|Colorado (Adams County), Bennett — 218 — Front Range Flight|
|The Rocky Mountains proved a formidable barrier to early aviation, leaving Colorado in a familiar position: bypassed. As with the railroads fifty years earlier, transcontinental air traffic went through Wyoming; Colorado had to make do with a Denver-based spur line—in this case, Colorado Airways, which began flying the fifty-five-minute Denver-to-Cheyenne route in 1926. Airplane technology quickly conquered the mountains, and Front Rangers began taking to the skies. In 1938 Continental . . . — Map (db m70525) HM|
|Colorado (Adams County), Bennett — 218 — High-Five Plains Towns / Ten Miles a Day|
High-Five Plains Towns
Watkins, Bennett, Strasburg, Byers, Peoria, Deer Trail, Agate, Godfrey, Cedar Point, Riverbend—most of these Colorado high plains towns were founded around the time when the Kansas Pacific Railroad arrived in 1870. Five of these towns, Watkins, Bennett, Strasburg, Byers, and Deer Trail, all became busy agricultural shipping centers. Through the first half of the twentieth century these five communities, now along the east I-70 corridor, were the very . . . — Map (db m70522) HM|
|Colorado (Adams County), Denver — Larimer Street — Lower Downtown Historic District — Established 1988|
General William H. Larimer, Jr., founder of Denver City which was established on November 22, 1858, named the city after the Governor of the Kansas Territory and the principal street after himself. Some of Denver’s first cabins were located at the corner of 15th and Larimer Streets. Larimer Street gained prominence as Denver’s main thoroughfare when it escaped the 1863 fire, which destroyed buildings along Market and Blake Streets. By the 1880’s, Larimer Street has gained the reputation . . . — Map (db m51710) HM|
|Colorado (Adams County), Strasburg — The Rail Chains Final Link — Pacific Atlantic|
|A continuous chain of rails from Atlantic to Pacific -- long a vision of pioneer railroaders and frontier-tamers -- became reality at 3:00 P.M. on August 15, 1870. At a point 3,812 ft. east of the depot in what now is Strasburg, Colorado. Near Comanche Crossing, named for a usually dry, sometimes rampaging creek, the last rails were spiked by Kansas Pacific Railroad crews driving west from Kansas and East from Denver to give the Nation its first truly continuous coast-to-coast railroad. On the . . . — Map (db m17596) HM|
|Colorado (Adams County), Westminster — 12 — Ma Barker Gang — Lloyd William Barker|
|Ma Barker's infamous son, Lloyd "Red" Barker traded in
a life of crime for a life in Westminster in the 1940s. Lloyd grew up as part of the Barker Gang, described by FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover as "the toughest gang of hoodlums the FBI has ever been called upon to eliminate." Lloyd served a 25-year prison sentence, then left his criminal past behind in 1938. After serving honorably in the U.S. Army during
World War II, Lloyd moved to Westminster and worked at a bar and grill in Denver. He . . . — Map (db m69547) HM|
|Colorado (Adams County), Westminster — WFD Volunteers 1934 - 2000|
|The value of one's life can be measured by how he or she has added value to the lives of others. In 2003 this statue was dedicated to those who gave freely of their time to serve Westminster Citizens through the fire service and community activities. — Map (db m4648) HM|
|Colorado (Alamosa County), Alamosa — "The Magic Dog"|
|The Utes called this valley “Tavi-we-a-gat” or Big Valley. They came here following in the footsteps of their ancestors along this Camino; their dogs pulled their belongings along the now paved byway. This fertile valley provided hunting grounds rich in buffalo, elk, mule deer, fish and plants.
The Utes of Colorado, lived in semi-isolation among the San Luis Valley’s most spectacular scenery, until Spanish explorers entered the valley in 1598. The Utes encountered the . . . — Map (db m71876) HM|
|Colorado (Alamosa County), Alamosa — ... Los Caminos Antiguos Scenic & Historic Byway|
|You have entered the land of the Rio Bravo del Norte, the northernmost outpost of sixteenth century Spain. To the Spanish people, the San Luis Valley was a wild and unexploited place known only to the Native people. Amidst the beauty and towering peaks of the valley, the area became the center of conflict and wars born of a clash of cultures.
”We arrived in the San Luis Valley with our religion and culture looking for fertile ground to raise our families. We laid out our . . . — Map (db m71878) HM|
|Colorado (Alamosa County), Alamosa — Lt. Zebulon Pike's Southwestern Expedition — 1806 - 7|
|Travel the route of these explorers and read Lt. Pike’s own words from his journal.
U.S. Army Expedition to explore the United States new southwest boundary with New Spain.
Lt. Zebulon M. Pike Dr. John H. Robinson Sgt. William Meek Corp. Jeremish Jackson privates: John Brown Jacob Carter William Gordon Theodore Miller John Mountjoy Alexander Roy Freegift Stout
29th January: 1807 (Pike)
“Finding the distance too great to attempt . . . — Map (db m71882) HM|
|Colorado (Alamosa County), Alamosa — On Sacred Ground|
|Majestic Mount Blanca that stands bgefore you is surrounded by history and legend from the first people who inhabited this valley. Many Native American groups believe that this valley is the source of life where humans and spirit enter and leave this world.
”We are the ‘Dine’ (pronounced dee neh); the Spanish called us the Navajo. We call the mountain that stands before you ‘Sisnaajinii’. This mountain is one of our four sacred peaks in the Navajo Land. You may now know this . . . — Map (db m71875) HM|
|Colorado (Alamosa County), Alamosa — Welcome "Caminante" to ...|
Come! Take a walk with us. We know an old song, El Caminante, which tells of taking a long walk along the ancient roads. Like the first prehistoric inhabitants, you too are a ‘caminante’, or one who walks upon this land.”
The People of the San Luis Valley
“Almost five hundred years ago, the Navajos began hearing stories from our Pueblo neighbors about the strange men they had seen. These men had thick beards and were dressed in metal helmets . . . — Map (db m71877) HM|
|Colorado (Alamosa County), Mosca — "Totally Unique and Unexpected" — Park Visitor|
|Welcome to the high elevation desert that is Great Sand Dunes! Does this landscape strike you as amazing, bizarre or totally out of place. If so, you’re not alone. For many, the unexpected combination of massive dunes surrounded by alpine peaks and a desert valley inspires awe and curiosity.
The 30 square mile dunefield before you is the most impressive part of an enormous deposit of sand stretching west, south, and north. The San Juan Mountains on the far western horizon contributed most . . . — Map (db m71050) HM|
|Colorado (Alamosa County), Mosca — A Landmark for People|
“We can see the Dunes and the Crestone Needles from all over our ranch. When we are lost, that’s what we navigate by.”
Whether traveling on foot, by horseback, Model A, or the latest-model car, the dunes and mountains behind them were—and still are—used as landmarks by travelers in and around the San Luis Valley. The oldest evidence of humans in the area dates back to about 11,000 years ago. Perhaps echoing your own . . . — Map (db m71051) HM|
|Colorado (Alamosa County), Mosca — Sangre de Cristo Ecosystem — Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve|
|Different Life Zones Exist in the Mountains
Imagine climbing the mountain in front of you. You might notice it gets cooler as you ascend. As the temperature drops, moisture in the air condenses, precipitation increases, and creates different life zones.
The Alpine Life Zone
Only low shrubs and a few hardy plants can survive this cold, windy climate.
The Subalpine Life Zone
These dense, moist forests consist of spruce and subalpine fir trees.
The Montane Life . . . — Map (db m71056) HM|
|Colorado (Alamosa County), Mosca — Stepping into Wilderness — Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve|
|You are about to step into the Great Sand Dunes Wilderness. Its mood changes with the seasons, from the spacious solitude of winter, to spring and summer fun and play. Whatever the season of your visit, this unexpected wilderness offers opportunities to enjoy, explore, learn and recreate in one of our nation’s unspoiled wonders.
Great Sand Dunes is part of the National Wilderness Preservation System, which includes lands set aside to protect their unique natural conditions. Great Sand Dunes . . . — Map (db m71057) HM|
|Colorado (Alamosa County), Mosca — The Mountain Barrier|
|Mountains and passes were important in the formation
of the sand dunes.
You are looking at the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Prevailing southwesterly winds carrying sand across the San Luis Valley were blocked by the mountains.
As the winds rose to sweep through the passes, sand was dropped.
Some storms come from the northeast and reverse the wind flow through the passes, blowing sand back toward the Dune field. — Map (db m71055) HM|
|Colorado (Alamosa County), Mosca — Zebulon Pike's "sand-hills" — Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve|
|On January 28, 1807, Lt. Zebulon Pike and his small band of tattered, hungry, foot-sore soldiers camped near here, having just crossed this snowy Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Under orders from General James Wilkinson to explore the southwestern boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase and locate the Arkansas and Red Rivers, Lt. Pike became the first person known to describe the Great Sand Dunes in writing.
Jan. 27th. We marched, determined to cross the mountains ... After a bad day’s march . . . — Map (db m71884) HM|
|Colorado (Arapahoe County), Castle Rock — Good Roads in Colorado|
|Even before people began driving automobiles in Colorado, they clamored for good roads. In the late 1880s men, women, and children of all backgrounds jumped on breezy bicycles known as “velocipedes” or “Wheels” but cursed the roads-rutted, unmarked, and riddled with potholes. Bicyclists started the Good Roads movement to demand that elected officials make improved roads a priority. The first car clattered into Colorado in the 1890s. As the costs of automobiles decreased, . . . — Map (db m46118) HM|
|Colorado (Arapahoe County), Littleton — Littleton War Memorial|
|This memorial is dedicated to the millions of men and women of the United States who served their country during World War II. The cause was freedom. Their actions and sacrifices will always be remembered. November 11, 2000|
American Theater of War
During the 1930s and early 1940s, the United States was neutral in World War II, in which three countries became the aggressors. The Nazi forces of Germany were brutally conquering Europe and both the Fascists of Italy and the Germans were . . . — Map (db m46114) HM
|Colorado (Archuleta County), Pagosa Springs — Pagosa Springs|
|Pagosa Springs has a rich history, beginning with the Anasazi Indians. Later the Utes, Navajos and Apaches inhabited this beautiful corner of the Southwest. They also visited the great “Pagosah” hot springs which they believed had curative powers.
In time, the military established a post here to protect settlers from Indian hostilities. Archuleta County was established in 1885, and the town of Pagosa Springs was incorporated in 1891. The Pagosa & Northern Railroad steamed into . . . — Map (db m27527) HM|
|Colorado (Boulder County), Boulder — L-02-1 — The Holiday Drive-In Marquee 1953|
| This sign marks the site of The Holiday Drive-In, which operated from 1953 until 1988. Drive-In theaters were popular in the 1950s and 1960s, especially among young families and amorous couples, where films could be viewed from the relative privacy of an automobile. This sign is one of the few extant examples of the "Futuristic" Googie style in Boulder. Common during the same era as drive-ins, Googie signs strived to grab attention with wild shapes, flashy neon and blinking arrows. — Map (db m18299) HM|
|Colorado (Chaffee County), Salida — 130 — Christmas 1806|
|Frustrated in their attempt to climb Pike’s Peak on November 27, 1806, Zebulon Pike and his party of 15 trudged on through South Park looking for the Red River, southern boundary of the Louisiana Purchase. After crossing Trout Creek Pass, the explorers came again to the Arkansas River, with food perilously low. On Christmas Eve two hunting parties shot eight buffalo, and Christmas Day was spent near the mouth of Squaw Creek (one-half mile to the south) feasting on buffalo and repairing . . . — Map (db m70469) HM|
|Colorado (Chaffee County), Salida — Finding Our Routes / New Faces Along the River / Pike Explores the Valley|
| Marker A:Finding Our Routes
Following ancient paths
The history of Chaffee County as part of the United States began in 1803, with the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France.
But human history was established here centuries earlier. Many of the hiking trails and roads we use today were once the footpaths of early inhabitants, most often the native Utes and Comanches.
The Utes are the oldest continuous residents of Colorado. It is not known when they . . . — Map (db m71117) HM|
|Colorado (Chaffee County), Salida — The Salida Steam Plant|
|Electricity was introduced in Salida in 1887 when a group of local townsfolk created The Electric Illuminating Company. In 1892 the then-named Salida Light and Power Company built a 1000-kilowatt steam generating plant at this location on the banks of the Arkansas River. The east half of the building housed the generators or dynamos, the west section contained boilers, furnaces and coal storage. The enclosed yard on the west side once held the transformers for the power plant.
Salida Light . . . — Map (db m52403) HM|
|Colorado (Clear Creek County), Georgetown — Hamill House Museum|
| Georgetown-Silver Plume
National Historic Landmark District
The Hamill House represents the height of prosperity achieved during Georgetown's mining era. The centerpiece of Historic Georgetown's properties, this museum provides an understanding of the lifestyle and culture of a wealthy Georgetown family. Joseph Watson built the original elegant cottage in 1867, and his brother-in-law, Englishman William A. Hamill, later purchased it. Hamill made his fortune . . . — Map (db m69625) HM|
|Colorado (Clear Creek County), Georgetown — 3 — Old Town Jail — 1883 — Georgetown-Silver Plume National Historic Landmark District|
|The town of Georgetown built this small stone jail in the summer of 1883, using steel cells donated by the county. Built at a cost of $700, the stone jail was known for awhile as the "Hotel de Barr," after town Marshall Barr and for the "vertical window
The building provided short-term accommodations for the occasional inebriate, brawler, and stray dog. The jail contains two cells and a watchman's area, and the same padlock that prevented escape in the past still secures . . . — Map (db m39338) HM|
|Colorado (Clear Creek County), Idaho Springs — The Charlie Tayler Waterwheel|
| Charlie Tayler used this waterwheel to power a stamp mill at his gold mining operations on Ute Creek. Tayler, who attributed his good health to the fact that he never kissed woman or took baths, built the waterwheel in 1893. It was moved to its present site in 1946, a gift to the people of Idaho Springs by his estate. It was restored during the spring and summer of 1988 by volunteers and private contributions. It was dedicated during Gold Rush Days, July 16-17, 1988.
Restoration Committee: . . . — Map (db m39381) HM|
|Colorado (Clear Creek County), Idaho Springs — University of Denver — Meyer Womble Observatory|
|Mt. Evans, Colorado Elevation 14,125 ft.
“The World’s Highest Operational Observatory”
Building Dedication August 19, 1996
“...for educational purposes in astrophysics and astronomy...” — Map (db m3364) HM|
|Colorado (Clear Creek County), Silver Plume — Argentine Central Railway|
|Argentine Central Shay Locomotive No. 1 in Silver Plume, 1905. The Argentine Central Railway, incorporated in 1905 and built to service the Argentine Mining District in the Waldorf area, reached the summit of Mt. McClellan in 1906. The railroad used Shay (or geared) locomotives to climb from Silver Plume to Mt. McClellan, a distance of almost sixteen miles and a gain of 3,941 feet in elevation. The railway operated until 1918 and was completely scrapped in 1920.
