|District of Columbia, Downtown — Alexander Robey Shepherd|
| Governor, Territory of the District of Columbia (1873-1874) born Washington, D.C. January 31, 1835 died Batopilas, Mexico, September 12, 1902
buried Rock Creek Cemetery, Washington, D.C. Civil War Union veteran, entrepreneur, civil leader advanced L'Enfant's plan through public works Introduced modern silver mining in Mexico statue dedicated 1909, removed 1979, returned 2005 Plaque placed by The Association of Oldest Inhabitants of the District of Columbia — Map (db m65158) HM|
|District of Columbia, Foggy Bottom — José Artigas Memorial — "Statues of the Liberators"|
| inscription, south face of base:
Father of the Independence of Uruguay
inscription, north face of base:
From the people of Uruguay to the people of the United States of America
inscriptions, on basin rim:
“The liberty of America is my design and its attainment my only objective.” — Map (db m67168) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — "Treat Me Refined" — Lift Every Voice — Georgia Ave./Pleasant Plains Heritage Trail|
|The House at 3017 Sherman Avenue once was a boardinghouse for Howard University students. In 1923 a determined and talented young woman from the tiny town of Eatonville, Florida, lived here while earning an Associates Degree at Howard. In a short time she would win international acclaim as novelist and anthropologist Zora Neale Hurston.
Hungry for culture, Hurston devoured Howard's opportunities. She performed in campus theater, played violin, joined Zeta Phi Bet sorority, and co-founded . . . — Map (db m65674) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — A Gathering Place for Washingtonians — Meridian Hill Park, National Historic Landmark|
|Since Meridian Hill Park opened in 1936, Washingtonians from diverse neighborhoods surrounding the park have gathered here for performances, community events, and political protest.
When tens of thousands of people flocked to Washington D.C. in the late 1930s and 40s for federal jobs created by the New Deal and World War II, government agencies created a series of "Starlight" concerts in the park. From 1941 to 1944, Washingtonians lined the cascades and reflecting pool on summer evenings . . . — Map (db m63643) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — A Hilltop for Heroes and Horse Thieves — Meridian Hill Park National Historic Landmark|
|It is perhaps no surprise that Commodore David Porter, hero of the War of 1812, chose Meridian Hill on which to build his estate. From this knoll, Porter had a direct line of sight to the President's mansion. Though no match for the grand buildings it looked down upon, Porter's manor house was a handsome brick and stucco structure with a large front portico.
Years later, while in use as an Army hospital, Porter's mansion burned to the ground. It was never rebuilt.
The grand vistas of . . . — Map (db m63740) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 6 — A Neighborhood For Everyone — Tour of Duty — Barracks Row Heritage Trail|
|THE BUILDINGS NEAR THIS CORNER were built during a wave of private development that began after the United States won the Spanish-American War in 1898, and became a world power for the first time. As America flexed its muscles, the world — and Eighth Street — felt the impact. In response, the Marines began rebuilding the Barracks in 1901, and the Navy Yard expanded the following year. The growing work force needed more housing and services too.|
New buildings soon filled in . . . — Map (db m57119) HM
|District of Columbia, Washington — A Streetcar Named Brightwood — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|The Large Structure across Georgia Avenue opened in 1909 as a "car barn" for the Brightwood Railway. The facility could service more than 40 streetcars at once, and often did so late at night. As a young boy in the 1950s, Thomas Reardon remembered the busy barn as "a scary place" where streetcars' lights gleamed in the darkness "like the eyes of monsters." Powered at first by horses, the streetcars by 1893 ran on electricity provided by overhead lines. Congress prohibited overhead lines . . . — Map (db m64862) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Alva Belmont House|
|Of this House
The oldest part is one of the earliest buildings in this region.
Robert Sewall bought the property and enlarged the house in 1799, and rebuilt and greatly altered it after war damage in 1814.
Residence and office of Albert Gallatin secretary of the treasury, 1801 - 1813. Here he directed the financing of the Louisiana Purchase from France (1803), which nearly doubled the then area of the United States.
Described in the United States Senate as one of the most . . . — Map (db m69271) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — An American Meridian — Meridian Hill Park, National Historic Landmark|
|Thomas Jefferson Believed the surveyor's of the nation's capital city should set a new American Meridian, a north-south line running through both poles and the American continent.
This reference line, longitude 0° 0°, would aid navigation, mapmaking, and the development of property boundaries, all key to settling the capital and new western territories. But most of all, Jefferson wanted to reinforce America's Independence from Britain, where the Prime Meridian was established to serve the . . . — Map (db m63770) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Art for the People — Meridian Hill Park, National Historic Landmark|
|Congress ordered sculptures installed at Meridian Hill Park long before the park's completion. So many sculptures were authorized that Horace Peaslee, the park's architect, called for a moratorium on installations. He told the Commission of the Fine Arts that the park's master plan was in jeopardy unless future memorials were restricted to decorative urns designed for that purpose.
Nature, vandals, and thieves have long threatened the park's public art. For years, Joan of Arc did not wield . . . — Map (db m63658) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Bartholdi Fountain — United States Botanic Garden|
|The Bartholdi Fountain was created by Frederic Auguste Bartholdi (1834 - 1904), the French sculptor who also designed the Statue of Liberty. It was first exhibited in Philadelphia at the International Exposition of 1876. The fountain was purchased by the U.S. Congress in 1877 for six thousand dollars and placed on the Botanic Garden grounds, then situated in the corner of the Mall. Moved to its present location in 1932, the Bartholdi Fountain was restored in 1986.
The fountain, intended to . . . — Map (db m66372) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Battleground National Cemetery — Rock Creek Park|
|During the late evening of July 12, 1864, 40 Union soldiers that perished while defending Washington DC from a two day Confederate attack (known as the Battle of Fort Stevens) were laid to rest here in what was once an apple orchard. President Abraham Lincoln, who attended the burial ceremony, dedicated the land as hallowed ground, making Battlefield National Cemetery one of America's small national cemeteries.
Between the 1870s and early 1900s a Superintendent's Lodge, rostrum, flagpole, . . . — Map (db m63644) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Battleground National Cemetery — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|After the rebels were turned back as the Battle of Fort Stevens ended in 1864, scores of Union Soldiers lay cold and silent. Forty-one of them are buried here in this tiny plot dedicated to their sacrifice.
President Abraham Lincoln, who observed the battle, spoke at the dedication. At barely one acre, Battleground National Cemetery is one of the nation's smallest.
Memorial Day once drew hundreds to this hallowed place. The holiday was established by veterans in 1868 to honor the Civil . . . — Map (db m63649) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Billy Simpson's House of Seafood and Steaks — African American Heritage Trail|
| 3515 Georgia Avenue
Billy Simpson's provided DC's African American community with an upscale venue for dining and socializing in the period when segregation was ending and African Americans claimed a larger role in city affairs. The restaurant (open 1956-1978) attracted intellectuals, professionals, entertainers ,and African diplomats. Politicians, government officials, and journalists debated the issues of the day at roundtables hosted here by owner, community activist and . . . — Map (db m66181) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Black and Gray Squirrels — A historic tale of animal rescue — Backyard Biology|
| "We ask every American to lend a hand to save Silver-Tail" -- William Temple Hornaday (1913)
When the gray squirrel nearly disappeared
The gray squirrel once was considered such a pest that bounties were put on it. In 1749, Pennsylvania paid three pence for each dead squirrel. In Ohio, tax payers could use carcasses to pay part of their taxes. By 1890, the gray squirrel had nearly been exterminated.
National Zoo helps save gray squirrel!
Scientists, including William . . . — Map (db m67836) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Bradford Pear Tree|
|(Pyrus calleryana Bradford)
An ornamental shade tree developed by
Planted May 2, 1966
Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson
Orville L. Freeman, Secretary of Agriculture
Va. & Md. 4-H Clubs
In behalf of National Beautification
Replaced May 2, 1987 — Map (db m70457) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Campus to Army Camps and Back Again — Meridian Hill Park, National Historic Landmark|
|President Monroe singed a charter in 1821 that established Columbian College on a site north of Florida Avenue between 14th and 15th Streets, Columbian College moved to Foggy Bottom in 1912 and became George Washington University, but the original campus area continued to be called "College Hill."
During the Civil War, the Union Army commandeered the farmland on which Meridian Hill Park would eventually be built. The Army built camps there with names like Cameron, Relief, Carver, and . . . — Map (db m63771) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Carl Lutz|
Carl Lutz (1895-1975)
Swiss diplomat, Righteous Among the Nations
Who represented the interests of
the United States of America
in Budapest, Hungary
during World War II
and saved the lives of thousands of Jews. ✯
Carl Lutz Foundation
Government of the Republic of Hungary
Hungarian American Coalition
Lantos Foundation for Human Rights and Justice — Map (db m69110) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Charles R. Drew and Lenore Robbins Drew — 3324 Sherman Avenue, NW, Apartment 1 — African American Heritage Trail, Washington DC|
|Dr. Charles R. Drew (1904-1950), renowned for his blood plasma research, was associated with Howard University College of Medicine during most of his career. In 1941 Drew joined a national effort to set up a blood banking process but left because U.S. Government policy segregated blood by race of donor. Drew later died after an automobile accident in North Carolina. The story that he died because a white hospital refused to treat him is a myth, although this tragedy did befall others during the . . . — Map (db m65523) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 2 — Commerce|
|Connecticut Avenue's commercial corridor, between Macomb and Ordwary, reflects changes in retail that followed changes in modes of transportation from 1890 streetcar, to automobiles, to the Cleveland Park Metro Station in 1981. Individual stores on the east side reflect the retail pattern in the 1920's. The Park and Shop, was a new concept then, with stores connected by an exterior awning and a revolutionary shared parking lot.
Artist: Eleanor Oliver — Map (db m67824) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 3 — Commerce and Community — Tour of Duty — Barracks Row Heritage Trail|
|The home/music studio of John Esputa, Jr., once occupied the site of 511 Eighth Street (Shakespeare Theatre’s rehearsal hall.) Among Esputa’s students in 1861 was eight-year-old John Philip Sousa, whose irresistible marches made him one of America’s first musical superstars.
The street’s small gable-roofed buildings probably pre-date Sousa’s era, while the larger buildings were erected during a post-Civil War building boom. In 1877 Adam DeMoll contributed the two- story brick building on . . . — Map (db m64884) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Cortelyou House — 1891 — Residence of George B. Cortelyou|
|This residence was designed by architect Appleton P. Clark, Jr. and built in 1891 for Daniel Birtwell. In 1900, George Bruce Cortelyou occupied the house when he became secretary to President McKinley. Cortelyou continued to serve in public office as secretary to president Teddy Roosevelt, the first Secretary of Commerce and Labor, Chairman of the Republican Party, Postmaster General, and Secretary of the Treasury.
In 1909, after his public service in Washington, Cortelyou became the . . . — Map (db m69292) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Creating the "City Beautiful" — Meridian Hill Park, National Historic Landmark|
|At the beginning of its second century, the nation's capital was changing dramatically. In 1902, the United States Senate adopted a number of recommendations from the Senate Park Commission, popularly known as the McMillan Commission. By 1910, a federally appointed group of architects and designers, the Commission of Fine Arts, was directing the rehabilitation of the
National Mall. Under their supervision, construction began on several new buildings near the Capitol, including monuments to . . . — Map (db m63940) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Design Challenges — Meridian Hill Park, National Historic Landmark|
|Limited funds and dramatic change in elevation at the Meridian Hill Park site -- falling 75 feet from north to south -- challenged the Commission of Fine Arts and their designers. The 16th Street edge required massive retaining walls to transition from the upper park to the sidewalk at street level.
Budget constraints meant the designers could not specify natural stone for the desired Renaissance forms. To find a solution, the park's architect in charge, Horace Peaslee, turned to the . . . — Map (db m63944) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — First Bloom — Lady Bird Johnson Park — George Washington Memorial Parkway|
”To me beautification means our total concern for the physical and human quality we pass on to our children and the future.”
- Lady Bird Johnson
When kids connect with national parks, the result is conservation. Through the First Bloom program, sponsored by the National Park Foundation, children learn to garden with plants native to our region, to remove invasive weeds, to beautify their own communities, and to protect park landscapes for other people to discover . . . — Map (db m53699) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Fort DeRussy|
|One of the Civil War Defenses of Washington. Constructed on the site in 1861 Fort DeRussy commanded the deep valley of Rock Creek. Its armament consisted of 11 guns and mortars including a 100-pounder Parrott Rifle. — Map (db m20823) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Fort Reno — Top of the Town — Tenleytown Heritage Trail|
|To your right is "Point Reno" the highest point in Washington -- 409 feet above sea level, to be exact.
This unsurpassed vantage brought the Civil War (1861-1865) to Tenleytown. After the Union defeat at Bull Run in July 1861, northern troops took the Dyer farm here to establish Fort Pennsylvania. Soldiers cleared the farmhouse, orchards fields and, as neighbor Ann Forrest Green noted with alarm, "every particle of poultry." The fort, renamed in 1863 to honor Major General Jesse Lee Reno, . . . — Map (db m63883) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Frederick Douglass — (1817 - 1895)|
|Orator - Publisher - Statesman
Precursor of the Civil Rights Movement
An ex-slave who rose to world renown as an abolitionist and who served in high government posts under presidents Grant through Cleveland, Frederick Douglass resided in this building from 1871 to 1877.
Plaque erected 1966
Capitol Hill Restoration Society — Map (db m69264) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 16 — From Beer Garden to Park View — Lift Every Voice — Georgia Ave./Pleasant Plains Heritage Trail|
|"Innumerable colored Chinese lanterns ... shedding that dim uncertain light which is the delight of lovers and the poetry of beer drinking" -- Washington Post, June 1879
Back when this area was open fields, German Americans created an amusement park. Washingtonians flocked to Schuetzen (marksmanship) Park for target shooting, concerts, dancing, bowling, and picnics. The breezy, hilltop beer garden drew hundreds on hot summer nights. The Schuetzen Verein (Marksmanship . . . — Map (db m66493) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Herb Cottage — "Old Baptistry"|
| The Herb Cottage was built as the temporary baptistry of Washington National Cathedral. The first Bishop of Washington, Henry Yates Satterlee, commissioned this building from architect T. Henry Randall (1862-1905). It was begun in 1903 and completed in the spring of 1904, several years before the Cathedral itself was begun (in 1907). The entrance to the building was originally through its west door facing Wisconsin Avenue, the major point of access to the Cathedral grounds.
