|District of Columbia, Washington — "Treat Me Refined" — Lift Every Voice — Georgia Ave./Pleasant Plains Heritage Trail|
|The House at 3017 Sherman Avenue once was a boardinghouse for Howard University students. In 1923 a determined and talented young woman from the tiny town of Eatonville, Florida, lived here while earning an Associates Degree at Howard. In a short time she would win international acclaim as novelist and anthropologist Zora Neale Hurston.
Hungry for culture, Hurston devoured Howard's opportunities. She performed in campus theater, played violin, joined Zeta Phi Bet sorority, and co-founded . . . — Map (db m65674) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 5 — “Contraband” to Community — A Fitting Tribute — Logan Circle Heritage Trail|
|The Entire Block to Your Left was once a Civil War-era camp and hospital for formerly enslaved African Americans
After the Civil War broke out in 1861, thousands walked away from bondage. When some sought shelter at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, Union General Benjamin Butler allowed them to stay as “contrabands of war” or captured enemy property. Soon men, women, and children poured into Washington and other Union territories seeking new lives. In 1862, as housing near the . . . — Map (db m79630) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 3524 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.|
Apartments, Shops and Cars
“Connecticut Avenue is the principal approach to what is undoubtedly Washington's greatest suburban buying power” — The Washington Post, December 7, 1930
Early development of Cleveland Park was limited to country estates and single-family dwellings, but in the 1920s Cleveland Park began to see construction of apartment buildings and a commercial strip along Connecticut Avenue. Spurred in part by DC's first zoning laws . . . — Map (db m82093) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 6 Logan|
Capt. Allen V. Reed, USN
Renovated 1986 by
Allan Bortel & Associates — Map (db m80163) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 98th Pennsylvania Infantry|
|In Memory of Our Comrades Killed and Wounded in Battle on This Field July 11th & 12th 1864
98th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers
First Brigade, 2nd Division, 6th Corps — Map (db m76116) WM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — A Gathering Place for Washingtonians — Meridian Hill Park, National Historic Landmark|
|Since Meridian Hill Park opened in 1936, Washingtonians from diverse neighborhoods surrounding the park have gathered here for performances, community events, and political protest.
When tens of thousands of people flocked to Washington D.C. in the late 1930s and 40s for federal jobs created by the New Deal and World War II, government agencies created a series of "Starlight" concerts in the park. From 1941 to 1944, Washingtonians lined the cascades and reflecting pool on summer evenings . . . — Map (db m63643) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — A Hilltop for Heroes and Horse Thieves — Meridian Hill Park National Historic Landmark|
|It is perhaps no surprise that Commodore David Porter, hero of the War of 1812, chose Meridian Hill on which to build his estate. From this knoll, Porter had a direct line of sight to the President's mansion. Though no match for the grand buildings it looked down upon, Porter's manor house was a handsome brick and stucco structure with a large front portico.
Years later, while in use as an Army hospital, Porter's mansion burned to the ground. It was never rebuilt.
The grand vistas of . . . — Map (db m63740) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 6 — A Neighborhood For Everyone — Tour of Duty — Barracks Row Heritage Trail|
|THE BUILDINGS NEAR THIS CORNER were built during a wave of private development that began after the United States won the Spanish-American War in 1898, and became a world power for the first time. As America flexed its muscles, the world — and Eighth Street — felt the impact. In response, the Marines began rebuilding the Barracks in 1901, and the Navy Yard expanded the following year. The growing work force needed more housing and services too.|
New buildings soon filled in . . . — Map (db m57119) HM
|District of Columbia, Washington — 11 of 14 — A Shared Neighborhood — City Within a City — Greater U Street Heritage Trail|
Although Washington, D.C., has been a racially segregated city for much of its history, black and white Washingtonians have shared parts of this neighborhood.|
The modern building across 15th Street sits on the site of Portner Flats, demolished in 1974. An 1897 apartment building, the Portner was occupied by white residents until the end of World War II. Its grand public dining room and parlors, large, high-ceilinged apartments, and many resident services made it a sought after . . . — Map (db m80471) HM
|District of Columbia, Washington — 12 — A Spirit of Community — Top of the Town — Tenleytown Heritage Trail|
| Text On Main Face of Marker |
Episcopalians first gathered here to worship in 1874, when St. Alban's Church, located on Wisconsin Avenue and Massachusetts, started a mission for the area. In good weather, services took place under a majestic oak tree on land donated by William Murdock. The tree eventually shaded a rough mission chapel, and then two successor churches. In 1904. when the mission received the name Saint Columba's, its parish house contained a stage and a circulating . . . — Map (db m68271) HM
|District of Columbia, Washington — 18 — A Streetcar Named Brightwood — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|The Large Structure across Georgia Avenue opened in 1909 as a "car barn" for the Brightwood Railway. The facility could service more than 40 streetcars at once, and often did so late at night. As a young boy in the 1950s, Thomas Reardon remembered the busy barn as "a scary place" where streetcars' lights gleamed in the darkness "like the eyes of monsters." Powered at first by horses, the streetcars by 1893 ran on electricity provided by overhead lines. Congress prohibited overhead lines . . . — Map (db m72831) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 255 — All the Row Houses — Dupont Circle — Diverse Visions / One Neighborhood|
|All the row houses in the 1700 block of Q St. (north and south pictured above) were built in the mid-1880s by one of Washington's most prolific architects/builders, Thomas Franklin Schneider. The prosperity and growth during the 1880s in DC resulted from the enlarged role of the Federal Government after the Civil War and general prosperity of the nation.
The next major builders were Harry Wardman, 1920s, and Morris Cafritz, 1940s. Schneider's dual expertise contributed to quality housing for . . . — Map (db m80020) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Alva Belmont House|
|Of this House
The oldest part is one of the earliest buildings in this region.
Robert Sewall bought the property and enlarged the house in 1799, and rebuilt and greatly altered it after war damage in 1814.
Residence and office of Albert Gallatin secretary of the treasury, 1801 - 1813. Here he directed the financing of the Louisiana Purchase from France (1803), which nearly doubled the then area of the United States.
Described in the United States Senate as one of the most . . . — Map (db m69271) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 7 — An African American Enclave — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|Even Before Emancipation freed Washington's enslaved people in April 1862, a free African American community had developed here amid the European American farmers. The District of Columbia, unlike its neighbors, permitted the formerly enslaved to remain within its boundaries. The Shamwell family of free blacks settled in Brightwood in 1837. By 1854, four free black landowners clustered here along Rock Creek Ford Road (once Milkhouse Ford Road), with a fifth on Piney Branch Road. Four of the . . . — Map (db m72821) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — An American Meridian — Meridian Hill Park, National Historic Landmark|
|Thomas Jefferson Believed the surveyor's of the nation's capital city should set a new American Meridian, a north-south line running through both poles and the American continent.
This reference line, longitude 0° 0°, would aid navigation, mapmaking, and the development of property boundaries, all key to settling the capital and new western territories. But most of all, Jefferson wanted to reinforce America's Independence from Britain, where the Prime Meridian was established to serve the . . . — Map (db m63770) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — An Industrial Georgetown|
|If you could have walked along the towpath here in the 19th and early 20th century, your senses would have been overwhelmed by industrial pollution. The dust from coal being unloaded from canal boats fogged the air. The stench of animal fat being mixed with lye at Hoffmyer's Tannery and Soap Factory would have overpowered you. The groan of water wheels powering four, grist, and paper mills would have been thunderous. A noisy, dusty and sometimes dangerous place, the canal brought raw goods such . . . — Map (db m82653) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Art for the People — Meridian Hill Park, National Historic Landmark|
|Congress ordered sculptures installed at Meridian Hill Park long before the park's completion. So many sculptures were authorized that Horace Peaslee, the park's architect, called for a moratorium on installations. He told the Commission of the Fine Arts that the park's master plan was in jeopardy unless future memorials were restricted to decorative urns designed for that purpose.
Nature, vandals, and thieves have long threatened the park's public art. For years, Joan of Arc did not wield . . . — Map (db m63658) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Automobile Row — A Fitting Tribute — Logan Circle Heritage Trail|
|Etched into the corner of the building next to this sign are the names of cars and trucks sold here back when showrooms lined this stretch of 14th Street. Hurley Motor Company, which opened here in 1920, sold Milwaukee-made Nash cars and trucks. Trew Motor Co. (now Studio Theatre's main building) opened the same year to sell Peerless and REO cars.
Horse-drawn streetcars began running along 14th Street from New York Avenue to Boundary Street (Florida Avenue) in 1862, making a major . . . — Map (db m79975) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 12 — Automobiling on The Avenue — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|This busy section once was a "Country Road" to Washingtonians looking for peace and recreation. If you drove by here a century ago, you would have passed woods and large estates, and might even have seen fox hunters. Across Georgia was the private Villa Flora Club, with live music and fine dining amid "spacious lawn, rich with the perfume of roses." Among its attractive modern conveniences: telephone service and electric lighting. By 1907 the club's 1,000 members frequently made the society . . . — Map (db m72813) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 5 — Avenue of Churches — Village in the City — Mount Pleasant Heritage Trail|
|To Your Left is Canaan Baptist Church. Its relocation here from Georgia Avenue in 1963 was the fulfillment of pastor Rev. M. Cecil Mills's dream to preside over the first African American church on this avenue of churches. The congregation paraded from their old church to the new and celebrated for an entire month.
Canaan Baptist replaced Gunton-Temple Memorial Presbyterian Church, whose white congregation had moved to Bethesda, Maryland. Like many white Washingtonians in the period . . . — Map (db m75273) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Barney at Bladensburg — Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail|
|Barney Circle honors U.S. Navy Commodore Joshua Barney. In August 1814, Barney, his Chesapeake Flotillamen, and a contingent of U.S. Marines guarded a bridge over the Eastern Branch (Anacostia River) on today's Bladensburg Road, NE. When it became clear that the British were advancing on Bladensburg, Barney pleaded with the secretary of the Navy to join the fight. The commodore and his men hurried to the battlefield. They arrived just in time to put up the stiffest American resistance in the . . . — Map (db m80473) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Bartholdi Fountain — United States Botanic Garden|
|The Bartholdi Fountain was created by Frederic Auguste Bartholdi (1834 - 1904), the French sculptor who also designed the Statue of Liberty. It was first exhibited in Philadelphia at the International Exposition of 1876. The fountain was purchased by the U.S. Congress in 1877 for six thousand dollars and placed on the Botanic Garden grounds, then situated in the corner of the Mall. Moved to its present location in 1932, the Bartholdi Fountain was restored in 1986.
The fountain, intended to . . . — Map (db m66372) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Battleground National Cemetery — Rock Creek Park|
|During the late evening of July 12, 1864, 40 Union soldiers that perished while defending Washington DC from a two day Confederate attack (known as the Battle of Fort Stevens) were laid to rest here in what was once an apple orchard. President Abraham Lincoln, who attended the burial ceremony, dedicated the land as hallowed ground, making Battlefield National Cemetery one of America's small national cemeteries.
Between the 1870s and early 1900s a Superintendent's Lodge, rostrum, flagpole, . . . — Map (db m63644) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 13 — Battleground National Cemetery — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|After the rebels were turned back as the Battle of Fort Stevens ended in 1864, scores of Union Soldiers lay cold and silent. Forty-one of them are buried here in this tiny plot dedicated to their sacrifice.
President Abraham Lincoln, who observed the battle, spoke at the dedication. At barely one acre, Battleground National Cemetery is one of the nation's smallest.
Memorial Day once drew hundreds to this hallowed place. The holiday was established by veterans in 1868 to honor the Civil . . . — Map (db m72825) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Belford V. Lawson and Marjorie M. Lawson Residence — 8 Logan Circle, NW — African American Heritage Trail, Washington D. C.|
|Belford V. Lawson (1909–1985) and Marjorie M. Lawson (1912–2002) were prominent attorneys. Mr. Lawson helped win landmark civil rights cases before the U.S. Supreme Court, including New Negro Alliance v. Sanitary Grocery (1938) and Henderson v. Southern Railway Company (1950). Mrs. Lawson advised John F. Kennedy's 1960 presidential campaign, and he appointed her to the D.C. Juvenile Court bench. President Lyndon Johnson chose her for the U.S. delegation to the United . . . — Map (db m79362) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Billy Simpson's House of Seafood and Steaks — African American Heritage Trail|
| 3515 Georgia Avenue
Billy Simpson's provided DC's African American community with an upscale venue for dining and socializing in the period when segregation was ending and African Americans claimed a larger role in city affairs. The restaurant (open 1956-1978) attracted intellectuals, professionals, entertainers ,and African diplomats. Politicians, government officials, and journalists debated the issues of the day at roundtables hosted here by owner, community activist and . . . — Map (db m66181) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Black and Gray Squirrels — A historic tale of animal rescue — Backyard Biology|
| "We ask every American to lend a hand to save Silver-Tail" -- William Temple Hornaday (1913)
When the gray squirrel nearly disappeared
The gray squirrel once was considered such a pest that bounties were put on it. In 1749, Pennsylvania paid three pence for each dead squirrel. In Ohio, tax payers could use carcasses to pay part of their taxes. By 1890, the gray squirrel had nearly been exterminated.
National Zoo helps save gray squirrel!