Dedicated May 27, 2006. — Map (db m13629) HM|
|Colorado (Conejos County), Manassa — "The Manassa Mauler"|
| This monument is dedicated to Mary Celia Dempsey mother of William Harrison "Jack" Dempsey born June 24, 1895
He fought his way to become
world heavyweight champion on July 4, 1919
and became known as the legendary "Manassa Mauler" — Map (db m22696) HM|
|Colorado (Conejos County), Sanford — 43 — Pike's Stockade|
Near here, on the banks of the Conejos River, Zebulon M. Pike built a log stockade in early February, 1807, and for the first time raised an American flag over what is now Colorado. Pike's trek of 1806-07 was the second official United States expedition into the lands of the Louisiana Purchase, acquired in 1803. Exploring the southern region of the new territory, Pike crossed into the San Luis Valley in January, 1807. On February 26, at the stockade, he and his men were arrested by Spanish . . . — Map (db m22701) HM|
|Colorado (Costilla County), Fort Garland — Costilla County Veterans Memorial|
|Honoring with Pride Costilla County Veterans
A list of veterans from the Civil War through Operation Desert Shield is engraved on the marker. — Map (db m64065) WM|
|Colorado (Costilla County), Fort Garland — 16 — Fort Garland|
|This memorial is the
property of the State of Colorado
United States military outpost
to protect settlers from
hostile Indians. Named for
Brig. Gen. John Garland
Commander of this district in 1858 Established 1858. Abandoned 1883
Commanded by Col. Kit Carson 1866-7
the State Historical Society of Colorado
The Mrs. J. N. Hall Foundation
The . . . — Map (db m22731) HM|
|Colorado (Costilla County), Fort Garland — 190 — Fort Garland|
Top of the Marker:
The Soldier’s Life
Fort Garland housed infantry and cavalry units. During the 1870’s the famed Buffalo Soldiers—African-American cavalrymen—were also posted here. For all soldiers—and their families—life at Fort Garland was often dull, sometimes dangerous, but never easy. A civilian who visited the post remarked that despite its remoteness “frontier life suggests a poetic expansiveness, but to the soldier it usually involves a . . . — Map (db m71032) HM WM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Alfred Dach|
|This masonry labor for this memorial is donated by Stephan Dach in loving memory of his father Alfred who perished in the early years of World War II in a Nazi Concentration Camp. May this be a reminder of him and all those others who have perished in the fight for liberty and freedom which this liberty bell represents. August 9, 1974. — Map (db m46101) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Armenian Genocide|
|April 24, 1915, in memory of one and one half million Armenians, victims of the first genocide of the twentieth century. — Map (db m46057) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Civil War Artillery — G.A.R. Memorial|
|(This memorial is made up to three plaques, each found at the base of a different piece of artillery.)
Civil War Artillery
13-inch Seacoast Mortar
Donated in 1897 by the Grand Army of the Republic
Civil War Artillery
11-inch Navy Dahlgren
Donated in 1897 by the Grand Army of the Republic
Civil War Artillery
6.4-inch (100 pounder) Navy Parrott Rifle
Donated in 1897 by the Grand Army of the Republic — Map (db m61985) WM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Clark and Gruber Mint — 1860 — Lower Downtown Walking Tour|
|In the 1860’s, when gold from Colorado’s grubstakes began flowing into Denver at a mad pace, the costly and risky problem of shipping it to banks back East was neatly solved by Clark, Gruber and Co. In a building near this site, the banking firm began minting gold coins from raw metal in August 1860. The service was wildly popular among locals. This was one of the few times and places in U.S. history that a financial institution simultaneously conducted commercial banking and a gold coin . . . — Map (db m51712) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Colorado Soldier's Monument|
Colorado Territory - Organized
February 28, 1861
Colorado Admitted as a State
August 1, 1876
Census of Territory in 1861 - 23,331
Richard Ed Whitsitt Adjutant General
David H. Moffat, Jr. Adjutant General
Military Organizations in the Civil War
First Colorado Infantry
Later First Colorado Cavalry
Col. John P. Slough Col. John M Chivington
Second Colorado Infantry
Col . . . — Map (db m4745) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Colorado State Capitol Time Capsule|
|Memorial Stone commemorating the 100th Anniversary of the laying of the cornerstone of the Colorado State Capitol. The time capsule beneath this stone contains messages and memorabilia from the people of Colorado in 1990 to its people in 2090. Dedicated by the most worshipful Grand Lodge AF and AM of Colorado, Donald P. Smith Jr. Grand master, August 4, 1990. Governor Roy R. Romer, President of the Senate Ted Strickland, Speaker of the House Carl Beverly Bledsoe, Chief Justice Luis D. Roviro. . . . — Map (db m46059) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Colorado State Veterans Memorial|
|Dedicated by the people of Colorado in gratitude and respect for the men and women who have proudly served and sacrificed in our nation’s armed forces. — Map (db m46079) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Constitution Hall|
|The First National Bank of Denver made its first home here in 1866, with a building constructed for a cost of $45,000. The bank stayed at this location for 10 years, enlarging rooms, installing fancy gas lights, and in 1875, adding a third floor with a fish-scales slate mansard roof. In the winter of 1875-1876, the delegates to the state's constitutional convention met at this site to draw up a state constitution in anticipation of Colorado being admitted to the Union as the thirty-sixth state. . . . — Map (db m27508) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Denver City — Lower Downtown Historic District — Established 1988|
|The area known today as Lower Downtown, is the Location of the original town of Denver. Gold seekers from Lawrence, Kansas staked the first claim in September of 1858, under the name St. Charles Town Association, but they left only one man to protect their claim. Later that same year, another group from Kansas persuaded the lone man to relinquish the claim. General William Larimer, named the town in Honor of the Kansas Territorial Governor, James William Denver, to ensure the success of this . . . — Map (db m27493) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Denver's Old City Hall|
|This bell is the only existing relic of Denver's old city hall. Built on this site in 1883 and razed in 1936. — Map (db m27292) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Henry Lee Building - 1907 — Lower Downtown Walking Tour|
|The pattern of ownership of 1545 Wazee Street symbolizes the development of Denver's rail age boom as an industrial and supply city requiring large scale warehousing. Its first owner and occupant, Henry Lee, was an agriculturist, pioneer gardener and fruit grower. In 1864, he successfully experimented with the culture of the eastern onion in Colorado, and brought the first chilled-steel plow to the state. These events marked the beginning of Lee's Farm Implement Business, and in 1870 he . . . — Map (db m27242) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — In Honor of Christopher Columbus|
|In Honor of Christopher Columbus
(Cristoforo Colombo 1451-1506)
Italian Visionary and Great Navigator
This bold explorer was the first European to set foot on uncharted land, on a West Indies beach in 1492. His four voyages brought Europe and the Americas together, forever changing history. A new nation was to rise. A new Democracy was born.
Sculptor Willaim F. Joseph — Map (db m4743) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — In Memory of Sadie M. Likens|
Who devoted many years of her life aiding the survivors of the Civil War and other wars.
Erected A.D. 1923
By the Grand Army of the Republic, affiliated orders and friends. — Map (db m5616) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Irving Hale|
|Scholar, Soldiers, Citizen Valedictorian of the first class, Denver high School, 1877. Graduated from United States Military Academy 1884 with record of 2070.4 out of possible 2075. War with Spain, Colonel 1st Colorado infantry U.S.V. His regiment led the advance in capture of Manila and there raised the first American flag. Brigadier General U.S.V. Aug. 13, 1898, Philippine Insurrection, thirteen engagements, wounded Meycauayan awarded silver medal for gallantry in action at Calumpit. . . . — Map (db m46108) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Joe P. Martinez|
|Dedicated to honor Private Joe P. Martinez, Colorado’s first Congressional Medal of Honor recipient of World War II. — Map (db m46100) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — 17 — Let the Buyer Beware — Wall Street of the Rockies — Seventeeth Street - Seventeenth Street. Denver, Colorado|
|In the 1880s and 1890s Denver was the nation's headquarters for "con" men, a dubious honor that it maintained into the early years of the 20th century.
The most famous con man was "Soapy" Smith who sold $5.00 bars of soap from 17th Street, claiming that some had one hundred dollar bills inside the wrappers. — Map (db m52186) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Logan’s Memorial Day Order|
|General Orders, No. 11, Headquarters Grand Army of the Republic, Washington D.C. May 5, 1868.
I. The 30th day of May, 1869, is designated for the purpose of strewing with flowers or otherwise decorating the graves of comrades who died in defense of their country during the late rebellion, and those bodies now lie in almost every city, village, and hamlet churchyard in the land. In this observance no form or ceremony is prescribed, but posts and comrades will in their own way arrange such . . . — Map (db m46107) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Lower Downtown, Walking Tour, Union Station — 1880 / 1914|
|Denver's Union Station was constructed to consolidate rail activity in the City and to replace the four separate stations serving the boom town. When completed in 1890 in an Italianate style of Colorado Rhyolite with sandstone trim, the station measured 504 feet in length and was topped by a 128 foot tower, making it the largest structure in Colorado at the time. Twenty thousand proud Denverites attended the opening festivities of the station. The 1880 building was designed by Architect William . . . — Map (db m14509) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Oxford Hotel and Annex — Lower Downtown Walking Tour|
The Oxford Hotel, built in 1891, is Denver's Oldest Hotel. Bankrolled by Brewer Adolph Zang and his partners Philip Feldhauser and William Mygatt, the hotel was designed by Denver's greatest 19th century architect, Frank E. Edbrooke. Through the years, its red brick battlements and terra cotta facade have presided over the comings and goings of Presidents and Queens, scalawags and common laborers. The Oxford's first rooms were advertised as elegant yet affordable, located within a half . . . — Map (db m6674) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — 73 — Passing of the Street Car|
|This tablet is the
Property of the State of Colorado
This plaque was presented to the City of Denver by the Colorado State Historical Society and the American Pioneer Trails Association on June 3, 1951, the day street cars were retired and the city's transit system was converted to rubber-tired vehicles.
The plaque commemorates the passing of the street car which served the city's transit needs for nearly 80 years starting with the horse car December 17, . . . — Map (db m4679) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — 280 — Sand Creek Massacre|
|The controversy surrounding this Civil War Monument has become a symbol of Coloradens' struggle to understand and take responsibility for our past. On November 29, 1864, Colorado's First and Third Cavalry, commanded by Colonel John Chivington, attacked Chief Black Kettle's peaceful camp of Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians on the banks of Sand Creek, about 180 miles southeast of here. In the surprise attack, soldiers killed more than 150 of the village's 500 inhabitants. Most of the victims were . . . — Map (db m6755) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Silas S. Soule|
|At this location on April 23, 1865, assassins shot and killed 1st Colorado Cavalary Officer Capt. Silas S. Soule. During the infamous Sand Creek Massacre of November 29, 1864, Soule had disobeyed orders by refusing to fire on Chief Black Kettle's peaceful Cheyenne and Arapaho village. Later, at Army hearings, Soule testified against his commander, Col. John
M. Chivington, detailing the atrocities committed by
the troops at Sand Creek. His murderers were never
brought to justice. — Map (db m67133) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — 40 — Smoky Hill Trail|
|This tablet is the
Property of the State of Colorado
Here was the end of the famous Smoky Hill Trail
Immigrant and stage road extending
from the Missouri River to Denver.
Traversed by pioneers in 1858.
Surveyed by W.G. Russell in 1860.
Route of Butterfield's Overland
Despatch and Wells Fargo Express.
The trail took its human toll -
Death by thirst and Indian raids. — Map (db m4678) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Sugar Building 1906 — Lower Downtown Walking Tour|
|The sweet smell of success pervaded the Sugar Building from 1906, when it was constructed by the Great Western Sugar Company. During the 1920's, GW became the largest producer of sugar beets in the country. The original building was four stories high and designed by Gove & Walsh Architects. A two-story addition was made to the building in 1912. Located in the heart of Denver's Warehouse District, the sugar building is functional in design and notable for its Sullivanesque arrangement of windows . . . — Map (db m22304) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — The Auraria Townsite and Ninth Street Historic Park|
|The Auraria higher education center is located on the site of Denver’s oldest continuously occupied settlement. In 1858, William Green Russell and his brothers found gold nearby and established this pioneer town of Auraria, which merged with Denver in 1860.|
Auraria continued to flourish between 1872 and 1906 when the houses preserved on Ninth Street Historic Park were constructed. The oldest restored residential block in Denver, Ninth Street incorporates a variety of architectural styles . . . — Map (db m51708) HM
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — The Buckhorn Exchange — Established 1893 — Denver’s Oldest Restaurant|
|In November 1893, Henry H. “Shorty Scout” Zietz opened a saloon in this building, which was built about 1886 by Neef Brothers Brewery. Known as the Rio Grande Exchange, the saloon catered to the railroaders working across Osage Street at the Burnham Yards of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. Zietz later changed the name to the Buckhorn Lodge and then to the Buckhorn Exchange. Legend has it that “Shorty Scout” had been at various times a frontiersman, a crack shot who . . . — Map (db m51709) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — The Molly Brown House|
|Has been designated a Registered National Historic Building under the provisions of the historic site act of 1935. This site possesses exceptional value in commemorating or illustrating the history of the State of Colorado United States Department of the Interior National Park Service 1972 — Map (db m47192) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — 32 — The Rocky Mountain News|
|This tablet is the
Property of the State of Colorado
On this site stood the original home of
Rocky Mountain News
First newspaper established in
the Pike's Peak Gold Region
Founded by Wm. N.Byers, April 23, 1859,
Champion of Law and Order in
Jefferson Territory; "Advocate of
Faith in emerging Colorado.
Located on neutral ground between
pioneer towns, Denver and Auraria.
Building and press lost in Great
Cherry Creek Flood, May 19, 1864. — Map (db m5780) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Union Station Area|
|Denver's emergence as the metropolis of the Rockies is directly related to its role as the regional rail hub. When the transcontinental railroad chose Cheyenne and not Denver as its gateway to the west, Denverites rallied. Civic leaders such as Governor John Evans, Walter Scott Cheeseman, William J. Palmer and David Holliday Moffat, Jr. knew Denver would not survive without a railroad. Coloradans raised $300,000 in three days to build a 106-mile rail link to connect Denver with Cheyenne. At the . . . — Map (db m4641) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — USS Colorado BB-45|
|Dedicated to the men who served aboard the U.S.S. Colorado (BB-45) March 1921-June 1959.
Tarawa • Kwajalein • Eniwetok • Saipan-Guam • Tinian • Leyte • Mindoro • Luzon • Okinawa • Japan. Dedicated March 21, 1997 — Map (db m46195) HM|
|Colorado (Denver County), Denver — 17 — Wall Street of the Rockies|
The four corners of 17th and Champa Streets are occupied by the Boston Building (1890), the Colorado National Bank (1915), the Railway Exchange (Title) Building (1937), and the Ideal Cement (Colorado Federal) Building (1907). All were built of Colorado Yule marble, red sandstone and travertine.