As the . . . — Map (db m40993) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 3 — Hold the Mayo! — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|English, Irish and German settlers, as well as enslaved and free African Americans, were the first non-natives to claim Brightwood. Farmers dominated until the Civil War. Then in the 1890s electric streetcars allowed government workers to live here and ride to jobs downtown. By the 1940s, sons and daughters of Jewish, Greek, and Italian immigrants had arrived, often leaving crowded conditions in older neighborhoods.
Abraham Posin, founder of Posin's Deli and Bakery, was typical of the . . . — Map (db m65606) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Howard Hall — African American Heritage Trail, Washington D.C.|
| 607 Howard Place, NW
Howard Hall was completed in 1869 as the home of white Civil War General Oliver Otis Howard (1830-1909), for whom Howard University was named. As commissioner of the Bureau of Refuges, Freedman and Abandoned Lands (Freedman's Bureau), General Howard led efforts to provide land, education, and legal rights to the formerly enslaved. He was a founder of the university, and its president from 1869 to 1874. After his death, the university purchased the property, using . . . — Map (db m65707) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 7 — If These Mansions Could Talk — A Fitting Tribute — Logan Circle Heritage Trail|
|Over the years most of Logan Circle's Mansions experienced numerous uses and have returned to private occupancy. For example 15 Logan Circle was completed in 1877 for Lt. Cmdr. Seth Ledyard Phelps, a Civil War Veteran appointed by President Ulysses S. Grant to the Board of Commissioners (the body that governed DC from 1874 until 1967). In 1891 the Kingdom of Korea (Joseon Dynasty) purchased number 15 for its first embassy in the United States. Just before Imperial Japan annexed Korea in . . . — Map (db m66750) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Ingrid Bergman|
|Lisner Auditorium was built in 1946, boasting the biggest stage south of New York City. On its opening night, October 29, 1946, the famed 29 year-old actress Ingrid Bergman was starring in Joan of Lorraine. When Ms. Bergman found out that African-Americans could not attend the performance due to the city's Jim Crow laws, she made her displeasure at segregation known to all who would listen. Unable to void her contract, she performed the play but inspired protests and picket lines outside of . . . — Map (db m58111) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — James Buchanan — Diplomat, Statesman, and Fifteenth President of the United States — Meridian Hill Park, National Historic Landmark|
|Buchanan was our only bachelor president and relied upon his orphaned niece, Harriet Lane, to act as his First Lady during his years in the White House (1857 to 1861). In her estate, Harriet Lane Johnson made a bequest to fund a memorial to her uncle. Designed by architect William Gordon Beecher and sculpted by Maryland artist Hans Schuler, the memorial was dedicated on June 26, 1930. It features a bronze statue of Buchanan with stone figures of Law and Diplomacy at each end, representing . . . — Map (db m63631) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — John J. Donovan, Jr.|
| This Plaque is Dedicated to
John J. Donovan, Jr.
who was a leading figure in Washington, D.C. commercial real estate development for over three decades (mostly with Oliver Carr Companies) until his retirement in 2005. John directed the design and development for many of our city's finest Class A office buildings, with a special emphasis on those projects which incorporated and harmonized both historic and contemporary elements. Thus it is fitting that he be honored here in this . . . — Map (db m40992) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Jones-Haywood School of Ballet — African American Heritage Trail, Washington DC|
|1200 Delafield Place, N.W.
The Jones Haywood School of Ballet was founded here by Doris W. Jones and Claire H. Haywood in 1941. Their Capitol Ballet Company, established in 1961, remained the nation's only predominantly African American, professional ballet troupe through the 1960s. Students have included Chita Rivera, who created the role of Anita in West Side Story on Broadway; Louis Johnson, choreographer for Purlie and the movie version of The Wiz; and Sandra . . . — Map (db m65511) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Lillie Mackall|
| In memory of Ann Lillie Mackall,
friend of Rose O'Neal Greenhow
and brave-hearted Confederate
courier, who Died December 12, 1861,
Aged 22 years
District Of Columbia
United Daughters Of The Confederacy — Map (db m68745) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Mansions, Parks, and People — Cultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail - 16|
|On your right is Josephine Butler Parks Center, home of Washington Parks & People, a network of groups devoted to DC and its parks. The network's 1927 mansion, which once housed the Hungarian delegation, was part of an embassy row envisioned by Mary Foote Henderson for this area. Henderson built a "castle" across 16th street for her family, and commissioned important architects to create an enclave worthy of important residents. Meridian Hill Park was also a result of her influence.
In the . . . — Map (db m63849) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Memorial Continental Hall|
| has been designated a
under the provisions of the
Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935
This site possesses exceptional value
in commemorating or illustrating
the history of the United States — Map (db m40991) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Military Road School — 1375 Missouri Avenue, NW — African American Heritage Trail, Washington DC|
|The Military Road School opened in 1864 here along what then was Military Road, an artery linking Civil War forts. The School was one of the first to open after Congress authorized public education for Washington's African Americans in 1862. Students were children of free blacks as well as formerly enslaved men and women who settled near Fort Stevens, a source of employment during the war (1861-1865). Others came from upper Northwest neighborhoods and nearby Montgomery County, Maryland. The . . . — Map (db m70464) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Miner Teachers College — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC|
| 2565 Georgia Avenue, NW
Miner Teachers College, which operated here from 1914 until 1955, was the principal school training black teachers in the city for more than 70 years. Named for Myrtilla Miner (1815-1864), a white educator who founded Miner Normal School in 1851, the school became part of the DC Public Schools system in 1879. Under the leadership of Howard University graduate Lucy Ellen Morten (1851-1933), Miner became one of the top teacher training institutions in the . . . — Map (db m65790) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 8 — Mount Pleasant: The Immigrants' Journey|
|Low cost housing in Mount Pleasant in the decades following World War II made it an ideal place for immigrants to the area. Refugees fleeing World War II and the Cold War in Eastern Europe were the first group to arrive. A small Czech community lived along Park Road until the 1990s. In the 1980s refugees from wars in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua found a home in Mount Pleasant. Good wages -- often ten times as high as in their native countries -- continue to lure immigrants from Central . . . — Map (db m68731) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — National Intelligencer — 1800-1865|
|Founded by Samuel Harrison Smith and later published by Joseph Gales, Jr. The National Intelligencer for 65 years was a leading journal in the nation's capital, a vital force in the country's political life, a principal source of information about the government and for a time provided the only printed record of congressional proceedings. Much of its life, The National Intelligencer occupied this site. This plaque was placed in 1966 by Sigma Delta Chi, Professional Journalistic Society — Map (db m51471) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Old Stone House — 1766 — Georgetown|
|The Old Stone House, part of the Landmark District of Georgetown, is the only surviving pre-Revolutionary building in the capital. The house stands on its original site, lot #3, one of eighty lots surveyed in the port of Georgetown in 1751.|
Christopher Layman, a carpenter, is believed to have begun construction of the house in 1764. In 1766 Layman’s widow, Rachael, had the front portion of the house completed. The National Park Service acquired the building during the Sesquicentennial of . . . — Map (db m61944) HM
|District of Columbia, Washington — Park Designers — Meridan Hill Park, National Historic Landmark|
|Noted landscape architects George Burnap and Horace Peaslee, who worked in the Office of Public Buildings and Grounds, designed Meridian Hill Park under the guidance of the Commission of Fine Arts. By 1914, Burnap had completed his basic design: a linear series of elements that included the Mall, the Great Terrace, the Hillside Gardens with Cascades, and the Lower Plaza with the memorial to President Buchanan.
After Burnap returned to private practice in 1917, Peaslee submitted revisions . . . — Map (db m63952) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Parrott Ropewalk|
|Here the Richard Parrott Ropewalk manufactured rope and rigging used on sailing vessels that plied their trade in old Georgetown through the early 19th Century.
The ropewalk receives its name from the long path used for the laying out of individual yarns of rope prior to twisting them together.
Rope making was accomplished by first combing hemp and attaching it to a clockwise revolving hook spinning it into yarns.
Several yarns were then attached to separate hooks and twisted together . . . — Map (db m68712) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Pitts Motor Hotel — Cultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail 14|
|The Pitts Motor Hotel, formerly located at 1451 Belmont Street, lingers in memory for two reasons. In the 1960s it was a gathering place of Civil Rights movement leaders. Later it became a "welfare hotel."
In March 1968 the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., reserved 30 rooms at the Pitts Hotel to house leaders of the Poor Peoples' Campaign he planned to lead in May. He chose the facility because it was both comfortable and black owned.
Despite Dr. King's 1968 assassination, the . . . — Map (db m63706) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 1 — Racing at Brightwood — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|Fresh Water Springs in this pleasant high ground once drew European settlers. Farmers called the area "Crystal Spring." In 1859 the half-mile Crystal Spring Racetrack opened on land to your left. For 75 cents, Washingtonians hopped a stagecoach from Washington City (south of Florida Avenue) for a day at the races. Later known as the Brightwood Trotting Park, the course attracted laborers, congressmen, and everyone in between. Over time horses, bicycles, autos, and even mules competed along . . . — Map (db m68975) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Redwood|
|The Woodley Park neighborhood that is now home to several thousand residents as well as the National Zoo was once sparsely settled countryside. The farmhouse shown here, known as Redwood, was built around 1819 on a hill that rose 40 feet above current street level. During the Buchanan administration (1857-61), the estate became a fashionable resort. Later, 80 of the 125 acres became part of the National Zoological Park.
In 1856 Jefferson Davis, then secretary of war, summer here with his . . . — Map (db m67828) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Residence of Albert Gallatin|
|Residence of Albert Gallatin, Peace Negotiator and Secretary of the Treasury 1801-1814, who negotiated the treaty of Ghent, 1814. When the British marched on Washington in the summer of 1814, some American patriots with Commodore Joshua Barney and his men from this house offered the only resistance. This property was partly burned as was the Capitol and the White House.
Placed by The National Society United States Daughters of 1812 8th January 1962 Commemorating the 75th anniversary of their society — Map (db m61571) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Roll Call — Battleground National Cemetery|
|As the gallant soldiers that are interred at the cemetery marched onto the battlefield on July 11-12, 1864 during the Battle of Fort Stevens, their regimental flags accompanied then into the fight.
Battleground National Cemetery honors these men of valor by placing the names of the fallen under the flags they bravely fought and died for defending the nation's capital. The inner ring of graves are labeled 1-32, and the numbers 33-41 are in the outer ring. — Map (db m64225) WM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 1 — Roma Restaurant|
|Cleveland Park was named for Grover Cleveland who bought a country house on now Newark Street in 1886. In the 1890s, electrified streetcars ran on Connecticut and Wisconsin Avenues and led to the development of the Cleveland Park "suburb".
Shops and restaurants followed the development, with the Roma Restaurant and its Italian Garden at 3419 Connecticut Avenue remaining popular from the 1930s until it closed in 1997.
Artist: Mary Belcher — Map (db m67826) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 4 — Sacred Heart Academy — Village in the City — Mount Pleasant Heritage Trail|
|Set back from the Street at 1621 Park Road, to your left, is an elegant old house, once the all-girls Sacred Heart Academy. The Sinsinawa Dominican Sisters of Wisconsin founded the Academy in 1905 and went on to operate it with Sacred Heart parish, adding a co-ed grade school in 1930. Lay educators took over in the 1990s. In addition, the school housed GALA Hispanic Theatre from 1985 to 2000.
While the school always served Mount Pleasant's diverse nationalities, African Americans were . . . — Map (db m68719) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Samuel F. B. Morse|
|Artist and inventor opened and operated on this site under the direction of the Post Office Department the first public telegraph office in the United States April 1st 1845
"What Hath God Wrought" — Map (db m66518) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Smokey Bear Blue Spruce|
| Blue Spruce
Planted April 11, 1984
To honor the 40th birthday of
John R. Block, Secretary of Agriculture
R. Max Peterson, Chief, USDA Forest Service
Forester's Wives Club of Washington, D.C. — Map (db m70456) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — The ›Duke‹ Ellington Memorial Bridge|
Named in honor of
Edward Kennedy Ellington
Composer - Performer - Playwright
International Statesman of Goodwill — Map (db m67913) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — The Brewmaster's Castle — 1892-1894 — A Celebration of International Contributions to American Life|
|A Washington, D.C. Landmark on the National Register of Historic Places
Built by Christian Heurich (1842-1945), the world's oldest brewer, patriarch of the Washington business community, philanthropist, German immigrant, and American citizen
America's most intact late-Victorian house museum, the first fireproof residence in the nation's capital, and the "smart house" of the late-19th Century
Donated in 1955 by Heurich's widow to the Historical Society of Washington, D.C., and served as . . . — Map (db m68527) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — The Fedora|
|In 1920, Washington D. C. was home to the largest African American Community in the country. Numerous venues in the U street area showcased prominent musicians and politicians of the day. On this site stood the Pitts Motel and its Red Carpet Lounge. "The Pitts" was a favorite of many greats of the era, including Duke Ellington and Ella Fitzgerald, and hosted speakers such as Martin Luther King Jr. Now stands the Fedora so named for Mrs. Fedora Day Purcell, Grandmother of the last owner of the Pitts. — Map (db m63678) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — The Former Engine Co 24 of the District of Columbia Fire Department|
|The facade of the original house for Engine Company 24 was located at 3702 Georgia Avenue, N.W. just north of this site. Built in 1911, the firehouse was designed by Luther Leisenring and Charles Gregg. It originally housed horses and horse-drawn equipment. Within one year of its opening, it became the first station in the city to be fully motorized. Engine Company 24 relocated to a new facility in July 1994. The facade of the original building was relocated and integrated into the chiller . . . — Map (db m65515) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — The Gilded Age — Sheridan Kalorama Call Box Restoration Project|
|In the Gilded Age (1866-1901) the nouveau riche built grand mansions near Sheridan Circle and commissioned fashionable portraits such as this one of Mrs. Larz Anderson. They lived and entertained in these enormous residences during Washington's brief social season. As maintaining the houses grew too costly, many became foreign embassies. Edward Everett, who made a fortune inventing the fluted bottle cap, built the Beaux-Arts mansion at 1606 23rd Street in 1915. Now it is the Turkish . . . — Map (db m63723) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 18 — The Modern Shopper — Lift Every Voice — Georgia Ave./Pleasant Plains Heritage Trail|
|Braving a blizzard in February 1936, eager customers lined up to experience a modern, self-service, cash-only supermarket. Nehemiah Cohen and Samuel Lehrman’s Giant Food here on Georgia Avenue was the chain’s first. Although the Memphis-born Piggly Wiggly chain pioneered the supermarket concept, it took Giant to capture DC consumers.