Scientists, including William . . . — Map (db m67836) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Bradford Pear Tree|
|(Pyrus calleryana Bradford)
An ornamental shade tree developed by
Planted May 2, 1966
Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson
Orville L. Freeman, Secretary of Agriculture
Va. & Md. 4-H Clubs
In behalf of National Beautification
Replaced May 2, 1987 — Map (db m70457) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Bulfinch Gate House|
|Erected about 1828 under direction of Charles Bulfinch, Architect of the Capitol, this gate house stood until 1874 with another (now at 15th and Constitution Avenue) at the west entrance to the Capitol Grounds. — Map (db m80144) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Campus to Army Camps and Back Again — Meridian Hill Park, National Historic Landmark|
|President Monroe singed a charter in 1821 that established Columbian College on a site north of Florida Avenue between 14th and 15th Streets, Columbian College moved to Foggy Bottom in 1912 and became George Washington University, but the original campus area continued to be called "College Hill."
During the Civil War, the Union Army commandeered the farmland on which Meridian Hill Park would eventually be built. The Army built camps there with names like Cameron, Relief, Carver, and . . . — Map (db m63771) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Carl Lutz|
Carl Lutz (1895-1975)
Swiss diplomat, Righteous Among the Nations
Who represented the interests of
the United States of America
in Budapest, Hungary
during World War II
and saved the lives of thousands of Jews. ✯
Carl Lutz Foundation
Government of the Republic of Hungary
Hungarian American Coalition
Lantos Foundation for Human Rights and Justice — Map (db m69110) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Charles M. “Sweet Daddy” Grace Residence — 11 Logan Circle, NW — African American Heritage Trail – Washington DC|
|Charles M. “Sweet Daddy” Grace (1881-1960) brought his United House of Prayer for All People of the Church on the Rock of the Apostolic Faith to Washington in 1927, eight years after founding the charismatic Christian denomination in Massachusetts. The Cape Verdean-born Grace became known for his flamboyant personal style, and for staging huge revivals, faith healings and mass baptisms. His church, with national headquarters as 601 M Street, NW, continues to serve the community with . . . — Map (db m79318) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Charles R. Drew and Lenore Robbins Drew — 3324 Sherman Avenue, NW, Apartment 1 — African American Heritage Trail, Washington DC|
|Dr. Charles R. Drew (1904-1950), renowned for his blood plasma research, was associated with Howard University College of Medicine during most of his career. In 1941 Drew joined a national effort to set up a blood banking process but left because U.S. Government policy segregated blood by race of donor. Drew later died after an automobile accident in North Carolina. The story that he died because a white hospital refused to treat him is a myth, although this tragedy did befall others during the . . . — Map (db m65523) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Christian Fleetwood and Sara Fleetwood Residence Site — 319 U Street, NW — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC|
|Christian Fleetwood (1840-1914) was one of 21 African Americans to be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for bravery during the 1864 Battle of Chaffin's Farm near Richmond. After the Civil War he worked for the federal government and organized DC's first Black National Guard unit. Sara Fleetwood (1849-1908), a member of the first (1896) graduating class of Freedmen's Hospital nursing school, became its superintendent in 1901. The Fleetwoods moved to this address about 1900 and hosted . . . — Map (db m77543) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 2 — Commerce|
|Connecticut Avenue's commercial corridor, between Macomb and Ordwary, reflects changes in retail that followed changes in modes of transportation from 1890 streetcar, to automobiles, to the Cleveland Park Metro Station in 1981. Individual stores on the east side reflect the retail pattern in the 1920's. The Park and Shop, was a new concept then, with stores connected by an exterior awning and a revolutionary shared parking lot.
Artist: Eleanor Oliver — Map (db m67824) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 3 — Commerce and Community — Tour of Duty — Barracks Row Heritage Trail|
|The home/music studio of John Esputa, Jr., once occupied the site of 511 Eighth Street (Shakespeare Theatre’s rehearsal hall.) Among Esputa’s students in 1861 was eight-year-old John Philip Sousa, whose irresistible marches made him one of America’s first musical superstars.
The street’s small gable-roofed buildings probably pre-date Sousa’s era, while the larger buildings were erected during a post-Civil War building boom. In 1877 Adam DeMoll contributed the two- story brick building on . . . — Map (db m64884) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Company K, 150th Ohio National Guard Infantry|
|Memorial to Co. K. 150th O.N.G.I.
Which took part
In the defense of Fort Stevens, D. C.
July 12, 1864 — Map (db m76118) WM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Cortelyou House — 1891 — Residence of George B. Cortelyou|
|This residence was designed by architect Appleton P. Clark, Jr. and built in 1891 for Daniel Birtwell. In 1900, George Bruce Cortelyou occupied the house when he became secretary to President McKinley. Cortelyou continued to serve in public office as secretary to president Teddy Roosevelt, the first Secretary of Commerce and Labor, Chairman of the Republican Party, Postmaster General, and Secretary of the Treasury.
In 1909, after his public service in Washington, Cortelyou became the . . . — Map (db m69292) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Creating the "City Beautiful" — Meridian Hill Park, National Historic Landmark|
|At the beginning of its second century, the nation's capital was changing dramatically. In 1902, the United States Senate adopted a number of recommendations from the Senate Park Commission, popularly known as the McMillan Commission. By 1910, a federally appointed group of architects and designers, the Commission of Fine Arts, was directing the rehabilitation of the
National Mall. Under their supervision, construction began on several new buildings near the Capitol, including monuments to . . . — Map (db m63940) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Design Challenges — Meridian Hill Park, National Historic Landmark|
|Limited funds and dramatic change in elevation at the Meridian Hill Park site -- falling 75 feet from north to south -- challenged the Commission of Fine Arts and their designers. The 16th Street edge required massive retaining walls to transition from the upper park to the sidewalk at street level.
Budget constraints meant the designers could not specify natural stone for the desired Renaissance forms. To find a solution, the park's architect in charge, Horace Peaslee, turned to the . . . — Map (db m63944) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Destroying the Library — Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail|
|The original Library of Congress occupied a room in the U.S. Capitol. When British troops burned the Capitol in 1814, the collection was destroyed. After the war Thomas Jefferson helped re-establish the library by selling to Congress at a discount some 5,500 of his own books. President James Madison appointed local editor and writer George Watterston as his first full-time Librarian of Congress.
In 1940 a collector sent the Library of Congress a book titled, . . . — Map (db m80848) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — District of Columbia War Memorial|
| ”This temple will recall for all time their services and sacrifices.”
President Herbert Hoover, November 11, 1931
The Great War of 1914 to 1918 transformed the world.
The war introduced lethal new technologies, inaugurated unparalleled battlefield slaughter, fostered mass genocide, took nine million lives, unleashed history’s worst epidemic, swept away four empires and redrew international boundaries. The United States participated in just the last year . . . — Map (db m75903) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Tree|
|"The ultimate measure of a man is not
where he stands in moments of comfort
and convenience, but where he stands
at times of challenge..."
Martin Luther King, Jr.
This tree named in honor of Dr. King,
January 14, 1983
John R. Block
Secretary of Agriculture — Map (db m70616) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 8 — Early Entrepreneurs — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|Apple and Peach Trees once covered the slopes to your left, some 40 acres' worth, all planted by noted horticulturalist John Saul (1819-1897). In the 1870s Saul was one of Brghtwood's largest landowners. In addition to these orchards, he operated nurseries for ornamental trees and greenhouse plants near old Brightwood racetrack and on Seventh Street, and developed a nationally renowned seed catalogue business.
Saul originally came to Washington in 1841 from County Cork, Ireland, to . . . — Map (db m72822) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Edward “Duke” Ellington Residence — African American Heritage Trail, Washington DC|
| 1805 13th Street, NW
Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington (1899—1974), the internationally renowned composer and musician born in Washington, DC, spend part of his youth here at 1805 13th Street, NW (1910—1914). During those formative years he studied classical piano as well as techniques of local ragtime pianists. Ellington played one of his first public concerts at the True Reformer Building, 1200 U Street, NW. By his early 20s, he had his own four-piece combo, . . . — Map (db m79980) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Embassy of the Republic of Lithuania — Mrs. Henderson's Favorite Embassy — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail|
|You are standing in front of the Embassy of the Republic of Lithuania.
The Spanish Baroque style mansion is all that remains of what was once a duplex, or double, embassy building designed by George Oakley Totten for Mary Foote Henderson's exclusive embassy enclave here. The mansion was constructed in 1907-08. The left-hand portion was demolished and replaced in 1965 by a nine-story apartment house. Fortunately the original two pieces were constructed to be independent, so the removal of . . . — Map (db m82711) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Embassy of the Republic of Poland — A Beaux-Arts Beauty — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail|
|You are now standing in front of the longest-serving embassy building among Washington DC's more than 180 diplomatic missions: the Embassy of the Republic of Poland. Renowned architect George Oakley Totten designed the building for Mary Foote Henderson, who invested a considerable portion of her husband Senator John Henderson's fortune to make this part of 16th Street the most magnificent avenue in the Nation's Capital — and an embassy enclave. The building remains a superb example of . . . — Map (db m83344) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Fiery Destruction — Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail|
|“[The British] put a slow match to the [Sewall] house … and those rockets burst until … they made the rafters fly East and West.” — Eslaved African American diarist and eyewitness Michael Shiner.
As the British marched along B Street (today's Constitution Avenue) on August 24, 1814, to burn the U.S. Capitol, they passed this house, owned by Robert Sewall. Suddenly shots rang out. Two British soldiers were dead, several were wounded, and Major General Ross's . . . — Map (db m80836) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — First Bloom — Lady Bird Johnson Park — George Washington Memorial Parkway|
”To me beautification means our total concern for the physical and human quality we pass on to our children and the future.”
- Lady Bird Johnson
When kids connect with national parks, the result is conservation. Through the First Bloom program, sponsored by the National Park Foundation, children learn to garden with plants native to our region, to remove invasive weeds, to beautify their own communities, and to protect park landscapes for other people to discover . . . — Map (db m53699) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Forrest Marbury House|
|Forest Marbury House
Category I Landmark
National Register of Historic Places
• Site of a dinner hosted by General Uriah Forrest for his old friend and former commander, President George Washington, on March 29, 1791. Landowners of Carrollsburg and George town attended. An agreement was reached for the sale of half of their land within the newly designated 10 mile square Federal District thus creating a new capital city for the United States of America. Immediately . . . — Map (db m82654) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Fort DeRussy|
|One of the Civil War Defenses of Washington. Constructed on the site in 1861 Fort DeRussy commanded the deep valley of Rock Creek. Its armament consisted of 11 guns and mortars including a 100-pounder Parrott Rifle. — Map (db m20823) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Fort Reno — Top of the Town — Tenleytown Heritage Trail|
|To your right is "Point Reno" the highest point in Washington -- 409 feet above sea level, to be exact.
This unsurpassed vantage brought the Civil War (1861-1865) to Tenleytown. After the Union defeat at Bull Run in July 1861, northern troops took the Dyer farm here to establish Fort Pennsylvania. Soldiers cleared the farmhouse, orchards fields and, as neighbor Ann Forrest Green noted with alarm, "every particle of poultry." The fort, renamed in 1863 to honor Major General Jesse Lee Reno, . . . — Map (db m63883) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Fraser Mansion — Built 1890|
|This Property is listed in
The National Register
of Historic Places
As a National Landmark for its
Architectural and Cultural contributions
To the District of Columbia — Map (db m79008) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Frederick Douglass — (1817 - 1895)|
|Orator - Publisher - Statesman
Precursor of the Civil Rights Movement
An ex-slave who rose to world renown as an abolitionist and who served in high government posts under presidents Grant through Cleveland, Frederick Douglass resided in this building from 1871 to 1877.
Plaque erected 1966
Capitol Hill Restoration Society — Map (db m69264) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 16 — From Beer Garden to Park View — Lift Every Voice — Georgia Ave./Pleasant Plains Heritage Trail|
|"Innumerable colored Chinese lanterns ... shedding that dim uncertain light which is the delight of lovers and the poetry of beer drinking" -- Washington Post, June 1879
Back when this area was open fields, German Americans created an amusement park. Washingtonians flocked to Schuetzen (marksmanship) Park for target shooting, concerts, dancing, bowling, and picnics. The breezy, hilltop beer garden drew hundreds on hot summer nights. The Schuetzen Verein (Marksmanship . . . — Map (db m66493) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — From June to December, 1917 — The Occoquan Steps|
|From June to December 1917 members of the National Woman's Party were imprisoned for picketing the White House to publicize the struggle to win the vote for Women. Those incarcerated in the District of Columbia's workhouse in Occoquan, Virginia suffered horrible conditions and mistreatment, including being given rancid, insect-laden food; to protest some went on hunger strikes and were brutally force-fed. The 72 year campaign for women's suffrage ended in 1920 with the ratification of the . . . — Map (db m71336) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — General Manuel Belgrano — 1770 — 1820|
|Statesman, Leader and Forerunner of the Independence Movement in Latin America. Promoter of the economy and education, mentor of the principles of freedom that burst onto the Argentine early political scene in May 1810. An exemplary soldier, He triumphantly commanded the army in the battles of Tucuman and Salta, which consolidated freedom and independence in Argentina. A commendable man of unblemished reputation, a model to be emulated by men and women of principles throughout history and from every part of the world. — Map (db m74989) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — General Peterson Goodwyn|
American Revolutionary Service
General Peterson Goodwyn
General Peterson Goodwyn equipped his own company and was cited for gallantry at the battles of Smithfield and Great Bridge — member of the Virginia House of Delegates 1789 – 1802, elected as a Democrat to the eighth and seven succeeding Congresses and served from March 4, 1803 until his death — February 21, 1818.