At one time, this intersection was considered the heart of Denver's Business District.
Seventeenth Street Denver, Colorado — Map (db m4659) HM|
|Colorado (Douglas County), Castle Rock — Castle Rock|
|The founders of Castle Rock platted their town beneath a prominent rock outcrop of the same name in 1874, and proudly advertised it as a year-round resort, knowing the value of beautiful scenery to attract settlers and tourists. But even greater value lurked in the region’s untapped natural resources. The construction of farms, ranches, and towns along the two railroad lines between Denver and Colorado Springs required heaps of timber and stone, and the residents of Castle Rock made good use of . . . — Map (db m49803) HM|
|Colorado (Douglas County), Castle Rock — Douglas|
|The reasons for Douglas County’s popularity in the late twentieth century-rolling landscapes, pastoral scenery, and the proximity to a big city-also attracted late-nineteenth century settlers. In November 1861, territorial legislators created Douglas County as one of Colorado’s original seventeen counties. It stretched 5,160 square miles between the South Platte River on the west and the Kansas border on the east.|
Strategically located south of Denver, Douglas County welcomed fortune . . . — Map (db m46117) HM
|Colorado (Douglas County), Castle Rock — The Rock|
|A geologic phenomenon known as a “glowing avalanche” formed Castle Rock and the other buttes of Douglas County 36.7 million years ago. A volcanic eruption near Mount Princeton, about 95 miles southwest of here, spewed a frothy, gleaming cloud of lava across the landscape. As soon as the liquid rock hit the ground it hardened into a glassy-textured layer some 15 to 30 feet thick, known today as Castle Rock rhyolite. Throughout time, powerful wind and water forces scoured this valley . . . — Map (db m46142) HM|
|Colorado (Douglas County), Larkspur — Southwest Rises The Summit of Pikes Peak|
|This mountain, 14,110 feet above the sea and the most celebrated peak in America, is named for the explorer, Capt. Zubulon M. Pike, who saw it first in 1806. He attempted to climb it, failed and reported it unclimbable. Ascended in 1820 by Dr. Edwin James, a later explorer. A cog railway reached the summit in 1890 and a highway, in 1915. Motor races up the peak are held annually. The resort city of Colorado Springs, founded 1871, nestles at its foot where the first town called Colorado stood . . . — Map (db m4846) HM|
|Colorado (Eagle County), Red Cliff — 1 — Construction of Camp Hale — 10th Mountain Division — U.S. Army|
|Camp Hale is the only site developed by the United States Army specifically for mountain and winter warfare training. The location provided natural features necessary for training and convenient access by both a Federal Highway and the Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad. The large open valley accommodated the more than 1,000 buildings and structures as well as parade grounds, weapons ranges and much more.
Construction of Camp Hale took place between April and November of 1942. The camp was . . . — Map (db m69168) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Cascade — The Continental Divide|
|The Rocky Mountains are the longest chain of mountains in the world. They divide the United States watershed between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Colorado has 53 peaks over 14,000 feet. One inch on the Horizon equals about 38 miles. — Map (db m4838) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Cascade — Zebulon Montgomery Pike|
|In recognition of the notable career of
Zebulon Montgomery Pike,
· Soldier -- Explorer ·
The people of Colorado have placed this tablet on the summit of the great mountain first seen by Pike, November 15, 1806.
General Pike was born at Lamberton, now Trenton, NJ, January 5, 1779; died April 27, 1813, after a victorious attack on York, later Ontario, Canada; buried at Madison Barracks, New York.
This tablet commemorates the One Hundredth
Anniversary of Pike's Southwestern Expedition. — Map (db m4865) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — A Look From The Top|
You are at 13,380 feet, 4,078 meters
Feeling Spacey? In the United States you can not get much closer to outer space than this! Are you dizzy and short of breath? No wonder, you are 2.5 miles (4 kilometers) above sea level! There is 40% less oxygen here as down below. Beware, thinner atmosphere accelerated sun burning.|
Alpine: Above the Forest. You have reached the harshest environment on Pikes Peak. From the ? do not grow here? There are some hard hips from can not endure. The . . . — Map (db m45815) HM
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — A Mountain of Many Names|
|The Ute Indians say they have always lived in the hills of Colorado. They referred to the Rocky Mountain’s easternmost peak as Sun Mountain because it vibrantly catches the early morning rays.
In the late 1700s, Spaniards referred to the peak as El Captain. It wasn’t until after the Louisiana purchase in 1803 that the lasting namesake set eyes on the mountain.|
A “blue cloud” in the Distance.
Lieutenant Zebulon Montgomery Pike was dispatched in 1806 to survey the southwest . . . — Map (db m45922) HM
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — A New Home in the Hills|
|Soon after President Abraham Lincoln signed the Homestead Act in 1862, homesteaders moved west across the prairies and spread into the hills of Pikes Peak. In the 1870s, the Crowe family claimed 160 acres in this valley that later came to be known as Crowe Gulch. |
At high elevations, the difficulty of satisfying the Homestead requirement of living on the land five years and cultivating and harvesting a crop could be overwhelming. Meager livelihoods were made cutting timber, grazing cattle, . . . — Map (db m45936) HM
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — A Plentiful Harvest|
|The abundant seeds of piñon and juniper trees draw wildlife to this ecosystem like a magnet. Chipmunks, foxes, piñon mice and squirrels munch the blue or copper-colored juniper berries. The berries last through the winter. They provide food for hungry robins, waxwings and Townsend’s solitares.
Scrub Jays and Clark’s nucrackers collect the large piñon nuts and store, or caches, them for winter use. Piñon jays can transport up to 60 seeds at one time in their throats!
Humans also enjoy piñon . . . — Map (db m45982) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — America the Beautiful|
|Commemorating the 100th anniversary of the inspiration of “America the Beautiful” by Katharine Lee Bates, 1859-1929. Following her visit to this Summit on July 22, 1893. Dedicated July 4, 1993 by Hank Brown, United States Senator. Lon Young, Colorado Springs Vice-Mayor; City Council Members Mary Lou Makepeace, Randall W.B. Purvis, Lisa Are, David S. White, Cheryl Gillespie, Larry Small, and John Hazelhurst. A Gift to Pike National Forest and Colorado Springs from Costas Rombocos for . . . — Map (db m45817) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — B-52D Stratofortress — "Diamond Lil" — 1957 - 1983|
|Dedicated to the men and women of the
Strategic Air Command who flew and maintained
the B-52D throughout its 26-year history in the
command. Aircraft 55-083, with over 15,000 flying
hours, is one of two B-52Ds credited with a
confirmed MIG kill during the Vietnam Conflict.
Flying out of U-Tapao Royal Thai Naval Airfield in
Southern Thailand, the crew of “Diamond Lil” shot
down a MIG northeast of Hanoi during
“Linebacker II” action on Christmas Eve, 1972. — Map (db m43208) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Bloomer Girl; A Colorado Trailblazer|
|In 1858, a young woman from Kansas climbed to the summit of Pikes Peak. Julia Archibald Holmes was the first Anglo woman on record to make the climb, and she became famous for that accomplishment as well as for the way she did it.|
Julia had arrived at the base of Pikes Peak with the Lawrence Party searching for gold. In late July, 1858, they camped near here and spread out to explore the nearby streams. Two of their group (William Hartley and AC Wright,) recorded their signatures on the red . . . — Map (db m46001) HM
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Evergreen Cemetery Pioneers Memorial|
|This monument erected in memory of those unsung pioneers who helped build the Pikes Peak Region, the infants born to pioneer families of this area, and those later residents, both known and unknown, who came to this final resting place: Blocks 20, 27, and 45 - 50. Dating from the 1860s. Erected by the El Paso County Pioneers' Assn., Inc. Dedicated this 29th day of May 1993 Recorded names of approximately 1400 people buried in these blocks searchable[?] in the cemetery office. — Map (db m19080) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Forests Without Fire|
|Without fires, forests grow dense with trees that compete for nutrients, sunlight and space. Competition and stress leave forests susceptible to disease, insects and fire. Many plants on the forest floor die competing for nutrients adding to the fallen trees and the buildup of burnable “fuels”.|
The United States Forest Service performs “prescribed fires to clean up the forest floor and create habitat for wildlife. Small fires are like nature’s broom, sweeping up the . . . — Map (db m45935) HM
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Garden of the Gods Park|
|The beauty of Garden of the Gods Park, with its dramatic red rock formations framing Pikes Peak, serves as a magnificent eastern gateway to Colorado’s Rocky Mountains. The park’s towering red sandstone rocks have long been recognized as a landmark. American Indian people often gathered to stay in the shadow of the red rocks and to enjoy the abundance of plants and wildlife. Early European explorers, miners, and settlers also reveled in the beauty of what we now know as Garden of the Gods . . . — Map (db m45983) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Goerke & Son Photography|
| A Privately-Owned Balanced Rock In the 1890s, photographer Paul Goerke shrewdly purchased the land around Balanced Rock. Goerke and his son, Curt, snapped photos of tourists for .25 cents each. The Goerkes then developed the plates in their shop at Steamboat Rock.|
Thousands Have Their Photos Taken Originally the Goerkes let people view Balanced Rock for free. They made money by charging for portraits and in later years selling photographic supplies. They even furnished trusty . . . — Map (db m45981) HM
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Indian Trail|
|This stone marks the Indian Trail used by the Plains Indians to Ute Pass — Map (db m52001) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Pick a Climate|
|As you drive up Pikes Peak, you’ll feel it get colder. You’ll also notice that the plants change. See if you can pick out four different life zones on the way to and from the summit.
A life zone is a plant and animal community that exists at a certain elevational range. The Life Zones of Pikes Peak. Going up 1000 feet in elevation is like traveling 600 miles to the north. Alpine, 11,500 ft. and above. Subalpine, 9,500-11,000 feet. Montane, 8,000-9,500 feet. Foothills, 6,000-8,000 feet. . . . — Map (db m45929) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Pike's Peak|
|Has been designated a Registered National Historic Landmark under the provisions of the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935 this site possesses exceptional value in commemorating and illustrating the history of the United States. US Department of the Interior, National Park Service 1963. — Map (db m45816) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Rock Ledge Ranch Historic Site|
Rock ledge Ranch Historic Site is a living history museum that allows visitors to experience the lives of the people who dwelled, worked, hunted, herded and raised families here from the 1700s to the early 20th century. This beautiful landscape comes to life through the eyes and actions of historical interpreters dressed in clothing of the times, telling stories, demonstrating the work, play, food, music, culture and lifestyles of the early residents of the people of the Pikes . . . — Map (db m46002) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Take a Closer Look...Alpine/Subalpine Life Zone|
|Alpine and subalpine tundra is the low-growing vegetation found in the “land above the trees.” At this high elevation, the climate is harsh with searing winds, intense sunlight and frigid temperatures that limit the growing season. In spite of these conditions, an amazing array of hardy, yet fragile, wildflowers thrive at elevations above 11,000 feet. Look for bright blue alpine forget-me-nots, bold yellow sunflowers, and other tundra plants that are well-adapted to the weather . . . — Map (db m45927) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Take a Closer Look...Foothills Life Zone|
|The foothills of Colorado’s eastern slope form the dramatic meeting place of the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains. In this transition area between the prairie and the mountains, grasslands intermix with scrublands of mountain mahogany and scrub oak. These foothill shrubs eventually give way to the evergreen forests of higher elevations. Orange paintbrush, white yucca and blue penstamon add color to this landscape in spring and summer.|
Many different animals thrive in this region. Noisy . . . — Map (db m45925) HM
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Take a Closer Look...Montane Life Zone|
|When artists and photographers portray Colorado’s mountainous beauty, they usually capture the classic views of evergreen forests, stands of quaking aspens, and meadows of brilliant wildflowers. The montane area above 8,000 feet contains just such views. Ponderosa pines tower over south-facing slopes an thick forests of Douglas firs blanket north-facing slopes. During the summer, Colorado’s state flower, the blue columbine is abundant in many shady glens.
Almost 2000 elk in the Pikes Peak herd . . . — Map (db m45926) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Test Your Bird I.Q.|
|Watch and listen to see how many different birds you can discover on Pikes Peak. From the foothills to the summit, there are about 225 species. This variety is due to the number of habitats on the mountain. Can you match the birds to the habitat?
Foothills Forest (6,000-8,000 feet): Pinyon pine, Juniper, Scrub oak.
Montane Forests (8,000-9,500 feet) Douglas fir, Ponderosa pine, Aspen.
Subalpine Forests (9,500-11,500 feet) Englemann spruce, Bristlecone pine, Limber pine.
Alpine Tundra . . . — Map (db m45920) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — The Amazing Balanced Rock|
|Around 300 million years ago, the Ancestral Rockies once stood here. Over time, the forces of wind and water eroded the magnificent peaks into swift streams full of sediments. These sediments were eventually pressed and cemented into solid rock. The new rocks took the form of: •
Sands full of iron oxide creating red sandstone rock • muds forming softer, more delicate shales and • a mixture of sand and pebbles called conglomerate.|
Balanced Rock was exposed more than 60 million years ago . . . — Map (db m45979) HM
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — The Making of America's Mountain|
|The granite that make up Pikes Peak was once molten (or liquid) rock. It slowly cooled and hardened miles beneath the earth’s surface, giving the crystals time to grow. Over the last 500 million years several tectonic plates (the earth’s outer layers) have collided and pushed the now-cool granite lying below the surface upward. Around 65 million years ago a tectonic plate under the Pacific Ocean was driving into the North American continent. This movement initiated tremendous, mountain-building . . . — Map (db m45921) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — The United States Air Force Academy|
|Directly in front of you is the Academy which is dedicated to producing highly qualified and motivated officers for your U.S. Air Force. Its four year program combines Military and academic instruction and athletic competition. The airfield in the foreground is a focal point for soaring, parachuting and powered flight activities. To your right at the foot of the mountains is the Cadet area where 4,400
men and women Cadets live and study. The Academy welcomes visitors daily from 9 A.M. to 3 P.M.
The entrance is Two miles ahead. — Map (db m4884) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Ute Pass|
| Passage from prairie to high plains
If you had been standing on this spot for the last 10,000 years, you would have seen the history of Colorado progress below you. This ancient route through the Rocky Mountains is named for Colorado’s Ute Indians who made yearly treks down this pass to visit the springs in Manitou and hunt buffalo on the plains.|
Spanish and American explorers followed the trail. Major Lon’s expedition of 1820 stopped for a lunch on bison ribs near the springs at the . . . — Map (db m45761) HM
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Welcome to America’s Mountain|
|Take Your Time and Enjoy Your Trip: Allow at least two hours to make the 38-mile round-trip to the summit and back. Uphill traffic has the right-of-way at all times. Watch for maintenance equipment.