Giant moved into the former Park View Market, which had opened in 1923 with 180 tiled stalls. Before the supermarket, food shopping meant stopping at . . . — Map (db m65514) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 17 — The Next Wave — Lift Every Voice — Georgia Ave./Pleasant Plains Heritage Trail|
|Caribbean immigrants discovered this stretch of Georgia Avenue in the 1940s, bringing island culture along with jerk chicken, curry, and coco bread. Many, like Eric Williams, who later led Trinidad and Tobago to independence in 1962, came to study or teach at Howard University. Others came seeking better jobs. the 2000 Census showed that Caribbean-born residents formed DC's second-largest immigrant group.
For English-speaking immigrants from the former British West Indies, transition . . . — Map (db m66559) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — The Seventh Street Turnpike — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|On July 11 and 12, 1864, this intersection was the center of the only Civil War battle fought in the District of Columbia. Here, Union sharpshooters at Fort Stevens, supported by forces across the
northernmost of Washington's ring of forts, stopped General Jubal A. Early's Rebels. Early attacked from the north, along the Seventh Street Turnpike and the Georgetown Turnpike (now Georgia and Wisconsin avenues).
Completed in 1822 as a dirt road connecting the Potomac River to Rockville, . . . — Map (db m64847) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Theodore Roosevelt Worshiped Here Regularly — Grace Reformed Church|
Worshiped Here Regularly
From 1901 to 1909
While Vice President and President
of the United States
on July 1, 1902 he
Laid the Cornertone and
on June 7, 1903 delivered
an address at the dedication
of this church — Map (db m70144) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Tupelo Tree — (Nyssa Sylvatica)|
| This & neighboring trees were
From all parts of the country
Camp Fire Girls
At a National Conservation Rally
April 12, 1936 in memory of
Dr. Luther H. Gulick
First President — Map (db m65020) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Visionary and Park Champion — Meridian Hill Park, National Historic Landmark|
|Meridian Hill Park might never have been built had it not been for the determination of Mary Foote Henderson (1846 - 1931). For 22 years, she lobbied Congress for funds to buy the land and build the park. Congress's 1910 vote to authorize construction of Meridian Hill Park is a testimony to her resolve.
Henderson's efforts in urban development weren't limited to promoting Meridian Hill Park. She engaged the services of some of the country's foremost architects for her grand schemes, . . . — Map (db m63934) HM|
|District of Columbia (Brightwood), Washington — 6 — School Days — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|The School Building Just Ahead of You Opened In 1912 as the Military Road School, the area's third public elementary for African Americans. For decades it was the only public school serving black children in Upper Northwest and nearby Maryland.
The School gave students "the tools to be successful" recalled Patricia Tyson, a student in the 1950s. Teachers required good behavior, good grammar, and respect for the historic contributions of black Americans. Tyson traveled from Montgomery . . . — Map (db m65423) HM|
|District of Columbia (Northwest), Washington — 12 — A Spirit of Community — Top of the Town — Tenleytown Heritage Trail|
| Text On Main Face of Marker |
Episcopalians first gathered here to worship in 1874, when St. Alban's Church, located on Wisconsin Avenue and Massachusetts, started a mission for the area. In good weather, services took place under a majestic oak tree on land donated by William Murdock. The tree eventually shaded a rough mission chapel, and then two successor churches. In 1904. when the mission received the name Saint Columba's, its parish house contained a stage and a circulating . . . — Map (db m68271) HM
|District of Columbia (Southeast Washington), Washington Navy Yard — "4-in. 40 caliber rifles"|
| These two guns, originally known as breech-loading rifles, are trained in a southerly direction, to either side of the flagpole.
Gun on East side, registry no. 21, manufactured in 1896 here at the Navy Yard mounted on USS PURITAN (Monitor #1, BM-1, 1896-1922), one of the last of the USN monitors. She participated in the attack on the Spanish fleet at Santiago Cuba in July 1898.
Gun on West side, registry no. 152, manufactured in 1898 by American Ordnance Co., mounted on the USS TOPEKA . . . — Map (db m52098) HM|
|District of Columbia (Southeast Washington), Washington Navy Yard — Naval Historical Foundation|
| Chartered in the District of Columbia in 1926, the primary objectives of the Naval Historical Foundation are to collect and preserve private documents, papers and artifacts of naval historical significance and to make them readily available for public display and scholarly research; to stimulate the study of naval history, naval customs and naval tradition; and to portray the role of seapower in the development of the United States. Artifacts from the foundation’s extensive collection have . . . — Map (db m52251) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Adams-Morgan — 5 of 18 — Ambassadors of Faith — Roads to Diversity — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail|
Three dramatic religious structures dominate this corner. They are among some 40 religious institutions lining 16th Street between the White House and the Maryland state line.
Many serve as unofficial “embassies” representing the interests of their faiths before the U.S. Government. The neo-Baroque National Baptist Church, to your right, is a memorial to Roger Williams, founder of Rhode Island and champion of religious liberty. Its congregation has long worked for social . . . — Map (db m17076) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Adams-Morgan — 7 of 18 — Lanier Place — Roads to Diversity — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail|
|Banker Archibald McLachlan and Smithsonian Institution naturalist George Brown Goode developed Lanier Heights in the early 1890s. Goode laid out streets and encouraged Smithsonian colleagues to purchase lots. McLachlan built the elegant Ontario Apartments, visible ahead and to the left on then-rural Ontario Road. More apartments and row houses followed. By 1935 Lanier Heights was considered a close-in, city neighborhood.
In 1908 the city built the Mission style firehouse mid-block to your . . . — Map (db m17295) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Adams-Morgan — 4 of 18 — Life on the Park — Roads to Diversity — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail|
|During the Civil War (1861-1865), the Union Army Carver Hospital and barracks occupied Meridian Hill. The facilities attracted African American freedom seekers looking for protection and employment. By war’s end, a Black community had put down rooks. Soon Weyland Seminary opened to train African American clergy and teachers. In the late 1880s, Mary Foote Henderson purchased most of this land and evicted its residents. Many settled in today’s Reed-Cooke neighborhood to your left.
The . . . — Map (db m17032) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Adams-Morgan — 2 of 18 — Meridian Hill/Malcolm X Park — Roads to Diversity — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail|
|Long before Europeans arrived, Meridian Hill was a sacred place for Native Americans. As recently as 1992, a delegation of Native Americans walked across the continent to this park to mourn the 500th anniversary of Columbus’s arrival. They were received by environmentalist Josephine Butler, a champion of park preservation.
Europeans named the hill for Commodore David Porter’s grand Meridian Hill house (1825) which straddled the route of the prime meridian (16th Street). Americans used this . . . — Map (db m16910) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Adams-Morgan — 1 of 18 — Mrs. Henderson's Legacy — Roads to Diversity — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail|
|As you look up the hill, you can see Peter C. L’Enfant’s 1791 plan for Washington ended up here in front of you at Boundary Avenue, now Florida Avenue. Back then, when people walked or rode in horse-drawn vehicles, it was hard to climb this steep ridge ridge. Once electric streetcars appeared in the 1880s, climbing hills was easier, so city dwellers began moving up this hill.
Beginning in 1887, Mary Foote Henderson, wife of Missouri Senator John B. Henderson, created a new community here . . . — Map (db m16893) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Adams-Morgan — 6 of 18 — The Latino Community — Roads to Diversity — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail|
This is the heart of Washington’s Latino community. Once centered here and in nearby Mount Pleasant and Columbia Heights, the community now extends throughout the region.
As early as the 1910s, the Mexican, Ecuadoran, Cuban, and Spanish embassies clustered nearby on 16th Street. Spanish-speaking diplomats and staff called this area home and often remained after their terms ended. In the 1950s, political turmoil and economic hardship brought Puerto Ricans and Cubans, followed later by . . . — Map (db m17167) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Adams-Morgan — 3 of 18 — The Roots of Reed-Cooke — Roads to Diversity — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail|
|In 1947, the building on your left opened as the National Arena, a public roller rink and bowling alley. It also hosted professional wrestling, roller derbies, and rock concerts. In 1986 it became the Citadel Motion Picture Center, where portions of Peggy Sue Got Married, Gardens of Stone, and other movies were filmed. In 1994 MTV recorded its town hall meeting with President Bill Clinton in the studio here in Reed-Cooke.
Reed-Cooke’s earliest African American settlers moved . . . — Map (db m17031) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), American University Park — 17 — American University — Top of the Town — Tenleytown Heritage Trail|
|Beyond Ward Circle to your left is the campus of American University, chartered by
Congress in 1893. Methodist Bishop John Fletcher Hurst guided the university’s development as a center for training future public servants. With its schools in business, law, public affairs, communications, and more, the modern university continues Hurst’s wide-ranging vision.
American University’s ties to the nation’s capital are not just geographic. During both world
wars, the U.S. military used the . . . — Map (db m51839) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), American University Park — 15 — For the Children — Top of the Town — Tenleytown Heritage Trail|
|From 1927 until the late 1950s, the landscaped grounds across the street were the Hillcrest Children’s Center. It was founded downtown in 1814 as the Washington City Orphan Asylum by Marcia Burnes Van
Ness and President Madison’s wife Dolley. The center’s Tudor style stone cottages created a village environment. In the 1960s changing social conditions led Hillcrest to move back downtown, this time in service to disabled children and their families.
The National Presbyterian Church and . . . — Map (db m47785) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), American University Park — Fort Bayard|
|Civil War Defenses of Washington 1861-1865. No visible evidence remains of Fort Bayard, which stood at the top of this hill. Named for Brig. Gen. George Bayard, mortally wounded at the Battle of Fredericksburg on December 13, 1862. — Map (db m124) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), American University Park — General Artemas Ward Monument — 1727–1800|
|Son of Massachusetts • Graduate of Harvard College • Judge and legislator • Delegate 1780–1781 to the Continental Congress • Soldier of three wars • First commander of patriot forces. — Map (db m48362) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), American University Park — 18 — Live on Our Stage! — Top of the Town — Tenleytown Heritage Trail|
|When NBC radio and television and its local affiliate,
WRC, moved to these new headquarters in 1958, the average TV screen measured 12 inches. The facility opened with six studios—three TV and three radio. Soon history happened here.
On October 7, 1960, some 70 million viewers watched as
NBC broadcast the second televised presidential debate, with
candidates Richard M. Nixon and John F. Kennedy facing four reporters. It was widely reported that Nixon used makeup to cover his 5 . . . — Map (db m47866) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), American University Park — 16 — Winning the War — Top of the Town — Tenleytown Heritage Trail|
|The U.S. Navy arrived across the street at 3801 Nebraska
Avenue during World War II, taking the Colonial style red-brick campus of Mount Vernon Seminary for secret “essential wartime activities.” Soon more than 5,000 workers occupied the campus. Among them were WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service) responding to President Roosevelt’s call for women to tackle non-combat duties.
Most WAVES at this site operated cryptoanalytic equipment designed to break German . . . — Map (db m47787) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — Barry Farm - Hillsdale — Bounded by St. Elizabeths Hospital, Alabama Avenue and Morris Road, SE, and the Anacostia River — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC|
| In 1867 the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (Freedmen’s Bureau) purchased 375 acres from white farmers David and Julia Barry to resettle formerly enslaved African Americans. By 1870 more than 500 families had purchased lots and built homes at Barry Farm, later renamed Hillsdale.
During World War II, the U.S. Government constructed “Barry Farms” housing on Hillsdale’s eastern edge to relieve overcrowding across the Anacostia [River]. Soon, Southwest [DC] . . . — Map (db m33732) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — Battery Ricketts — Civil War Defenses of Washington — 1861-1865|
|Earthworks of Battery Ricketts are visible inside the wooded area in front of you. Battery Ricketts, built to defend an area in front of Fort Stanton, was named for Maj. Gen. James B. Ricketts. — Map (db m10622) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — Campbell African Methodist Episcopal Church — 2562 Martin Luther King, Jr. Avenue, SE — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC|
| Campbell AME, established in 1867 as Mount Zion AME, was an outgrowth of its overcrowded parent church, Allen Chapel AME, founded in 1850. When it moved to a location near the present one in 1890, Mount Zion was renamed for AME Bishop Jabez B. Campbell. Frederick Douglass attended Campbell’s dedication ceremonies and occasionally spoke at the church.
In 1950, under the leadership of Rev. Samuel Everette Guiles, the church organized the Campbell Civic Club, and began hosting NAACP strategy . . . — Map (db m33749) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — Fort Carroll — Civil War Defenses of Washington — 1861-1865|
|Earthworks of Fort Carroll are visible 100 yards to the right at the top of the hill. Fort Carroll was named in honor of Maj. Gen. Samuel Sprigg Carroll, a West Point graduate from the District of Columbia. — Map (db m10614) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — Fort Greble — Civil War Defenses of Washington — 1861-1865|
|Earthworks of Fort Greble are visible beyond this exhibit. Fort Greble was named in honor of Lt. John T. Greble, slain at the Battle of Big Bethel, June 10, 1861, the first U.S. Military Academy graduate killed in the Civil War. — Map (db m40866) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — Fort Stanton — Civil War Defenses of Washington — 1861 – 1865|
Earthworks of Fort Stanton are visible in the wooded area 200 yards in front of you.
