osceola — WPA Post Office
The Works Progress Administration built this building, dedicated on May 29, 1936, as a new post office. The structure served the citizens of Osceola and the Cotton Highway as a post office until the Postal Service relocated to Johnson Street. Subsequently, the building served as Osceola's "new" City Hall until 2006. — Map (db m36616) HM
Arkansas (Monroe County), Holly Grove — Beginning Point of the Louisiana Purchase Survey
This stone marks the base established Nov. 10, 1815 from which the lands of the Louisiana Purchase were surveyed by the United States Engineers. The first survey from this point was made to satisfy the claims of the soldiers of the War of 1812 with land bounties. — Map (db m6037) HM
Arkansas (Newton County), Deer — A Monarch Returns — Elk Along the Buffalo — Buffalo National River
What an exciting discovery to come across an elk roaming the fields and woodlands of the Buffalo River country. Once again these large members of the deer family can be found grazing or resting in clearings and open spaces. Native to the hardwood forests of the Ozarks, an eastern subspecies became extinct by the 1840s. At the prompting of local citizens, the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission re-introduced 112 Rocky Mountain elk along the Buffalo River in 1981. Although the elk adapted to . . . — Map (db m61755) HM
Arkansas (Newton County), Deer — Boxley Valley — Preserving a Way of Life — Buffalo National River
When establishing Buffalo National River in 1972, Congress recognized the need to preserve the valley’s culture as well as its free-flowing river. Here in Boxley Valley, a traditional farm community is being perpetuated within the borders of Buffalo National River. To do this, the National Park Service and local citizens created a long-term plan to keep the valley privately owned to retain its historic integrity. The community spirit that has endured for more than 150 years is now preserving . . . — Map (db m61757) HM
Arkansas (Newton County), Ponca — Beaver Jim Villines — Boyhood Home — Buffalo National River
Settling Along the Buffalo Abraham Villines and his children were among the earliest pioneer families in the Buffalo River valley. Abraham’s grandson William built this log house in 1850 for his new bride, Rebecca. Four years later their son James was born here. James Villines (1854-1948) was known as “Beaver Jim” for his renowned trapping ability. After his marriage in 1880, he moved from this home to his own farmstead across the Buffalo River. In the mid-twentieth . . . — Map (db m61752) HM
Arkansas (Ouachita County), Chidester — 25 — 1st Kansas Colored Infantry
The 1st Kansas Colored Infantry, a regiment that included many former Arkansas slaves, was formed in August 1862, the first black unit recruited during the war. 1st Kansas troops were the first black men to see combat, losing 10 killed and 12 wounded in a victory at Island Mound, Mo., Oct. 28, 1862. Victories at Cabin Creek and Honey Springs, Indian Territory, followed in 1863. The 1st Kansas lost 117 dead and 65 wounded at Poison Spring, Ark., April 18, 1864; many men were slain as they lay . . . — Map (db m56624) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — "Hell-in-Arkansas"
The nickname the 33rd Iowa Infantry gave Helena was hardly flattering. It came not from a hard fought battle but from miserable conditions in an overcrowded city made worse by the climate. Soldiers Battled Malaria, Typhoid and More Many Union regiments camped in a low area between Helena and the Mississippi River. No one knew that mosquitoes carried malaria and yellow fever. Leander Stillwell contracted malaria soon after he arrived in Helena. "I just lay there, in a hot tent, . . . — Map (db m51916) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — "the gun boat Tyler saved the day "
The guns of the U.S.S Tyler sent their last blast hurtling toward Graveyard Hill at 10:30 A.M. on July 4, 1863. The Confederates were retreating. Helena remained in Union hands. The Battle of Helena, July 4 1863 The Tyler steamed into action before dawn, firing on Confederate troops near Helena on the Little Rock Road. Two hours later the Tyler's captain, Lieutenant Commander James M. Pritchett, brought the gunboat opposite Battery C. A Barrage of Shot and Shell As the . . . — Map (db m51915) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — "We are all the same as dead men"
Conditions in Civil War Helena were horrible. Overcrowding, poor sanitation, contaminated drinking water, and mosquitoes led to typhoid, dysentery, malaria and other diseases. Tents, churches, barns, abandoned houses and business buildings housed thousands of sick soldiers. Sick Men, Grim Hospitals Annie Wittenmeyer visited Helena in August 1863. She came with the Western Sanitary commission, an organization much like today's Red Cross. Her report on the military hospitals were grim. . . . — Map (db m51978) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — Civil War Comes to Arkansas
In the first months of 1861 many Phillips County men joined militia companies supporting the Confederate cause. In February 1861, they marched on Little Rock to take the Federal arsenal. Most joined the Confederate army that spring. A Divided Nation on the Brink of War By 1860, many believed that war could not be avoided. Abraham Lincoln won the presidential election in November 1860. Weeks later, South Carolina left the Union. Others followed. The nation unraveled. In the . . . — Map (db m51979) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — Fort Curtis
In August 1862 the Union forces occupying Helena erected on this site a redoubt of earth and timbers to serve as the key to the city’s defenses. Fort Curtis, named for the Union general in command at the time of construction, was one of five fortified positions which enabled Union soldiers to repulse a Confederate attack on July 4, 1863, designed to recapture the city and relieve the siege at Vicksburg. On the day of the attack 4,129 Union officers and men, under General Prentiss, were . . . — Map (db m51919) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — Helena and The Trail of Tears
"The steamer Warren brought news... of the loss of the steamboat Monmouth, and the death of at least one-half of her infamously crowded passengers. This fatal, and most appalling, accident arose from a collision between these two boats; but from the best intelligence we can procure the blame rests upon the Monmouth, ... Six hundred {Creek} were jammed into this boat... and three hundred have perished." - Arkansas Gazette, November 28, 1837.

