|Idaho (Ada County), Boise — Abraham Lincoln|
|Gutzon Borglum, Sculptor of Mount Rushmore
Born: St. Charles, Idaho 1867
Died: Chicago, Illinois 1941
Copy executed by Irene Deely of Boise, Idaho 2009
"I have tried to give to posterity, in a true, unstudied picture, a glimpse of possibly the best-loved man in our national history, as he might sit alone, unposed... Gutzon Borglum 1912
Statue: Carol MacGregor, PhD, Mary Kinney Abercrombie, Leslie Sellers Garrett, Anita Kay Hardy, Melinda Sander, Adelia Garro Simplot and . . . — Map (db m32232) HM|
|Idaho (Ada County), Boise — 72 — Airmail Service|
|U.S. commercial airline service began with a Varney Airlines flight from Pasco to Boise which landed here on April 6, 1926. Army planes had delivered airmail before that time.
After Varney Airlines was merged with newer companies to become United Airlines, this flight was recognized as United's initial flight. A year later, Charles A. Lindberg landed here on his national tour after his solo flight to Paris. Boise's municipal airport continued to serve planes here until 1940 when 8,800-foot runways were built at its present site. — Map (db m22734) HM|
|Idaho (Ada County), Boise — 376 — Arrowrock Dam|
|Higher than any other dam from 1915 until 1934, Arrowrock Dam still is an essential part of Boise Valley's irrigation system.
Located six miles upstream from here, Arrowrock is 350 feet high and 1,150 feet wide. Built at a cost of $4,725,000 to provide additional water storage to get 2,635 valley farms through dry summer seasons, it had enough extra capacity to take care of more than 1,000 new farms as well. Its 18-mile canyon reservoir holds 280,000 acre feet of water. — Map (db m22597) HM|
|Idaho (Ada County), Boise — 379 — Basque Country|
|Idaho has a large Basque community that preserves it's ancient European traditions in a new land of opportunity. Coming here originally to herd sheep on mountain and desert ranges, they shifted into other occupations as quickly as possible, making way for more of their countrymen to follow. Their sheep wagons often can be seen on grazing lands, and a Basque museum (607 Grove St. in Boise) interprets their life here. — Map (db m31680) HM|
|Idaho (Ada County), Boise — 359 — Beaver Dick's Ferry|
|In 1863 and 1864, overland packers hauling supplies from Salt Lake City to Idaho City crossed here and took a direct route northward to More's Creek.
They cut a steep grade from the Oregon Trail down to Beaver Dick's Ferry, which served a crossing only a short distance below here. After gold rush excitement ended, Idaho City traffic came on through Boise and used a toll road further north to Boise Basin. — Map (db m22641) HM|
|Idaho (Ada County), Boise — 402 — Boise State University|
|Expanding from a two-year community college (1932-1965) to a campus with a graduate program, Boise State was designated as a university in 1974.
Originating as an Episcopalian academy founded in 1892, this institution was located a mile north of here until 1940, when Boise's municipal airport, located here became available for a large new campus. Christ's Chapel -- Boise's original Episcopalian church building, built downtown in 1866, was moved to this site for permanent preservation in 1963. — Map (db m22735) HM|
|Idaho (Ada County), Boise — Bonneville Point|
|From this old Indian trail later known as the Old Oregon Trail Captain B,L,E, Bonnevilles partner on first sighting the river May 1833 exclaimed - Les Bois Les Bois Voyes Les Bois meaning The Woods The Woods See The Woods
Capt Bonneville therefore named the stream Riviere Boise - also indirectly the mountains and city — Map (db m71837) HM|
|Idaho (Ada County), Boise — Captain Bonneville|
According to tradition, a hunting party led by the explorer Captain Benjamin Bonneville reached this promontory in 1833. They saw the lush river valley below and exclaimed in French, “Les bois; les bois; vouyez le bois!” (“The woods; the woods; see the woods!”) In this way, Captain Bonneville’s party became credited with naming the Boise Valley.
A career soldier, Bonneville secured a leave of absence from the Army to “examine . . . — Map (db m71835) HM|
|Idaho (Ada County), Boise — 343 — Diversion Dam|
|Diversion Dam was completed in 1909 to lift water into an already constructed New York canal system, greatly expanding its irrigated farmlands.