Diagram: Fort Stanton from U.S. Army Corps of Engineers drawing.
Fort Stanton was named for Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, was the first fort constructed beyond the Anacostia River.
Map: Other Civil War fort locations administered by the National Park Service.
Period photograph of artillerists at an unspecified battery belonging to the Civil War Defenses of . . . — Map (db m46623) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — Frederick Douglass National Historic Site|
|Also known as Cedar Hill, this site encompasses the estate owned by Frederick Douglass from 1877 until his death in 1895. In honor of Douglass’ work as an author, orator, abolitionist, statesman, and civil rights leader, this site is designated a Literary Landmark by Friends of Libraries U.S.A. — Map (db m40846) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — St. Elizabeths Hospital|
| has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America. — Map (db m58305) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — The Big Chair|
|Re-dedication April 25, 2006.
This community landmark represents the Curtis Companies long standing allegience to the neighborhood and steadfast committment to unity, prosperity and good will to all Washingtonians and friends of Anacostia.
John Kidwell & A Lomax Project
Cinnbar & Nelson’s Welding — Map (db m5446) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — The Growlery|
|Here stood Frederick Douglass’ rustic retreat from domestic society, where he could think, read and write undisturbed. Evoking the image of a lion’s lair, he called his hideaway the Growlery. It was simply furnished with a lounge, a high desk and a stool. The present building is a reconstruction. — Map (db m5362) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — The World’s Largest Chair|
|Presented to Curtis Bros. for their outstanding leadership and service to the public by the Basset Furniture Industries.
The chair made of solid Honduras mahogany is 19½ feet tall and weighs 4600 pounds.
Designer: Leo M. Jiranek
Builder: J.E. Bassett, Jr. — Map (db m5459) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Benning Heights — Fort Chaplin — Civil War Defenses of Washington — 1861-1865|
|Earthworks of Fort Chaplin are visible through the wooded areas at the top of the hill. Fort Chaplin was named in honor of Col. Daniel Chaplin, who was mortally wounded on August 17, 1864, at Deep Bottom, Virginia. — Map (db m10628) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Brightwood — 16 — “Get Down You Fool” — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|Hearing those words, President Abraham Lincoln ducked down from the Fort Stevens parapet during the Civil War battle that stopped the Confederates from taking Washington. On July 9, 1864, some 15,000 Rebels led by General Jubal A. Early defeated Union forces at the Battle of Monocacy near Frederick, Maryland. Early's troops, suffering from the battle and the summer heat, then turned south to march on the lightly defended capital city. But the Monocacy encounter and skirmishes along the . . . — Map (db m17133) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Brightwood — 17 — Aunt Betty's Story — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|Elizabeth Proctor Thomas (1821-1917), a free Black woman whose image appears on each Brightwood Heritage Trail sign, once owned 11 acres in this area. Known, respectfully in her old age as "Aunt Betty," Thomas and her husband James farmed and kept cows here. When the Civil War came in 1861, her hilltop attracted Union soldiers defending Washington. As Thomas later told a reporter, one day soldiers "began taking out my furniture and tearing down our house" to build Fort Stevens. Then a . . . — Map (db m17132) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Brightwood — Fort Slocum — Civil War Defenses of Washington — 1861-1865|
| No visible evidence remains of Fort Slocum, which stood here and across Kansas Avenue to your left. Cannon mounted at Fort Totten helped repulse a Confederate attack on Fort Stevens, July 11-12, 1864. — Map (db m3012) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Brightwood — 15 — The Rock on Brightwood Avenue — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|Across Quackenbos Street is Emory United Methodist Church. Named to honor Bishop John Emory of Maryland (1789-1835), the congregation dates from 1832.
From the beginning, Emory welcomed all races but, like most Washington churches then, seated African Americans in a separate gallery. In 1846 the national Methodist church split over the slavery issue. Seven years later Emory sided with the South. In 1939 the Methodist Church reunited. Despite its southern sympathies, the church had helped . . . — Map (db m17223) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Brookland — Charles Richard Drew Memorial Bridge|
|Named in honor of Dr. Charles Richard Drew, 1904-1950 esteemed citizen of the District of Columbia athlete, scholar, surgeon, and scientist whose discoveries in blood preservation saved thousands of lives. — Map (db m6262) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Acacia Life Insurance Building – 1936|
| Acacia Life Insurance Building – 1936
On March 3, 1869, President Andrew Johnson signed the Congressional Act chartering
The Masonic Mutual Relief Association that
became Acacia Life Insurance Company.
Built as its headquarters and occupied by Acacia
until 1997, the building serves as an example of
American neoclassical art deco architecture by
Shreve, Lamb & Harmon, New York – designers of
The Empire State Building.
The Griffins, mythological creatures . . . — Map (db m41886) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — 12 — Christ Church and Its Parishioners — Tour of Duty — Barracks Row Heritage Trail|
| This is Christ Church, Washington Parish, the first Episcopal church established in Washington City (1794), and attended by Presidents Thomas Jefferson and John Quincy Adams.
At first Christ Church met in a nearby tobacco warehouse. In 1806 parishioner William Prout donated this land to the congregation, and one year later a simple, two-story rectangular building went up, designed by Navy Yard contractor Robert Alexander. That structure still remains behind the church’s Gothic Revival . . . — Map (db m39235) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Christ Church, Washington Parish — Founded May 25, 1795 — [National Register of Historic Places]|
| First church in City of Washington.
Present edifice dedicated October 8, 1809,
by Bishop Thomas J. Claggett,
first bishop consecrated on
- in New York, 1792.
Marcia Burns Chapter, D. A. R.
May 13, 1930 — Map (db m39163) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Eastern Market — A Lively Market for a Lively Neighborhood|
|Established by order of President Thomas Jefferson 1805, this building constructed 1873, designed by Adolf Cluss, additions 1907-8 by Snowden Ashford.
Eastern Market, one of three public markets proposed in L’Enfant’s Plan, was established in 1805, by Presidential Proclamation, and originally located near the Navy Yard at 6th Street between K and L Streets, S.E. It was relocated to this site in 1873, as a new building, designed by Adolf Cluss, which is now known as South Hall. The Center . . . — Map (db m20358) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Ebenezer United Methodist Church — 400 D Street, SE — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC|
Ebenezer United Methodist Church is Capitol Hill’s oldest independent Black congregation.
Ebenezer UMC was founded in 1827 by African Americans who left a biracial church on Capitol Hill because the White congregants practiced segregation. The neew congregation purchased land here and built a small frame structure. In 1864 Ebenezer UMC gained its first African American minister, Reverend Noah Jones, and housed the city’s first publicly financed school for Black children. Emma V. Brown, an . . . — Map (db m30053) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Freedmen’s Memorial Monument to Abraham Lincoln — or Freedom’s Memorial|
|In grateful memory of Abraham Lincoln. This monument was erected by the Western Sanitary Commission of Saint Louis, Mo., with funds contributed solely by emancipated Citizens of the United States declared free by his Proclamation, January 1st A.D. 1863. The first contribution of five dollars was made by Charlotte Scott, a freed woman of Virginia, being her first earnings in freedom and consecrated by her suggestion and request, on the day she heard of President Lincoln’s death, to build a . . . — Map (db m41617) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — 4 — Healing the Wounded — Tour of Duty — Barracks Row Heritage Trail|
| In 1866 the Navy completed the hospital you see across the street to treat injured and ailing seamen. With beds for 50, it included the carriage house/stable and cast-iron fence and (around the corner) the gazebo. Its front door originally was on E Street facing the nearby Navy Yard and Marine Barracks; later occupants entered from Pennsylvania Avenue.
The hospital’s first patient was 24-year-old African American seaman Benjamin Drummond, admitted in June 1866 with a gunshot wound to his . . . — Map (db m50813) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — 13 — In the Alley — Tour of Duty — Barracks Row Heritage Trail|
You are standing in one of Washington’s remaining inhabited alleys, behind the buildings that face G, E (there is no F Street here), Sixth and Seventh streets. In 1897 the alley had 22 tiny dwellings sheltering well over 100 people. Today six houses remain, visible to your right along Archibald Walk.
In 1841 Samuel A. H. Marks, Sr. (1818-1885) built his home at 630 G Street (behind you and to the left), and alley stables and workshops. He practiced law and sold metal . . . — Map (db m39275) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — James A. Garfield|
|(Front):James A. Garfield 1831 - 1881 (Left):Major General USV, Member of Congress, Senator and President of the United States of America. (Right):Erected by his comrades of the Society of the Army of the Cumberland May 12 1887. — Map (db m18602) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Japanese American Memorial to Patriotism During World War II|
|[Panel 1 of the historical narrative at memorial entrance]:
On February 19, 1942, 73 days after the United States entered World War II, President Franklin Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 which resulted in the removal of 120,000 Japanese American men, women, and children from their homes in the western states and Hawaii.
Allowed only what they could carry, families were forced to abandon homes, friends, farms and businesses to live in ten remote relocation centers guarded by . . . — Map (db m40541) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — John Philip Sousa — (1854 - 1932)|
Stars and Stripes Forever,
and other famous marches,
was born in this house
on November 6, 1854
Restored 1960-1 Randall C. & Jaquire D. King — Map (db m39264) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Latrobe Gate - Tingey House|
|Latrobe Gate Designed by Benjamin Henry Latrobe in 1804, the gate and flanking guardhouses were constructed in the Greek Revival style. This style became very popular in the young nation, and the original section of the gate represents one of the earliest examples of Greek Revival architecture in the United States. In 1823 a second story was added to the existing guardhouses. The Latrobe Gate is the oldest continually manned Marine sentry post in the nation. Tingey House This . . . — Map (db m28348) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C. — "Oldest Post of the Corps"|
|Site selected by President Thomas Jefferson and Lieutenant Colonel Commandant William Ward Burrows on 31 March 1801.
A National Capital Landmark and entered in the National Register of Historic Places.
United States Marine Corps — Map (db m10833) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Mary McLeod Bethune|
|1875–1955 Let her works praise her. I leave you love. • I leave you hope. • I leave you the challenge of developing confidence in one another. • I leave you a thirst for education. • I leave you a respect for the use of power. • I leave you faith. • I leave you racial dignity. • I leave you also a desire to live harmoniously with your fellow man. • I leave you finally a responsibility to our young people. —Mary McLeod Bethune. — Map (db m5505) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Nathanael Greene Monument|
| . . . — Map (db m30771) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Naval Monument — Peace Memorial|
|In memory of the officers seamen and marines of the United States Navy who fell in defence of the union and liberty of their country 1861-1865 — Map (db m18594) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — 5 — Oldest Post of the Corps — Tour of Duty — Barracks Row Heritage Trail|
|On your left is Marine Barracks Washington, D.C., the oldest continuously manned post in the U.S. Marine Corps. The installation was originally designed by architect George Hadfield in 1801 with a central parade ground and housing for 500 enlisted and officers in addition to the Commandant's Quarters (in mid-block across the street). This elegant 23-room house, enhanced in 1901 by a mansard roof, is the only remaining original structure.
When the U.S. government moved from Philadelphia to . . . — Map (db m10834) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Power from the Wind — Sustainable Solutions: Residential Wind Turbines|
| This Skystream 3.7 residential turbine is a new generation of wind generator that hooks directly to your home to reduce or eliminate your monthly electric bill. It’s designed to provide quiet, clean electricity in very low winds. How can a wind turbine convert wind power into electricity? In areas of sufficient sustained wind, the rotor is turned in the same manner as a windmill. The rotating center pole (as seen here, can be either on vertical or horizontal axis) is attached to a . . . — Map (db m49642) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Power from the Wind — Sustainable Solutions: Residential Wind Turbines|
| You are looking at a Windspire, a vertical-axis wind turbine that generates electricity from wind power. This model produces about 2,000 kWh of electricity a year in an area with average wind speeds of 12 mph (about ¼ the needs of the average house). It can be used on-grid to power homes, businesses, even large commercial buildings, and off-grid, etc. The model you are viewing is a “giromill” style, which used vertical airfoils that, just like the airplane wings, use the concept of . . . — Map (db m49643) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — The Old Brick Capitol — [Old Capitol Prison] — [U.S. Supreme Court Building National Historic Landmark]|
| The Old Brick Capitol
July 4, 1815 The cornerstone of the Old Brick Capitol built by Washington citizens to house the Congress was laid on this site. The Congress met here from December 13, 1815 through March 3, 1819. President Monroe was inaugurated here in 1817, establishing the custom of public inaugurations. — Map (db m39411) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Ulysses S. Grant Memorial|
|Grant — Map (db m18597) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — United States Capitol — East Front|
| One of the icons of world architecture, the U.S. Capitol has been the meeting place of Congress since 1800. President George Washington laid the cornerstone on September 18, 1793. While under construction, the the building was damaged by British troops during the War of 1812 and subsequently restored. The Capitol was enlarged and the present cast-iron dome built in the 1850s and 1860s. Further additions included the Olmstead terraces on the west front in the 1880s and the east front extension . . . — Map (db m40117) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — United States Capitol Grounds|
| [Diagram of Capitol Square - East and West Plazas]
General Plan for the Improvement of the U.S. Capitol Grounds by Frederick Law Olmstead, 1874
Following the extension of the Capitol in the 1850s-1860s, the grounds were enlarged in 1872. In 1874 Congress commissioned Frederick Law Olmstead to design landscape improvements, and he soon produced this drawing which guided the project over the next two decades. He described the plan as “very simple, with the purpose of . . . — Map (db m27891) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — 10 — Washington Navy Yard: Maker of Weapons — Tour of Duty: Barracks Row Heritage Trail|
|The white brick wall in front of you marks the original northern boundary of the Navy Yard. The yard grew from its original 12 acres to 128 acres at its peak in 1962. In 2003 it consisted of 73 acres with 55 acres making up the adjacent Southeast Federal Center. After the War of 1812, the Navy Yard's shipbuilding dwindled. the Anacostia River was too shallow and remote from the ope sea for building large vessels. By the 1840s, weapons production dominated activities. In 1886, the Naval Gun . . . — Map (db m10822) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — 9 — Washington Navy Yard: Serving the Fleet — Tour of Duty — Barracks Row Heritage Trail|
|In front of you is the main gate of the Washington Navy Yard, established in 1799. It is the U.S. Navy's oldest shore facility in continuous use. Over time, workers here have built and repaired ships and their fittings, designed and developed ordnance (weapons and ammunition), and provided administrative support for the fleet.