Tablet Placed by Mary Washington Chapter, NSDAR
Bicentennial Project 1976 — Map (db m80692) WM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Grant Circle|
|Was named in honor of
Ulysses S. Grant
General-in-Chief of the United States Armies,
Secretary of War, and 18th President of the
United States. Grant's military successes were
instrumental in the surrender of the
Confederate States of America at Appomattox
Court House on April 9, 1865, bringing to an end
the American Civil War and the enslavement
of the African American people. — Map (db m80570) WM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Herb Cottage — "Old Baptistry"|
| The Herb Cottage was built as the temporary baptistry of Washington National Cathedral. The first Bishop of Washington, Henry Yates Satterlee, commissioned this building from architect T. Henry Randall (1862-1905). It was begun in 1903 and completed in the spring of 1904, several years before the Cathedral itself was begun (in 1907). The entrance to the building was originally through its west door facing Wisconsin Avenue, the major point of access to the Cathedral grounds.
As the . . . — Map (db m40993) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Heroes of 1814 — Star-Spangled Banner Historic Trail|
|Congressional Cemetery, founded 1807, is the resting ground for many War of 1812 figures. Among them are Navy Yard Commandant Thomas Tingey, the first architect of the Capitol, Dr. William Thornton, State Department Clerk Stephen Pleasonton, and National Intelligencer newspaper editor Joseph Gales. Chocktaw Indian Chief Pushmataha, who served with Andrew Jackson in the Battle of New Orleans, is also buried here.|
Joseph Gale’s grave maker memorializes the editor of the National Intelligencer . . . — Map (db m80481) HM WM
|District of Columbia, Washington — Herring Highway — Rock Creek Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior|
|Peirce Mill Dam was completed in 1906 to create a scenic waterfall on Rock Creek. Since its construction, the dam has prevented spawning herring and other migratory and resident fish from swimming further upstream. A Denil fishway was installed in 2006 to provide fish access to the upper reaches of the creek. This fishway consists of a series of baffles inserted into a concrete channel. The channel passes between the stone walls located on the east side of the dam. The baffles act like rungs in . . . — Map (db m70670) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 3 — Hold the Mayo! — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|English, Irish and German settlers, as well as enslaved and free African Americans, were the first non-natives to claim Brightwood. Farmers dominated until the Civil War. Then in the 1890s electric streetcars allowed government workers to live here and ride to jobs downtown. By the 1940s, sons and daughters of Jewish, Greek, and Italian immigrants had arrived, often leaving crowded conditions in older neighborhoods.
Abraham Posin, founder of Posin's Deli and Bakery, was typical of the . . . — Map (db m72817) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Howard Hall — African American Heritage Trail, Washington D.C.|
| 607 Howard Place, NW
Howard Hall was completed in 1869 as the home of white Civil War General Oliver Otis Howard (1830-1909), for whom Howard University was named. As commissioner of the Bureau of Refuges, Freedman and Abandoned Lands (Freedman's Bureau), General Howard led efforts to provide land, education, and legal rights to the formerly enslaved. He was a founder of the university, and its president from 1869 to 1874. After his death, the university purchased the property, using . . . — Map (db m65707) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 7 — If These Mansions Could Talk — A Fitting Tribute — Logan Circle Heritage Trail|
|Over the years most of Logan Circle's Mansions experienced numerous uses and have returned to private occupancy. For example 15 Logan Circle was completed in 1877 for Lt. Cmdr. Seth Ledyard Phelps, a Civil War Veteran appointed by President Ulysses S. Grant to the Board of Commissioners (the body that governed DC from 1874 until 1967). In 1891 the Kingdom of Korea (Joseon Dynasty) purchased number 15 for its first embassy in the United States. Just before Imperial Japan annexed Korea in . . . — Map (db m66750) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 14 — It Takes a Village — A Fitting Tribute — Logan Circle Heritage Trail|
|After the Civil Disturbances following the assassination of the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., in 1968, 14th Street appeared largely abandoned by day. By night, however, residents witnessed scenes of the “world's oldest profession,” Since the 1950s, when prostitution migrated here from downtown DC, men in cars from around the region seeking women caused traffic jams. This trade flourished because prostitutes were often bailed out of jail within hours and returned to the . . . — Map (db m80103) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — James Buchanan — Diplomat, Statesman, and Fifteenth President of the United States — Meridian Hill Park, National Historic Landmark|
|Buchanan was our only bachelor president and relied upon his orphaned niece, Harriet Lane, to act as his First Lady during his years in the White House (1857 to 1861). In her estate, Harriet Lane Johnson made a bequest to fund a memorial to her uncle. Designed by architect William Gordon Beecher and sculpted by Maryland artist Hans Schuler, the memorial was dedicated on June 26, 1930. It features a bronze statue of Buchanan with stone figures of Law and Diplomacy at each end, representing . . . — Map (db m63631) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — John Philip Sousa — Congressional Cemetery|
|John Philip Sousa (1854–1932), known as the “March King,” grew up in Washington on G Street SE, between 6th and 7th.Sousa became a leader of the Marine Band in 1880 and served in this position for 12 years, leading band tours around the United States, as well as concerts at the White House, Capitol grounds, state dinners, and receptions. Sousa was praised by 5 presidents and wrote and contributed over 100 marches, 10 light operas, and other works. Musicians continue to play . . . — Map (db m82268) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Jones-Haywood School of Ballet — African American Heritage Trail, Washington DC|
|1200 Delafield Place, N.W.
The Jones Haywood School of Ballet was founded here by Doris W. Jones and Claire H. Haywood in 1941. Their Capitol Ballet Company, established in 1961, remained the nation's only predominantly African American, professional ballet troupe through the 1960s. Students have included Chita Rivera, who created the role of Anita in West Side Story on Broadway; Louis Johnson, choreographer for Purlie and the movie version of The Wiz; and Sandra . . . — Map (db m65511) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — José Artigas Memorial — "Statues of the Liberators"|
| inscription, south face of base:
Father of the Independence of Uruguay
inscription, north face of base:
From the people of Uruguay to the people of the United States of America
inscriptions, on basin rim:
“The liberty of America is my design and its attainment my only objective.” — Map (db m67168) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Klingle Mansion — Rock Creek Park|
|This Pennsylvania Dutch style structure was built in 1823 by Joshua Pierce. The west side was added in 1843. It encloses ten rooms within its three stories. A utility house and potting shed flank the rear.
Joshua was an avid horticulturist, and soon cultivated this barren hillside into a beautiful garden area with many rare and exotic trees and shrubs.
When Joshua died in 1869, he left the estate to his nephew, Joshua Pierce Kingle. The property was acquired in 1890 as a part of Rock . . . — Map (db m70684) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Legacy of War|
|On August 24, 1814, the British brought the war to the streets of Washington. After soundly defeating the Americans at nearby Bladensburg, enemy soldiers invaded the Nation's Capital—burning the President's House, U.S. Capitol, and other public buildings.
Anticipating Baltimore would be next, Americans rallied to its defense. When smoke cleared from the British assault there September 14, Francis Scott Key saw the American flag flying over Fort McHenry. The sign of victory inspired Key . . . — Map (db m74939) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Like a Village — City Within a City — Greater U Street Heritage Trail|
|Churches have deep roots in the life of this historic African American community. A number of congregations in this immediate area, including Lincoln Temple United Church of Christ on this corner and Vermont Avenue Baptist Church just one block away, date back to the Civil War. At the time, Union Soldiers at Camp Barker at 13th and R Streets and the Wisewell Barracks at 7th and P Streets offered protection and assistance for freedmen fleeing the South.
These Churches are a fraction of . . . — Map (db m79838) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Lillie Mackall|
| In memory of Ann Lillie Mackall,
friend of Rose O'Neal Greenhow
and brave-hearted Confederate
courier, who Died December 12, 1861,
Aged 22 years
District Of Columbia
United Daughters Of The Confederacy — Map (db m68745) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Lithuania's March to Freedom — Keeping a Nation Alive — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail|
|Since 1924 this mansion has housed representatives of the Republic of Lithuania, even during the 50 years when the country was occupied by the Soviet Union.
In the late 1700s, the Russian Empire annexed Lithuania's territory, ending the 500-year-old state known as the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1918, at the close of World War I, Lithuania re-emerged as an independent nation. But once World War II broke out in 1939, Lithuania endured invasions by the Soviet Union, then Nazi Germany, and . . . — Map (db m82751) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Logan Circle — National Mall and Memorial Parks|
|The Logan Circle Historic District possesses a rich history. In 1791, Pierre L'Enfant selected this elevated terrain for the intersection of two of his grand avenues. Despite its prominent location, the area failed to attract development until after the Civil War when influential residents, such as Senator John A. Logan of Illinois, helped create one of the city's fashionable, exclusive neighborhoods.
Known during the early 20th century as Iowa Circle, the community flourished as a the . . . — Map (db m79319) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 7 — Logan Circle Just Ahead — A Fitting Tribute — Logan Circle Heritage Trail|
|Some of the City's finest Victorian Houses ring Logan Circle. While the area appears on the L'Enfant Plan of 1791, it took Alexander “Boss” Shephard's improvements to make these grand houses of the 1870s and '80s possible.
Three Union leaders of the Civil War set up housekeeping on the new Iowa Circle, as Logan Circle was originally named. General Eliphalet Whittlesey of Number 8 worked for the Freedman's Bureau after the war and helped start Howard University. Captain Allen . . . — Map (db m80174) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Machine in a Stone Box|
|Peirce Mill represents the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in America. For centuries, small water-powered mills had ground grain into flour, using human labor in every step of the process. This 1829 mill, on the other hand, was a mechanized marvel., incorporating the latest labor-saving technologies pioneered by American inventor Oliver Evans. Water turned the wheel, which spun a shaft that drove gears, belts, a grain elevator, and a variety of machines. Assisted by gravity and a single . . . — Map (db m79724) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Mansions, Parks, and People — Cultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail - 16|
|On your right is Josephine Butler Parks Center, home of Washington Parks & People, a network of groups devoted to DC and its parks. The network's 1927 mansion, which once housed the Hungarian delegation, was part of an embassy row envisioned by Mary Foote Henderson for this area. Henderson built a "castle" across 16th street for her family, and commissioned important architects to create an enclave worthy of important residents. Meridian Hill Park was also a result of her influence.
In the . . . — Map (db m63849) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Memorial Continental Hall|
| has been designated a
under the provisions of the
Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935
This site possesses exceptional value
in commemorating or illustrating
the history of the United States — Map (db m40991) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Michael Kovats de Fabricy|
|“Fidelissimus Ad Mortem”
Michael Kovats de Fabricy
A Hungarian American Hero, who gave his life for Freedom in the Battle of Charleston in 1779
Executed in Bronze by Attila Dienes
Erected by the Michael Kovats Memorial Committee
and the Embassy of Hungary, 2003 — Map (db m79452) HM WM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Military Road School — 1375 Missouri Avenue, NW — African American Heritage Trail, Washington DC|
|The Military Road School opened in 1864 here along what then was Military Road, an artery linking Civil War forts. The School was one of the first to open after Congress authorized public education for Washington's African Americans in 1862. Students were children of free blacks as well as formerly enslaved men and women who settled near Fort Stevens, a source of employment during the war (1861-1865). Others came from upper Northwest neighborhoods and nearby Montgomery County, Maryland. The . . . — Map (db m70464) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Miner Teachers College — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC|
| 2565 Georgia Avenue, NW
Miner Teachers College, which operated here from 1914 until 1955, was the principal school training black teachers in the city for more than 70 years. Named for Myrtilla Miner (1815-1864), a white educator who founded Miner Normal School in 1851, the school became part of the DC Public Schools system in 1879. Under the leadership of Howard University graduate Lucy Ellen Moten (1851-1933), Miner became one of the top teacher training institutions in the county. . . . — Map (db m71891) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 8 — Mount Pleasant: The Immigrants' Journey|
|Low cost housing in Mount Pleasant in the decades following World War II made it an ideal place for immigrants to the area. Refugees fleeing World War II and the Cold War in Eastern Europe were the first group to arrive. A small Czech community lived along Park Road until the 1990s. In the 1980s refugees from wars in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua found a home in Mount Pleasant. Good wages -- often ten times as high as in their native countries -- continue to lure immigrants from Central . . . — Map (db m68731) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — National Intelligencer — 1800-1865|
|Founded by Samuel Harrison Smith and later published by Joseph Gales, Jr. The National Intelligencer for 65 years was a leading journal in the nation's capital, a vital force in the country's political life, a principal source of information about the government and for a time provided the only printed record of congressional proceedings. Much of its life, The National Intelligencer occupied this site. This plaque was placed in 1966 by Sigma Delta Chi, Professional Journalistic Society — Map (db m51471) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 9 — Never Again Such Homes At the Price! — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|We have Harry Wardman to thank for the rich variety of Sheridan Street rowhouses. Wardman, considered Washington's most prolific developer, built hundreds of offices, apartments, hotels, and comfortable rowhouses from 1899 to 1939. When he decided to sell some land he owned here along Sheridan Street, the purchasers hired a "Who's Who" of the era's best architects, resulting in an array of building styles.