After a quarter century of failure to dig a large canal above Diversion Dam, United States Reclamation Service funding enabled a group of Boise Valley irrigation districts to complete this project. Then in 1912, a generating plant was installed to provide power to construct Arrowrock Dam. It has been preserved as an historical display by Bureau of Reclamation staff. — Map (db m22586) HM|
|Idaho (Ada County), Boise — Idaho State Penitentiary — Founded 1868|
|New addition built 1893
William J. McConnell, Gov.
Jas. F. Curtis, Sec. of State
Geo.M. Parsons, Atty. Gen.
Jas. King, Arch’t. — Map (db m63000) HM|
|Idaho (Ada County), Boise — 318 — More's Creek|
|More's Creek is named for J. Marion More, leader of the party of miners who founded Idaho City, October 7, 1862.
Like most of Idaho's early miners, he came originally from the South. Unlike most of them, he struck it rich. During the Idaho gold rush, he had profitable investments in many important mining camps. Hardly anyone else did as much to build Idaho during the early days. — Map (db m22595) HM|
|Idaho (Ada County), Boise — 375 — Oregon Trail|
|Indians, trappers, and emigrants who came this way before 1900 used a more direct route to get between Boise and Glenns Ferry. Their road still can be seen at Bonneville Point 5 miles from here. Following close to a line of hills bordering a broad, rolling plain, their route had water and grass essential for horses and oxen. It also gave them a spectacular view of Boise valley. To see that site, follow directional signs when you reach Interchange 64 at Black's Creek, 1 mile beyond here. — Map (db m22181) HM|
|Idaho (Ada County), Boise — Sacajawea and Pomp|
|Sacajawea and Pomp
Sacajawea was a Lemhi Shoshoni Indian born near Salmon, Idaho around 1790. She was the only Idaho native, and the only female, to be a member of the famed Lewis and Clark "Corps of Discovery" expedition that opened up the American west. Sacajawea carried her infant son, Jean Baptiste Charbonneau (nicknamed "Pomp" by William Clark), in the grueling expedition from the Mandan village at present-day North Dakota over the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and back. She . . . — Map (db m73205) HM|
|Idaho (Ada County), Boise — The Fur Trade and the Tide of Emigration|
|Hunt’s party laid the groundwork for future trapping expeditions across the Snake River Plain. Donald Mackenzie, who accompanies Hunt and later joined the British North West Company, returned to establish trade relations with resident Indian bands. After the North West and Hudson’s Bay Companies merged in 1821, annual fur brigades were led into the area by Alexander Ross (1824), Peter Skene Ogden (1825-1830) and John Work (1830-31).
When American fur trappers appeared on the scene, it . . . — Map (db m71834) HM|
|Idaho (Ada County), Boise — The Hunt Expedition|
|Beaver pelts lured the first Euro-Americans deep into the American West. In 1810, only four years after Lewis and Clark completed their epic journey, John Jacob Astor established the Pacific Fur Company. He soon financed sea and land expeditions to establish a post near the mouth of the Columbia River. The land expedition became the first Euro-Americans to explore the Snake River Plain.
Astor’s overland party numbered 65 people under the leadership of Wilson Price Hunt. Hunt’s party . . . — Map (db m71832) HM|
|Idaho (Ada County), Boise — 151 — The Oregon Trail|
|The Oregon Trail is still clearly visible coming off the rimrock across the river. Here the west bound emigrants after 1840 came gratefully down into this green valley.
The first cart passed here with Spalding and Whitman, pioneer missionaries, in 1836. By the middle 1840's, thousands of emigrant wagons had cut a broad track, later the Overland Road. The tide of travel went down when the railroad was completed in 1884, but the tracks of the wagons and stages can still be followed for miles east in the desert. — Map (db m22639) HM|
|Idaho (Ada County), Boise — The Shoshone and Northern Paiute — Echoes of an Ancient Homeland|
|The landscape before you is part of the homeland of the Shoshone, Bannock, and Northern Paiute Indians. They occupied these lands for countless generations before the arrival of Euro-Americans. Living in small bands of several families, their lives followed seasonal rhythms as they migrated in search of edible plants, deer and bison, and the plentiful salmon that spawned in the Boise River.
The river valley below was an oasis, trading hub and crossroads for native peoples. Regional bands . . . — Map (db m71830) HM|
|Idaho (Ada County), Meridian — 193 — Initial Point|
|All Idaho land surveys refer to a
beginning point --"Initial Point"--
16 miles directly south of here.