Although city designer Pierre L'Enfant planned a commercial center for the site, its access to water and nearby timber made it a natural for ship building. The . . . — Map (db m10835) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Chevy Chase — Fort De Russy — Civil War Defenses of Washington — 1861-1865|
|Earthworks of Fort De Russy are visible; follow path to your right for 200 years.
[drawing of fort] Fort De Russy from U.S. Army Corps of Engineers drawing.
Cannon mounted at Fort De Russy helped repulse a Confederate attack on Fort Stevens, July 11012, 1864.
[map of northern DC] Other Civil War fort locations administered by Rock Creek Park.
[picture of unnamed fort] During the Civil War, Washington's forts overlooked farm land. — Map (db m20822) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Chevy Chase — Fort DeRussy|
|Built in 1861 to protect the Rock Creek Valley during the Civil War, Fort DeRussy's cannon fired a total of 109 projectiles into the northern countryside as 12,000-15,000 Confederate soldiers attacked the city under the command of Confederate General Jubal Anderson Early on July 11-12, 1864. During this two day battle (known as the Battle of Fort Stevens) Fort DeRussy aided the surrounding forts by providing the main suppressive fire to ensure a Union victory on the battlefield.
The . . . — Map (db m20824) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Chinatown — e.6 — Chinatown — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
|dragons to bring rain, prosperity and friendship
More than 280 dragons, crowned by 700 glazed tiles, look down from the Chinatown Friendship Archway before you. Symbols of the spirits that bring rain and prosperity in China, these painted and carved dragons are fitted together like a giant jigsaw puzzle in the ancient Chinese building tradition of "gong" balancing. Seven roofs of weighing nine tons each are cantilevered, with no nails almost 50 feet above the street.
This is . . . — Map (db m26935) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Chinatown — Friendship Archway|
|This friendship archway was erected by the District of Columbia and the Municipality of Beijing, 1986.
Marion Barry, Jr.
Mayor of Washington, D.C.
Mayor, Beijing Municipal Government — Map (db m9161) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Chinatown — e.5 — Mary Surratt's Boarding House — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
| "The nest in which the egg was hatched."President Andrew Johnson, April 1865. The building at 604 H Street, today Golo’s Chinese Restaurant, is intimately connected with the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln at Ford’s Theater, just five blocks from here. During the Civil War this modest brick house was occupied by a Maryland-born widow, Mary Surratt, who took in boarders. Like many in this Southern history, she was quietly sympathetic to the Confederacy, . . . — Map (db m16585) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Colonial Village — Frank D. Reeves — 7760 16th Street, NW — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC|
|Frank D. Reeves (1916–1973), a lawyer and civil
rights activist, was part of the team that shaped the
1954 Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court
case outlawing school segregation. He advised
Senator John F. Kennedy on minority affairs during
the 1960 presidential campaign, then joined the
Howard University School of Law faculty. At the same time Reeves served as legal counsel to the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and helped negotiate the 1963 March on Washington . . . — Map (db m24679) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — Buchanan|
|[Panel No. 1]:
James Buchanan of Pennsylvania
President of the United States
MDCCCIVII - MDCCCIXI
[Panel No. 2]:
The incorruptible statesman whose walk was upon the mountain ranges of the law — Map (db m24150) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — 15 of 19 — College Hill — Cultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail|
| Wayland Seminary opened in Foggy Bottom just after the Civil War to train formerly enslaved people and others as “preachers and teachers for the South” and as missionaries to evangelize Africa. In 1875 it moved here, later merging with Richmond Theological Seminary to become Virginia Union University in Richmond. Among Wayland’s distinguished alumni was Booker T. Washington.
Just two blocks up the hill is the former site of George Washington University’s predecessor, . . . — Map (db m23947) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — Francis L. Cardozo High School — 1928|
| Organized September 1928 at M Street and New York Avenue
Moved February 19, 1933
to Ninth Street and Rhode
Island Avenue, N.W.
Moved August 1950 to Thirteenth
and Clifton Street, N.W. — Map (db m23651) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — 9 of 19 — Justice vs. Injustice — Cultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail|
These elegant 13th Street Houses were constructed when racial separation was legal and widely accepted. In 1910 the deeds for many houses across 13th Street had covenants banning “any negro or colored persons.” Those on this side generally did not have the covenants.
By the 1930s, 13th Street divided black from white. Then, in 1941, African American educator Mary Hundley and her husband Frederick bought 2530 13th Street, on the white side, despite its restrictive covenant. . . . — Map (db m23603) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — 1 of 19 — Main Street — Cultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail|
|Marker Front: Fourteenth Street has always been the business backbone of Columbia Heights. Beginning in the 1890s, electric streetcars dropped passengers at nearly every corner, attracting commerce. By 1925 storefronts occupied the blocks between Euclid and Otis Streets.
Most stores, often less than 20 feet wide, were family run and offered one line of products. In 192 on 14th Street between Irving Street and Park Road alone, you could find hats, bicycles, men's clothing, ladies’ . . . — Map (db m23705) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — 10 of 19 — On the Heights — Cultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail|
In the days of legally segregated public education (1862-1954), this school building was Central High, the gem of the School Board’s white division. But by 1949, it had few students, as the post-World War II suburban housing boom had drawn whites away. Consequently, African American families outnumbered whites around Central.
Nearby “Colored” high schools - especially Cardozo at Ninth Street and Rhode Island Avenue - struggled with overcrowded, outdated facilities. When . . . — Map (db m23608) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — 17 of 19 — Social Justice — Cultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail|
| Straight ahead is All Souls Church, Unitarian, long known for its social activism, starting with abolitionism in the 1820s and ranging through nuclear disarmament and interracial cooperation. During the segregation era, All Souls was one of the few places in DC open to integrated meetings. During the 1980s and '90s it (and other neighborhood churches) even hosted concerts by DC's influential punk bands Bad Brains, Fugazi, Minor Threat, and others.
In the 1960s, the church launched the . . . — Map (db m24152) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — Washington Meridian — "The Stone" — 1804 - 1923|
|The stone marking the Washington Meridian was formerly located 52 feet, nine inches west of this tablet which was presented by the Army and Navy Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution. — Map (db m17438) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Deanwood — 5 of 15 — A Whirl on the Ferris Wheel — A Self Reliant People — Greater Deanwood Heritage Trail|
| To your right it is the former Merritt Educational Center which operated from 1943 to 2008. However, if you were standing here in the 1920s or '30s, in its place you would have seen exuberant crowds of fashionably dressed African Americans enjoying Suburban Gardens Amusement Park.
The park was built in 1921 by architectural engineer Howard D. Woodson, writer John H. Paynter, theater magnate Sherman H. Dudley, and other investors of the black-owned Universal Development and Company. It was . . . — Map (db m24519) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Deanwood — 12 of 15 — Designed to Compete — A Self-Reliant People — Greater Deanwood Heritage Trail|
|This quaint frame building has served several church congregations since its construction in 1908. The First Zion Baptist Church stayed for more than 60 years. Since 1993 members of Joshua's Temple First Born Church have worshiped within its walls.
One of the city's first academically trained Black architects, William Sidney Pittman (1875-1958), designed this understated structure. Pittman trained at Tuskegee Institute, where he won the support of the founder Booker T. Washington and later . . . — Map (db m21681) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Deanwood — Original Federal Boundary Stone NE 9|
|Original Federal Boundary Stone
District of Columbia
Protected by Capt Molly Pitcher Chapter
Daughters of the American Revolution
1916 — Map (db m5283) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — "Blodgett's Hotel"|
| [The Great Seal of the United States]
In 1800, the building erected on this site by Samuel Blodget was the scene of the first theatrical performance given in Washington.
From 1812 to 1836 it sheltered the city post office and, for part of that period, the Post Office Department and the Patent Office.
And here after the burning of the Capitol, the Congress of the United States was convened, September 19th 1814. — Map (db m28534) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — "Surratt Boarding House"|
|A historical landmark “Surratt Boarding House” 604 H Street N.W. (then 541) is said to have been where the conspirators plotted the abduction of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln in 1865. Plaque by Chi-Am Lions Club — Map (db m7046) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — “Damn the Torpedoes, Full Speed Ahead!”|
|With these legendary words, naval officer David G. Farragut led the Union fleet past Confederate mines (then called torpedoes) and to victory at the Battle of Mobile Bay on August 5, 1864. From the rigging of his flagship, USS Hartford, Farragut directed the clash with the ironclad CSS Tennessee, as shown in this painting of the battle. Earlier in the Civil War, Farragut gained national prominence by capturing New Orleans after a fierce battle with Confederate forts and ships. . . . — Map (db m4104) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — The Christian Index|
| America's oldest existing religious newspaper was first published on this city block at 925 E Street on February 2, 1822. Founded by the legendary Baptist leader Luther Rice, the paper was originally known as The Columbian Star and utilized to promote Baptist missions and Columbian College (now George Washington University) which was founded as a Baptist school by Rice in 1821. The name of the paper was changed to The Christian Index before being bought by Jesse Mercer and moved . . . — Map (db m28559) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Abraham Lincoln|
| Abraham Lincoln died in this house April 15, 1865 at 7:22 a.m. Purchased by the United States in 1896. — Map (db m28502) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — .5 — Abraham Lincoln Walked Here — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
| “Tonight, beautiful women, perfume, and the violins’ sweetness ... [yet during the war] the amputation, the blue face, the groan, the glassy eye of the dying.” Walt Whitman
At 10:30 p.m. on March 4, 1865, a tired and gaunt President Lincoln arrived at this site, his wife Mary in white lace and silk with purple and white flowers in her hair. The ball celebrating his second inaugural was being held in the Grand Hall on the top floor of the Patent Office next to where you . . . — Map (db m28665) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Albert Gallatin|
|Secretary of the Treasury
Genius of Finance
Senator and Representative
Commissioner for the Treaty of Ghent
Minister to France and Great Britain
Champion of Democracy
1761–1849 — Map (db m2129) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Alexander Graham Bell|
|From the to floor of this building was sent on June 3, 1880 over a beam of light to 1325 L Street, the first wireless telephone message in the history of the world. The apparatus used in sending the message was the photophone invented by Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone This plaque was placed here by Alexander Graham Bell Chapter Telephone Pioneers of America March 3, 1947 The Centennial of Dr. Bell's Birth — Map (db m17569) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Alexander Hamilton Memorial|
| [ on the front (south face) of pedestal :]
First Secretary of the Treasury
Soldier, Orator, Statesman
Champion of Constitutional Union, Representative Government and National Integrity
[ on the reverse (north face) of pedestal :]
He smote the rock of the national resources and abundant streams of revenue gushed forth. He touched the dead corpse of the public credit and it sprang upon its feet. — Map (db m32740) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — W.3 — Asbury United Methodist Church — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
| Stories of slavery and freedom, of struggle and achievement are woven through the history of this African American congregation. Founded in 1836, by the time of the Civil War Asbury United Methodist Church was the preeminent Black church in the city, its membership of 600 making it the largest of 11 African American congregations in Washington. Today, Asbury counts among its members descendants of District slaves who tried a dramatic escape to freedom in 1848 aboard the ship Pearl. . . . — Map (db m70316) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Baron von Steuben Memorial — Lafayette Square National Historic Landmark District|
[north face :]
Erected by the Congress of the United States to
Frederick William Aug- ustus Henry Ferdinand Baron von Steuben in grateful recognition of his services to the American people in their struggle for liberty. Born in Prussia September 17, 1730. Died in New York November 28, 1794. After serving as aide- de-camp to Frederick the Great of Prussia he offered his sword to the American col- onies and was appoint- ed Major General and . . . — Map (db m32878) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Brigadier General Casimir Pulaski — 1748 - 1779|
|(Bronze Plaque):Brigadier General Casimir Pulaski 1748-1779The bronze equestrian statue of Brigadier General Casimir Pulaski, portrays the Revolutionary War hero in the uniform of a Polish cavalry commander. Born in Winiary, Poland on March 4, 1748 to a noble family, Pulaski gained prominence in Europe for his role in defending liberty in Poland. Excited by the struggle of the emerging American republic, Pulaski joined in its fight for independence, arriving in Boston in July, 1777. . . . — Map (db m17615) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Carnegie Endowment for International Peace|
|700 Jackson Place has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America National Park Service 1974 From 1910 to 1948 it served as the first headquarters of The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. It was endowed by Andrew Carnegie to "Hasten the abolition of international war." The townhouse was built in 1860 for Dr. Peter Parker founder of medical missions in China who occupied the . . . — Map (db m32879) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Central Public Library — Mount Vernon Square — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC|
|This majestic building was opened in 1903 as the Central Public Library, popularly known as the Carnegie Library because Andrew Carnegie donated funds to build it. From the start Central was open to all. Mary Church Terrell and historian John Cromwell spoke here regularly, and materials on African American history and culture were especially useful to teachers preparing for “Negro History Week” (now Black History Month). In 1972 the library moved to Ninth and G Streets, NW, and was . . . — Map (db m18794) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — 16 — Cesar Chavez — 1927 - 1993|
|Led by his desire to secure a better quality of life for migrant farm workers, Cesar Chavez helped found the United Farm Workers of America, the first effective farm workers' union in the United States. Under his leadership of nonviolent protest, the UFW was able to secure improved wages and benefits, more humane living and working conditions, and better job security for some of the poorest workers in America. Through his life of service, Chavez provided inspiration to countless others. . . . — Map (db m15471) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Children's Hospital|
|Here stood the first Children's Hospital of Washington, DC. Opened as a rented rowhouse in 1871, the hospital had a capacity of 12 beds and had only four doctors on staff. Now internationally recognized, Children's National Medical Center is proud to have been part of the DC community for more than a century. — Map (db m59703) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — .3 — Clara Barton, Angel of the Battlefield at Home — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
| “I have paid the rent of a room in Washington ... retaining it merely as a shelter to which I might return when my strength should fail me under exposure and labor at the field.” Clara Barton, December 1863.