Wardman kept two parcels, for which his chief architect Turkish-trained Mihran . . . — Map (db m72823) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Old Stone House — 1766 — Georgetown|
|The Old Stone House, part of the Landmark District of Georgetown, is the only surviving pre-Revolutionary building in the capital. The house stands on its original site, lot #3, one of eighty lots surveyed in the port of Georgetown in 1751.|
Christopher Layman, a carpenter, is believed to have begun construction of the house in 1764. In 1766 Layman’s widow, Rachael, had the front portion of the house completed. The National Park Service acquired the building during the Sesquicentennial of . . . — Map (db m61944) HM
|District of Columbia, Washington — Original Federal Boundary Stone East|
|Original Federal Boundary Stone
District of Columbia
Protected by Dist. of Co. Chapter
Daughters of the American Revolution
1916 — Map (db m5281) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Original Federal Boundary Stone NW 4|
|Original Federal Boundary Stone
District of Columbia
Placed • 1791 • 1792
Protected by Columbia Chapter
Daughters of the American Revolution
July 12, 1915 — Map (db m82346) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Original Federal Boundary Stone SE 2|
|Original Federal Boundary Stone
District of Columbia
Protected by Marcia Burns Chapter
Daughters of the American Revolution
1916 — Map (db m73105) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Original Federal Boundary Stone SE 3|
|Original Federal Boundary Stone
District of Columbia
Protected by Ruth Brewster Chapter
Daughters of the American Revolution
1916 — Map (db m82433) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Original Federal Boundary Stone SE 5|
|Original Federal Boundary Stone
District of Columbia
Protected by Louisa Adams Chapter
Daughters of the American Revolution
1916 — Map (db m73009) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Original Federal Boundary Stone SE 6|
|On March 30, 1791, a group of six men, bundled in great coats, could be seen riding on horseback over a "wilderness" on the Potomac River. The leader was George Washington, first President of the United States, who was to approve the site selected for a new capital city authorized by the Constitution. This boundary milestone, southeast No. 6, still standing on its original location, was set here in 1792 under orders of President Washington by Major Andrew Ellicott, Surveyor.
Just 53 years . . . — Map (db m82361) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Original Federal Boundary Stone Southeast 6|
|Original Federal Boundary Stone Southeast 6 District of Columbia 1791–1792 Plaque placed in 2014 by Martha Washington Chapter NSDAR Washington, DC — Map (db m82366) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 14 — Park and Shop! — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|Back in the 1920s, most people walked or rode a streetcar to go shopping. Then cars became affordable, and people drove everywhere. Soon the shopping center, with free parking, was born. In 1937 Brightwood's "Park and Shop" opened on Georgia Avenue across from this sign.
Birghtwood's center included the 1,000 seat Sheridan Theater. The Classical Moderne style hall, by nationally know architect John Eberson, matched local architect Morton Levy's retail shops. Six local businesses shared . . . — Map (db m72826) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Park Designers — Meridan Hill Park, National Historic Landmark|
|Noted landscape architects George Burnap and Horace Peaslee, who worked in the Office of Public Buildings and Grounds, designed Meridian Hill Park under the guidance of the Commission of Fine Arts. By 1914, Burnap had completed his basic design: a linear series of elements that included the Mall, the Great Terrace, the Hillside Gardens with Cascades, and the Lower Plaza with the memorial to President Buchanan.
After Burnap returned to private practice in 1917, Peaslee submitted revisions . . . — Map (db m63952) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Parrott Ropewalk|
|Here the Richard Parrott Ropewalk manufactured rope and rigging used on sailing vessels that plied their trade in old Georgetown through the early 19th Century.
The ropewalk receives its name from the long path used for the laying out of individual yarns of rope prior to twisting them together.
Rope making was accomplished by first combing hemp and attaching it to a clockwise revolving hook spinning it into yarns.
Several yarns were then attached to separate hooks and twisted together . . . — Map (db m68712) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Paul Laurence Dunbar Apartments — "Our Horizon is the Universe"|
|In 2009, the Residents Association of the Campbell Heights Apartments was given the opportunity to preserve their community by exercising their District of Columbia Tenant Opportunity to Purchase Act rights. Jair Lynch Development Partners created a groundbreaking partnership with the Residents Association that allowed them to control their destiny and the new Paul Laurence Dunbar Apartments community was born. Named by the residents in honor of the famed African-American poet Paul Laurence . . . — Map (db m80483) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Peirce Still House — National Register of Historic Places|
|The Peirce Still House, built between 1796 and 1811, was part of a large plantation owned by Isaac Peirce, a Quaker from Pennsylvania and slave owner, who purchased the property in 1795. Much of the Peirce Estate became part of Rock Creek Park when it was created in 1890.
The House is constructed of blue granite quarried from the local area. The House was originally utilized as a distillery, but was converted into a residence in 1924.
In 1955, the House was occupied by Sherman Adams, . . . — Map (db m82098) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Pierce Mill|
|The last of several grain mills operating on Rock Creek during an era when most American mills derived their power from small streams. Located near an Indian site. The land was conveyed to Isaac Pierce by the Revolution patriot William Deakins in 1794. Mill built about 1820 by Isaac and Abner Pierce. Inherited by a nephew Pierce Shoemaker in 1851, and operated until 1897. Purchased by the Federal Government in 1890 and restored by the National Park Service in 1936. — Map (db m79739) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Pitts Motor Hotel — Cultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail 14|
|The Pitts Motor Hotel, formerly located at 1451 Belmont Street, lingers in memory for two reasons. In the 1960s it was a gathering place of Civil Rights movement leaders. Later it became a "welfare hotel."
In March 1968 the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., reserved 30 rooms at the Pitts Hotel to house leaders of the Poor Peoples' Campaign he planned to lead in May. He chose the facility because it was both comfortable and black owned.
Despite Dr. King's 1968 assassination, the . . . — Map (db m63706) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Polish-U.S. Diplomatic Relations — History Lives — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail|
|When Poland declared its independence in 1918 after 123 years or foreign partition, the first prime minister of independent Poland — Ignacy Jan Paderewski — sent Prince Kazimierz Lubomirski to Washington as the country's first diplomatic envoy. Prince Lubomirski purchased this building from Senator John B. and Mary Foote Henderson on behalf of the Polish government.
Poland and the United States agreed to elevate their respective diplomatic missions from legations to embassies . . . — Map (db m82636) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Pratt House|
| 9 Logan Circle has been designated a
National Historic Landmark
The Preservation of the Pratt house conforms to
National Park Service, U.S. Department of Interior standards
and is consistent with the historic character of the Property
and the Logan Circle Historic District
March 30, 1988
Owner: Adam S. Pratt
Architects: George B. Phelps
Builder: John W. Swainson
1983 – 1985 . . . — Map (db m79589) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 1 — Racing at Brightwood — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|Fresh Water Springs in this pleasant high ground once drew European settlers. Farmers called the area "Crystal Spring." In 1859 the half-mile Crystal Spring Racetrack opened on land to your left. For 75 cents, Washingtonians hopped a stagecoach from Washington City (south of Florida Avenue) for a day at the races. Later known as the Brightwood Trotting Park, the course attracted laborers, congressmen, and everyone in between. Over time horses, bicycles, autos, and even mules competed along . . . — Map (db m72815) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Redwood|
|The Woodley Park neighborhood that is now home to several thousand residents as well as the National Zoo was once sparsely settled countryside. The farmhouse shown here, known as Redwood, was built around 1819 on a hill that rose 40 feet above current street level. During the Buchanan administration (1857-61), the estate became a fashionable resort. Later, 80 of the 125 acres became part of the National Zoological Park.
In 1856 Jefferson Davis, then secretary of war, summer here with his . . . — Map (db m67828) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Residence of Albert Gallatin|
|Residence of Albert Gallatin, Peace Negotiator and Secretary of the Treasury 1801-1814, who negotiated the treaty of Ghent, 1814. When the British marched on Washington in the summer of 1814, some American patriots with Commodore Joshua Barney and his men from this house offered the only resistance. This property was partly burned as was the Capitol and the White House.
Placed by The National Society United States Daughters of 1812 8th January 1962 Commemorating the 75th anniversary of their society — Map (db m61571) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Rock Creek's Mills|
|At one time, Rock Creek hosted a large number of flour mills, saw mills, and other industries. The force of the creek's waters, dropping more than 160 feet over 33 miles, gave the mills their power. The region's farms provided abundant raw materials. Wagon path allowed farmers to transport their grain to the mills and their flour to market. The nearby port of Georgetown offered access to more distant customers. It was a near-perfect combination. — Map (db m80114) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Roll Call — Battleground National Cemetery|
|As the gallant soldiers that are interred at the cemetery marched onto the battlefield on July 11-12, 1864 during the Battle of Fort Stevens, their regimental flags accompanied then into the fight.
Battleground National Cemetery honors these men of valor by placing the names of the fallen under the flags they bravely fought and died for defending the nation's capital. The inner ring of graves are labeled 1-32, and the numbers 33-41 are in the outer ring. — Map (db m64225) WM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 1 — Roma Restaurant|
|Cleveland Park was named for Grover Cleveland who bought a country house on now Newark Street in 1886. In the 1890s, electrified streetcars ran on Connecticut and Wisconsin Avenues and led to the development of the Cleveland Park "suburb".
Shops and restaurants followed the development, with the Roma Restaurant and its Italian Garden at 3419 Connecticut Avenue remaining popular from the 1930s until it closed in 1997.
Artist: Mary Belcher — Map (db m67826) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 4 — Sacred Heart Academy — Village in the City — Mount Pleasant Heritage Trail|
|Set back from the Street at 1621 Park Road, to your left, is an elegant old house, once the all-girls Sacred Heart Academy. The Sinsinawa Dominican Sisters of Wisconsin founded the Academy in 1905 and went on to operate it with Sacred Heart parish, adding a co-ed grade school in 1930. Lay educators took over in the 1990s. In addition, the school housed GALA Hispanic Theatre from 1985 to 2000.
While the school always served Mount Pleasant's diverse nationalities, African Americans were . . . — Map (db m68719) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Samuel F. B. Morse|
|Artist and inventor opened and operated on this site under the direction of the Post Office Department the first public telegraph office in the United States April 1st 1845
"What Hath God Wrought" — Map (db m66518) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 6 — School Days — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|The School Building Just Ahead of You Opened In 1912 as the Military Road School, the area's third public elementary for African Americans. For decades it was the only public school serving black children in Upper Northwest and nearby Maryland.
The School gave students "the tools to be successful" recalled Patricia Tyson, a student in the 1950s. Teachers required good behavior, good grammar, and respect for the historic contributions of black Americans. Tyson traveled from Montgomery . . . — Map (db m72820) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 1 — See You at the Center — A Fitting Tribute — Logan Circle Heritage Trail|
|The City's Jewish Community Center opened here in 1926. Its grand presence one mile north of the White House expressed Jewish residents' prosperity and their growing contributions to the federal city and the nation. With American Jews routinely barred from social clubs, the JCC promoted Jewish identity and offered a gym, swimming pool, symphony orchestra, choral society, and basketball league. High school students thronged to dances held on the rooftop.
Housing developer Morris Cafritz, . . . — Map (db m80053) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Smokey Bear Blue Spruce|
| Blue Spruce
Planted April 11, 1984
To honor the 40th birthday of
John R. Block, Secretary of Agriculture
R. Max Peterson, Chief, USDA Forest Service
Forester's Wives Club of Washington, D.C. — Map (db m70456) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Springhouse|
|This small stone structure was built by Isaac Pierce in 1801. Constructed around a natural spring, it was used as a cooling place for cheese, milk, and butter products, during the hot summer months. It also provided a clean water supply.
A fireplace provided warmth during the winter for cheese making and buttermaking activities. — Map (db m79644) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — St. Paul's Episcopal|
|Here, the first church edifice within the future district of Columbia was erected in 1719; a "chapel of ease" of St. John's Church, Broad Creek. It was built of wood with earthen floor. The 100 acre tract named "Generosity" (Comprising the church grounds and Rock Creek Cemetery), was gift of vestryman John Bradford. In 1771, the General Assembly assessed the parish 96,000 pounds of tobacco for a brick structure, which was completed after the Revolution. Partially destroyed by fire 1921, it was . . . — Map (db m70948) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 11 — Striving for Equality — A Fitting Tribute — Logan Circle Heritage Trail|
|This building was the headquarters of the National Council of Negro Women from 1943 to 1966. Political activist and educator Mary McLeod Bethune (1875-1955) founded NCNW in 1935 in her nearby apartment. She moved the organization here eight years later. The building, a National Historic Site, now houses a museum and archive of African American women's history. During the tenure of Dorothy Height, the Council's fourth president (1957-1998), NCNW moved to Pennsylvania Avenue, NW. . . . — Map (db m80352) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 3 — Suburban Style — Top of the Town — Tenleytown Heritage Trail|
|Until 1890 Tenleytown was a rural crossroads. Then the electric streetcar arrived, followed by the Permanent Highway Plan. Real estate men promoted new houses at the top of the town: city conveniences, country charm, and great views, with a 25-minute streetcar ride to downtown.
Developers Ernest M. Pease and Colorado Senator Thomas M. Patterson snapped up the promising high ground here between the Wisconsin Avenue and Connecticut Avenue streetcar lines. In 1904 they promoted their . . . — Map (db m83093) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — The ›Duke‹ Ellington Memorial Bridge|
Named in honor of
Edward Kennedy Ellington
Composer - Performer - Playwright
International Statesman of Goodwill — Map (db m67913) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — The 122nd New York Volunteer Infantry|
|To the gallant sons
Onondaga County, N.Y.
who fought on this field
July 12, 1864
in defence of Washington
and in the presence of
122 N.Y.V — Map (db m76093) WM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — The 25th New York Cavalry|
the memory of
who gave their
lives in defence
July 11, 1864
Erected by the
State of New York
in honor of the
25th N.Y. Vol. Cav. — Map (db m76117) WM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 10 — The Artistic Life — A Fitting Tribute — Logan Circle Heritage Trail|
|The Imposing Double House to Your Left, numbers 1 and 2, was built as an investment for Ulysses S. Grant, Jr., son of the 18th president. The house would later serve as the Venezuelan Legation and then a Seventh-Day Adventist nursing home.