Driving Up: If your engine begins to labor on steeper grades, shift to a lower gear. Shift your automatic transmission manually to stay in a lower gear.
Overheating: If your engine overheats, run it at a fast idle. You may wish to run water on the radiator core from one of the water stations at . . . — Map (db m45932) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Welcome to Garden of the Gods Park|
|The Central Garden Trail is a moderate, one-mile round-trip loop. It is paved and wheelchair accessible. This trail will take you between the towering Gateway Rocks into the heart of Garden of the Gods Park. Along the way you will have the opportunity to learn the stories behind the unique scenery.
Please stay on the trail. Beware of rattlesnakes, which are active in the warmer months. Help preserve the Park's fragile native vegetation.
Climbing on the . . . — Map (db m72936) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Well-traveled Water|
|Did you know that Colorado Springs is almost a desert? Deserts receive less than ten inches of rain per year. The average precipitation in Colorado Springs is only about 15 inches per year. That’s pretty dry compared to Boston’s annual 44 inches!
With little rainfall and no rivers or large natural lakes in the area, Colorado Springs and the surrounding communities must look to the Colorado mountains for water. Snow falls thickly during winter and spring providing a pristine water supply to . . . — Map (db m45919) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Manitou Springs — 13 — Ute Pass|
|This memorial is the
Property of the State of Colorado
Named from the old Ute Trail
which led from South Park
through Manitou to the Plains.
Traversed by the Utes on
hunting and war expeditions.
Improved highway built
The State Historical Society of Colorado
The Mrs. J.N. Hall Foundation
And by the State Highway Department
And the U.S. Forest Service
1929 — Map (db m32663) HM|
|Colorado (El Paso County), Manitou Springs — Wheeler Town Clock|
|Jerome Wheeler donated this clock in 1889 for the opening of the Manitou Mineral Water Bottling Company. The clock, cast by the J. L. Mott Iron Works of Trenton, New Jersey, was also a fountain. Water flowed from stylized dolphin heads into bowls; the lower bowls allowed "man's best friend" a drink. The statue on top is of the Greek Goddess Hebe (pronounce HEEbee), daughter of Zeus and Hera. Hebe was the keeper of the elixir of eternal youth for the gods of Mt. Olympus, which was served from . . . — Map (db m55812) HM|
|Colorado (Elbert County), Elizabeth — Elizabeth Main Street|
|A visit to Elizabeth’s Main Street reveals some older building still used for day-to-day business, but it might surprise you to learn that many of these stores have been features of the Elizabeth scene for far more than a century!
Start at the north end of the street, on the east side, and imagine these buildings along the way:
The I.O.O.F. Hall, build 1896.
The Lewis Store and Confectionery...built “who knows when” but moved to this spot in 1901.
The Elizabeth Hotel, built . . . — Map (db m45757) HM|
|Colorado (Elbert County), Elizabeth — Historic Section House|
|The Denver & New Orleans Railroad was established in 1881. It was intended that the railroad would extend south from Denver, ultimately connecting with other railroads in Texas to establish a connection to New Orleans. Construction of the line reached Elizabeth in 1882, and shortly thereafter, this Section House was built to house railroad employees. Then, it faced the railroad tracks to the east (as shown), with the area now known as Main Street passing by its back door.|
The Elizabeth . . . — Map (db m45758) HM
|Colorado (Elbert County), Kiowa — 272 — Kiowa|
| Frontier Communication.
Kiowa was originally named after its postmaster, Henry Wendling. Such identifications were common among Colorado’s frontier hamlets, where the post office often was the town. Widely dispersed settlers would congregate at these stations (usually housed in a ranch or general store) to stay in touch with each other and the outside world. As communities grew, residents kept informed via the local newspaper, which recorded hometown births, deaths, calvings, paintings, . . . — Map (db m45754) HM|
|Colorado (Elbert County), Kiowa — Pioneer Women of Colorado|
|Erected by Pioneer Women of Colorado 1939 A.D. in memory of pioneers massacred by Indians. 1864 A.D. Hungate, Nathan W. and Ellen and Children Laura V., Florence V. 1868 A.D. Dietemann, Henrietta and son John, Louis Alma, Joseph Bledsoe — Map (db m45748) HM|
|Colorado (Elbert County), Kiowa — 272 — Trail Under Siege / Rising to the Challenge|
| Trail Under Siege Indians of Colorado’s High Plains
Kiowa and Comanche Indians migrated to these prairies in the 1700s, followed by Cheyennes and Arapahos in the early 1800s. The region’s vast grasslands, thick bison herds, and brisk fur trade made for prosperous, if not entirely harmonious, living; the allied Cheyennes and Arapahos warred frequently against the Comanches and Kiowas (who gradually moved south of here) until 1840, when the tribes agreed to a historic peace. In 1851 the . . . — Map (db m45756) HM|
|Colorado (Fremont County), Canon City — Cañon City / The Gold Belt Tour — Bustling Center for Trade, Transportation, and Tourism|
During the late 18th and early 19th Century, Cañon City prospered as a trade and transportation center serving the agriculture and mining industries of the region. From its earliest days, Cañon City attracted visitors to soak in warm mineral springs, enjoy mild winters, and view the wonder of "The Grand Canyon of the Arkansas River" - the Royal Gorge. In 1929, the world's highest suspension bridge was constructed across the gorge, enhancing the ability to view this incredible . . . — Map (db m56132) HM|
|Colorado (Fremont County), Canon City — Royal Gorge Bridge|
|Highest suspension bridge in the world
Completed in seven months - Dedicated Dec. 7, 1929
Chief Engineer George Cole
Consulting Engineer O.K. Peck
This property has been placed on
National Register of Historic Places
U.S. Department of Interior
Modernization of bridge to present day
safety and engineering standards by
Wilolamb International - 1983
Muskogee, Oklahoma U.S.A. — Map (db m39304) HM|
|Colorado (Fremont County), Cañon City — 141 — Royal Gorge|
|Lt. Zubulon M. Pike and his men, who traveled through this area in November and December 1806, were the first American explorers to view the Arkansas River Canyon now known as the Royal Gorge. A small party from the Maj. Stephen H. Long expedition visited the mouth of the canyon in 1820, as did members of Lt. John C. Fremont's expedition in 1845.
In 1878 a right of way through Royal Gorge became the focal point of a bitter struggle between The Denver and Rio Grande and the Atchison, Topeka . . . — Map (db m34858) HM|
|Colorado (Fremont County), Cotopaxi — 269 — Rainbow Route / Western Fremont County|
| [Side A:]
Completion of this road opens up a scenic paradise unequalled in any other state of the Union and unsurpassed by the scenic gems of the Wild West.
Governor George A. Carlson on the opening of the Rainbow Route, 1915
Conceived in 1911 to lure automobile tourists to this area, the Rainbow Route cost quite a pot of gold. The dirt-surfaced highway ran from Pueblo to Montrose, following old stagecoach roads and railroad grades . . . — Map (db m55639) HM|
|Colorado (Garfield County), Parachute — The Robbery - The Getaway — Parachute Colorado|
On June 7, 1904, an outlaw named Harvey Logan attempted one of the west's last train robberies near here. Also known as Kid Curry, Logan was a member of Butch Cassidy's notorious "Hole in the Wall" gang.
When the westbound Denver & Rio Grande train made its scheduled 1:15 a.m. stop in Parachute on that Tuesday morning, a man scrambled on board. He ordered the engineer at gun point to proceed to Streit Flats, roughly 3 miles west of here. There he was joined by two . . . — Map (db m67922) HM|
|Colorado (Gilpin County), Black Hawk — Bird’s-eye view of Black Hawk|
| Gilpin County, Colorado
Black Hawk History
Take an adventure in & around this venerable, most informative lithograph:
This bird’s-eye view of Black Hawk shows Gregory Gulch at the top of the map’s center – and Chase Gulch to the right of Gregory Gulch. Both gulches feed into North Clear Creek, which courses in a meandering, through primarily horizontal, route from the left to the right side of the map. The mills, the foundries, the homes and businesses occupy the small areas of . . . — Map (db m51885) HM|
|Colorado (Gilpin County), Black Hawk — Fick’s Carriage Shop|
|Long operated by William Fick and his family, this blacksmith shop turned out a superior brand of rugged, durable quartz wagons that hauled ore from the mines to the mills along Clear Creek. The Bull Durham sign was painted by traveling artists for the American Tobacco Company in the late 1800’s. The building was renovated as an art gallery in the late 20th century before being reborn as a casino. — Map (db m51883) HM|
|Colorado (Gilpin County), Black Hawk — Gilpin Hotel|
|One of Black Hawk’s newer buildings, the 1896 structure was built by Julius Kline (or Klein), replacing an earlier wood building that was the site of Black Hawk’s first school. It operated sporadically throughout the 20th century under a variety of owners, notably Otto and Ruth Blake, and its Mine Shaft Bar in the basement was a local landmark. — Map (db m51882) HM|
|Colorado (Gilpin County), Black Hawk — Train Trestle|
| Gilpin County, Colorado
Black Hawk History
Gregory Street Crossing
The Colorado Southern Narrow Gauge Railroad (originally the Colorado Central Railroad) was vital to Black Hawk. During the late 1800’s aside from rugged wagon roads, it was one of the only means of transportation to Black Hawk to cross high above Gregory Street without disrupting pedestrian and wagon traffic below.|
The train trestle was one of the most distinguishable structures in all of Black Hawk. Although . . . — Map (db m51886) HM
|Colorado (Gilpin County), Central City — Central City|
[Three panels on this marker describe the history of Central City, Colorado]
Central City is a hidden gem set high in the mountains above the thriving front range hustle and bustle. A trip to Central City guarantees each visitor with a step back in time to a day when miners walked the streets and gold veins ran through the hillsides. Through diligent historic preservation efforts, today, Central City, is very much as it was 100 years ago.
On . . . — Map (db m51828) HM|
|Colorado (Gilpin County), Central City — Central City Opera|
|The Central City Opera House was built in 1878 by Welsh and Cornish miners. This National Historic Landmark, centerpiece of the historic gold mining town of Central City, has hosted performances of the nation’s fifth-oldest opera company since 1932. Central City Opera’s National Summer Festival attracts patrons from all over the country and abroad to enjoy intimate opera in its 550 seat opera house.
Her early glory years following the 1878 grand opening were short-lived. When the Central . . . — Map (db m51831) HM|
|Colorado (Gilpin County), Central City — The AOUW Building|
|One of the brick “fire proof” buildings which was destroyed in the fire of 1874 was Abraham Jacobs’ old store, located on this site. By August, a new one story building had been completed here and the old store was back in business for another 20 years. In 1898, the local lodge of the AOUW purchased the old building. The Ancient Order of United Workmen was a fraternal order that provided survivors’ benefits to families of deceased members. At the turn of the century, there were . . . — Map (db m51833) HM|
|Colorado (Gilpin County), Central City — The Ignatz Meyer Building|
|The major fire in Central City on May 21, 1874 nearly wiped out the commercial district of the city. The new building was completed by November 1st of the same year and B.F. Pease operated a dry goods store at the location for nearly 10 years. For a time there was a undertaking parlor situated on the property, but the longest residing business was the office of the Observer Publishing Co. which published the Gilpin County Observer newspaper. At the turn of century, Ignatz Meyer came into . . . — Map (db m51834) HM|
|Colorado (Gilpin County), Central City — The Rose Haydee Building|
|The first lady of the early Colorado state was Rose (Brown) Wakely, better known by her stage name, Rose “Haydee”. The dark-eyed beauty came to Colorado in September, 1859 – and the miners fell in love with her at once. She became the most popular entertainer in Central City. Then, suddenly, she disappeared.|
Now among her many admirers was Thomas Evans, a gambling man of rather “satanic good looks.” And it was suspicioned no coincidence that, on Tuesday, . . . — Map (db m51835) HM
|Colorado (Gilpin County), Central City — Washington Hall|
|Erected 1863 as
Gregory Miners Court
First District Court in Colorado Territory
County Court House
1868 – 1900 — Map (db m51836) HM|
|Colorado (Huerfano County), Walsenburg — 79 — Huerfano Butte|
|The isolated cone-shaped butte, east of this point and 10 miles north of Walsenburg, was named El Huerfano, “The Orphan,” by early Spaniards. The name appeared in Spanish records as early as 1818. This butte was near the Trappers’ Trail from Taos. Passed by Freemont and Gunnison on their railroad surveys of 1853. The river and county also now bear the name. Altitude 6,150 feet. — Map (db m64793) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — 1115 Washington Avenue — City of Golden, Downtown Landmark, Historic Preservation Board|
|The Colorado Transcript, Colorado’s second oldest newspaper, began here on November 24, 1866. General Gorge West, a Civil War veteran, and one of the founders of Golden and the Colorado School of Mines, started the paper. Constructed in 1870, it is one of the oldest commercial structures in Golden. The newspaper occupied the second floor while the first floor was used by Dr. James Kelly. This structure housed the paper for nearly 100 years. Originally, the building was brick with a corbelled . . . — Map (db m49892) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — 5JF562 — 1211 Washington Avenue — City of Golden, Downtown Landmark, Historic Preservation Board|
|The original building was constructed in 1870 by John H. Parsons and William H. Curry as the City Restaurant Hotel for an Italian immigrant Charles Garbarino. It originally had arched windows and doors on both floors and an ornate wood balcony used for public events and speeches. One of Golden’s longest lived hotels, this became the Crawford, Poe, and Cody Hotel, but most famously as the Avenue Hotel run by Carlos Lake beginning in 1906. In 1910 it lost its balcony when an orator crashed . . . — Map (db m49890) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — 700 Tenth Street — Golden High School|
|City of Golden
The Golden High School was dedicated in March 1924. Built on the site of the Eagle Corral and Stables, the school was hailed as the ultimate in high school construction. Designed by renowned Denver architect Eugene C. Groves, and built in the Beaux Arts style, it was the first Colorado high school to be accredited. Later it was converted to a junior high school and saw the last pupil attend class during 1988. The building remains home to a magnificent mural . . . — Map (db m50592) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — 922 Washington Avenue — Stewart Block Building|
|City of Golden
The Stewart Block building was completed in 1892. It served as a grocery for 52 years under a variety of owners including Caleb E. Parfet, Elvyn E. Stewart, and Leonard Vogel. The motto of the original building owners was “quick sales and small profits.” The upstairs served as a meeting hall for the Knights of Pythias and later, to the chagrin of many Golden residents, the Ku Klux Klan. The mural on the south exterior was painted in the 1920s as a . . . — Map (db m50593) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — A Daring Rescue|
|During the Gold Rush, Rebecca Judkins and her sons William and Charles built a home near the northeast corner of 11th and Jackson Streets, just a block east of here. Bill Judkins was outside the day of June 6, 1869 when he saw something happen at the site of today’s Parfet Park. The event started in the race waterway going to the Golden Mill at the Ford Street Bridge. The story of what he did made the Colorado Transcript on June 9, 1869:
“A very narrow and wonderful escape from . . . — Map (db m49934) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Billy Drew Bridge|
| (left side)
Bridging Our History
This bridge is the second Billy Drew Bridge erected on this site. The original Billy Drew Bridge was built in 1976 as part of Golden’s celebration of the Centennial-Bicentennial, the nation’s 200th anniversary and Colorado’s 100th anniversary as a State. A few Golden citizens, led by Billy Drew, called for the building of a bridge to provide an essential pedestrian and bikeway link between Golden and the city offices, parks, and residential . . . — Map (db m70396) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Brewing on Clear Creek-Coors History|
|In 1867, in Hamburg, Germany, young Adolphus Herman Joseph Kuhrs was preparing to stow away on a ship bound for America. By 1872, Coors had altered the spelling of his last name and arrived in the Denver area. He settled on golden because of its “can do” attitude, the presence of a workforce, and an abundant water supply. Coors partnered with Denver confectioner Jacob Schueler in October 1873 to purchase the old Welch tannery and water rights for $2,500. They converted it to a . . . — Map (db m50091) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Bridge Load Ordinance Background|
|Colorado Transcript, September 13, 1882: “Washington Avenue Bridge was badly damaged last Saturday evening by some ignoramus driving and crowding a big drove of cattle on to it. The damage has since been repaired.”|
Golden Globe, September 23, 1882: “A Grand Breakdown. Mutton Goes Down, While Taxes Go Up — The Avenue Bridge Falls with 200 sheep on board. A flock of sheep, numbering between two or three hundred head, and which was being driven thro’ Golden . . . — Map (db m49897) HM
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Buffalo Bill|
Colonel William Frederick Cody
Noted scout and Indian fighter
Born February 26, 1846 Scott County, Iowa
Died January 10, 1917 Denver, Colorado
William F. Cody
Medal of Honor
Indian Scout 3 US Cav
Feb 26 1846 Jan 10 1917 — Map (db m29670) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Charles E. Kirk|
|In Memory of Charles E. Kirk, 1900-1981.