In November 1997, Richard Lyons peered into the dark clutter in the attic of 437 Seventh Street, inspecting the building in preparation for its planned demolition. His eyes settled on a sign, “Missing Soldiers Office, Clara Barton, 3rd Story, Room 9.” . . . — Map (db m36174) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Cristoforo Colombo — [Holy Rosary Church]|
| This monument, erected on the occasion of the 1992 Quincentennial Jubilee celebrating the discovery of America, pays tribute to Cristoforo Colombo and his seafaring companions. Their bold voyage led to a historic encounter between the European world and the Americas. A turning point in Western Civilization, this event paved the way for the spreading of the Gospel and the establishment of a society anchored on the principles of Christian love and holiness
1842 - 1992 — Map (db m29791) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Daniel Patrick Moynihan Place — Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center|
Daniel Patrick Moynihan wrote the Guiding Principles for Federal Architecture and the proposal for the redevelopment of Pennsylvania Avenue, which President John F. Kennedy proclaimed on May 23, 1962.
He served in the cabinet or sub-cabinet of four successive Presidents, the only person in American history to have done so. He was United States Ambassador to India and later to the United Nations. He served four terms as United States Senator from New York (1977-2001), . . . — Map (db m49586) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Decatur House|
|(Upper Plaque): Decatur House Has been designated a Registered National Historic Landmark Under the provisions of the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935 This site possesses exceptional value in commemorating and illustrating the history of the United States U.S. Department of the Interior National Park Service 1961 (Lower Plaque): This house, built in 1819 was the home of Commodore Stephen Decatur who died here March 22, 1820, from wounds received in a duel with . . . — Map (db m31101) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Executive Office Building|
|Originally State, War, and Navy Departments Constructed 1871-1888 South Wing Ground broken June 1871 Completed December 1875 East Wing Ground broken July 1872 Completed April 1879 North Wing Ground broken July 1879 Completed December 1882 West and Central Wings Ground broken March 1884 Completed January 1888 Total construction time 17 years and 4 months On this site in 1871 stood the President's stables, the Old Navy Building designed in 1797 by George Hadfield and the Old War Building . . . — Map (db m4212) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — First Home of the Reserve Officers Association|
|From 1924 to 1938, rooms of the Lee House were the first headquarters of the reserve officers association of the United States. Founded in 1922 by General of the Armies John J. Pershing to assure an adequate national security, ROA had as an early member Major Harry S. Truman, USAR. President Truman lived in these quarters during much of his administration and in 1950 signed the law granting ROA its congressional charter. Dedicated during the Truman Centennial Year, May 1984 — Map (db m4052) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Francis Preston Blair|
|This plaque marks the home of Francis Preston Blair (1791-1876) Founder and Editor of The Globe (1830-1845) A newspaper which championed Democratic causes and vigorous journalism notably during the administration of President Andrew Jackson in whose "kitchen cabinet" Blair loyally served marked by Sigma Delta Chi Professional Journalistic Society 1969 — Map (db m4047) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — W.2 — Franklin Square - "Going into the country" — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
|This urban oasis exists because President Andrew Jackson needed water. The site of excellent springs (a rare commodity in the early city when everyone was dependent on private wells), this square was purchased by the federal government in 1832 so that it could pipe fresh water to the White House. It was an arrangement that lasted until 1898, well after the city had a piped water supply from above Great Falls on the Potomac River. In July of 1861, as the nation prepared for war, soldiers of the . . . — Map (db m29594) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Freedman’s Savings And Trust|
|On this site stood the principal office of the Freedman’s Savings and Trust Company founded on March 3, 1865 to receive deposits from former slaves. Frederick Douglass served as its last president. The bank was closed on June 29, 1874. The building was sold in 1882, and razed a few years later. — Map (db m32482) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — W.7 — Freedom Plaza — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
|“I have a dream.” Martin Luther King, Jr. August 1963
The block-long plaza at 13th and Pennsylvania Avenue just ahead to your left honors civil rights leader Martin Luther King with the name Freedom Plaza. King completed his historic “I Have a Dream” speech in the Willard Hotel adjacent to the plaza, before delivering it to a crowd of 200,000 at the Lincoln Memorial.
Freedom Plaza also recalls Washington’s . . . — Map (db m28528) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — General Post Office — National Historic Landmark|
|General Post Office has been designated a Registered National Historic Landmark under the provisions of the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935. This site possesses exceptional value in commemorating or illustrating the history of the United States.
U.S. Department of the Interior
National Park Service
1972 — Map (db m28536) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Historic New York Avenue Presbyterian Church|
|This church, one of the Nation’s most historic, traces its beginnings to a small group of Scottish stonemasons meeting in a carpenter’s shop on the grounds of the White House during its construction in 1793. Many prominent Americans, including 17 Presidents, have worshipped here. Abraham Lincoln attended regularly during his Presidency and his original pew remains in the Sanctuary. An initial draft document leading to the Emancipation Proclamation is on display in the Lincoln Parlor. Dr. . . . — Map (db m2115) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — In Honor of Leslie Coffelt|
|White House policeman who gave his life in defense of the President of the United States here at the Blair House, November 1, 1950 "For loyalty, bravery and heroism beyond the call of duty." presented by National Sojourners in commemoration of his sacrifice. Dedicated May 21, 1952, by President Harry S. Truman — Map (db m32357) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy|
| When the historic character of Lafayette Square was severely threatened during her husband’s administration, it was preserved with the vision and dedicated efforts of Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy. This view from Decatur House is dedicated to her memory. — Map (db m32135) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Jean Monnet — 1888-1979|
|Born in France, widely travelled, he died at age 90 near Paris, proud citizen of a united Europe he inspired and helped to create. Earlier, from his office in the Willard Hotel, he contributed greatly to America's victory program for wartime production while a member of the British mission in Washington during World War I. — Map (db m6708) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — John J. Pershing, General of the Armies (1860-1948) — The Western Front - The Meuse-Argonne Campaign|
On 6 April 1917, the United States entered World War I. With few regular forces, the task of training and transporting an effective army to fight in France was formidable. The U.S. Navy, acting swiftly to combat the German submarine menace, dispatched fighting ships and aircraft to European waters. Simultaneously, it began the organization of convoys for hundreds of thousands of troops to undertake the tremendous work of organizing the American Expeditionary Forces. . . . — Map (db m29593) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — .6 — John Wilkes Booth's Escape — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
| “My brother saw Booth as he came down the alley and turned into F Street.” Henry Davis, 1901.
Twelve-year-old Henry Davis and his brother often looked out the back window of their Ninth Street home before they went to bed. They were fascinated by the comings and goings of actors and stagehands at the rear of Ford’s Theatre, at the other end of the alley on 10th Street.
On the evening of April 14, 1865, Henry went to bed early, but his brother stayed up and was a witness . . . — Map (db m28492) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Julia Ward Howe|
|In honor of Julia Ward Howe who wrote the "Battle Hymn of the Republic" here at the Old Willard Hotel November 21, 1861 "In the beauty of the lillies Christ was born across the sea with a glory in his bosom that transfigures you and me." Presented by the Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic January 24, 1938 Committee Frances Martin Kuhns - Emily Jerman Tompkins Annie Maria Michener - Edina Pearl Trigg Margret Hopkins Worrell Donors Orpha M. Whitaker | . . . — Map (db m6709) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Kosciuszko|
|(Front):Kosciuszko Saratoga(Right): General Thaddeus Kosciuszko 1745-1817 Son of Poland (Left):Military Engineer In the American Revolution Fortified Saratoga and West Point (Back):"And freedom shrieked as Kosciuszko fell." Erected by the Polish National Alliance of America and presented to the United States on behalf of the Polish American Citizens May 11, 1910 Raclawice — Map (db m19992) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Linotype Model 31 — Line-Casting Machine|
|The Linotype was introduced in Baltimore in 1883 by Ottmar Mergenthaler, a German-born inventor. By replacing hand-set type with machine-set type, the speed of composition was vastly increased by this important advance in printing.
This machine saw more than a half century’s service molding lines of type from molten metal in the Washington Post’s composing room. It is representative of the very heart of the “hot type” newspaper production process which was used at the Post from 1888 to 1980. — Map (db m29511) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — .1 — Market Space: Yesterday’s Town Square — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
| “Hay for the horses, produce for the table, live chickens for the pot, and a hat for your head.”
All this and more could be had right here during the Civil War. The triangular area just ahead to your left was called Major Space. The city’s sprawling City Market stood just to your left, where the National Archives is today.
The jumbled haymarket, indispensable in a world of horse-drawn vehicles, was just west of the City Market on Ninth Street. Up and down Pennsylvania . . . — Map (db m27529) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Metropolitan African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) Church — The National Cathedral of African Methodism|
|Metropolitan African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) Church was founded in the District of Columbia in 1838. It is the oldest A.M.E. church and the oldest continuously black-owned property in Washington, D.C. - the Nation's Capital. The church represents the merger of two other congregations, Israel Bethel A.M.E. (1821) and Union Bethel A.M.E. (1838). The latter was a stop on the Underground Railroad. These churches merged in 1870, and the present name, Metropolitan was officially designated and . . . — Map (db m18028) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Metropolitan AME Church — 1518 M Street, NW — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC|
|This church started on Capitol Hill in 1821 as Israel Bethel, was founded by African Americans denouncing White racism at Ebenezer Methodist Episcopal Church. Later, Pastor Henry McNeal Turner helped persuade President Lincoln to accept Black soldiers into the Union Army during the Civil War. In 1870 Israel Bethel merged with Union Bethel to become Metropolitan African Methodist Episcopal Church, the “National Cathedral of African Methodism.” This building, designed by architect . . . — Map (db m30056) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Missing Soldiers|
| Missing Soldiers.
Office, 3rd Floor, Room 9
Miss Clara Barton
Clara Barton is famous for her fierce determination and courage to save lives on the Civil War battlefields, and later for founding the American Red Cross.
1861-1865: During the Civil War, Clara Barton lived, worked stored medical supplies on the third story of this building when she was not on Civil War battlefields.
1865-1868: After the Civil War, Clara Barton created the Missing Soldiers Office on the third . . . — Map (db m36172) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — National Press Club|
|At this site, at the Willard InterContinental Hotel in March 1908, the National Press Club, now located at 529 14th Street, was formed through the adoption of a constitution and bylaws and the election of the club's first officers.
The National Press Club was founded to provide professional contact between news reporters. It has grown into one of the premier journalism organizations of the world with thousands of members and activities to promote freedom of the press.
Dedicated to . . . — Map (db m6586) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — W.4 — New York Avenue Presbyterian Church at Herald Square — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
| “The churches are needed as never before for divine services,” President Abraham Lincoln
So said President Lincoln from his pew in New York Avenue Presbyterian Church. While other churches were occupied by the federal government for offices and hospitals during the Civil War, Lincoln insisted this church remain open for worship. The pastor, Dr. Phineas D. Gurley, was the president’s spiritual guide through the war and during the fatal illness of Lincoln’s young son, Willie, . . . — Map (db m32926) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Original Adas Israel Synagogue|
Dedicated 1876 - Restored 1975
Listed on the United States Register of Historic Places and
an officially designated Landmark of the District of Columbia
Maintained by the Jewish Historical Society of
Greater Washington as the
Lillian and Albert Small
Jewish Museum of Washington — Map (db m29797) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Patent Office Building|
| This building was designed by Robert Miles, Architect, pursuant to an Act of Congress, approved July 4, 1836 for a Patent Office Building occupied by Department of Interior 1852-1925 United States Civil Service Commission since 1932 — Map (db m28549) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — .8 — Pennsylvania Avenue — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
|“Main Street” for the city and the nation.
Just a few steps ahead is Pennsylvania Avenue the inaugural parade route for every president since Thomas Jefferson and “Main Street” for local Washington since the city’s founding. Jefferson planted the first trees along the avenue, and in the early days of the city it was a promenade lined with shops, hotels and boarding houses. Mary Todd Lincoln shopped here. The street was also the scene of President Lincoln’s . . . — Map (db m29651) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Reserve Officers Association of the United States|
|At this site on the 2nd of October 1922 General of the Armies John J. Pershing met with 140 World War I reserve officers and founded the Reserve Officers Association of the United States. At the meeting General Pershing said: "I consider this gathering perhaps one of the most important, from a military point of view, that has assembled in Washington or anywhere else within the confines of this country within my time."
Army Reserve Brigadier General Henry J. Reilly was elected . . . — Map (db m6503) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Restoration of Jackson Place and Lafayette Square — White House Conference Center|
| [Sketch of townhouses along Jackson Place, NW - the western border of Lafayette Square - behind which the White House Conference Center was constructed in the 1960s & 70s.]
Dedicated to those whose spirit and vision helped to preserve the historic architecture of Lafayette Square.
Grosvenor Chapman, Fellow of the American Institute of Architects and Vice-Chairman of the Committee of 100 on the Federal City, in 1961 provided a sketch reproduced here that indicated a . . . — Map (db m32421) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Saint Augustine Catholic Church — Oldest Black Catholic Church in the Nation's Capitol — The Site of the Original|
|On Trinity Sunday June 11, 1876 the first Black Catholic Church in Washington District of Columbia was dedicated under the patronage of Saint Augustine, Bishop of Hippo in Africa. Saint Augustine Church stood on this site until 1947. The present church is located at Fifteenth and V Streets, Northwest. — Map (db m29509) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Site of Rhodes Tavern|
Built in 1799, in the hope that the new capital would become a great city.