When he began surveying Idaho in 1867, Lafayette Cartee, first surveyor general of Idaho Territory, established the initial point on a volcanic hill visible for many miles. Everywhere in Idaho, surveyors depend upon this essential point in establishing land boundaries. The city of Meridian is named for the Boise Meridian -- the surveyors' north-south line which runs through Initial Point. — Map (db m53439) HM|
|Idaho (Adams County), Council — 420 — Old Railroads|
|An ambitious railroad project to a high Seven Devils copper mine (elevation 6800 ft.) created a lot of excitement here in 1898-1899.
This would have been Idaho's highest mountain railroad if funding had been available to complete it. Construction began near a canyon rim more than a vertical mile above Snake River. Although it never got anywhere, that grade still can be seen near Kinney Point. Remains of an old mining smelter at Landore also survive from that time. — Map (db m23226) HM|
|Idaho (Adams County), Meadows — 183 — Packer John's Cabin|
|John Welch -- always known as Packer John -- hauled supplies from Lewiston to Idaho City during a major Boise Basin gold rush of 1863-1864.
He built a cabin (1/4 mile north of here) that immediately became an historic Idaho landmark. Territorial political conventions (Republican in 1863 and Democratic in 1864)used his facility as a point where North Idaho leaders could meet with southern representatives to choose congressional candidates. This site now is a state park. — Map (db m37957) HM|
|Idaho (Adams County), Mesa — 374 — Mesa Orchards|
|For more than half a century, after 1910, an apple orchard of nearly 1400 acres, thought to be the largest in the United States under one management, covered this area.
Investors, mostly from the eastern U.S., bought 10-acre shares to finance the project. An eight mile wooden flume carried water for irrigation from the Middle Fork of the Weiser River, and in 1920, a unique gravity tramway was built to carry fruit 3 1/2 miles north to a rail siding. Production lasted until about 1960 when . . . — Map (db m23222) HM|
|Idaho (Bannock County), Downey — 119 — Captain Jefferson Hunt, Soldier, Pioneer, Churchman — Born January 20, 1804 in Kentucky - Died May 11, 1879 in Idaho|
|Charles Jefferson Hunt served in the Mormon Battalion as Captain of Company “A” and as assistant executive officer. In it’s historic march from Council Bluffs, Iowa to San Diego, California, 1846 - 47. His service won the commendation of all who served with him.
Under appointment by President Brigham Young in 1851, Captain Hunt was guide for the pioneers to San Bernadino, California. His pioneering service included also Provo, Parowan, and Huntsville. (Which bears his name) in Utah . . . — Map (db m48986) HM|
|Idaho (Blaine County), Carey — 354 — Goodale's Cutoff|
|When emigrants began to take their westbound wagons along an old Indian and trapper’s trail past this lava, they had to develop a wild and winding road.
At this spot, like many others, they had hardly enough space to get by. At times, they could not avoid lava stretches. But they slowly crept along, leaving their road strewn with parts of broken wagons. J.C. Merrill noted in 1864 that “at one place we were obliged to drive over a huge rock just a little wider than the wagon. Had we . . . — Map (db m4650) HM|
|Idaho (Boise County), Grandjean — 435 — Emile Grandjean|
|An immigrant from Denmark where he had studied forestry, he came to this part of Idaho in 1883 to mine, hunt and trap.
Before Idaho became a state in 1890, he built a winter cabin below Grandjean Peak on a site later occupied by Grandjean Ranger Station. Because of his European studies, he became a professional forester here. Then he served as supervisor of Boise National Forest from 1906 to 1922. — Map (db m22638) HM|
|Idaho (Boise County), Horseshoe Bend — 278 — Horse Shoe Bend|
|Gold was struck in Boise Basin (over the ridge to the east) in 1862, and the rush to these new mines came through here.
Traffic came by steamer up the Columbia to Umatilla, and thence overland. At first there were only pack and saddle trains, but in 1864, John Hailey, famous Idaho pioneer, ran stages this way, and a toll road up Harris Creek was opened shortly. Though other routes to the Basin also developed, freighters continued to come through Horse Shoe Bend for many years. — Map (db m23235) HM|
|Idaho (Boise County), Idaho City — 188 — Grimes' Creek|
|Named for George Grimes who, with Moses Splawn, led the party which on August 2, 1862 made the strike that started the Boise basin gold rush.
The party was searching for a rich basin described to Splawn a year earlier by an Indian. Farther up this creek, they found the gold they were looking for. A few days later, Grimes was killed at Grimes Pass (it was blamed on Indians) and his partners had to bury him in a prospect hole nearby. — Map (db m22600) HM|
|Idaho (Boise County), Idaho City — 186 — Idaho City|
|This roaring metropolis was founding early in October, 1862, about ten weeks after gold was discovered in Boise basin.