As Douglas County extension agent (1946-65) Charlie was the motivating force in establishing 4-H in Douglas County. He was respected for his knowledge of Agriculture and admired for his help and belief in the Douglas County Fair. This fountain is dedicated in remembrance of Charlie Kirk by the Douglas County 4-H Council and community. (1981-82) — Map (db m46569) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Clear Creek|
|Clear Creek is one of the most popular and historic waterways of the Front Range. The Clear Creek watershed covers approximately 1550 square kilometers (600 square miles), includes five counties, and more than thirteen communities. From the headwaters on the Continental Divide to the plains near Denver, Clear Creek connects small mountain communities with Colorado’s largest metropolitan area. It starts at Loveland pass and drains into the South Platte River, near Commerce City. The most scenic . . . — Map (db m49896) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Down by the Old Mill Stream|
|Golden had a variety of businesses and industries in operation during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Among these were four flour mills-the Rock Mill, the Brick Mill, the Binder Mill, and the Golden Mill. Mill races, or ditches dug from Clear Creek channeled water to turn grinding wheels like this one for the mills to operate. Golden’s mills served the surrounding communities for nearly 100 years.|
This stone is thought to be the grinding wheel from the Rock Flour Mill, donated by . . . — Map (db m50596) HM
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Early History of Clear Creek|
|For thousands of years native peoples have lived, hunted, and battled along this creek. The earliest western nation to claim the creek was France when it created the New World Province called Louisiana in 1682. In 1765 the French ceded the province to Spain. In 1800 France, under Napoleon’s rule, regained Louisiana, and in 1803 sold it to the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase.|
This creek had two names before it became Clear Creek. Its first known name was Cannon Ball . . . — Map (db m50598) HM
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Farming|
|Since 1859 Clear Creek has provided water through irrigation ditches to farmers east of Golden. Many such ditches were dug in the 1800s, including the Welch Ditch (originally Vasquez Ditch), Church Ditch (originally Golden City & Ralston Creek Ditch), Agricultural Ditch, Rocky Mountain Ditch (originally Table Mountain Ditch, Wanamaker Ditch, Swadley Ditch, Wadsworth Ditch, Croke Canal, and Oulette Ditch.|
These irrigation ditches turned what had been called the “Great American . . . — Map (db m51912) HM
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Ferrell/Berthoud Home (Miners Hotel)|
|John M. Ferrell came to the Golden valley from upstate New York in June of 1859. He camped on the southeastern banks of Clear Creek and created the Washington Avenue crossing for the gold rushers. When Golden was organized, Ferrell became one of its 16 original founders and agreed to sell his bridge to the community. |
Ferrell was accompanied by his wife Jeanette and sons Frank and Charles. They were soon followed by his daughters Helen and Prunette (Nettie), with husbands Edward L. . . . — Map (db m49895) HM
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — First Bicycle Mishap in Golden|
|The earliest bicycles that were popular in Golden were called velocipedes. One daredevil rider, son of Judge Boyd, who was to become a pioneer farmer east of Golden, made the following news in the Colorado Transcript on May 19, 1869 for his stunt charging south down Ford Street toward Clear Creek:|
“The champion velocipdedstrian of this town is undoubtedly Jim Boyd. He can ride faster and jump off the highest bridge of any of them that have tried to tame the fiery, unconquerable . . . — Map (db m49933) HM
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — First Resident/Agriculturalist|
|David King Wall, one of Golden’s early permanent settlers, arrived from South Bend, Indiana on April 30, 1859. He brought a great deal of garden seed and tools with him. King defied the common belief that growing a garden would be impossible due to the high altitude and arid conditions. He had experience during the California Gold Rush in the use of irrigation. Wall dug a ditch from Tucker Gulch to irrigate his two-acre farm in the area of the rail yards at Depot Street. He successfully grew . . . — Map (db m50595) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Fun on Courthouse Hill|
|“Courthouse Hill,” which is Washington Avenue south of 14th Street, was a favorite location of settler children. In the winter, sleds packed with eager youth picked up sufficient speed on the Hill to be able to coast across the Washington Avenue Bridge. Some traveled as far as the Railroad Depot on 8th Street. This site was not just for winter entertainment; one newspaper had an account of children joy-riding in a wagon down Courthouse Hill.
Not only children enjoyed Courthouse . . . — Map (db m50092) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Gold|
In the mid-19th Century, prospectors coming into the Clear Creek valley discovered placer gold that had been carried downstream from mountain deposits. As the sandbars containing the placer gold were mined out, prospectors traced the fold upstream with their pans and rocker cradles, seeking the mother lode from which the deposits came.|
George A. Jackson discovered gold near Idaho Springs on January 4, 1859. These were named the Jackson diggings. On May 6, 1859 the Gregory diggings were . . . — Map (db m49907) HM
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Gold in Clear Creek|
|From the mid-1800s, to the mid-1900s, gold mining and dredging represented an economic boon to the Clear Creek region.|
In 1904, the National Dredging Company, led by Herman J. Reiling, purchased the historic Arapahoe Bar in Clear Creek, which had been mined various ways and times since 1858. The Company wanted to mine the bar to its fullest potential, using the then-new invention of gold dredging barges. The dredges were used to scoop the rich soil from the riverbed and sift out the . . . — Map (db m50601) HM
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Golden Alarm Bell|
|The Golden Alarm Bell was purchased in 1904 by the original Loveland Hose Company of Golden from the C.S. Bell & Company, Hillsboro, Ohio. The bell was mounted on a tower at the corner of 9th and East Streets, the present home of the American Legion Post 21. It was taken down in 1974 when the first department moved all operations to its present location on 10th Street. The Alarm bell resided at the City of Golden maintenance yard until it was restored and installed at its present home, 1010 . . . — Map (db m50594) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Golden and Clear Creek|
|The history of Golden reflects the history of Clear Creek. Eons ago, this creek, then a raging river, coursed its way through the mountains, cutting out the canyon and leaving behind fertile soil where an abundance of plants provided food for wild animals. The animals attracted trappers to the area in the 1700s. The river also laid down the placer gold to be found by gold seekers in the mid-1800s, and provide underground aquifers supplying fresh spring water for the future settlement of . . . — Map (db m49908) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Golden City|
|From the beginning, Clear Creek has determined the layout of the town first known as “Golden City.” Golden is placed at an angle from the compass to align its streets to the river. The first river crossing also determined the location of Golden’s main street, Washington Avenue. Originally, Golden’s streets had different names on each side of the river. On the south side, Jackson Street was originally Miner Street; Illinois Street was Jeanette (later Mary) Street; Maple Street was . . . — Map (db m49903) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Greeley’s Crossing|
|In June, 1859, while the first bridge was being built over Clear Creek, the famous reporter Horace Greeley passed through Golden. He attempted to cross Clear Creek from this point on the south bank. Horace embarked on his mule from the river bank which lies directly before you. Later, after he traveled from Golden City to Central City to witness the Gregory Diggings,” he wrote his famous line “Go west young man, go west.” Edward Berthoud, whose home was just behind where you . . . — Map (db m49898) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Horace Greeley’s Crossing Point|
|Before the first bridge on this site was completed, travelers forded the river just east of this bridge. It became risky during the peak of the spring river flows due to the melting snows that filled the streams and rivers.
In June of 1859, while the first bridge was being built over Clear Creek, the famous reporter Horace Greeley passed through Golden. He crossed Clear Creek from a point on the south bank 100 feet east of this present-day Washington Avenue Bridge. Edward Berthoud reported . . . — Map (db m50179) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Irrigation and Farming|
Clear Creek irrigation ditches provide water to farmers east of Golden. Many irrigation ditches were dug in the 1800s, making the Clear Creek valley the breadbasket of early Colorado. Golden’s first resident, David King Wall, introduced irrigation following his arrival from South Bend, Indiana on April 30, 1859. Wall had caught a different “gold fever” than everyone else at the time, bringing with him a wagonload of seed. With a farmer’s keen observance for soil quality he noted . . . — Map (db m49902) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Jolly Rancher 1113 Washington Avenue — City of Golden, Downtown Landmark, Historic Preservation Board|
|In May of 1949, Bill and Dorothy Harmsen purchased an ice cream machine and leased a storefront on the east side of Washington Ave. The Harmsens chose the name Jolly Rancher for their store to reflect a spirit of western hospitality. High quality chocolates and soft-serve ice cream were the first products dispensed at The Jolly Rancher. In the early 1950s, Bill invented a soft cinnamon-flavored taffy that he called the Fire Stix. Long ago, the company outgrew the storefront. The original building burned down in 1966. — Map (db m49893) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Lariat Loop Byway: Buffalo Bill Museum|
•The Lariat Loop is a scenic circle of natural splendors, historic and cultural treasures and recreation pleasures. See spectacular mountain scenery and enjoy a vintage auto tour in foothills canyons. Welcome to 40 miles of fun.|
Lariat Loop Byway: Buffalo Bill Museum
•When William F. “Buffalo Bill” Cody visited Lookout Mountain park, he was impressed by the view of mountains and plains. He told his wife Louisa, daughter Irma, foster son Johnny Baker, and others . . . — Map (db m46567) HM
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Lariat Loop Byway: Denver Mountain Parks|
Origins of the Park System
•These foothills west of Denver have long been a popular destination. In 1890 landscape architect Frederic Law Olmsted, who designed New York’s Central Park, was hired by local developers to design a resort in this area. Three years later the project was canceled due to financial problems. In 1911, a group of Denver citizens began planning a system of parks in the foothills. The idea of a city maintaining a parks system more than 12 miles outside of its limits was . . . — Map (db m46568) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Native Americans on Clear Creek|
|For many years, the Ute Indians lived in the mountains west of the mouth of Clear Creek Canyon, hunting and trading with area travelers. The Arapaho, refugees from the Great Lakes region, and the Cheyenne arrived in the area during the mid-18th Century, as European settlement displaced them from their ancestral homes. The new arrivals lived on the plains and often clashed with the Utes. There was an inter-tribal battle in 1839 in today’s Coors Valley. In that battle, as reported by mountain man . . . — Map (db m49899) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Our Changing Landscape-From Sea Floor to Mountain Top|
|•Colorado’s geologic history dates back nearly two billion years. Several mountain ranges have been uplifted and eroded away before the rise of today’s Rocky Mountains. The landscape you see in front of you has undergone many dramatic changes. This story starts at a billion years ago.|
•The sea covers Colorado: 80 million years ago. Today’s Rocky Mountains did not exist. Where you are standing and all before you was beneath a shallow sea that covered the middle of the North American . . . — Map (db m46438) HM
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Play in the Wind|
|Windy Saddle Park is named for the nearly constant wind currents that can be felt blowing through the foothills. Winds traveling across the plains are forced upward when they hit the Rocky Mountains, and as the air rises, it has enough force to lift objects into the sky.|
Many large birds use these currents to conserve energy. Being lifted into the sky by this wind, called a thermal, is much easier than flapping wings that can span eight feet from tip to tip. Using thermals saves energy and . . . — Map (db m46157) HM
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Porcelain and Malted Milk|
|With temperance pressures rising, Adolph Coors knew diversification was crucial to his industry. In 1910, he invested in John J. Herold’s pottery works at 8th and Ford Streets. During the middle of the decade, embargoes on German import porcelain created a market for high quality chemical porcelains and consumer products.