Henry M. Letcher and his wife Evelyn purchased 1-2 Logan Circle. Henry, an artist, designer, educator, and decorated veteran of the Tuskegee Airmen, and Evelyn, a teacher opened Letcher Art Center. After receiving accreditation from the Veterans . . . — Map (db m79659) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — The Bernard Baruch Bench of Inspiration|
|The Bernard Baruch Bench of Inspiration
Dedicated in honor of
Mr. Baruch's 90th Birthday -- August 1960
For his inspiring devotion to country
and distinguished service to boyhood
by both the
National Capitol Area Council
and the Boy Scouts of America
The Boy Scout Motto -- Mr. Baruch's Philosophy
"Be Prepared" — Map (db m72951) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — The Brewmaster's Castle — 1892-1894 — A Celebration of International Contributions to American Life|
|A Washington, D.C. Landmark on the National Register of Historic Places
Built by Christian Heurich (1842-1945), the world's oldest brewer, patriarch of the Washington business community, philanthropist, German immigrant, and American citizen
America's most intact late-Victorian house museum, the first fireproof residence in the nation's capital, and the "smart house" of the late-19th Century
Donated in 1955 by Heurich's widow to the Historical Society of Washington, D.C., and served as . . . — Map (db m68527) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — The Capitol in Flames — Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail|
|The U.S. Capitol was the British troop's first target when they arrived in Washington on August 24, 1814, only hours after their afternoon victory at the Battle of Bladensburg. The invaders fired rockets through the Capitol's windows. When the building's iron-plated ceiling prevented the fires from spreading, the attackers burst inside, piled up the furniture, draperies, and other combustible, and fired a rocket into the mess. The result was a fire so intense that it melted glass light . . . — Map (db m80844) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — The Daguerre Monument|
|This monument pays tribute to French Artist and inventor Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (1787–1851), who revolutionized picture-making in 1839 by introducing the first practical form of photography to the world. Known as the daguerreotype, Daguerre's process used chemically sensitized plates of silver-clad copper to produce unique, direct-positive images that won international acclaim for their extraordinary clarity and detail.
In 1889 the Photographers' Association of America . . . — Map (db m80876) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — The Fedora|
|In 1920, Washington D. C. was home to the largest African American Community in the country. Numerous venues in the U street area showcased prominent musicians and politicians of the day. On this site stood the Pitts Motel and its Red Carpet Lounge. "The Pitts" was a favorite of many greats of the era, including Duke Ellington and Ella Fitzgerald, and hosted speakers such as Martin Luther King Jr. Now stands the Fedora so named for Mrs. Fedora Day Purcell, Grandmother of the last owner of the Pitts. — Map (db m63678) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — The Former Engine Co 24 of the District of Columbia Fire Department|
|The facade of the original house for Engine Company 24 was located at 3702 Georgia Avenue, N.W. just north of this site. Built in 1911, the firehouse was designed by Luther Leisenring and Charles Gregg. It originally housed horses and horse-drawn equipment. Within one year of its opening, it became the first station in the city to be fully motorized. Engine Company 24 relocated to a new facility in July 1994. The facade of the original building was relocated and integrated into the chiller . . . — Map (db m65515) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — The Gilded Age — Sheridan Kalorama Call Box Restoration Project|
|In the Gilded Age (1866-1901) the nouveau riche built grand mansions near Sheridan Circle and commissioned fashionable portraits such as this one of Mrs. Larz Anderson. They lived and entertained in these enormous residences during Washington's brief social season. As maintaining the houses grew too costly, many became foreign embassies. Edward Everett, who made a fortune inventing the fluted bottle cap, built the Beaux-Arts mansion at 1606 23rd Street in 1915. Now it is the Turkish . . . — Map (db m63723) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 18 — The Modern Shopper — Lift Every Voice — Georgia Ave./Pleasant Plains Heritage Trail|
|Braving a blizzard in February 1936, eager customers lined up to experience a modern, self-service, cash-only supermarket. Nehemiah Cohen and Samuel Lehrman’s Giant Food here on Georgia Avenue was the chain’s first. Although the Memphis-born Piggly Wiggly chain pioneered the supermarket concept, it took Giant to capture DC consumers.
Giant moved into the former Park View Market, which had opened in 1923 with 180 tiled stalls. Before the supermarket, food shopping meant stopping at . . . — Map (db m65514) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 17 — The Next Wave — Lift Every Voice — Georgia Ave./Pleasant Plains Heritage Trail|
|Caribbean immigrants discovered this stretch of Georgia Avenue in the 1940s, bringing island culture along with jerk chicken, curry, and coco bread. Many, like Eric Williams, who later led Trinidad and Tobago to independence in 1962, came to study or teach at Howard University. Others came seeking better jobs. the 2000 Census showed that Caribbean-born residents formed DC's second-largest immigrant group.
For English-speaking immigrants from the former British West Indies, transition . . . — Map (db m66559) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — The Peirce Family Estate|
|The stone mill was an important part of the Peirce family's business. Like most farms of the 1800s, this was also a diversified and constantly evolving operation. The family managed hundreds of acres devoted to fields, pastures, and orchards. A sawmill, a nursery, barns, and bee hives dotted the landscape. The Peirce estate also contained housing for the large family, enslaved people, and tenants who made the business a success. — Map (db m79643) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 10 — The Seventh Street Turnpike — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|On July 11 and 12, 1864, this intersection was the center of the only Civil War battle fought in the District of Columbia. Here, Union sharpshooters at Fort Stevens, supported by forces across the
northernmost of Washington's ring of forts, stopped General Jubal A. Early's Rebels. Early attacked from the north, along the Seventh Street Turnpike and the Georgetown Turnpike (now Georgia and Wisconsin avenues).
Completed in 1822 as a dirt road connecting the Potomac River to Rockville, . . . — Map (db m72824) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — The Sewall-Belmont House & Museum|
|one of the oldest residential properties on Capitol Hill, has been the historic headquarters of the National Woman's Party since 1929. Named after Robert Sewall, the original owner of the site, and Alva Belmont, the president and benefactor of the National Woman's Party, this house has been at the center of political life in Washington for more than two hundred years. Today, the Sewall-Belmont House seeks to educate the public by sharing the inspiring story of century of courageous activism by . . . — Map (db m70955) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — The Wilson Center|
|To The Glory of God
And in grateful memory of one of his servants
This building devoted to Christian education
Is named for
President of Princeton University 1902 — 1910
Governor of the state of New Jersey 1911 — 1913
President of the United States of America 1913 — 1921
Founder of the League of Nations
An Elder in the Presbyterian Church
A member of this congregation 1913 — 1924 — Map (db m82615) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Theodore Roosevelt Worshiped Here Regularly — Grace Reformed Church|
Worshiped Here Regularly
From 1901 to 1909
While Vice President and President
of the United States
on July 1, 1902 he
Laid the Cornertone and
on June 7, 1903 delivered
an address at the dedication
of this church — Map (db m70144) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Thomas Law|
and his wife
Elizabeth Parke Custis
Granddaughter of Martha Washington
Resided here in 1796
Later the home of
Richard Bland Lee
Who was influential in bringing the
Capital to the Potomac
National Capital Sesquicentennial Commission
1950 — Map (db m80492) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 4 — Three R's — Top of the Town — Tenleytown Heritage Trail|
|The red-brick School ahead and to your left is Alice Deal Junior High, honoring the mathematics teacher and union leader who launched Washington’s first junior high school in 1919 at Seventh and O Streets, NW. Architect Albert Harris’s Colonial design for Deal Junior High represented the finest in modern school construction. From its opening in 1931, Deal’s student body included diplomatic children, giving it an international flavor typical of Washington.
On a remnant of old Howard Road . . . — Map (db m82885) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 15 — Treading the Boards — A Fitting Tribute — Logan Circle Heritage Trail|
The Studio Theatre, on the corner of 14th and P Streets since 1987, anchors the Logan Circle/14th Street artistic community. The theatre, founded by director and educator Joy Zinoman and set designer Russell Metheny in 1978, originally rented space in wood sculptor Margery Goldberg's Zenith Square Gallery complex of rowhouses nearby on Rhode Island Avenue. An array of artists worked (and sometimes lived) at Zenith, finding inspiration among their peers until the city . . . — Map (db m80391) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Tupelo Tree — (Nyssa Sylvatica)|
| This & neighboring trees were
From all parts of the country
Camp Fire Girls
At a National Conservation Rally
April 12, 1936 in memory of
Dr. Luther H. Gulick
First President — Map (db m65020) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — U.S. Arsenal Explosion Memorial|
Dedicated to the Memory of the Victims of the U.S. Arsenal Explosion on June 17, 1864
W. E. Tippett
The Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War
The Ladies . . . — Map (db m80961) WM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — 2 — Upheaval and Activism — Village in the City — Mount Pleasant Heritage Trail|
|Beginning in the late 1950s, the community leadership of Mount Pleasant changed from the exclusive Citizens Association to an array of new players. Mount Pleasant Neighbors Association was the first alternative group. It presented festivals and grappled with local poverty. The group brought Barney Neighborhood House – a social services agency – here to 3118 16th Street after urban renewal forced it out of Southwest Washington. Neighbors’ Consejo another social services agency, . . . — Map (db m82780) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — USDA Holocaust Memorial Tree|
|United States Department of Agriculture
Dedicated as a Living Reminder in Memory of the Victims of the Holocaust by Secretary Dan Glickman
May 2, 2000
Yom Hashoah, Day of Remembrance
Franklin D. Roosevelt Red Bud from a seed collected at President Roosevelt's "Little White House." — Map (db m70618) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Visionary and Park Champion — Meridian Hill Park, National Historic Landmark|
|Meridian Hill Park might never have been built had it not been for the determination of Mary Foote Henderson (1846 - 1931). For 22 years, she lobbied Congress for funds to buy the land and build the park. Congress's 1910 vote to authorize construction of Meridian Hill Park is a testimony to her resolve.
Henderson's efforts in urban development weren't limited to promoting Meridian Hill Park. She engaged the services of some of the country's foremost architects for her grand schemes, . . . — Map (db m63934) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Walter Reed|
Who gave man control over
Died in a hospital
on this site
November 23,1902 — Map (db m80491) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — Walter Reed|
1851 – 1902
Major, Medical Corps
United States Army
Solider, Physician, Teacher, Scientist
Major Reed died in this building on November 3, 1902. In 1900 Walter Reed led the U.S. Army Yellow Fever Board that documented the mosquito transmission of Yellow Fever, proved the existence of the first viral disease in man, and was the first research group to get informed consent from its subjects. This building served as a hospital on the installation then known as . . . — Map (db m80493) HM|
|District of Columbia, Washington — What a Beautiful Location, Brightwood — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|In the 1930s as now, this area was a family friendly, "move-up" destination for hard-working government clerks and professionals. Like many DC neighborhoods, Brightwood had covenants prohibiting sales to certain white ethnics and African Americans. Over time, though, the covenants against white ethnics were broken, and by the late 1940s Brightwood became known for its Greek, Jewish, and Italian families. Yet in these blocks were few African Americans.
In 1948 the Supreme Court ruled that . . . — Map (db m72777) HM|
|District of Columbia (Capitol Hill), Washington — Elbridge Gerry|
|In Honor of
The only signer of the
Declaration of Independence
Interred in the
District of Columbia
Erected by the
District of Columbia Society
Sons of the American Revolution — Map (db m81296) HM|
|District of Columbia (Deanwood), Washington — 8 — With These Hands — A Self-Reliant People — Greater Deanwood Heritage Trail|
|Up the Hill to your left are several signature handcrafted houses, Beginning in the late 1800s, Deanwood attracted skilled black migrants, who freely passed on their know-how.
In the 1920s Jacob and Randolph Dodd built about 50 structures in Deanwood, including numbers 906, 910, 920, 925, 928, and 929 48th Street. They bought lots or built on those owned by white developers, often to designs of Lewis W. Giles, Sr. Randolph Dodd regularly trained, hired, and aided Deanwood's craftsmen. To . . . — Map (db m81451) HM|
|District of Columbia (Prince Georges County), Washington — Original Federal Boundary Stone SE 1|
|Original Federal Boundary Stone
District of Columbia
Protected by Sarah Franklin Chapter
Daughters of the American Revolution
1916 — Map (db m82452) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Adams-Morgan — 5 of 18 — Ambassadors of Faith — Roads to Diversity — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail|
Three dramatic religious structures dominate this corner. They are among some 40 religious institutions lining 16th Street between the White House and the Maryland state line.
Many serve as unofficial “embassies” representing the interests of their faiths before the U.S. Government. The neo-Baroque National Baptist Church, to your right, is a memorial to Roger Williams, founder of Rhode Island and champion of religious liberty. Its congregation has long worked for social . . . — Map (db m17076) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Adams-Morgan — 7 of 18 — Lanier Place — Roads to Diversity — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail|
|Banker Archibald McLachlan and Smithsonian Institution naturalist George Brown Goode developed Lanier Heights in the early 1890s. Goode laid out streets and encouraged Smithsonian colleagues to purchase lots. McLachlan built the elegant Ontario Apartments, visible ahead and to the left on then-rural Ontario Road. More apartments and row houses followed. By 1935 Lanier Heights was considered a close-in, city neighborhood.
In 1908 the city built the Mission style firehouse mid-block to your . . . — Map (db m17295) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Adams-Morgan — 4 of 18 — Life on the Park — Roads to Diversity — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail|
|During the Civil War (1861-1865), the Union Army Carver Hospital and barracks occupied Meridian Hill. The facilities attracted African American freedom seekers looking for protection and employment. By war’s end, a Black community had put down rooks. Soon Weyland Seminary opened to train African American clergy and teachers. In the late 1880s, Mary Foote Henderson purchased most of this land and evicted its residents. Many settled in today’s Reed-Cooke neighborhood to your left.