Opened as a tavern and inn by William Rhodes, 1801.
Washington's first 'town hall,' where White House architect James Hoban and other citizens met to petition Congress for representation and localy elected government, 1801.
Polling place in first city council election, 1802.
Early boarding house used by Members of Congress, 1807 - 1814.
Spared the torch during the . . . — Map (db m39618) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — St. Patrick's Parish — Erected about 1792|
| First church to be erected in the "Federal City" outside the limits of "George Towne." First pastor, Rev. Anthony Caffrey, brought from Dublin at suggestion of James Hoban, architect of the "Presidential Palace."
March 17, 1953. — Map (db m15936) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — State, War, and Navy Building|
|Has been designated a Registered National Historic Landmark Under the provisions of the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935 this site possesses exceptional value in commemorating or illustrating the history of the United States U.S. Department of the Interior National Park Service 1972 — Map (db m4213) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — 15 of 16 — Temple for Our History — [National Archives Building] Make No Little Plans — Federal Triangle Heritage Trail|
| You’re standing at the National Archives Building, the first permanent repository for the original records of the federal government. They include the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights, displayed inside with other fascinating documents.
More than one million people visit each year to see those records and others on exhibit. Thousands research their family histories using census, land, or military pension records. Others delve into the papers of Congress . . . — Map (db m56901) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — The Blair House|
|National Historical Marker The Blair House Purchased in 1836 by Francis P. Blair, Sr., friend of Andrew Jackson, publisher of the Washington "Globe" and the "Congressional Globe." Inherited by his son, Montgomery Blair, Attorney for Dred Scott, Postmaster General under Lincoln, and originator of the International Postal Union, who, with his brother, General Francis P. Blair, Jr., defended Lincoln's plan for a reconstruction of the Union. Here, at Lincoln's instance, Robert E. Lee was . . . — Map (db m23493) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — w.1 — The Church of the Epiphany — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
| “Carpets, cushions, and hymnbooks were packed away ... ambulances began to stop ... lastly come the surgeons....” Margaret Leech, Reveille in Washington.
Church spires dominated the skyline of the city of Washington at the time of the Civil War, symbolizing the importance of houses of worship in the religious, social and political life of the nation’s capital. While Washington still claims an extraordinary number of historic downtown churches, the Church of the Epiphany . . . — Map (db m29618) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — The Cosmos Club|
|The Cosmos Club, founded in 1878 for “The advancement of its members in science, literature, and art,” occupied several houses on Lafayette Square from 1882 to 1952 including the adjacent Madison and Tayloe Houses and this building, which replaced houses at 23 and 25 Madison Place. The club continues to play an important role in Washington’s intellectual life at its present location at 2121 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. — Map (db m2173) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — The Daguerre Monument|
|[Inscription on Monument's front, 1890]:
[Inscription on 1890 monument's south side]:
To commemorate the half century in photography 1839 - 1889. Erected by the photographers association of America Aug. 1890.
[Inscription on 1890 monument's north side]:
Photography, the electric telegraph, and the steam engine are the three great discoveries of the age. No five centuries in human progress can show such strides as these.
[Rededication . . . — Map (db m28545) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — The Dolly Madison House|
|Site of dwelling house owned by Ex-President of the Unitied States James Madison 1828 to 1836 ———— Home of his widow Mrs. Dolly Payne Madison 1837 to 1849 ———— Home of Rear Admiral Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. and family 1851 to 1886(lower plaque): Federal Judicial Center The Dolly Madison House Restored 1968 Lyndon B. Johnson, President — Map (db m2174) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — The John A. Wilson Building|
|The John A. Wilson Building is headquarters of the local government that serves the nearly 600,000 citizens who call the Nation's capital their home. The Mayor and the 13-member Council, elected by residents of the District of Columbia, oversee all functions similar to those of city, county and state governments across America. Dedicated as the District Building on July 4, 1908, it was renamed in 1998 for John A. Wilson, a former Council chairman. The marble and granite Beaux Artes style . . . — Map (db m65712) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — The Lee House|
|Erected 1858 Home of Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee, U.S. Navy and Elizabeth Blair Lee, to whom it was given by her father, Francis Preston Blair. Admiral Lee commanded the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron during the Civil War. Home also of their son Blair Lee and Anne Clymer Brooke Lee. He served as United States Senator from Maryland and was the first senator to be elected by direct vote of the people. The Blair and Lee Houses were combined in 1943 to become the president's guest house. . . . — Map (db m4050) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — The National Christmas Tree|
| At 5:00 p.m. on Christmas Eve, 1923, President Calvin Coolidge walked from the White House to the Ellipse and “pushed the button” to light the first National Christmas Tree. A crowd of 3,000 witnessed the inaugural lighting of the 48-foot, cut Balsam fir, donated by Middlebury College, Vermont. For the next thirty years, live trees were lit at various locations on or near the White House grounds. Finally, in 1954, the ceremony returned to the Ellipse.
Cut trees served as . . . — Map (db m61678) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — The New Willard|
|Erected 1901 Site of
Joshua Tennison's Hotel 1818. John Strother 1821. Basil Williamson 1824. Frederick Barnard 1828. Proprietor of Mansion Hotel, Azariah Fuller American House 1833. City Hotel 1843. Willard's Hotel 1847-1901.
Presidents Taylor, Fillmore, Pierce, Buchanan, Lincoln, Grant, Harding and Coolidge. Vice Presidents Henricks, Marshall and Dawes.
The Marquis de Lafayette, Jenny Lind, Charles Dickens, Lord and Lady Napier, Lloyd George, Edward . . . — Map (db m6618) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — The Peace Convention|
|The old Willard Hotel was the scene of the last major effort to restore the Union and prevent the Civil War. At Virginia's invitation, delegates from twenty-one of the then thirty-four states met in secret session from February 4 to 27, 1861, in a vain attempt to solve the differences between the North and South. To honor those who worked for peace and unity, this memorial is erected by the Virginia Civil War Commission, February 1961. — Map (db m6541) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — The Restoration of 800 F Street|
|These five landmark buildings on the 800 block of F Street have been restored by Douglas Jamel in conjunction with the International Spy Museum. Erected between 1875 and 1892, the structures are fine examples of Victorian commercial architecture and are typical of Washington's old downtown at the end of the 19th century. In the 1990s they fell into complete disrepair and were threatened with demolition. Due to careful restoration, the buildings again play a major role in the life of the city. — Map (db m28540) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — .4 — The Roots of Freedom and Equality — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
| “It is known to you that events have transpired within the last few days, deeply affecting the peace and character of our community.”
With these words, city officials tried to calm the angry mobs gathering on this corner in April 1848. The crowds blamed the National Era, an abolitionist newspaper located near this sign, for the attempted escape of 77 African American slaves on the ship Pearl. They threatened to destroy the Era’s printing press. The . . . — Map (db m25271) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — The Tayloe House|
|Built by Benjamin Ogle Tayloe, 1830 Occupants Benjamin Ogle Tayloe Garnet A. Hobart James D. Cameron Marcus A. Hanna Social centre during Tayloe period “Little White House” President McKinley Frequently visited Mr. Hanna — Map (db m2172) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — The United States Court of Claims|
|The United States Court of Claims held its first meeting in "Willard's Hotel" on this site on May 11, 1855. The court was established to allow citizens to sue the U.S. Government. In 1861, President Lincoln wrote of the court:
"It is as much the duty of the government to render prompt justice against itself, in favor of citizens, as it is to administer the same between private individuals."
This memorial is placed here on behalf of the United
States Court of Federal Claims . . . — Map (db m6587) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — W.5 — The United States Treasury — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
|Billions for the war, and a bunker for the president The grand, pillared United States Treasury building that stands before you, its first section designed by Robert Mills in 1836, was the financial command center for the Union. It was here between 1861 and 1865 that the Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase raised the unprecedented sum of $2.7 billion to finance the government and the war. Chase issued bonds, instituted internal revenue taxes, printed paper money called "greenbacks" . . . — Map (db m29578) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — The White House|
|The White House is the oldest public building in the District of Columbia, and 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue is the most famous address in the United States. Here, every President except George Washington, has conducted the government of the Nation. Since 1792, the White House has become symbolic of the American Presidency throughout the world. While the Capitol represents the freedom and ideas of the Nation, the White House stands for the power and statesmanship of the chief executive. — Map (db m10127) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — These Five-Inch Brass Trophy Guns|
|These five-inch brass trophy guns were captured from the Spanish Arsenal at Cavete, in the Phillipine Islands on May 1, 1898, following the defeat of the Spanish Squadron in Manila Bay by the United States Navy. Admiral Dewey, the hero of the campaign, directed that the guns be sent to the United States National Museum (now the Smithsonian Institution). The guns are on loan from the Smithsonian Institution Division of Armed Forces History. Plaques atop the gun barrels state they were made in . . . — Map (db m4211) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — To the Memory of Oscar S. Straus — 1850 - Statesman, Author, Diplomat - 1926 — "Liberty" - "Reason"|
|This monument was erected by public subscription in accordance with the joint resolution of Congress of December 16, 1927. Signed by President Coolidge March 2, 1929, in memory of
Oscar S. Straus
1850 - 1926
"Origin of the Republican Form of Government" 1885
"Roger Williams - Pioneer of Religious Liberty" 1891
"Under Four Administrations" 1922
Minister to Turkey 1887-1888, 1898-1900
Ambassador to Turkey 1909-1910
Statesman . . . — Map (db m9159) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — U. S. Post Office Department — Ariel Rios Federal Building — Woodrow Wilson Plaza|
| Inscription above the frieze, center, west side entablature:
The Post Office Department, in its ceaseless labors, pervades every channel of commerce and every theatre of human enterprise, and while visiting, as it does kindly every fireside, mingles with the throbbings of almost every heart in the land. In the amplitude of its beneficence, it ministers to all climes and creeds and pursuits with the same eager readiness and with equal fullness of fidelity. It is the delicate ear trump . . . — Map (db m49587) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — U.S. Reservation 196 — L'Enfant Plan for the Federal City|
|"No nation perhaps had ever before the opportunity offer'd them of deliberately deciding on the spot where their Capital city should be fixed..." - Peter C. L'Enfant to George Washington, September 11, 1789 A new nation faced dissolution. As threats of secession permeated Congressional debates, a new Administration sought resolution. What-or who-possibly could prevent disunion, while simultaneously creating a lasting legacy? A great American compromise saved the day. Accepting the . . . — Map (db m60127) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — United States Department of the Treasury|
|Has been designated a Registered National Historic Landmark Under the provisions of the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935 This site possesses exceptional value in commemorating or illustrating the history of the United States U.S. Department of the Interior National Park Service 1972 — Map (db m2122) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Victims of Communism Memorial, — National Mall and Memorial Parks, Washington, D.C. — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.|
| “These voices cry out to all, and they’re legion,” President George W. Bush, June 12, 2007"
The Victims of Communism Memorial enshrines the more than 100 million men, women, and children struck down by 20th century totalitarian communist regimes.
Communist leaders attracted countless millions throughout the world with their “big lie” promises of a classless, egalitarian society free of poverty and oppression. But in fact communist dictators wielded . . . — Map (db m36178) WM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Webster-Ashburton Treaty|
|Friendship between the United States and Canada was developed and strengthened by the signing of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty, on August 9, 1842, in the old State Department building which stood on this site. This treaty established the north- eastern boundary between the two countries. This tablet paced by the Kiwanis Club of Washington in Cooperation with the committee on marking points of historic interest April 30, 1929 — Map (db m17617) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Western Plaza, Pennsylvania Avenue — [Freedom Plaza]|
|Western Plaza consists of a large raised terrace in which part of L'Enfant's original 1791 plan for Washington, D.C. is rendered in black and white stone. At one end of the raised terrace is a pool. At the other is a shaded sitting area around a statue of General Pulaski.
Inscribed on the upper terrace are historic quotations about Washington. Low walls separate the plaza from surrounding traffic. Eleven large urns rest on top of these walls and contain seasonal planting. The upper map . . . — Map (db m17966) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — White House Kitchen Garden|
| ”. . . Now I shall plant, if at all, more for the public than for myself.”
John Quincy Adams, diary entry for July 5, 1826, shortly before beginning the first major planting program at the White House. Massachusetts Historical Society
During his eight years as president (1801-09), Thomas Jefferson hired the White House’s first gardener, whose duties included the cultivation of a kitchen garden. However, it was not until 1825, when John Quincy Adams . . . — Map (db m61677) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — W.6 — Willard Inter-Continental Hotel — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
|"This hotel, in fact, may be much more justly called the center of Washington and the Union than either the Capitol, the White House or the State Department. . ." Nathaniel Hawthorne, Civil War reporter for the Atlantic Monthly At 6:30 a.m. in late February 1861, President-elect Abraham Lincoln and his security team headed by Alan Pinkerton slipped into what was then called Willard's Hotel, an earlier version of the hotel now at this site. Assassination threats dictated this quiet . . . — Map (db m10905) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — William Tecumseh Sherman — 1820 - 1891|
|"On no earthly account will I do any act or think any thought hostile to or in defiance of the old government of the United States." Alexandria, Louisiana, January 18, 1861 "Wars legitimate object is more perfect peace." Washington, D.C., February 23, 1882 Seminole War 1840-1842 War in Mexico 1847-1848 Occupation of California Civil War 1861-1865 General Commanding the Army of the United States 1869-1884 Erected by the Society of the Army of the Tennessee with the aid of the Congress of the . . . — Map (db m8350) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — .7 — Woodies Comes to F Street — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
| "Alvin, Washington, D.C. is the place for us." So wrote Samuel Walter Woodward to his business partner, Alvin Lothrop, in 1879. The young entrepreneurs were looking for a new location for their innovative dry goods store near Boston, Massachusetts. Unhappy with the bargaining common in stores of the day, they were the first to charge a fixed price and to allow returns.