Production of the home-use pieces ceased in 1941 when Coors Porcelain reinvented itself as part of the American war effort. The company provided porcelain housings for . . . — Map (db m50090) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Recreation: Past to Present|
|Windy Saddle Park has a long history of being a favorite place for recreation. When Lookout Mountain Road was opened in 1914, it was a destination for the first automobile tours. The Lariat Loop Scenic and Historic Byway now passes through Windy Saddle Park, which offers many recreational opportunities. The steep trails and winding road are a challenge to those looking for a workout, while the wind makes this an ideal spot for paragliders to sail like birds on the breeze. — Map (db m46155) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Settlement of Clear Creek Valley|
|In the 1700s French trading parties came to trade with the Utes. Around 1820 Americans such as the Long Expedition began to explore the Clear Creek valley. In 1834 the Estes Party discovered gold on a sand bar, later known as Arapahoe Bar, on the north shore of Clear Creek east of North Table Mountain. Mountaineers and trappers of beaver, otter, muskrat, and mink came to the Clear Creek area in the 1830s. They made a living trading with the forts in the region. During the early 1800s the Clear . . . — Map (db m50600) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Settler Farm Wife’s Initiative|
|Here is a story from the Colorado Transcript of August 12, 1885:
“We like to hear a good story, and here is one on Jim Boyd: Last spring Jim’s wife wanted to peddle vegetables in Denver. Jim laughed at her, believing she could not even drive a horse let alone sell garden sass; but to keep peace in the family he let her have her own way. He told her to skip out, and that she could have all she made; he would get up the loads but with the understanding that he was to have all she . . . — Map (db m49910) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Territorial Capitol of Colorado — 1862 to 1867|
This Tablet is the property of the State of Colorado
From 1862 to 1867
Golden was the Territorial
Capital of Colorado
Legislative sessions were held in this building (erected by W.A.H. Loveland) and in others, now demolished, across the street.
was named for Thomas L. Golden who camped on the site in 1858. Town founded by Boston Company June 12, 1859. Incorporated Jan. 2, 1871. — Map (db m39337) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — The Boston Company|
|Seven members of the Boston Mechanics’ Mining & Trading Company, namely George West (President), Walter Pollard, James MacDonald (Business manager), Mark Leonardo Blunt (later Postmaster), James McIntyre, Lawrence Panton, and Joseph T. Bird arrived in Golden on June 12, 1859. They remained, out of a much larger party who had come from Boston, and had passed through Missouri in April. Having arrived in Denver on June 10, they stayed for two days to help the Rocky Mountain News get out its first . . . — Map (db m50180) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — The White Ash Mine Disaster|
|For many years, Golden’s people have respected the flood waters of Clear Creek above ground. However, it was the flood below ground that claimed the most lives. On September 9, 1889, water broke into the White Ash Mine beneath Clear Creek at the west end of 12th Street roaring down to levels as deep as 730 feet. It continued to flood at the rate of 85,000 gallons a day until an estimated three million cubic feet of water had flooded into the shafts. Ten miners lost their lives: David L. Lloyd, . . . — Map (db m49900) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Tourism|
Clear Creek Canyon was also a popular tourist area. Resorts such as Beaver Brook Pavilion were built along the creek. Early travel was mostly by train. In the early 1900s automobiles became a viable way to tour. Golden Tourist Park was a popular camping ground. Located in Golden, it provided easy access to Lookout Mountain Drive and to the rest of the Lariat Loop tourist route. This designated Colorado Scenic Byway was, and remains, a renowned tourist attraction.|
Castle Rock . . . — Map (db m51913) HM
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Transportation|
|In 1860, Col. Thomas W. Know, a famous traveler and editor of the Western Mountaineer newspaper, believed the route up Clear Creek Canyon was a place he “never expected to see a mule go who had his senses, or a decent regard for his neck.” When he returned to Golden in 1877, and then journeyed up the canyon by Colorado Central Railroad, Mr. Knox marveled at what progress had occurred. Clear Creek Canyon provided a transportation link to the mining towns upstream enabling Golden . . . — Map (db m49901) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Water Carves Canyons|
|Flowing water is the reason you see a canyon in front of you. As the Rocky Mountains lifted, water was forced to flow to either the east or the west, creating creeks and rivers. Clear Creek has been eroding this canyon for hundreds of thousands of years, cutting the floor ever lower. The walls of the canyon grow wider as steep hillsides tumble into the creek, where they are washed away by water.|
Caption A canyon starts as a shallow stream that cuts through the bedrock for thousands of . . . — Map (db m46156) HM
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — What You Can See From Here Today|
|•This diagram illustrates the features you can see from here. North and South table Mountains are remnants of ancient lava flows now separated and eroded by Clear Creek. The Dakota Hogbacks on the left and right sides of the image were one continuous, but they have been cut off by the Golden Fault shown in black in this picture and on the geologic map. The rocks you are standing on were uplifted along the Golden Fault and are now two miles higher than the same rocks under the Table . . . — Map (db m46439) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Windy Saddle Park / Connecting to the Past|
| Windy Saddle Park
Jefferson County Open Space
Windy Saddle Park offers sweeping scenic views and trail connections to adjoining areas. Recreation opportunities on Chimney Gulch Trail and Lookout Mountain Trail included hiking, biking and horseback riding. The remaining trails are Hiker Only.|
Connecting to the past Windy Saddle Park
Lying between the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains and the western edge of the Great Plains, Windy Saddle park has served as a gateway for . . . — Map (db m46158) HM
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Winter Wind on the Mesa|
|This stunning sculpture provides beauty and grace to the Clear Creek and Table Mountain backdrop. She was placed to honor the Native Americans indigenous to Golden, primarily the Arapahoe, Ute and Cheyenne. Funding was sponsored by Peak Properties and Clear Creek Commons. A Project of the Golden Public Art Partnership. Artist: Marie Barbera, Dedicated July 1, 2003. — Map (db m49894) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Littleton — Columbine High School|
|On April 20, 1999, in a senseless act of violence, twelve students and one teacher were killed, and many others injured at Columbine High School. It was a tragic event that shook the Columbine and metro Denver communities, horrified and saddened the nation, and changed forever our perceptions of the safety and security within a school typical of so many across America.|
Over time, Columbine parents, students, faculty, and community leaders designed and constructed this Columbine Memorial to . . . — Map (db m46053) HM
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Morrison — Front Range Foothills|
|You are looking out over the edges of tilted and eroded layers of sandstone and shale that lie upon much older rocks in the mountains behind you. If the eroded layers were restored to where you stand they would be more than two miles thick. The sandstone and shale were deposited as flat layers of sand and mud in streams, lakes and shallow seas during a time that began about 300 million years ago and ended about 70 million years ago. Later, the flat layers were bent upward during the rise of the . . . — Map (db m57932) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Red Rocks Park — Red Rocks Amphitheatre — City and County of Denver Landmark|
|Principle construction by Civilian Conservation Corps Company 1848, SP-13C, Mt. Morrison, CO.
1936 - 1941
Dedicated as a memorial to all who served at Mt. Morrison and to the 3 million who served in the CCC nation-wide, 1933 - 1942. The CCC left its heritage in the preservation of America's natural resources for enjoyment by all generations. — Map (db m57683) HM|
|Colorado (Jefferson County), Red Rocks Park — Red Rocks Park|
|Red Rocks Park is a national Historic District on the National Register of Historic Places. The Trading Post and the Amphitheater are Denver Landmarks. The Trading Post, an example of the Pueblo-style architecture, is made of brick and stucco and was constructed in 1931. Red Rocks Amphitheater is the work of architect Burnham Hoyt.
In 1936, the Civilian Conservation Corps, began carving the Amphitheater from the rock. It was dedicated, after WWII, in August of 1946. Made of little more . . . — Map (db m57641) HM|
|Colorado (Kiowa County), Eads — Remains — Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site|
”Many years have passed. The land is still here. We lived here, our clans lived here. The land here is our home - we have come back home.”
Wonoo3ei’i ceciniihi’ coowoo’ou’u. Nih’iine’etiino’ hiitiino. Neito’eininoo nih’iine’etii3i’ hiitiino.Nuhu’ biito’owu’, neyeih’inoo - cee’no’eeckoohuno.
Etaose’esehohae’xove. He’tohe ho’e hetseohe eso’eaahtse’ho’ta. Hetseohe nahvo’estaneheveme, Tsetsestahetse naa Tseso’taevetse. He’tohe ho’e . . . — Map (db m71872) HM|
|Colorado (Kiowa County), Eads — The Attack|
|A barrage of arms fire was leveled against the Cheyenne and Arapaho. Amid the wild confusion, soldiers noticed people at the village “... going slowly away in a sort of listless, and dazed, or confused manner ...” Throughout the morning and into the afternoon, Volunteers pursued the Indians up Sand Creek and across adjacent plains and bluffs. The scene became chaotic as troops advanced up both sides of the creek. A member of the 3rd Colorado remembered, “After a short dash we . . . — Map (db m71873) HM|
|Colorado (Kiowa County), Eads — The Sand Creek Massacre — Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site|
|On November 29, 1864, U.S. Colonel John Chivington and 700 volunteer troops attacked an encampment of Cheyenne and Arapaho along Sand Creek. The thunderous approach of horses galloping toward camp at dawn sent hundreds fleeing from their tipis. Many were shot and killed as they ran. While warriors fought back, escapees frantically dug pits to hide in along the banks of Sand Creek - cannonballs later bombarded them.
In the bloody aftermath, some of the soldiers mutilated dead bodies and . . . — Map (db m72552) HM|
|Colorado (Kit Carson County), Burlington — Burlington County Colorado Veterans Memorial|
|Dedicated to All American veterans. This monument is dedicate to all Americans who have served in the United States Military. The names here are but a few. May we never forget the sacrifices that have been made. “In Honor of Those who served”. VFW Post 6491, 2003. |
A Veterans Day Prayer
May god Grant...
Courage to all those who are helping to defend the principles of freedom on which all our lives depend.
Comfort to the families who had loved ones far away, doing what they . . . — Map (db m45565) HM
|Colorado (Kit Carson County), Burlington — Kit Carson County Carousel|
|Kit Carson County Carousel has been designated a National Historic Landmark. This site possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America, 1987, National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. — Map (db m45747) HM|
|Colorado (La Plata County), Breen — [Old] Fort Lewis College|
|Originated on the site of a U.S. Cavalry post established in 1880 at Hesperus. From 1891 until 1956 the old fort was operated as an Indian school, a vocational high school and a junior college.
The first president of the college was Charles Dale Rea. It was chiefly through his aggressive leadership that the college was reconstructed here in 1956.
In 1962 it became a liberal arts college operating on a trimester program and offering work leading to the bachelor of arts and bachelor of science degrees. — Map (db m22765) HM|
|Colorado (La Plata County), Durango — Bradshaw Circle — Durango and Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad — National Historic Landmark|
|Dedicated to Charles E. Bradshaw Jr. who established the Durango & Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad. Mr. Bradshaw saved the Silverton branch of the Denver & Rio Grande Western from abandonment in 1981 and preserved the Railroad as a National Historic Landmark. — Map (db m71079) HM|
|Colorado (La Plata County), Durango — Jack Dempsey|
|In 1915, here at 10th and Main 20 year old Colorado native Jack Dempsey the “Manassa Mauler” knocksdown [sic] Andy Malloy in a ten round fight winning $50 and going on to become world heavyweight champion in 1919. — Map (db m51813) HM|
|Colorado (La Plata County), Durango — Lime Creek Burn 1879|
|This man-caused forest fire burned 26,000 acres consuming approximately 150,000,000 board-feet of timber. Reforestation by direct seeding and planting of seedling trees was started in 1911 and continues today.
The project was financed by federal funds and contributions from the conservation-minded Colorado Federation of Women's Clubs. — Map (db m58966) HM|
|Colorado (La Plata County), Durango — The Newman Block — Historic site|
|Built in 1892 by Senator Charles Newman, pioneer merchant, miner and legislator. He maintained his office here until his death in 1906.
Major Daniel L. Sheets, cattleman and member of Colorado’s second state legislature, operated the U.S. Land Office here from 1898 through 1910.
Descendants of these early settlers of the Animas Valley gathered here to honor them in the centennial year of Colorado statehood.
August 28, 1976 — Map (db m51814) HM|
|Colorado (La Plata County), Hesperus — Dominguez - Escalante Expedition|
|On August 10, 1776, there passed by here the expedition of Fathers Francisco Atanasio Dominguez and Silvestre Velez de Escalante with eight companions. They were seeking a route to link the long established missions of New Mexico with Monterey, the recently founded capital of California. — Map (db m71613) HM|
|Colorado (La Plata County), Hesperus — Dominguez and Escalante|
|In 1776, Franciscan Fathers, Francisco Atanasio Dominguez and Silvestre Velez de Excalante and eight companions, explored what is now southern Colorado, Utah, and northern Arizona, as men of peace.
Between August and December, 1776, Dominguez and Escalante and a small group of men attempted to find an overland route between the Spanish villages in New Mexico and the Spanish missions in California.
The expedition crossed the La Plata River near what is now Hesperus. On August 10 and . . . — Map (db m71615) HM|
|Colorado (La Plata County), Hesperus — The Old Spanish Trail|
|Between 1800 and 1850, the Old Spanish Trail became a regional trade route between Santa Fe and California.
Dominguez and Escalante traveled through this valley in 1776. Within twenty-five years of their expedition this trail became a regional trade route between the Spanish outposts in what is now California and New Mexico. Under the watchful eye of the Spanish government and later the Mexican government, both legal and illegal traders ventured deep into the Great Basin to barter with . . . — Map (db m71614) HM|
|Colorado (Lake County), Leadville — David May|
May Department Stores
mercantile empire was born
in September, 1877 when
opened his first store in a tent
300 feet south of this tablet.
From 1881 to 1888 the May Store
occupied this site, at 318 Harrison Avenue
Erected by The May Company, Denver
September, 1952 Commemorating the 75th anniversary of the founding of his first store by David May. — Map (db m51809) HM|
|Colorado (Lake County), Leadville — 67 — Healy House — A Regional State Museum — Property of the State of Colorado|
|Erected 1878, by August R. Meyer, builder of Leadville’s first reduction works. Given to Leadville Association, 1936, by Nellie Healy, agent for the heirs of Daniel Healy.
Presented to the State of Colorado by said association, 1947, and established as a monument to the silver mining era of the state. — Map (db m51812) HM|
|Colorado (Lake County), Leadville — Matchless Mine|
Horace Tabor's legendary wealth came, in part, from the earth beneath this cabin. Following Mr. Tabor's death in Denver in 1899, his second wife, Baby Doe, returned to live out her life here. — Map (db m39214) HM|
|Colorado (Larimer County), Fort Collins — Antoine Janis Cabin|
|Joseph Antoine Janis was born in St. Charles, Missouri, in 1824. He made a claim on the Cache la Poudre River in 1814, intending to return later to build a home. In the summer of 1859, Antoine Janis, his Oglala wife First Elk Woman and their children moved from Fort Laramie, Wyoming, to homestead the 160-acre site west of present day La Porte, an area Janis called "the loveliest spot on earth."
Antoine Janis built this cabin of ponderosa pine, cut flat on the exterior and interior sides with . . . — Map (db m52088) HM|
|Colorado (Larimer County), Fort Collins — Auntie Stone Cabin|
|This two-story cabin is a classic example of American frontier log construction. Sixty-three year old Elizabeth "Auntie" Stone and her second husband Lewis arrived in this area in 1864. The Army granted them permission to build a private residence on the Fort Collins military reservation; this cabin remains as the only surviving structure of 22 buildings from the original military fort. The cabin doubled as the Officers Mess until the fort closed in 1867. In later years it functioned as the . . . — Map (db m51972) HM|
|Colorado (Larimer County), Fort Collins — Blunck House|
In 1905, the newly remodeled
Northern Hotel was opened by
a group of local investors. H.L.
Daily found sucess in that
venture, and prosperity led
him to have this stately family
home built in 1906. The house
was sold in 1911 to Charles F.
Blunck who had a large sheep
ranch south of town Designed
in Neo- Classical Revival Style,
the structure remained in the
Blunck family until 1953.