By the next summer, this was the largest city in the Northwest, with 6,275 people -- 5,691 of them men! Families followed, and respectable businesses, schools, libraries, good theaters, churches, and fraternal orders came soon. The town survived several disastrous fires and remained an important mining center until the war shut down gold production in 1942. — Map (db m22601) HM|
|Idaho (Boise County), Idaho City — 266 — The Old Toll Road|
|The Old Toll Road to Idaho City crossed the ridge from Boise through the lowest point you can see in the skyline across the valley.
Climbing the More's creek canyon wall, it crossed this highway about here and swung north. The road was built and stage service began in 1864 when Idaho City was the largest town in the Pacific Northwest. Even though this road was shorter than today's highway, it was a long, hard day's trip from Boise to Idaho City. A stage from this run is in the State Museum in Boise. — Map (db m22599) HM|
|Idaho (Boise County), Lowman — 442 — Emma Edwards|
|A talented artist, Emma Edwards went to work in 1890 to to design Idaho's state seal when she was only 18 years old.
Although her father had moved to California after serving as governor of Missouri (1844 to 1848), Emma preferred to spend much of her time in Idaho. After her marriage to John C. Green, a Boise Basin miner, they took up a land claim along Emma Creek and Green Creek in 1906 and lived here for many summers. Her seal design designated Syringa, which blooms on these hills, as Idaho's State Flower. — Map (db m22637) HM|
|Idaho (Boise County), Lowman — 444 — Lowman|
|In 1907, Nathaniel W. Lowman settled here, and four years later, when he started a post office in his large log house, this community was named for him.
Only a few scattered settlers lived here then. Lowman got all its supplies once a year from a large freight wagon over a state road built in 1894 to provide access to North Idaho. This highway followed in 1939. Eventually a one-room schoolhouse was moved here from Garden Valley. It still serves Lowman. — Map (db m22616) HM|
|Idaho (Bonner County), Hope — David Thompson & Finnan MacDonald|
At Mamaloose Point, two miles
South, Kullyspell house,
first trading post in Idaho,
was built September, 1809 by
Finnan Macdonald — Map (db m73479) HM|
|Idaho (Bonner County), Hope — Glacial Ice Dam — Filled This Basin as Far as You Can See — Glaciers moved south from Canada spreading across the lake and rivers|
Glaciers advanced and retreated a dozen times or more
Damming Glacial Lake Missoula
Bursting with gargantuan force
Flooding areas 400 miles away
Shaping today's landscape in Idaho, Washington and Oregon
Glacial ice above lake level.
Tall as a 200 story building above lake level
Rose 4 times as tall as Seattle's 605ft Space Needle
Total depth of ice may have exceeded 3,500 feet when reaching to the lake's rock bed
Only the mountains with peaks . . . — Map (db m73493) HM|
|Idaho (Bonner County), Hope — Glacial Lake Missoula — and the floods that shaped the Northwest|
Force of energy unleashed was hundreds of times the explosive energy of Mt. Saint Helens
Flood events occurred more than a dozen times before the last torrential cataclysm of 12-15,000 years ago
Glacial Lake Missoula and the Channeled Scablands - US Forest Service Glacial Map, Missoula — Map (db m73495) HM|
|Idaho (Bonner County), Hope — Hope & East Hope — Meet Traders and Merchants in Their Railroad and Timber Communities|
Tugboat for Hope Lumber
Original Thornton School
Spring Creek ca 1909
1894 Flood Changed Landscape
Destroyed buildings along the tracks
Floodwaters at level of present highway
Hope Lumber Company, East Hope
Fueled the economy of a new community
Map Showing Historic Locations
Harry and Ella Dreisbach
Fires . . . — Map (db m73480) HM|
|Idaho (Bonner County), Hope — 148 — Kullyspell House|
Idaho’s fur trade began in the fall of 1809 when David Thompson built a trading post 2.5 miles southwest of here.
Kullyspell House (Thompson spelled “Kalispell” that way) was the earliest fur trade post in the American Pacific Northwest. A geographer and surveyor of rare skill, Thompson explored and mapped vast fur regions for the North West Company of Montreal. Reaching south from present day British Columbia, he added what now is North Idaho to the Canadian fur empire. . . . — Map (db m73475) HM|
|Idaho (Bonner County), Hope — 320 — Lake Pend Oreille|
When the last of the continental ice sheets blocked this valley, a great lake extended over 200 miles into Montana.