Woodward recognized the new vitality and promise of the nation's capital. Since the end of the Civil War just 14 years . . . — Map (db m37223) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Zero Milestone — President's Park|
| [north face:]
[rendering of Mercury’s winged helmet]
[plaque in sidewalk below:]
The U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey determined the latitude, longitude and elevation of the Zero Milestone. Authorized by Act of Congress, June 5, 1920. Dedicated June 4, 1923.
Point for the measurement of distances from Washington on highways of
of the United States.
Starting point of first trans-continental . . . — Map (db m32486) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Dupont Circle — Henry Martyn Robert — 1837–1923 — Brigadier General, U. S. Army|
|In Memory Of Henry Martyn Robert (1837–1923), Brigadier General, U. S. Army. One of this country’s most distinguished river, harbor and shoreline engineers, he was led by civic concerns to become the noted original author of the familiar parliamentary manual, ROBERT’S RULES OF ORDER.
Robert served in the city-managerial army position of Engineer Commissioner of the District of Columbia from 1890 to 1891. Consequently a key initial member of the Rock Creek National . . . — Map (db m31140) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Dupont Circle — John Witherspoon — 1722 Scotland – Princeton 1794|
| Signer of the Declaration of Independence.
“For my own part, of property I have some reputation more that reputation staked. That property is pledged on the issue of this contest: and although these gray hairs must soon descend into the sepulchre, I would infinitely rather that they descend thither by the hand of the executioner than desert at this crisis the sacred cause of my country.” — Map (db m29499) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), East Corner — Original Federal Boundary Stone East|
|Original Federal Boundary Stone
District of Columbia
Protected by Dist. of Co. Chapter
Daughters of the American Revolution
1916 — Map (db m5281) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), East Potomac Park — Cuban Friendship Urn|
|(smaller plaque on the urn) El recuerdo del “Maine” tendrá eterna duración durante los siglos los lazos de la amistad entre la tierra de Cuba y la tierra de los Estados Unidos de Norte América. —Gerardo Machado
(plaque on base) Esta copa fué esculpida de un fragmento de la columna de mármol del monumento a las víctimas del “Maine” ericido en la ciudad de La Habana, cuya columna fué derribada por el ciclón de 20 de Octubre de 1926.
. . . — Map (db m7871) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Federal Triangle — 1 — America's Main Street — Make No Little Plans — Federal Triangle Heritage Trail|
|The broadest and most important street in Pierre L'Enfant's Plan of 1791 for the nation's capital connects to the Capitol and the White House. Pennsylvania Avenue. Almost every American knows its name. Almost every visitor to the Washington sets foot on it. As America's Main Street, Pennsylvania Avenue is where Americans practice their rights to free speech and assembly. It is our ceremonial stage, where the nation comes together to celebrate - new presidents, national holidays, and victories . . . — Map (db m57215) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Federal Triangle — 5 — Appointed Rounds — Make No Little Plans — Federal Triangle Heritage Trail|
|The imposing Ariel Rios Building opened in 1934 to house the U.S. Post Office Department. Architect William A. Delano, of the New York firm Delano and Aldrich, drew inspiration from Paris and other European cities to design the building's unusual hourglass shape. The building, including a ground-level arcade and a Parisian-inspired slate mansard roof, was intended to face a circular court planned to span 12th Street. The plan, however, required demolition of the Old Post Office. Its destruction . . . — Map (db m57207) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Federal Triangle — 6 — Arts and Artists — Make No Little Plans — Federal Triangle Heritage Trail|
|Woodrow Wilson Plaza honors President Woodrow Wilson, noted scholar and former president of Princeton University. Located just inside the Ronald Reagan building ahead is the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, the nation's memorial to our 29th president. The nonpartisan institution studies national and world affairs. Installed in the lively plaza are monumental sculptures by two Washington-born artists: the cast-aluminum Federal Triangle Flowers by Stephen Robin and the . . . — Map (db m57208) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Federal Triangle — 9 — Completing the Triangle — Make No Little Plans — Federal Triangle Heritage Trail|
|The Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center honoring the 40th president, filled the last open space in the Federal Triangle. When former First Lady Nancy Reagan dedicated it in 1998, the redevelopment of this area of Pennsylvania Avenue, begun by President John F. Kennedy in 1961, was complete. The Reagan Building's 3.1 million square feet of space make it the second-largest federal building. Only the Pentagon is larger.
The only Federal Triangle building with both private and . . . — Map (db m57205) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Federal Triangle — 14 — Equal Justice Under the Law — Make No Little Plans — Federal Triangle Heritage Trail|
|The roots of America's top law enforcement agency, the Department of Justice, reach back to 1789. That year the first Congress created the Office of the Attorney General to prosecute lawsuits in the Supreme Court and advise the President and the Cabinet on matters of law. In 1870, after the Civil War spurred an increase in lawsuits, Congress created the Department of Justice to address the increasing demands on the attorney general's office. The Department's modern mission is to enforce the . . . — Map (db m57214) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Federal Triangle — 11 — From Workers to Environment — Make No Little Plans — Federal Triangle Heritage Trail|
|The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, whose mission is to protect human health and the environment, has occupied the majority of offices in this block since 2001. EPA West (this building), the adjacent Mellon Auditorium, and the EPA East building share once continuous, monumental faç designed by Arthur Brown, Jr. The projecting temple front of the auditorium, colonnades at both ends, and generous sculptures unify the complex. Because this 1934 building originally housed the Department of . . . — Map (db m57210) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Federal Triangle — 3 — G-Men and G-Women — Make No Little Plans — Federal Triangle Heritage Trail|
|The Federal Bureau of Investigation is headquartered across Pennsylvania Avenue from this spot. Thanks to popular media, it may be one of the better-known government agencies. Since the 1930s Hollywood has found great stories among the "G-men" (government agents). The FBI often cooperates in these productions. The FBI was established in 1908 as the Justice Department's detective unit. Its agents investigated allegations of investment fraud, opium smuggling, munitions trafficking, and other . . . — Map (db m57218) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Federal Triangle — 2 — Grandeur for the People — Make No Little Plans — Federal Triangle Heritage Trail|
|The National Archives, keeper of the nation's founding documents and most important federal government records, occupies this important spot halfway between the Capitol and the White House. Before the Archives building was constructed, federal records were stored haphazardly all over town. The nation's first archivist began centralizing them here in 1935. In 1898 the United States won the Spanish-American War, and national leaders began questioning whether their capital city reflected the . . . — Map (db m57217) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Federal Triangle — 12 — Keeping it Green — Make No Little Plans — Federal Triangle Heritage Trail|
|The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is the youngest agency housed here in the Federal Triangle. Established as an independent agency in 1970, EPA protects human health and the environment through science, transparency, and the rule of law. This building, designed by San Francisco architect Arthur Brown, Jr., originally housed the Interstate Commerce Commission, which regulated transportation of goods between the states. Like its Federal Triangle neighbors, the building was richly finished . . . — Map (db m57211) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Federal Triangle — 8 — Open For Business — Make No Little Plans — Federal Triangle Heritage Trail|
|Across the street the Department of Commerce's Herbert C. Hoover Building anchors the Federal Triangle, just as the department - with its mission of promoting trade, supporting economic development, and strengthening the competitiveness of American companies - historically anchors the U.S. economy. Upon completion in 1932, the building was the world's largest office complex, covering almost eight acres and filling three city blocks with 3,300 rooms. It brought under one roof offices that had . . . — Map (db m57204) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Federal Triangle — 13 — Our Tax Dollars — Make No Little Plans — Federal Triangle Heritage Trail|
|While only Congress - the people's elected representatives - can impose taxes and decide how they are spent, the Internal Revenue Service, a bureau of the U.S. Treasury, ensures those taxes are collected fairly and efficiently. The IRS building reminds citizens what their tax dollars buy. In the words of the great jurist Oliver Wendell Holmes engraved over the building's entrance, "Taxes are what we pay for a civilized society." Revenue collected by the IRS pays for everything from national . . . — Map (db m57212) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Federal Triangle — 4 — Preserving the Past — Make No Little Plans — Federal Triangle Heritage Trail|
| This massive granite building was completed in 1899 to house the U.S. Post Office Department and the busy city post office. Designed by the U.S. Treasury Department architects under Willoughby J. Edbrooke, it was Washington’s first steel-frame building.
Three decades after opening, this building almost fell to the wrecking ball. Its Romanesque Revival architecture did not match the Beaux-Arts style planned for the Federal Triangle, and it blocked construction of a wing of the IRS building . . . — Map (db m65355) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Federal Triangle — 16 — Protecting Consumers and Competition — Make No Little Plans — Federal Triangle Heritage Trail|
|This is the Federal Trade Commission Building, home of the agency that defends the public against unfair methods of competition and unfair or deceptive acts or practices. One of the older independent Federal agencies, the FTC was created in 1914 and has occupied this site since the building was completed in 1938. It works to protect the competitive marketplace and interests of consumers through litigation, consumer and business education, public hearings, and enforcement of regulations such as . . . — Map (db m59219) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Federal Triangle — 10 — The Division — Make No Little Plans — Federal Triangle Heritage Trail|
|Soon after the Federal government moved to Washington in 1800, this area attracted shops and stables to serve the new residents. But where Constitution Avenue runs today, just south of this sign, Tiber Creek flowed - and often flooded. In 1815 engineers channeled the creek into the new Washington Canal. By 1860, however, the canal had deteriorated into an open sewer. Impoverished families, both African American and white, lived in small wood-frame houses along unpaved, often muddy streets and . . . — Map (db m57209) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Federal Triangle — 7 — Washington, DC: Capital and City — Make No Little Plans — Federal Triangle Heritage Trail|
|This is the John A. Wilson Building, Washington, DC's city hall, home to DC's mayor and city council. When completed in 1908, it was known as the District Building (for District of Columbia). Cope and Stewardson of Philadelphia won the competition to design it in the Beaux-Arts style favored by the McMillian Commission, which was charged with remaking this area in 1901. Built on the site of a streetcar powerhouse destroyed by fire in 1897, it is the only building in the Federal Triangle . . . — Map (db m57141) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Foggy Bottom — Ysabel I, La Catolica — [Queen Isabella of Spain and the Americas]|
| Panel 1, east side of pedestal, facing 17th St.: Ysabel I La Catolica Reina de Castilla de Aragon de las Islas y Tierra Firme del Mar Oceano
Panel 2, upper west side of pedestal, facing OAS Hdqts.:
Esta estatua fue restaurada con el patrocinio de la Spain-USA Foundation e inaugurada en presencian de S.A.R. Doña Cristina de Borbón, Infanta de España, el 15 de Octubre de 2010. --------------------------
This statue was restored with the patronage of the Spain-USA . . . — Map (db m65257) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Foggy Bottom — A Canal to the West - Tide Lock|
| [Panel 1:]
A Canal to the West
For years it was a dream – a canal to open a trade route from local commercial centers to the rich Ohio country across the Allegheny Mountains. Business would thrive as mule-drawn barges carried wheat, furs, whiskey, livestock, and coal to bustling ports at Georgetown, Washington City, and Alexandria, providing a cheap alternative to overload wagon roads.
Begun July 4, 1828, the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal was dug around dangerous Potomac . . . — Map (db m46939) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Foggy Bottom — Albert Einstein - The Einstein Memorial|
|[Panel 1:] Albert Einstein, March 14, 1879 - April 18, 1955.
"As long as I have any choice in the matter, I shall live only in a country where civil liberty, tolerance, and equality of all citizens before the law prevail," Albert Einstein.
Albert Einstein, probably best known for his theory of relativity, revolutionized scientific thought with new concepts of space, time, mass, motion, and gravitation. His statement that energy and matter are interchangeable was the key to the . . . — Map (db m68433) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Foggy Bottom — Aleksandr Pushkin — 1799 -1837|
| During his all too brief life, Aleksandr Pushkin created a body of literary works of astonishing, life-affirming beauty. Deeply attached to his Russian and African roots, Pushkin’s genius was devoted to the values of honor, freedom and individual dignity. He gave his life for them. To this day, Pushkin is the Russian people’s pride. Exigi Monumentum
[Verse in Russian text: …]
[Translation in English:] "In years to come I’ll earn my people’s adoration, For only . . . — Map (db m46981) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Foggy Bottom — Announcement of the Atomic Age — [Niels Bohr]|
| On this campus, January 26, 1939, Nobel Laureate Niels Bohr reported the splitting of the uranium nucleus with the release of two hundred million electron volts of energy, thus heralding the beginning of the atomic age. This announcement took place in the Hall of Government, Room 209, at the Fifth Washington Conference on Theoretical Physics organized by GWU Professors George Gamow and Edward Teller and jointly sponsored by the Carnegie Institution and the George Washington University. . . . — Map (db m47330) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Foggy Bottom — Benito Juárez Memorial — Statues of the Liberators|
| [Inscriptions, east face:]
”Respect for the rights of others is peace” Benito Juárez 1806-1872 The people of Mexico to the people of the United States of America El respeto al derecho ajen es la paz Benito Juárez 1806-1872 El pueblo de Mexico al pueblo de los Estados Unidos de America
[Inscription, center of west base:]
En este sitio fue depositada tierra de Guelatao, Oaxaca, lugar de origen del Presidente BENITO JUAREZ 7 de Enero de 1969
[Inscription, . . . — Map (db m65702) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Foggy Bottom — Bernardo de Gálvez Memorial|
| Bernardo de Gálvez
(Count de Gálvez)
1746 - 1786
"Bernardo de Gálvez the great Spanish soldier carried out a courageous campaign in lands bordering the lower Mississippi. This masterpiece of military strategy lightened the pressure of the English in the war against the American settlers who were fighting for their independence.
"May the statue of Bernardo de Gálvez serve as a reminder that Spain offered the blood of her soldiers for the cause of American independence." . . . — Map (db m40957) HM|