[ Emblems included:
American Revolution Bicentennial 1776 - . . . — Map (db m52243) HM|
|Colorado (Larimer County), Fort Collins — Carnegie Library|
|The building that today houses the Fort Collins Museum was constructed in 1903, as a public library. Steel
magnate Andrew Carnegie provided $12,000 in funds for the construction. Opened to the public on August 24,
1904, the Carnegie Library boasted 3,900 books. Local quarries near today's Horsetooth Reservoir provided the native red sandstone of the building's facade. During the November 18, 1903, cornerstone ceremony, citizens sealed contemporary newspapers and other documents in a metal . . . — Map (db m51350) HM|
|Colorado (Larimer County), Fort Collins — Donated Land for the Agricultural College — (Colorado State University)|
|Erected By The
1877 • Pioneers • 1916
In memory of the men
who donated the land
Robert Dalzell — Map (db m52105) HM|
|Colorado (Larimer County), Fort Collins — Elwood Mead — 1858 - 1936|
|As a member of the Colorado Agricultural College
faculty between 1883 and 1888, Elwood Mead established
the first instruction in irrigation engineering to be
offered by an American college or university.
This work provided the foundation for
Colorado State University's internationally
recognized reputation in
water-related research, teaching and service. — Map (db m52325) HM|
|Colorado (Larimer County), Fort Collins — Mosman House|
|This property, part of the original Camp Collins, was purchased by the Mosman family on October 5, 1891. In 1892 prominent architect, Momtezuma Fuller (1858-1925) designed this house, in a distinctive Eastlake Victorian Queen Anne architectural style. The Mosmans sold the house/property on November 18, 1905 and moved to Walden, Colorado.
W.O. Mosman operated stores and freighting companies that supplied customers from Fort Collins to North Park and Laramie. The family owned a cattle ranch on . . . — Map (db m52324) HM|
|Colorado (Larimer County), Loveland — 20 — Namaqua|
| This Memorial Is the
Property Of The State Of Colorado
Home, trading post and fort of
Mariano Modena, early trapper,
scout and pioneer.
First settlement in the
Big Thompson Valley.
Station on Overland Stage
route to California in 1862.
The State Historical Society of Colorado
The Mrs. J.N. Hall Foundation
The Namaqua Chapter, Daughters of
the American Revolution
1931 — Map (db m51194) HM|
|Colorado (Las Animas County), Trinidad — Viet-Nam War Memorial — July 4,1965 March 28,1973|
|Marker Front:Dedicated to those who gave the supreme sacrifice
Benjamin J. Belarde, USA • Gary V. Orsland, USMC • Roger A. Blatnick • Isamel B. Armanda, USMC • Peter V. Metas, USA • Bennie Romero, USA • Felidephio B. Gomez, USMC • Anthony B. Roybal, USA • Henry E. Casias, USA
To the men who served & suffered on the battlefields of Viet-Nam and on the streets of America.
A list of Viet-Nam War veterans's names is engraved . . . — Map (db m62861) WM|
|Colorado (Las Animas County), Trinidad — World War II Veterans Memorial|
|Dedicated to all men and women who served in WWII from 1941-1946
Fr. Leo Doyle S.J. , Fr. Joseph Haller S.J., Fr. Charles Robinson S.J., Fr. Victor Vifquain S.J.. Fr. Victor Dossogna
Committee: Nick G. Debono;Orval A. Thompson; Tony Massarotti; , Frank A. Delluca; Joseph Dekleva; Rae Ales Graeff — Map (db m62862) WM|
|Colorado (Logan County), Merino — 2 — Fort Wicked|
|Due west 940 feet stood
Originally Godfrey’s Ranch
Famous Overland Stage Station
One of the few posts withstanding the Indian uprising of 1864 on the road to Colorado.
Named from the bitter defence make by Holon Godfrey. — Map (db m61998) HM|
|Colorado (Logan County), Sterling — 1981 — "Dinkey Engine"|
|This engine given to the City of Sterling by the Great Eastern Sugar Company in commemoration of the industry’s contribution to the growth and prosperity of this area. This engine was used for many years hauling sugar beets within the factory compound.
Dedicated to our heritage this 19th day of September, 1981
Earl D. Franklin, Jr., Mayor
Coucil: Edith M. Evans • Marcia R. Luck • Leory R.. Reitz • Harold E. Sperber • Carl R. Waltz • William B. Williams — Map (db m62208) HM|
|Colorado (Logan County), Sterling — 34 — Battle of Summit Springs|
| 3 miles southeast from this point is the site of theBattle of Summit Springs
Last engagement with Plains Indians in Colorado, July 11, 1869. Cheyennes who raided western Kansas were attacked by General E. A. Carr with the Fifth U.S. Cavalry and Pawnee scouts under Maj. Frank North. Two white captives were held by the Indians; one (Mrs. Alderidge) was killed, the other (Mrs. Weichel) was rescued. Chief Tall Bull and 51 Indians killed. — Map (db m61997) HM|
|Colorado (Logan County), Sterling — 227 — Indian Wars 1864-1869|
|In November 1864, in southeastern Colorado, U.S. Volunteers troops attacked Black Kettle’s peaceful band of Cheyenne Indians at Sand Creek. In retaliation for the massacre and mutilation of 163 Cheyenne men, women, and children, Cheyenne warriors with their Arapaho and Sioux allies struck military and civilian targets along the South Platte River Trail. On January 7, 1865, 1,500 warriors attacked stage and telegraph stations, ranches, and wagon trains on a 100-mile front between Julesburg, . . . — Map (db m51217) HM|
|Colorado (Logan County), Sterling — Sterling’s First Public School|
|This tablet commemorates the establishment of the first public school in the Sterling settlement, October, 1875. It was taught by Carrie G. Ayres, later Mrs. J. N. Hall of Denver. The sod schoolhouse stood 3160 feet east and the sod fort built by the early settlers for protection against the Indians, 4200 feet southeast of this point — Map (db m51221) HM|
|Colorado (Logan County), Sterling — 227 — The Overland Trail|
|Call it the Pikes Peak Trail, the Denver Road, Overland Trail, or the South Platte River Trail – by any name, it dominated the movement of people and goods in Colorado between 1858 and 1867 and ranks with the great trails of American history. Travelers caught the pioneer highway at departure points dotting the Missouri River, then rolled along the Platte River through Nebraska to Julesburg, Colorado, where they turned to follow the river’s south fork to Denver, only 180 miles distant. . . . — Map (db m51215) HM|
|Colorado (Logan County), Sterling — 29 — Valley Station|
|This tablet is the Property of the State of Colorado
3.8 miles north along county road is the site of Valley Station, built in 1859 as a stagecoach station of the Leavenworth and Pike Express. Station on the Overland Trail to California, 1862-67. Indian War outpost, 1864-65. Once defended by a breastwork of sacks of shell corn.
Erected by the State Historical Society of Colorado from the Mrs. J.N. Hall Foundation and by Troop No. 16, Sterling Scouts, B.S.A.
1933 — Map (db m51214) HM|
|Colorado (Logan County), Sterling — William Shaw Hadfield|
|This tablet is erected in honor of
William Shaw Hadfield
The first white settler of Logan County, marking the site of his first sod house at Hadfield Island in 1871, three-fourths mile east.
Erected by the wife
Margaret Seibert Hadfield
under the auspices of Elbridge Gerry Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution. — Map (db m61996) HM|
|Colorado (Mesa County), Fruita — Rocky Roads — Colorado National Monument|
|The first people to witness this view were probably Indians who had to scale the steep cliffs and talus slopes. Later, ranchers dug narrow passages up into the canyons to bring their cattle to graze in the rich highland trails below.
Begun during the Great Depression and completed after World War II, scenic Rim Rock Drive remains an eloquent tribute to those who build it. Skilled workers, many from the local area, did the challenging work of drilling, blasting, and masonry while manual labor . . . — Map (db m61910) HM|
|Colorado (Mineral County), South Fork — Continental Divide Trail|
|Adventure! Hiking the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail offers you an enormous challenge.
Beginning at Mexico’s border in southern New Mexico, the country’s longest National Scenic Trail wanders through Colorado, Wyoming, and Idaho, ending in northern Montana at Canada’s border.
The trails follows the Continental Divide at various point about a fifth of the way. It may require six months or longer to completed planned expeditions in bad weather and deep snow.
The . . . — Map (db m71661) HM|
|Colorado (Mineral County), South Fork — History of a Road|
|Wolf Creek Pass! A romantic name - a beautiful but harsh setting.
Squatter-trapper Bill Wolf probably wasn't the first man across the pass, though it bears his name. Until the early 1900's, Cumbres and Elwood Passes opened the way to fertile Pagosa Country, first used by migrating bands of hunter-gatherers (4000 BC - 200 AD), later by Spanish and French explorers seeking gold in the 1700's, and finally by settlers int he mid-1800's.
The increasing wealth of lumber, not gold, . . . — Map (db m71659) HM|
|Colorado (Mineral County), South Fork — The Great Divide|
|Water! Every drop has a destiny via the continent’s backbone: the Continental Divide.
With a foot on each side of the bronze line below, you are symbolically straddling the spine of the Western Hemisphere. In North America the Divide follows the crest of the Rocky Mountains, beginning north in Alaska’s Brook Range and continuing through South America to the Strait of Magellan.
Does the Continental Divide affect our lives? You bet!
Spring thaws begin as trickles, grow to . . . — Map (db m71660)|
|Colorado (Montezuma County), Cortez — Colorado — (Four Corners)|
|Colorado Territory was created in 1861 for its gold, silver and other mineral resources. Its western boundary was designated as 32 degrees of longitude west of the Washington Meridian.
Colorado became a state in 1876. In 1878, U.S. Surveyor Rollin J. Reeves started from the Four Corners Monument and marked a line going north along the boundary of the State of Colorado and the Utah Territory, with a team of surveyors using a 66-foot-long chain and a transit/compass made of wood, glass and . . . — Map (db m36527) HM|
|Colorado (Montezuma County), Cortez — Mesa Verde Administrative District|
|Mesa Verde Administrative District
has been designated a
This site possesses national significance
in commemorating the history of
the United States of America. — Map (db m58964) HM|
|Colorado (Montezuma County), Cortez — Prehistoric Mesa Verde Reservoirs|
Civil Engineering Landmark
[American Society of Civil Engineering
Prehistoric Mesa Verde Reservoirs
Mesa Verde's industrious Ancestral Puebloans designed, constructed, and maintained Morefield, Box Elder, Far View and Sagebrush Reservoirs for domestic water-storage between A.D. 750 and 1180. — Map (db m58965) HM|
|Colorado (Montezuma County), Cortez — Yucca House National Monument|
|Yucca House National Monument Dec. 19, 1919. A fine example of a valley pueblo being held by National Park Service — Map (db m71498) HM|
|Colorado (Montezuma County), Dolores — Big Bend and McPhee|
|In 1776 the year of our independence, a family was led by two Catholic priests, father Dominguez and Escalante. They camped in a meadow on the Dolores River which in 105 years became the town of Big Bend.
Big Bend had several saloons, a saw mill, a hotel, two
general merchants, a meat company and the Office of
Land. Big Bend was abandoned in 1891, when the narrow
gauge railroad reached the area.
In 1926 the logging town of McPhee was established. It was abandoned in 1948, when a major . . . — Map (db m52402) HM|
|Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde — Canyon Barriers — Mesa Verde National Park|
|Surrounded by deep canyons, villages here seem isolated, cut off from people on other mesas. Look closely at these cliffs and imagine hand and toe trails pecked into the sheer sandstone. These vertical trails were the Anasazi’s highways; steep climbs were part of their daily routine.
Throughout the Mesa Verde area there is strong evidence of cooperation and exchange: ceremonial structures like Sun Temple check dams, widespread advances in pottery and architecture. The Mesa Verde culture . . . — Map (db m71206) HM|
|Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde — Oak Tree House — Mesa Verde National Park|
| Adapting to Alcoves To level the sloping alcove floor, the Anasazi filled in behind retaining walls. The altered floor not only supported rooms but also provided working space and a safe play area for children.
Oak Tree House appears to utilize every inch of alcove space. Some apartments rose four stories to the roof of the inner alcove. There are additional storage rooms along an upper ledge. Oak Tree House contains about 50 rooms and 6 kivas.
(Inscription under the photo on . . . — Map (db m71209) HM|
|Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde — Pithouse Life — Mesa Verde National Park|
|There is an enormous gap between identifying pithouse features—the hollows and scattered stones—and visualizing the inhabitants’ daily lives. Set in the four corner post holes, timbers supported a ceiling that was probably head-high. Above the firepit there was probably a smoke hole, which also may have been the pithouse entrance. Some features are more revealing. Grinding Corn The grinding stone and slab - mano and metate - symbolize the Anasazi's new ties to the mesa top. . . . — Map (db m71203) HM|
|Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde — Split-Level History — Mesa Verde National Park|
| Mesa-top and Alcove Living Although the Puebloan used the cliff alcoves throughout the entire time they lived in Mesa Verde, the cliff dwellings themselves were not built until the final 75-100 years of occupation. For over 600 years these people lived primarily on the mesa tops.
Of 4000 ruins within the park only 600 are cliff dwellings. All of these cliff dwellings were built and occupied in A.D. 1200 and 1300. — Map (db m71207) HM|
|Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde National Park — A Monument to Time|
|The rocks that house Mesa Verde's cliff dwellings have their own stories to tell.
During the late Cretasceous period (about 90 million years ago) much of North America, including southwest Colorado and the present Rocky Mountains, was covered by a shallow inland sea.
Thousands of feet of marine and shoreline sediments were deposited and now form the rocks of Mesa Verde: shale, sandstone, coal, and siltstone.
Uplift and Erosion
Within the last 65 million . . . — Map (db m71530)|
|Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde National Park — Far View Reservoir|
|Imagine this mesa top in A.D. 1150 with fields of corn, beans, and squash; supplemented with wild plants such as amaranth, tubers, and sunflowers. Children could be seen watering corn with clay water jars (ollas), and young men could be seen cutting piñon and juniper trees to expand the gardens for future years.
The Ancestral Puebloans were attracted to the mesa top by fertile soil, a relatively long growing season, and an ample amount of precipitation for “dryland” farming. In . . . — Map (db m71901) HM|
|Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde National Park — Fire Temple|
Though the large alcove below is filled with Puebloan construction, there is no evidence of any habitation. The central pit – too large for domestic cook fires – held layer upon layer of ashes. Fire Temple’s size and carefully crafted, symmetrical features suggest community-wide ceremonial gathers.
New Fire House
To the right is New Fire House. Though it lacks the alcove expanse of Cliff Palace or even Oak Tree House, this split-level village makes . . . — Map (db m72559) HM|
|Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde National Park — Mancos Valley|
|The town of Mancos, in the valley before you, historically served as the "Gateway to Mesa Verde."
As word spread of the Wetherills' "discoveries," tourists flocked to the area. The Rio Grande Southern Railroad, serving Durano, Mancos, and Dolores since 1891, was reliable and the easiest part of the journey to Mesa Verde. The rest of the trip to the cliff dwellings was quite difficult.