The . . . — Map (db m17032) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Adams-Morgan — 2 of 18 — Meridian Hill/Malcolm X Park — Roads to Diversity — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail|
|Long before Europeans arrived, Meridian Hill was a sacred place for Native Americans. As recently as 1992, a delegation of Native Americans walked across the continent to this park to mourn the 500th anniversary of Columbus’s arrival. They were received by environmentalist Josephine Butler, a champion of park preservation.
Europeans named the hill for Commodore David Porter’s grand Meridian Hill house (1825) which straddled the route of the prime meridian (16th Street). Americans used this . . . — Map (db m16910) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Adams-Morgan — 1 of 18 — Mrs. Henderson's Legacy — Roads to Diversity — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail|
|As you look up the hill, you can see Peter C. L’Enfant’s 1791 plan for Washington ended up here in front of you at Boundary Avenue, now Florida Avenue. Back then, when people walked or rode in horse-drawn vehicles, it was hard to climb this steep ridge ridge. Once electric streetcars appeared in the 1880s, climbing hills was easier, so city dwellers began moving up this hill.
Beginning in 1887, Mary Foote Henderson, wife of Missouri Senator John B. Henderson, created a new community here . . . — Map (db m16893) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Adams-Morgan — 6 of 18 — The Latino Community — Roads to Diversity — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail|
This is the heart of Washington’s Latino community. Once centered here and in nearby Mount Pleasant and Columbia Heights, the community now extends throughout the region.
As early as the 1910s, the Mexican, Ecuadoran, Cuban, and Spanish embassies clustered nearby on 16th Street. Spanish-speaking diplomats and staff called this area home and often remained after their terms ended. In the 1950s, political turmoil and economic hardship brought Puerto Ricans and Cubans, followed later by . . . — Map (db m17167) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Adams-Morgan — 3 of 18 — The Roots of Reed-Cooke — Roads to Diversity — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail|
|In 1947, the building on your left opened as the National Arena, a public roller rink and bowling alley. It also hosted professional wrestling, roller derbies, and rock concerts. In 1986 it became the Citadel Motion Picture Center, where portions of Peggy Sue Got Married, Gardens of Stone, and other movies were filmed. In 1994 MTV recorded its town hall meeting with President Bill Clinton in the studio here in Reed-Cooke.
Reed-Cooke’s earliest African American settlers moved . . . — Map (db m17031) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), American University Park — 17 — American University — Top of the Town — Tenleytown Heritage Trail|
|Beyond Ward Circle to your left is the campus of American University, chartered by
Congress in 1893. Methodist Bishop John Fletcher Hurst guided the university’s development as a center for training future public servants. With its schools in business, law, public affairs, communications, and more, the modern university continues Hurst’s wide-ranging vision.
American University’s ties to the nation’s capital are not just geographic. During both world
wars, the U.S. military used the . . . — Map (db m51839) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), American University Park — 15 — For the Children — Top of the Town — Tenleytown Heritage Trail|
|From 1927 until the late 1950s, the landscaped grounds across the street were the Hillcrest Children’s Center. It was founded downtown in 1814 as the Washington City Orphan Asylum by Marcia Burnes Van
Ness and President Madison’s wife Dolley. The center’s Tudor style stone cottages created a village environment. In the 1960s changing social conditions led Hillcrest to move back downtown, this time in service to disabled children and their families.
The National Presbyterian Church and . . . — Map (db m80468) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), American University Park — Fort Bayard|
|Civil War Defenses of Washington 1861-1865. No visible evidence remains of Fort Bayard, which stood at the top of this hill. Named for Brig. Gen. George Bayard, mortally wounded at the Battle of Fredericksburg on December 13, 1862. — Map (db m124) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), American University Park — General Artemas Ward Monument — 1727–1800|
|Son of Massachusetts • Graduate of Harvard College • Judge and legislator • Delegate 1780–1781 to the Continental Congress • Soldier of three wars • First commander of patriot forces. — Map (db m48362) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), American University Park — 18 — Live on Our Stage! — Top of the Town — Tenleytown Heritage Trail|
|When NBC radio and television and its local affiliate,
WRC, moved to these new headquarters in 1958, the average TV screen measured 12 inches. The facility opened with six studios—three TV and three radio. Soon history happened here.
On October 7, 1960, some 70 million viewers watched as
NBC broadcast the second televised presidential debate, with
candidates Richard M. Nixon and John F. Kennedy facing four reporters. It was widely reported that Nixon used makeup to cover his 5 . . . — Map (db m47866) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), American University Park — 16 — Winning the War — Top of the Town — Tenleytown Heritage Trail|
|The U.S. Navy arrived across the street at 3801 Nebraska
Avenue during World War II, taking the Colonial style red-brick campus of Mount Vernon Seminary for secret “essential wartime activities.” Soon more than 5,000 workers occupied the campus. Among them were WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service) responding to President Roosevelt’s call for women to tackle non-combat duties.
Most WAVES at this site operated cryptoanalytic equipment designed to break German . . . — Map (db m47787) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — Barry Farm - Hillsdale — Bounded by St. Elizabeths Hospital, Alabama Avenue and Morris Road, SE, and the Anacostia River — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC|
| In 1867 the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (Freedmen’s Bureau) purchased 375 acres from white farmers David and Julia Barry to resettle formerly enslaved African Americans. By 1870 more than 500 families had purchased lots and built homes at Barry Farm, later renamed Hillsdale.
During World War II, the U.S. Government constructed “Barry Farms” housing on Hillsdale’s eastern edge to relieve overcrowding across the Anacostia [River]. Soon, Southwest [DC] . . . — Map (db m33732) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — Battery Ricketts — Civil War Defenses of Washington — 1861-1865|
|Earthworks of Battery Ricketts are visible inside the wooded area in front of you. Battery Ricketts, built to defend an area in front of Fort Stanton, was named for Maj. Gen. James B. Ricketts. — Map (db m10622) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — Campbell African Methodist Episcopal Church — 2562 Martin Luther King, Jr. Avenue, SE — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC|
| Campbell AME, established in 1867 as Mount Zion AME, was an outgrowth of its overcrowded parent church, Allen Chapel AME, founded in 1850. When it moved to a location near the present one in 1890, Mount Zion was renamed for AME Bishop Jabez B. Campbell. Frederick Douglass attended Campbell’s dedication ceremonies and occasionally spoke at the church.
In 1950, under the leadership of Rev. Samuel Everette Guiles, the church organized the Campbell Civic Club, and began hosting NAACP strategy . . . — Map (db m33749) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — Fort Carroll — Civil War Defenses of Washington — 1861-1865|
|Earthworks of Fort Carroll are visible 100 yards to the right at the top of the hill. Fort Carroll was named in honor of Maj. Gen. Samuel Sprigg Carroll, a West Point graduate from the District of Columbia. — Map (db m10614) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — Fort Greble — Civil War Defenses of Washington — 1861-1865|
|Earthworks of Fort Greble are visible beyond this exhibit. Fort Greble was named in honor of Lt. John T. Greble, slain at the Battle of Big Bethel, June 10, 1861, the first U.S. Military Academy graduate killed in the Civil War. — Map (db m40866) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — Fort Stanton — Civil War Defenses of Washington — 1861 – 1865|
Earthworks of Fort Stanton are visible in the wooded area 200 yards in front of you.
Diagram: Fort Stanton from U.S. Army Corps of Engineers drawing.
Fort Stanton was named for Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, was the first fort constructed beyond the Anacostia River.
Map: Other Civil War fort locations administered by the National Park Service.
Period photograph of artillerists at an unspecified battery belonging to the Civil War Defenses of . . . — Map (db m46623) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — Frederick Douglass National Historic Site|
|Also known as Cedar Hill, this site encompasses the estate owned by Frederick Douglass from 1877 until his death in 1895. In honor of Douglass’ work as an author, orator, abolitionist, statesman, and civil rights leader, this site is designated a Literary Landmark by Friends of Libraries U.S.A. — Map (db m40846) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — St. Elizabeths Hospital|
| has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America. — Map (db m58305) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — The Big Chair|
|Re-dedication April 25, 2006.
This community landmark represents the Curtis Companies long standing allegience to the neighborhood and steadfast committment to unity, prosperity and good will to all Washingtonians and friends of Anacostia.
John Kidwell & A Lomax Project
Cinnbar & Nelson’s Welding — Map (db m5446) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — The Growlery|
|Here stood Frederick Douglass’ rustic retreat from domestic society, where he could think, read and write undisturbed. Evoking the image of a lion’s lair, he called his hideaway the Growlery. It was simply furnished with a lounge, a high desk and a stool. The present building is a reconstruction. — Map (db m5362) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — The World’s Largest Chair|
|Presented to Curtis Bros. for their outstanding leadership and service to the public by the Basset Furniture Industries.
The chair made of solid Honduras mahogany is 19½ feet tall and weighs 4600 pounds.
Designer: Leo M. Jiranek
Builder: J.E. Bassett, Jr. — Map (db m5459) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Benning Heights — Fort Chaplin — Civil War Defenses of Washington — 1861-1865|
|Earthworks of Fort Chaplin are visible through the wooded areas at the top of the hill. Fort Chaplin was named in honor of Col. Daniel Chaplin, who was mortally wounded on August 17, 1864, at Deep Bottom, Virginia. — Map (db m10628) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Brightwood — 16 — “Get Down You Fool” — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|Hearing those words, President Abraham Lincoln ducked down from the Fort Stevens parapet during the Civil War battle that stopped the Confederates from taking Washington. On July 9, 1864, some 15,000 Rebels led by General Jubal A. Early defeated Union forces at the Battle of Monocacy near Frederick, Maryland. Early's troops, suffering from the battle and the summer heat, then turned south to march on the lightly defended capital city. But the Monocacy encounter and skirmishes along the . . . — Map (db m72829) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Brightwood — 17 — Aunt Betty's Story — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|Elizabeth Proctor Thomas (1821-1917), a free Black woman whose image appears on each Brightwood Heritage Trail sign, once owned 11 acres in this area. Known, respectfully in her old age as "Aunt Betty," Thomas and her husband James farmed and kept cows here. When the Civil War came in 1861, her hilltop attracted Union soldiers defending Washington. As Thomas later told a reporter, one day soldiers "began taking out my furniture and tearing down our house" to build Fort Stevens. Then a . . . — Map (db m72830) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Brightwood — Fort Slocum — Civil War Defenses of Washington — 1861-1865|
| No visible evidence remains of Fort Slocum, which stood here and across Kansas Avenue to your left. Cannon mounted at Fort Totten helped repulse a Confederate attack on Fort Stevens, July 11-12, 1864. — Map (db m3012) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Brightwood — 15 — The Rock on Brightwood Avenue — Battleground to Community — Brightwood Heritage Trail|
|Across Quackenbos Street is Emory United Methodist Church. Named to honor Bishop John Emory of Maryland (1789-1835), the congregation dates from 1832.
From the beginning, Emory welcomed all races but, like most Washington churches then, seated African Americans in a separate gallery. In 1846 the national Methodist church split over the slavery issue. Seven years later Emory sided with the South. In 1939 the Methodist Church reunited. Despite its southern sympathies, the church had helped . . . — Map (db m72827) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Brookland — Charles Richard Drew Memorial Bridge|
|Named in honor of Dr. Charles Richard Drew, 1904-1950 esteemed citizen of the District of Columbia athlete, scholar, surgeon, and scientist whose discoveries in blood preservation saved thousands of lives. — Map (db m6262) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Acacia Life Insurance Building – 1936|
| Acacia Life Insurance Building – 1936
On March 3, 1869, President Andrew Johnson signed the Congressional Act chartering
The Masonic Mutual Relief Association that
became Acacia Life Insurance Company.
Built as its headquarters and occupied by Acacia
until 1997, the building serves as an example of
American neoclassical art deco architecture by
Shreve, Lamb & Harmon, New York – designers of
The Empire State Building.
The Griffins, mythological creatures . . . — Map (db m41886) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — 12 — Christ Church and Its Parishioners — Tour of Duty — Barracks Row Heritage Trail|
| This is Christ Church, Washington Parish, the first Episcopal church established in Washington City (1794), and attended by Presidents Thomas Jefferson and John Quincy Adams.
At first Christ Church met in a nearby tobacco warehouse. In 1806 parishioner William Prout donated this land to the congregation, and one year later a simple, two-story rectangular building went up, designed by Navy Yard contractor Robert Alexander. That structure still remains behind the church’s Gothic Revival . . . — Map (db m39235) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Christ Church, Washington Parish — Founded May 25, 1795 — [National Register of Historic Places]|
| First church in City of Washington.
Present edifice dedicated October 8, 1809,
by Bishop Thomas J. Claggett,
first bishop consecrated on
- in New York, 1792.
Marcia Burns Chapter, D. A. R.
May 13, 1930 — Map (db m39163) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Eastern Market — A Lively Market for a Lively Neighborhood|
|Established by order of President Thomas Jefferson 1805, this building constructed 1873, designed by Adolf Cluss, additions 1907-8 by Snowden Ashford.
Eastern Market, one of three public markets proposed in L’Enfant’s Plan, was established in 1805, by Presidential Proclamation, and originally located near the Navy Yard at 6th Street between K and L Streets, S.E. It was relocated to this site in 1873, as a new building, designed by Adolf Cluss, which is now known as South Hall. The Center . . . — Map (db m20358) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Ebenezer United Methodist Church — 400 D Street, SE — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC|
Ebenezer United Methodist Church is Capitol Hill’s oldest independent Black congregation.