Ice about as high as the mountain ridges held back water as deep as 800 to 1000 feet at Missoula, ten to twenty thousand years ago.
At times this lake cut through the ice dam, and Lake Missoula discharged tremendous torrents before the ice came back. Finally the climate turned warm and the great ice sheet melted.
Lake Pend Oreille is a small remnant of all that glacial action. — Map (db m73490) HM|
|Idaho (Bonneville County), Idaho Falls — 224 — Eagle Rock Ferry|
|On June 20, 1863, Bill Hickman started a ferry 9 miles up Snake River for thousands of gold hunters headed for mines that now are in Montana.
Named for an eagle that had a nest on a rock there, his ferry flourished until James Madison Taylor replaced it two years later with a bridge across a narrow lava gorge here. Idaho Falls eventually grew up around Taylor’s bridge. — Map (db m70584) HM|
|Idaho (Bonneville County), Idaho Falls — 183 — Snake River Bridge|
|On December 10, 1864 a franchise was granted to Edward M. Morgan, James M. (Matt) Taylor, and William F. Bartlett to operate a ferry one and one-half miles below Cedar Island and build a bridge over Snake River at Black Canyon. Mr. Taylor selected the bridge site and in 1864-65 erected an 83 foot wooden span with solid rock anchorage on both sides. It was a modified queens truss type. The first bridge to cross Snake River was located 1320 feet south of this spot. A replica of the bridge tops this monument. — Map (db m70571) HM|
|Idaho (Bonneville County), Idaho Falls — 223 — Taylor's Bridge|
|Idaho’s earliest toll bridge spanned Snake River at this rocky site in 1865, replacing Eagle Rock Ferry, 9 miles upstream.
James Madison Taylor (a relative of Presidents Madison and Taylor and a founder of Denver, Colorado) settled here in 1864 to develop an improved route for his freight line from Salt Lake to Montana’s new gold mines. After his bridge was built, telegraph service reached here, July 16, 1866 an Eagle Rock (as Idaho Falls was known until 1890) became a regional . . . — Map (db m70583) HM|
|Idaho (Boundary County), Bonners Ferry — Moyie River Canyon|
Constructed in 1964, the 1223 ft. long steel truss bridge spans the Moyie River Canyon at a height of 464 ft. It replaces the old bridge built in 1923 and 1.25 miles of narrow, winding highway.
It is the second highest bridge in Idaho, exceeded only by the 476 ft. high Perinne Memorial Bridge across the Snake River near Twin Falls.
The power dam, constructed by the City of Bonners Ferry, supplies electricity to the surrounding area.
The original dam . . . — Map (db m73505) HM|
|Idaho (Butte County), Arco — A Plain of Volcanoes|
|The shallow arc of Idaho’s Snake River Plain spans southern Idaho, gently rising from west to east. Current theories suggest that the plain marks the path of continental movement over a deep hotspot now lying beneath the Yellowstone Plateau. As the continent drifted southwestward over millions of years, calderas—super-volcanoes 10 - 40 miles (15 - 64 km) wide—erupted over the hotspot.
In the past 17 million years , there have been about a dozen catastrophic eruptions releasing . . . — Map (db m71602)|
|Idaho (Butte County), Arco — 152 — Atoms for Peace|
|An important page in atomic history was written here on July 17, 1955, when the lights of Arco were successfully powered from atomic energy. Chosen by the Atomic Energy Commission as an experiment in the peaceful use of atomic power, Arco, Idaho became the first town in the free world to be served by electrical energy developed from the atom. The energy for this experiment was produced at the National Reactor Testing Station in the Arco desert southeast of here. — Map (db m68916) HM|
|Idaho (Butte County), Arco — Devil's Orchard Trail — Craters of the Moon National Monument|
|Two thousand years ago, nearby volcanoes erupted so violently that they tore themselves apart. Rivers of lava floated huge chunks of crater wall down to this spot. Time passed. Rocks crumbled. The seeds of rabbitbrush and limber pine root in the sparse soil. A hundred years ago, a visiting minister declared this jumble of rocks, shrubs, and trees to be a garden fit for the devil himself. Welcome to Devil’s Orchard.
“What you see depends mainly on what you are looking for.” . . . — Map (db m70604) HM|
|Idaho (Butte County), Arco — Get over it! — Craters of the Moon National Monument|
|“To understand the West, you have to get over the color green; you have to quit associating beauty with gardens and lawns…” Wallace Stegner.