Prior to 1914, visitors used the Wetherills' original route from Mancos to Spruce Tree House. The . . . — Map (db m71529) HM|
|Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde National Park — Natural Seep Springs|
|As you travel about Mesa Verde look for seep springs — ready sources of fresh water for the Ancestral Puebloans.
Where is the Water?
Moisture, in the form of rainfall or snowmelt, percolates through porous sandstone layers until it reaches a dense, impermeable layer of shale. Prevented from percolating farther downward, the water is forced to the rock surface resulting in a seep spring in the canyon wall.
Throughout Mesa Verde, seep springs can be found at the base of the . . . — Map (db m71531)|
|Colorado (Morgan County), Fort Morgan — 224 — Fort Morgan|
|Junction Station, the first settlement at this site, suffered numerous Indian attacks similar to those that raged all along the South Platte during the mid 1860s. To protect the crucial crossroads, which joined the South Platte River Trail with its Denver cutoff, the U.S. Army established Camp Junction in 1864. In 1866 Fort Morgan, roughly the size of a city block, was completed. The post defended the trail, but traffic soon shifted north to the transcontinental rail corridor, and Fort Morgan . . . — Map (db m47322) HM|
|Colorado (Morgan County), Fort Morgan — Old Fort Morgan|
|Occupied from 1864 to 1868 and the divergence of the Denver Cut Off from the Overland Trail
This monument is erected by Fort Morgan Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution
1912 — Map (db m51213) HM|
|Colorado (Morgan County), Fort Morgan — Rainbow Arch Bridge|
|Spanning the South Platte River, the Rainbow Arch Bridge carried vehicular traffic from its completion in 1923 until its closure in 1988. Engineer James B. Marsh of Des Moines, Iowa, designed the structure in 1922. Denver bridge contractor Charles G. Sheely built it in 1922-23 for just over $69,000. With its eleven 90-foot concrete arches, the bridge extended over 1,100 feet. A year after it was finished, light standards were installed that linked the bridge visually with Fort Morgan's Main . . . — Map (db m47194) HM|
|Colorado (Morgan County), Fort Morgan — 224 — Sugar Beets|
|Sugar beets didn't become Colorado's first major cash crop by accident. Scientists, businessmen, and newspapers spent thirty years singing the praises of this starchy root, which as early as the 1860s was found to be perfectly suited to Colorado's climate and soils. Among their other virtues, beets provided a double harvest - the root yielded sugar, while the rest of the plant was marketable as livestock feed. It took decades for local planters to embrace this unfamiliar crop, but when they . . . — Map (db m47321) HM|
|Colorado (Morgan County), Fort Morgan — Watching River Wildlife|
|Take a few moments on this spot to explore the South Platte River and the riparian woodland that runs beside it. You'll discover that this ribbon of life is a great place for wildlife watching.|
Where the South Platte flows through prairie, farm, and ranch, riparian areas provide habitat for a great diversity of wildlife. The river, sandbars and adjacent woodlands offer food, water, shelter, nesting and denning sites, and a migration pathway.
Half of Colorado's wildlife species use riparian . . . — Map (db m47316) HM
|Colorado (Otero County), La Junta — A Cast of Colorful Characters — Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site|
John C. Fremont
His name appears on almost any roll of Western pathbreakers. Fremont’s expeditions were instrumental in opening the Southwest. He visited the fort on three of his first four expeditions to the West.
During her short stay, Susan Magoffin chronicled fort happenings. On July 30, 1846, she wrote “The fort is crowded to overflowing. Colonel Kearny has arrived and it seems the world is coming with him.” Soon after she suffered a . . . — Map (db m71849) HM|
|Colorado (Otero County), La Junta — An Adobe Outpost — Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site|
A Mud Castle Rises
In 1833, Bent, St. Vrain & Company built a trading post on the semi-arid reaches of the Arkansas River on the U.S. border with Mexico. Few if any buildings in the American West approached Bent’s Fort in size and importance. The walls were fourteen or more feet high and thirty inches thick. Except for some support timbers, everything was built of adobe. It added up to a lot of bricks.
From Taos, 150 Mexican laborers were hired to do the work. Water was . . . — Map (db m71847) HM|
|Colorado (Otero County), La Junta — Edward Dorris|
Died July 21, 1865
Aged 31 years
2 Ms. 28 Ds.
EDWARD Thou Hast Gone to Rest
In This Far Country of the West
Brothers and Friends Mourn and Weep
Thou in this Tomb Dost Sweetly Sleep
Edward Dorris, a stagecoach driver, died of a sunstroke or a heart attack enroute to Bent’s Old Fort, a Barlow and Sanderson stagecoach station in the 1860's. Like others who had gone before him, the hardship of life on the Santa Fe Trail ended here at Bent’s Fort. Of the . . . — Map (db m71850) HM|
|Colorado (Otero County), La Junta — Mountain Men to Merchants — Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site|
I wish I was capable to do Bent and St. Vrain justice for the kindness received at their hands. I can only say their equals were never in the mountains.
- Christopher “Kit” Carson
Charles Bent led trade caravans across the sometimes hostile prairie for sixteen years. His ties to the Mexican community, his public service, and his reputation led to his appointment as New Mexico’s first American governor in 1846. Just months after his appointment, . . . — Map (db m71848) HM|
|Colorado (Otero County), La Junta — Traveling Through History — Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site|
|For centuries, the Arkansas River Valley has been an important travel corridor that has shaped our nation’s history.
Long before the fort was built, wildlife, native peoples, European explorers, trappers, and traders traveled through this river valley. When Mexico was opened to American traders in 1821, the Santa Fe Trail developed. The trail followed routes traveled by the early inhabitants of the region.
Over time, the Arkansas River Valley saw additional use as a strategic military . . . — Map (db m71851) HM|
|Colorado (Otero County), La Junta — Welcome to the Borderlands — Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site|
In winters northers howled ... In summer temperatures climbed above the hundred-degree mark ... Spirits shriveled as respiratory organs dried; lips cracked and eyes burned ... it took a particular kind of spiritual iron to survive ...
- David Lavender, Historian and Author
A Cultural Crossroads
You are now standing near the border of the U.S. and Mexico from the 1820s to the 1840s. The Arkansas River served as the international boundary between two nations. Into . . . — Map (db m71846) HM|
|Colorado (Otero County), Rocky Ford — George Washington Swink|
Born in Kentucky in 1836
Came to Colorado in 1871
Established a general merchandise store and (trading post) at a rocky ford on the Arkansas River.
Moved store and family to present site in 1876, when Santa Fe Railroad was extended to Pueblo
Became postmaster at Rocky Ford 1875 to 1884.
He originated Watermelon Day in 1878
Later the famous Rocky Ford Cantaloupe.
Promoted construction of irrigation systems and
general farming in Arkansas Valley.
Was promoter . . . — Map (db m70390) HM|
|Colorado (Prowers County), Granada — Amache - Granada Relocation Center|
Marker No. 1:
During the first months of World II, the United States Government ordered over 110,000 men, women, and children of Japanese descent to leave their homes, and incarcerated them in remote, military-style camps. The government order came in response to a rising tide of racial prejudice against Japanese Americans and growing national security fears, which prevailed over the protection of individual civil liberties. Yet two-thirds of these individuals were . . . — Map (db m62111) HM|
|Colorado (Prowers County), Granada — Granada Relocation Center (Amache)|
|Granda Relocation Center
has been designated a
National Historic Landmark
(A close Japanese translation:)
During World War II, more than 7,300 Japanese Americans
were interned here following their forced . . . — Map (db m70747) HM|
|Colorado (Pueblo County), Pueblo — Fort Pueblo — Site of Indian Massacre — Dec 25, 1854|
|This memorial commemorating the Old Pueblo Fort Site erected by The Arkansas Valley & Pueblo Chapters, Daughters of the American Revolution. Dedicated Nov. 17, 1923.
On Christmas Day, 1854, a massacre occurred at Fort Pueblo on the Arkansas. The fifteen men of the fort were killed and one woman (Chepita) and two boys carried away by the Indians. — Map (db m64755) HM|
|Colorado (Pueblo County), Pueblo — Teresita Sandoval — (1811–1894)|
|Teresita Sandoval was one of the daring souls that arrived at the Pueblo settlement in
1841. Like other women of that time, she would witness and be partner to changes in her
country. She departed from her traditional life as the wife of Manuel Suazo and followed
her heart and Mathew Kinkead to the Arkansas River, where her extended family
endeavored to establish life at El Pueblo Trading Post (1842). Described as “pretty as a
peach,” Teresita captivated another Englishman, . . . — Map (db m64751) HM|
|Colorado (Pueblo County), Vineland — 161 — San Carlos de los Jupes|
|By 1700 Comanches moved south from the northern Rockies onto the plains of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico. They raided the Apaches and Spanish settlements from the late 1600s until 1779 when the Governor of New Mexico, Don Juan Bautista de Anza, decisively defeated a large group, led by Cuerno Verde in a battle near the mountains to the southwest of here. The Comanches signed a peace treaty in 1786, and a year later the asked for Spanish assistance to build a permanent farm village. . . . — Map (db m64775) HM|
|Colorado (Sedgwick County), Julesburg — A Moving Story|
|When Jules Beni established his trading post here in the mid-1850's, he unknowingly set the stage for a series of four towns that would bear his name. Strategically located at the Upper California Crossing of the South Platte River, the first Julesburg supplied the needs of settlers and immigrants on their way west.|
The "Earie" Tale of Jules Beni History remembers Jules Beni as a disreputable character. The stage line fired him after accusing him of theft and other illegal . . . — Map (db m47346) HM
|Colorado (Sedgwick County), Julesburg — Blowing in the Wind|
|Gap-toothed and grumbling, the old windmill keeps vigil over the valley where a gravel road has replaced horse and wagon trails. The windmill is more than a machine - it symbolizes survival.|
The windmill grew up with the American West, supplying water for people, crops and livestock. Between 1880 and 1935, more than 6,500,000 windmills were sold in the United States.
Once in operation, they rarely needed replacing. Their long life and the arrival of electricity made sales drop . . . — Map (db m47343) HM
|Colorado (Sedgwick County), Julesburg — 223 — Colorado's Wildlife Story|
|From the eastern prairie to the Rocky Mountains and the western plateau country beyond, Colorado enjoys a rich abundance of wildlife. Protecting this heritage has been a challenge, and Colorado's success is due to the efforts and cooperation of people like you.|
Early settlers described the West as a vast land filled with wildlife. But by the late 1800s, population growth, uncontrolled hunting and fishing, and changes in land use had taken their toll.
I desire to say a word in favor of . . . — Map (db m47323) HM
|Colorado (Sedgwick County), Julesburg — Fourth Julesburg|
|In the 1880's, a fourth Julesburg developed at the junction of the Transcontinental Railroad and the Denver Branch of the Union Pacific. Originally known as Denver Junction, the town was soon renamed Julesburg, presumably the last of Jules Beni's namesakes.|
No matter what its location, Julesburg has always been an important waystation on the great Overland Route. From its early days as an 1850's trading post, a Pony Express home station, end of track for the Union Pacific Railroad, start of . . . — Map (db m47367) HM
|Colorado (Sedgwick County), Julesburg — If at First You Don't Succeed|
|Cheyenne, Arapaho and Sioux warriors burned the first Julesburg in early 1865. The second Julesburg was formed here, just outside the Fort Sedgwick Military Reservation. At its peak, the community included a store, blacksmith shop, billiards saloon, stage station and two warehouses. The 1867 arrival of the Union Pacific Railroad north of the river ended the grandiose visions of town planners. Once again Julesburg was on the move - this time to meet the railroad.|
The site of the second . . . — Map (db m47340) HM
|Colorado (Sedgwick County), Julesburg — Julesburg in Ashes|
|The senseless slaughter of peaceful Cheyenne on November 29, 1864, at Sand Creek in Southeastern Colorado united the Cheyenne, Sioux and Arapaho Indians.|
Near here on January 7, 1865, a small band of Cheyenne Dog Soldiers attacked a stagecoach and wagon train. When news of the raid reached Camp Rankin, a small military post nearby, Captain Nicholas J. O'Brien and 37 troopers of Company F, 7th Iowa Cavalry, set out in pursuit.
The war party retreated into the hills southeast of here and the . . . — Map (db m47344) HM
|Colorado (Sedgwick County), Julesburg — 223 — Last Days of the Buffalo|
|For thousands of years, these grasslands have supported tens of millions of buffalo, from the giant species of ancient times to the smaller version of today. As North America's largest land animal, buffalo dominated life on the Great Plains. In 1851, Cheyenne chief Yellow Wolf reported to an Indian agent the staggering news that from the foothills of the mountains to the forks of the Platte, the great herds had largely vanished. In fact, starvation stalked the Cheyenne villages. Twenty years . . . — Map (db m47319) HM|
|Colorado (Sedgwick County), Julesburg — Nearby Things to See and Do — Julesburg, Colo.|
| 1. DePoorter Lakeis located off U.S. 385, just south of Julesburg. It offers fishing, picnic tables, restrooms and a wheelchair accessible pathway around the lake.|
2. Hippodrome Theatre is newly restored and a source of community pride. This historic theatre, originally built in 1919, is once again providing films and other entertainment.
3. The Depot Museum is a relocated and remodeled Union Pacific Depot. It showcases Indian artifacts, relics from the four Julesburgs and . . . — Map (db m47371) HM
|Colorado (Sedgwick County), Julesburg — Neither Rain Nor Sleet|
|The Pony Express mail service between St. Joseph, Missouri and Sacramento, California only lasted a short time in 1860-61, but its romantic image continues to captivate the hearts of the American public. In only 19 months, its riders covered over 600,000 miles and carried nearly 35,000 pieces of mail.|
Russell, Majors and Waddell established nearly 200 relay and home stations along the route. Horses were exchanged at relay stations located every ten to twelve miles. Riders were expected to . . . — Map (db m47347) HM
|Colorado (Sedgwick County), Julesburg — 19 — Old Julesburg|
|Due North 1235 Feet is the Original Site of Old Julesburg, named for Jules Beni, whose trading post was established at the "Upper Crossing" of the Platte prior to 1860, junction of Oregon and Overland Trails. Pony Express Station, 1860-61. Overland Stage Station, 1859-65. Burned in Indian raid, Feb. 2, 1865. — Map (db m47348) HM|
|Colorado (Sedgwick County), Julesburg — Overland City|
|Original home station Apr. 3, 1860 - Nov. 20, 1861|
Reverse "The Leavenworth & Pike's Peak Express Company" started using the Platte River route from Leavenworth, Kansas to Denver, Colorado by August of 1859. A new station was built here at the Junction serving both Salt Lake City going to the northwest and Denver to the southwest. Located 1,212 feet north, "Julesburg" was named after Jules Beni their first station agent.
In February of 1860 a new company known as "The Central . . . — Map (db m47350) HM