Ebenezer UMC was founded in 1827 by African Americans who left a biracial church on Capitol Hill because the White congregants practiced segregation. The neew congregation purchased land here and built a small frame structure. In 1864 Ebenezer UMC gained its first African American minister, Reverend Noah Jones, and housed the city’s first publicly financed school for Black children. Emma V. Brown, an . . . — Map (db m30053) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Freedmen’s Memorial Monument to Abraham Lincoln — or Freedom’s Memorial|
|In grateful memory of Abraham Lincoln. This monument was erected by the Western Sanitary Commission of Saint Louis, Mo., with funds contributed solely by emancipated Citizens of the United States declared free by his Proclamation, January 1st A.D. 1863. The first contribution of five dollars was made by Charlotte Scott, a freed woman of Virginia, being her first earnings in freedom and consecrated by her suggestion and request, on the day she heard of President Lincoln’s death, to build a . . . — Map (db m41617) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — 4 — Healing the Wounded — Tour of Duty — Barracks Row Heritage Trail|
| In 1866 the Navy completed the hospital you see across the street to treat injured and ailing seamen. With beds for 50, it included the carriage house/stable and cast-iron fence and (around the corner) the gazebo. Its front door originally was on E Street facing the nearby Navy Yard and Marine Barracks; later occupants entered from Pennsylvania Avenue.
The hospital’s first patient was 24-year-old African American seaman Benjamin Drummond, admitted in June 1866 with a gunshot wound to his . . . — Map (db m50813) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — 13 — In the Alley — Tour of Duty — Barracks Row Heritage Trail|
You are standing in one of Washington’s remaining inhabited alleys, behind the buildings that face G, E (there is no F Street here), Sixth and Seventh streets. In 1897 the alley had 22 tiny dwellings sheltering well over 100 people. Today six houses remain, visible to your right along Archibald Walk.
In 1841 Samuel A. H. Marks, Sr. (1818-1885) built his home at 630 G Street (behind you and to the left), and alley stables and workshops. He practiced law and sold metal . . . — Map (db m39275) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — James A. Garfield|
|(Front):James A. Garfield 1831 - 1881 (Left):Major General USV, Member of Congress, Senator and President of the United States of America. (Right):Erected by his comrades of the Society of the Army of the Cumberland May 12 1887. — Map (db m18602) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Japanese American Memorial to Patriotism During World War II|
|[Panel 1 of the historical narrative at memorial entrance]:
On February 19, 1942, 73 days after the United States entered World War II, President Franklin Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 which resulted in the removal of 120,000 Japanese American men, women, and children from their homes in the western states and Hawaii.
Allowed only what they could carry, families were forced to abandon homes, friends, farms and businesses to live in ten remote relocation centers guarded by . . . — Map (db m40541) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — John Philip Sousa — (1854 - 1932)|
Stars and Stripes Forever,
and other famous marches,
was born in this house
on November 6, 1854
Restored 1960-1 Randall C. & Jaquire D. King — Map (db m39264) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Latrobe Gate - Tingey House|
|Latrobe Gate Designed by Benjamin Henry Latrobe in 1804, the gate and flanking guardhouses were constructed in the Greek Revival style. This style became very popular in the young nation, and the original section of the gate represents one of the earliest examples of Greek Revival architecture in the United States. In 1823 a second story was added to the existing guardhouses. The Latrobe Gate is the oldest continually manned Marine sentry post in the nation. Tingey House This . . . — Map (db m28348) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C. — "Oldest Post of the Corps"|
|Site selected by President Thomas Jefferson and Lieutenant Colonel Commandant William Ward Burrows on 31 March 1801.
A National Capital Landmark and entered in the National Register of Historic Places.
United States Marine Corps — Map (db m10833) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Mary McLeod Bethune|
|1875–1955 Let her works praise her. I leave you love. • I leave you hope. • I leave you the challenge of developing confidence in one another. • I leave you a thirst for education. • I leave you a respect for the use of power. • I leave you faith. • I leave you racial dignity. • I leave you also a desire to live harmoniously with your fellow man. • I leave you finally a responsibility to our young people. —Mary McLeod Bethune. — Map (db m5505) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Nathanael Greene Monument|
| . . . — Map (db m30771) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Naval Monument — Peace Memorial|
|In memory of the officers seamen and marines of the United States Navy who fell in defence of the union and liberty of their country 1861-1865 — Map (db m18594) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — 5 — Oldest Post of the Corps — Tour of Duty — Barracks Row Heritage Trail|
|On your left is Marine Barracks Washington, D.C., the oldest continuously manned post in the U.S. Marine Corps. The installation was originally designed by architect George Hadfield in 1801 with a central parade ground and housing for 500 enlisted and officers in addition to the Commandant's Quarters (in mid-block across the street). This elegant 23-room house, enhanced in 1901 by a mansard roof, is the only remaining original structure.
When the U.S. government moved from Philadelphia to . . . — Map (db m10834) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Power from the Wind — Sustainable Solutions: Residential Wind Turbines|
| This Skystream 3.7 residential turbine is a new generation of wind generator that hooks directly to your home to reduce or eliminate your monthly electric bill. It’s designed to provide quiet, clean electricity in very low winds. How can a wind turbine convert wind power into electricity? In areas of sufficient sustained wind, the rotor is turned in the same manner as a windmill. The rotating center pole (as seen here, can be either on vertical or horizontal axis) is attached to a . . . — Map (db m49642) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Power from the Wind — Sustainable Solutions: Residential Wind Turbines|
| You are looking at a Windspire, a vertical-axis wind turbine that generates electricity from wind power. This model produces about 2,000 kWh of electricity a year in an area with average wind speeds of 12 mph (about ¼ the needs of the average house). It can be used on-grid to power homes, businesses, even large commercial buildings, and off-grid, etc. The model you are viewing is a “giromill” style, which used vertical airfoils that, just like the airplane wings, use the concept of . . . — Map (db m49643) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — The Old Brick Capitol — [Old Capitol Prison] — [U.S. Supreme Court Building National Historic Landmark]|
| The Old Brick Capitol
July 4, 1815 The cornerstone of the Old Brick Capitol built by Washington citizens to house the Congress was laid on this site. The Congress met here from December 13, 1815 through March 3, 1819. President Monroe was inaugurated here in 1817, establishing the custom of public inaugurations. — Map (db m39411) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — Ulysses S. Grant Memorial|
|Grant — Map (db m18597) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — United States Capitol — East Front|
| One of the icons of world architecture, the U.S. Capitol has been the meeting place of Congress since 1800. President George Washington laid the cornerstone on September 18, 1793. While under construction, the the building was damaged by British troops during the War of 1812 and subsequently restored. The Capitol was enlarged and the present cast-iron dome built in the 1850s and 1860s. Further additions included the Olmstead terraces on the west front in the 1880s and the east front extension . . . — Map (db m40117) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — United States Capitol Grounds|
| [Diagram of Capitol Square - East and West Plazas]
General Plan for the Improvement of the U.S. Capitol Grounds by Frederick Law Olmstead, 1874
Following the extension of the Capitol in the 1850s-1860s, the grounds were enlarged in 1872. In 1874 Congress commissioned Frederick Law Olmstead to design landscape improvements, and he soon produced this drawing which guided the project over the next two decades. He described the plan as “very simple, with the purpose of . . . — Map (db m27891) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — 10 — Washington Navy Yard: Maker of Weapons — Tour of Duty: Barracks Row Heritage Trail|
|The white brick wall in front of you marks the original northern boundary of the Navy Yard. The yard grew from its original 12 acres to 128 acres at its peak in 1962. In 2003 it consisted of 73 acres with 55 acres making up the adjacent Southeast Federal Center. After the War of 1812, the Navy Yard's shipbuilding dwindled. the Anacostia River was too shallow and remote from the ope sea for building large vessels. By the 1840s, weapons production dominated activities. In 1886, the Naval Gun . . . — Map (db m10822) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Capitol Hill — 9 — Washington Navy Yard: Serving the Fleet — Tour of Duty — Barracks Row Heritage Trail|
|In front of you is the main gate of the Washington Navy Yard, established in 1799. It is the U.S. Navy's oldest shore facility in continuous use. Over time, workers here have built and repaired ships and their fittings, designed and developed ordnance (weapons and ammunition), and provided administrative support for the fleet.
Although city designer Pierre L'Enfant planned a commercial center for the site, its access to water and nearby timber made it a natural for ship building. The . . . — Map (db m10835) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Chevy Chase — Fort De Russy — Civil War Defenses of Washington — 1861-1865|
|Earthworks of Fort De Russy are visible; follow path to your right for 200 years.
[drawing of fort] Fort De Russy from U.S. Army Corps of Engineers drawing.
Cannon mounted at Fort De Russy helped repulse a Confederate attack on Fort Stevens, July 11012, 1864.
[map of northern DC] Other Civil War fort locations administered by Rock Creek Park.
[picture of unnamed fort] During the Civil War, Washington's forts overlooked farm land. — Map (db m20822) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Chevy Chase — Fort DeRussy|
|Built in 1861 to protect the Rock Creek Valley during the Civil War, Fort DeRussy's cannon fired a total of 109 projectiles into the northern countryside as 12,000-15,000 Confederate soldiers attacked the city under the command of Confederate General Jubal Anderson Early on July 11-12, 1864. During this two day battle (known as the Battle of Fort Stevens) Fort DeRussy aided the surrounding forts by providing the main suppressive fire to ensure a Union victory on the battlefield.
The . . . — Map (db m20824) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Chinatown — e.6 — Chinatown — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
|dragons to bring rain, prosperity and friendship
More than 280 dragons, crowned by 700 glazed tiles, look down from the Chinatown Friendship Archway before you. Symbols of the spirits that bring rain and prosperity in China, these painted and carved dragons are fitted together like a giant jigsaw puzzle in the ancient Chinese building tradition of "gong" balancing. Seven roofs of weighing nine tons each are cantilevered, with no nails almost 50 feet above the street.
This is . . . — Map (db m26935) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Chinatown — Friendship Archway|
|This friendship archway was erected by the District of Columbia and the Municipality of Beijing, 1986.
Marion Barry, Jr.
Mayor of Washington, D.C.
Mayor, Beijing Municipal Government — Map (db m9161) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Chinatown — e.5 — Mary Surratt's Boarding House — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
| "The nest in which the egg was hatched."President Andrew Johnson, April 1865. The building at 604 H Street, today Golo’s Chinese Restaurant, is intimately connected with the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln at Ford’s Theater, just five blocks from here. During the Civil War this modest brick house was occupied by a Maryland-born widow, Mary Surratt, who took in boarders. Like many in this Southern history, she was quietly sympathetic to the Confederacy, . . . — Map (db m16585) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Colonial Village — Frank D. Reeves — 7760 16th Street, NW — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC|
|Frank D. Reeves (1916–1973), a lawyer and civil
rights activist, was part of the team that shaped the
1954 Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court
case outlawing school segregation. He advised
Senator John F. Kennedy on minority affairs during
the 1960 presidential campaign, then joined the
Howard University School of Law faculty. At the same time Reeves served as legal counsel to the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and helped negotiate the 1963 March on Washington . . . — Map (db m24679) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — Buchanan|
|[Panel No. 1]:
James Buchanan of Pennsylvania
President of the United States
MDCCCIVII - MDCCCIXI
[Panel No. 2]:
The incorruptible statesman whose walk was upon the mountain ranges of the law — Map (db m24150) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — 15 of 19 — College Hill — Cultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail|
| Wayland Seminary opened in Foggy Bottom just after the Civil War to train formerly enslaved people and others as “preachers and teachers for the South” and as missionaries to evangelize Africa. In 1875 it moved here, later merging with Richmond Theological Seminary to become Virginia Union University in Richmond. Among Wayland’s distinguished alumni was Booker T. Washington.
Just two blocks up the hill is the former site of George Washington University’s predecessor, . . . — Map (db m23947) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — Francis L. Cardozo High School — 1928|
| Organized September 1928 at M Street and New York Avenue
Moved February 19, 1933
to Ninth Street and Rhode
Island Avenue, N.W.
Moved August 1950 to Thirteenth
and Clifton Street, N.W. — Map (db m23651) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — 9 of 19 — Justice vs. Injustice — Cultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail|
These elegant 13th Street Houses were constructed when racial separation was legal and widely accepted. In 1910 the deeds for many houses across 13th Street had covenants banning “any negro or colored persons.” Those on this side generally did not have the covenants.
By the 1930s, 13th Street divided black from white. Then, in 1941, African American educator Mary Hundley and her husband Frederick bought 2530 13th Street, on the white side, despite its restrictive covenant. . . . — Map (db m23603) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — 1 of 19 — Main Street — Cultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail|
|Marker Front: Fourteenth Street has always been the business backbone of Columbia Heights. Beginning in the 1890s, electric streetcars dropped passengers at nearly every corner, attracting commerce. By 1925 storefronts occupied the blocks between Euclid and Otis Streets.
Most stores, often less than 20 feet wide, were family run and offered one line of products. In 192 on 14th Street between Irving Street and Park Road alone, you could find hats, bicycles, men's clothing, ladies’ . . . — Map (db m23705) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — 10 of 19 — On the Heights — Cultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail|
In the days of legally segregated public education (1862-1954), this school building was Central High, the gem of the School Board’s white division. But by 1949, it had few students, as the post-World War II suburban housing boom had drawn whites away. Consequently, African American families outnumbered whites around Central.