The Water Route to the Indian . . . — Map (db m52028) HM

Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — Helena, Arkansas
At this site on the southern tip of Crowley’s Ridge, Indians of the Hopewell Culture lived about 500 B.C. Evidences of their settlements still remain in mounds nearby. In 1541 when Hernando De Soto crossed the river near here, he found the Casqui and Pacaha Indians and held the first Christian service west of the Mississippi River. In 1673 Marquette and Joliet visited here during their exploration. The city was laid out in 1820 and incorporated in 1856. On July 4, 1863, in the Battle of Helena . . . — Map (db m51910) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — Helena, Arkansas
"Helena occupies one of the prettiest situations on the river", wrote Mark Twain in Life on the Mississippi, and is rich in history and culture. Hernando DeSoto crossed the Mississippi near Helena in 1541, finding a thriving native culture. When Sylvanus Phillips settled in the area in 1797, all indications of the flourishing native American civilization were gone. Helena, Phillips' daughter, was her namesake for this historic river town. Helena, which lies at the southern tip of . . . — Map (db m51928) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — Hernando De Soto
1541-1931 June 18, 1541 Hernando De Soto Crossed the Mississippi River near Friar's Point to Aquixo an Indian Village South of Helena, Arkansas — Map (db m51917) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — KFFA 1360 Helena — Sounds from the Soil & Soul
The music of the Arkansas Delta is the music of America. With roots in gospel or "church music," the blues, jazz, country, and rock n'roll flowed from the rich, fertile landscape bordering the lower Mississippi River and spread out across the country and the world. Follow the Arkansas Delta Music Trail to experience the sounds that shaped the land, its people, and the nation. KFFA 1360 Helena King Biscuit Time "King Biscuit Time" first aired live on November 21, 1941, on Helena, . . . — Map (db m51908) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — Patrick Ronayne Cleburne — Major General, C.S.A.
front: Patrick Ronayne Cleburne, Major General, C.S.A. Born in County Cork, Ireland, March 17, 1828; Killed at Battle of Franklin, Tenn. November 30, 1864. Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori. Shiloh Cleburne right: Missionary Ridge Richmond, KY "Rest thee, Cleburne! Tears of sadness Flow from hearts thoust nobly won Mem'ry ne'er will cease to cherish Deeds of glory thou hast done." back: Franklin . . . — Map (db m86787) WM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — 115 — Phillips County Court House