Nearby “Colored” high schools - especially Cardozo at Ninth Street and Rhode Island Avenue - struggled with overcrowded, outdated facilities. When . . . — Map (db m23608) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — 17 of 19 — Social Justice — Cultural Convergence — Columbia Heights Heritage Trail|
| Straight ahead is All Souls Church, Unitarian, long known for its social activism, starting with abolitionism in the 1820s and ranging through nuclear disarmament and interracial cooperation. During the segregation era, All Souls was one of the few places in DC open to integrated meetings. During the 1980s and '90s it (and other neighborhood churches) even hosted concerts by DC's influential punk bands Bad Brains, Fugazi, Minor Threat, and others.
In the 1960s, the church launched the . . . — Map (db m24152) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Columbia Heights — Washington Meridian — "The Stone" — 1804 - 1923|
|The stone marking the Washington Meridian was formerly located 52 feet, nine inches west of this tablet which was presented by the Army and Navy Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution. — Map (db m82518) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Deanwood — 5 of 15 — A Whirl on the Ferris Wheel — A Self Reliant People — Greater Deanwood Heritage Trail|
| To your right it is the former Merritt Educational Center which operated from 1943 to 2008. However, if you were standing here in the 1920s or '30s, in its place you would have seen exuberant crowds of fashionably dressed African Americans enjoying Suburban Gardens Amusement Park.
The park was built in 1921 by architectural engineer Howard D. Woodson, writer John H. Paynter, theater magnate Sherman H. Dudley, and other investors of the black-owned Universal Development and Company. It was . . . — Map (db m24519) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Deanwood — 12 of 15 — Designed to Compete — A Self-Reliant People — Greater Deanwood Heritage Trail|
|This quaint frame building has served several church congregations since its construction in 1908. The First Zion Baptist Church stayed for more than 60 years. Since 1993 members of Joshua's Temple First Born Church have worshiped within its walls.
One of the city's first academically trained Black architects, William Sidney Pittman (1875-1958), designed this understated structure. Pittman trained at Tuskegee Institute, where he won the support of the founder Booker T. Washington and later . . . — Map (db m21681) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Deanwood — Original Federal Boundary Stone NE 9|
|Original Federal Boundary Stone
District of Columbia
Protected by Capt Molly Pitcher Chapter
Daughters of the American Revolution
1916 — Map (db m5283) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — "Blodgett's Hotel"|
| [The Great Seal of the United States]
In 1800, the building erected on this site by Samuel Blodget was the scene of the first theatrical performance given in Washington.
From 1812 to 1836 it sheltered the city post office and, for part of that period, the Post Office Department and the Patent Office.
And here after the burning of the Capitol, the Congress of the United States was convened, September 19th 1814. — Map (db m28534) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — "Surratt Boarding House"|
|A historical landmark “Surratt Boarding House” 604 H Street N.W. (then 541) is said to have been where the conspirators plotted the abduction of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln in 1865. Plaque by Chi-Am Lions Club — Map (db m7046) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — “Damn the Torpedoes, Full Speed Ahead!”|
|With these legendary words, naval officer David G. Farragut led the Union fleet past Confederate mines (then called torpedoes) and to victory at the Battle of Mobile Bay on August 5, 1864. From the rigging of his flagship, USS Hartford, Farragut directed the clash with the ironclad CSS Tennessee, as shown in this painting of the battle. Earlier in the Civil War, Farragut gained national prominence by capturing New Orleans after a fierce battle with Confederate forts and ships. . . . — Map (db m4104) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — The Christian Index|
| America's oldest existing religious newspaper was first published on this city block at 925 E Street on February 2, 1822. Founded by the legendary Baptist leader Luther Rice, the paper was originally known as The Columbian Star and utilized to promote Baptist missions and Columbian College (now George Washington University) which was founded as a Baptist school by Rice in 1821. The name of the paper was changed to The Christian Index before being bought by Jesse Mercer and moved . . . — Map (db m28559) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Abraham Lincoln|
| Abraham Lincoln died in this house April 15, 1865 at 7:22 a.m. Purchased by the United States in 1896. — Map (db m28502) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — .5 — Abraham Lincoln Walked Here — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
| “Tonight, beautiful women, perfume, and the violins’ sweetness ... [yet during the war] the amputation, the blue face, the groan, the glassy eye of the dying.” Walt Whitman
At 10:30 p.m. on March 4, 1865, a tired and gaunt President Lincoln arrived at this site, his wife Mary in white lace and silk with purple and white flowers in her hair. The ball celebrating his second inaugural was being held in the Grand Hall on the top floor of the Patent Office next to where you . . . — Map (db m28665) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Albert Gallatin|
|Secretary of the Treasury
Genius of Finance
Senator and Representative
Commissioner for the Treaty of Ghent
Minister to France and Great Britain
Champion of Democracy
1761–1849 — Map (db m2129) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Alexander Graham Bell|
|From the to floor of this building was sent on June 3, 1880 over a beam of light to 1325 L Street, the first wireless telephone message in the history of the world. The apparatus used in sending the message was the photophone invented by Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone This plaque was placed here by Alexander Graham Bell Chapter Telephone Pioneers of America March 3, 1947 The Centennial of Dr. Bell's Birth — Map (db m17569) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Alexander Hamilton Memorial|
| [ on the front (south face) of pedestal :]
First Secretary of the Treasury
Soldier, Orator, Statesman
Champion of Constitutional Union, Representative Government and National Integrity
[ on the reverse (north face) of pedestal :]
He smote the rock of the national resources and abundant streams of revenue gushed forth. He touched the dead corpse of the public credit and it sprang upon its feet. — Map (db m32740) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Alexander Robey Shepherd|
| Governor, Territory of the District of Columbia (1873-1874) born Washington, D.C. January 31, 1835 died Batopilas, Mexico, September 12, 1902
buried Rock Creek Cemetery, Washington, D.C. Civil War Union veteran, entrepreneur, civil leader advanced L'Enfant's plan through public works Introduced modern silver mining in Mexico statue dedicated 1909, removed 1979, returned 2005 Plaque placed by The Association of Oldest Inhabitants of the District of Columbia — Map (db m65158) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — W.3 — Asbury United Methodist Church — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
| Stories of slavery and freedom, of struggle and achievement are woven through the history of this African American congregation. Founded in 1836, by the time of the Civil War Asbury United Methodist Church was the preeminent Black church in the city, its membership of 600 making it the largest of 11 African American congregations in Washington. Today, Asbury counts among its members descendants of District slaves who tried a dramatic escape to freedom in 1848 aboard the ship Pearl. . . . — Map (db m70316) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Baron von Steuben Memorial — Lafayette Square National Historic Landmark District|
[north face :]
Erected by the Congress of the United States to
Frederick William Aug- ustus Henry Ferdinand Baron von Steuben in grateful recognition of his services to the American people in their struggle for liberty. Born in Prussia September 17, 1730. Died in New York November 28, 1794. After serving as aide- de-camp to Frederick the Great of Prussia he offered his sword to the American col- onies and was appoint- ed Major General and . . . — Map (db m32878) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Brigadier General Casimir Pulaski — 1748 - 1779|
|(Bronze Plaque):Brigadier General Casimir Pulaski 1748-1779The bronze equestrian statue of Brigadier General Casimir Pulaski, portrays the Revolutionary War hero in the uniform of a Polish cavalry commander. Born in Winiary, Poland on March 4, 1748 to a noble family, Pulaski gained prominence in Europe for his role in defending liberty in Poland. Excited by the struggle of the emerging American republic, Pulaski joined in its fight for independence, arriving in Boston in July, 1777. . . . — Map (db m17615) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Carnegie Endowment for International Peace|
|700 Jackson Place has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America National Park Service 1974 From 1910 to 1948 it served as the first headquarters of The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. It was endowed by Andrew Carnegie to "Hasten the abolition of international war." The townhouse was built in 1860 for Dr. Peter Parker founder of medical missions in China who occupied the . . . — Map (db m32879) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Central Public Library — Mount Vernon Square — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC|
|This majestic building was opened in 1903 as the Central Public Library, popularly known as the Carnegie Library because Andrew Carnegie donated funds to build it. From the start Central was open to all. Mary Church Terrell and historian John Cromwell spoke here regularly, and materials on African American history and culture were especially useful to teachers preparing for “Negro History Week” (now Black History Month). In 1972 the library moved to Ninth and G Streets, NW, and was . . . — Map (db m18794) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — 16 — Cesar Chavez — 1927 - 1993|
|Led by his desire to secure a better quality of life for migrant farm workers, Cesar Chavez helped found the United Farm Workers of America, the first effective farm workers' union in the United States. Under his leadership of nonviolent protest, the UFW was able to secure improved wages and benefits, more humane living and working conditions, and better job security for some of the poorest workers in America. Through his life of service, Chavez provided inspiration to countless others. . . . — Map (db m15471) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Children's Hospital|
|Here stood the first Children's Hospital of Washington, DC. Opened as a rented rowhouse in 1871, the hospital had a capacity of 12 beds and had only four doctors on staff. Now internationally recognized, Children's National Medical Center is proud to have been part of the DC community for more than a century. — Map (db m59703) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — .3 — Clara Barton, Angel of the Battlefield at Home — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
| “I have paid the rent of a room in Washington ... retaining it merely as a shelter to which I might return when my strength should fail me under exposure and labor at the field.” Clara Barton, December 1863.
In November 1997, Richard Lyons peered into the dark clutter in the attic of 437 Seventh Street, inspecting the building in preparation for its planned demolition. His eyes settled on a sign, “Missing Soldiers Office, Clara Barton, 3rd Story, Room 9.” . . . — Map (db m36174) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Cristoforo Colombo — [Holy Rosary Church]|
| This monument, erected on the occasion of the 1992 Quincentennial Jubilee celebrating the discovery of America, pays tribute to Cristoforo Colombo and his seafaring companions. Their bold voyage led to a historic encounter between the European world and the Americas. A turning point in Western Civilization, this event paved the way for the spreading of the Gospel and the establishment of a society anchored on the principles of Christian love and holiness
1492 - 1992 — Map (db m80469) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Daniel Patrick Moynihan Place — Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center|
Daniel Patrick Moynihan wrote the Guiding Principles for Federal Architecture and the proposal for the redevelopment of Pennsylvania Avenue, which President John F. Kennedy proclaimed on May 23, 1962.
He served in the cabinet or sub-cabinet of four successive Presidents, the only person in American history to have done so. He was United States Ambassador to India and later to the United Nations. He served four terms as United States Senator from New York (1977-2001), . . . — Map (db m49586) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Decatur House|
|(Upper Plaque): Decatur House Has been designated a Registered National Historic Landmark Under the provisions of the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935 This site possesses exceptional value in commemorating and illustrating the history of the United States U.S. Department of the Interior National Park Service 1961 (Lower Plaque): This house, built in 1819 was the home of Commodore Stephen Decatur who died here March 22, 1820, from wounds received in a duel with . . . — Map (db m31101) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Executive Office Building|
|Originally State, War, and Navy Departments Constructed 1871-1888 South Wing Ground broken June 1871 Completed December 1875 East Wing Ground broken July 1872 Completed April 1879 North Wing Ground broken July 1879 Completed December 1882 West and Central Wings Ground broken March 1884 Completed January 1888 Total construction time 17 years and 4 months On this site in 1871 stood the President's stables, the Old Navy Building designed in 1797 by George Hadfield and the Old War Building . . . — Map (db m71253) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — First Home of the Reserve Officers Association|
|From 1924 to 1938, rooms of the Lee House were the first headquarters of the reserve officers association of the United States. Founded in 1922 by General of the Armies John J. Pershing to assure an adequate national security, ROA had as an early member Major Harry S. Truman, USAR. President Truman lived in these quarters during much of his administration and in 1950 signed the law granting ROA its congressional charter. Dedicated during the Truman Centennial Year, May 1984 — Map (db m4052) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Francis Preston Blair|
|This plaque marks the home of Francis Preston Blair (1791-1876) Founder and Editor of The Globe (1830-1845) A newspaper which championed Democratic causes and vigorous journalism notably during the administration of President Andrew Jackson in whose "kitchen cabinet" Blair loyally served marked by Sigma Delta Chi Professional Journalistic Society 1969 — Map (db m4047) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — W.2 — Franklin Square - "Going into the country" — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
|This urban oasis exists because President Andrew Jackson needed water. The site of excellent springs (a rare commodity in the early city when everyone was dependent on private wells), this square was purchased by the federal government in 1832 so that it could pipe fresh water to the White House. It was an arrangement that lasted until 1898, well after the city had a piped water supply from above Great Falls on the Potomac River. In July of 1861, as the nation prepared for war, soldiers of the . . . — Map (db m29594) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — Freedman’s Savings And Trust|
|On this site stood the principal office of the Freedman’s Savings and Trust Company founded on March 3, 1865 to receive deposits from former slaves. Frederick Douglass served as its last president. The bank was closed on June 29, 1874. The building was sold in 1882, and razed a few years later. — Map (db m32482) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — W.7 — Freedom Plaza — Civil War to Civil Rights — Downtown Heritage Trail|
|“I have a dream.” Martin Luther King, Jr. August 1963
The block-long plaza at 13th and Pennsylvania Avenue just ahead to your left honors civil rights leader Martin Luther King with the name Freedom Plaza. King completed his historic “I Have a Dream” speech in the Willard Hotel adjacent to the plaza, before delivering it to a crowd of 200,000 at the Lincoln Memorial.
Freedom Plaza also recalls Washington’s . . . — Map (db m28528) HM|
|District of Columbia (Washington), Downtown — General Post Office — National Historic Landmark|
|General Post Office has been designated a Registered National Historic Landmark under the provisions of the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935. This site possesses exceptional value in commemorating or illustrating the history of the United States.
U.S. Department of the Interior
National Park Service
1972 — Map (db m28536) HM|