The First County Seat of Phillips county was ordered in the Act of 1820 which created the county, to be located in the Town of Monticello, which place has since been identified as the original name of the present Town of Helena. — Map (db m51918) HM

Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — Phillips County, Arkansas
Phillips County lies in what is known as the Mississippi alluvial plain, also called The Delta. The earliest known inhabitants were native Indians, noted for building large earthen mounds for ceremonial purposes and to bury their chiefs. By the time Hernando DeSoto explored Arkansas in 1541 the area was home to two sophisticated Indian cultures, the Casoui and the Pacaha, and included large fortified towns. The point where DeSoto crossed the Mississippi River into Arkansas is much debated, . . . — Map (db m51929) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — Russwurm Memorial
This lot and dwelling at No. 625 Perry Street was given by will of Mrs. Florence B. Russwurm to the First Baptist Church of Helena, Arkansas as a memorial to her late husband, Dr. W.C. Russwurm and herself. Dr. and Mrs. Russwurm were long time faithful members of the church, and contributed generously of their time, talent, and financial support. Dr. Russwurm died June 9, 1949. Mrs. Russwurm died August 1, 1952. — Map (db m51920) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — Sacred Heart Academy
In 1858 a boarding school and convent was established on this site in the former residence of Col. Henry L. Biscoe by four Sisters of Mercy who came from Ireland with Bishop Andrew Byrne. The school was in the middle of heavy fighting during the Battle of Helena, July 4, 1863, and was used as a hospital by the Sisters who tended both Union and Confederate wounded. The school was closed from 1868 to 1879 at which time it was reopened by the Sisters of Charity from Nazareth, Kentucky. — Map (db m51905) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — Service with Distinction
Seven men from Phillips County, all of them immigrants to Arkansas, became high ranking Confederate officers. They served with honor in the Army of the Tennessee and in the Trans-Mississippi, participating in many decisive battles and campaigns. The Arkansas Frontier, 1835-1861 Many ambitious men came to Phillip County before the Civil War, drawn by the opportunities offered by the frontier. Among them were lawyers Charles Adams and James Tappan; Patrick Cleburne, an Irish . . . — Map (db m51981) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — The Battle of Helena — Bloody Fireworks on the Fourth of July
From where you are standing, you would have had a ringside seat for the battle of Helena. On a brutally hot July 4, 1863, Confederate General Theophilus Holmes launched a three-pronged attack on the small Union garrison at Helena. Union defenses centered around Battery A north of here, Battery B northwest of here, Battery C due west of where you are standing, and Battery D southwest of here. Fort Curtis, an earthen fortification was within Helen's city limits northwest of here and the . . . — Map (db m52026) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — 88 — The Blues Trail: Mississippi to Helena
Helena has played a vital role in blues history for artists from both sides of the Mississippi River. Once known as a “wide open” hot spot for music, gambling, and nightlife, Helena was also the birthplace of “King Biscuit Time,” the groundbreaking KFFA radio show that began broadcasting blues to the Arkansas-Mississippi Delta in 1941. The program had logged over 15,000 broadcasts by 2009 and inspired Helena to launch its renowned King Biscuit Blues Festival in 1986. . . . — Map (db m51907) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — The Right to Vote
The State of Arkansas is Dissolved In 1867, the state of Arkansas ceased to exist. It was dissolved, as were all states still in rebellion when the Confederate government surrendered in 1865. Readmission to the Union required that the states meet two conditions set by the U.S. Congress.

Congress demanded that the former states write new constitutions that included universal manhood suffrage, ensuring that former slaves had the right to vote. They were also required to ratify the . . . — Map (db m51927) HM

Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — They Passed This Way — The Trail of Tears - Water Route
"I have no more land, I am driven away from home, driven up the red waters, let us all go, let us all die together and somewhere upon the banks we will be there." - Sin-e-cha's Song, heard on several removal boats along the Trail of Tears.

After passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830, the United States government forced tens of thousands of American Indians to leave their ancestral lands in the southeast for new homes in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). They traveled . . . — Map (db m52027) HM

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