What was drinking up 80% of the water used in this park? Lawns.
*Planting lawns encourages non-native plants to grow.
*Lawns need toxic products to stay green.
*Lawns lure deer across the highway.
Replacing lawns with native species saves water, and protects the plants and animals of the park.
(Inscription next to the . . . — Map (db m70600) HM|
|Idaho (Butte County), Arco — Just Down The Road — Craters of the Moon National Monument|
|The Strangest 75 square miles on the North American continent
-Comment from an early traveler.
The landscape before you was explosively created by volcanic eruptions. Cracks in the earth’s crest allowed lava to blast, plop, and flow onto the surface to form such unusual features as cinder cones, monoliths, and caves.
The entrance to this imposing place, known today as the Craters of the Moon National Monument, is just down the road. Stop at the visitor center to . . . — Map (db m70597) HM|
|Idaho (Butte County), Arco — 304 — Lost River|
|When its water is not diverted for upstream irrigation, Lost River flows past here into a sink 14 miles to the northeast.
Lava flows in the Snake River plains buried old channels of Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Creek. No longer able to reach the Snake on the surface, they went underground. After a 120 mile journey under the lava plains, water from Lost River eventually emerges through numerous large springs below Twin Falls, making up a small part of the Thousand Springs near Hagerman. — Map (db m70448) HM|
|Idaho (Butte County), Arco — North Crater Flow Trail — Craters of the Moon National Monument|
|Here in the path of a lava flow you can view a variety of volcanic features, now frozen in time. The trail crosses over the most recent of several successive flows that originated from the North Crater area. As you walk the path, imagine slow moving lava streaming around you as showers of cinders erupt high over the North Crater cinder cone---a scene that has been repeated many times here at Craters of the Moon.
Please stay on the trail and leave everything as you find it. — Map (db m70602) HM|
|Idaho (Butte County), Arco — North Crater Lava Flow — Craters of the Moon National Monument|
|After centuries of rest, North Crater stirred once more. The old crater wall broke open and lava poured out carrying great chunks of broken wall. Again it rested. About 2000 years ago, lava flowed out for the last time. — Map (db m70603) HM|
|Idaho (Butte County), Arco — 297 — Nuclear Reactors|
|Since 1949, more nuclear reactors – over 50 of them – have been built on this plain than anywhere else in the world.
This 900-square-mile Idaho National Laboratory is the birthplace of the Nuclear Navy. Commercial power reactor prototypes, including reactors that breed more fuel than they consume were developed here. Also, internationally renown for its materials testing reactors and reactor programs, this laboratory has become a major research center for developing peaceful uses of atomic energy. — Map (db m70447) HM|
|Idaho (Butte County), Arco — Prehistory and Recent History|
|Big Southern Butte -- A Waypoint for Thousands of Years
“Just passing through, ma’ma”
The harsh conditions on the plain discouraged most long-term settlement, but Big Southern Butte was a clear waypoint. In the 1800s, travelers headed toward Fort Boise would often take the Goodale Cutoff, an Oregon Trail shortcut. They would leave Fort Hall on the Snake River (about 40 mi [64 km] southeast), and head toward the Butte’s sharp silhouette, passing to its north. An 1878 stage line . . . — Map (db m70573) HM|
|Idaho (Butte County), Arco — Vanishing Landmark|
|From this vantage point, you gaze across 25 miles of lava to Big Southern Butte. Early pioneers, following Goodale’s Cutoff from the Oregon Trail, used this land mark to navigate around the rugged lavas of the Snake River Plain. As a traveler today, you may have trouble seeing Big Southern Butte clearly due to the presence of air pollution. — Map (db m70595) HM|
|Idaho (Butte County), Arco — Where's the Volcano?|
|Say the word volcano and usually the image flashes to mind of a single great symmetrical cone. But, the volcanic activity in Craters of the Moon National Monument and the Snake River Plain has taken a different form.
Parallel cracks in the earth, collectively called the Great Rift, periodically ooze flows of lava which pile up in horizontal layers. Occasionally more lively displays of fireworks create cinder cones, about 25 of them in the park.
The panorama of cones before you is . . . — Map (db m71601)|
|Idaho (Canyon County), Caldwell — 455 — Emigrant Crossing|
|After reaching Boise River, emigrant wagons had to travel 30 miles to find a good crossing about 1/4 mile north of here.
They had to avoid a wide zone of shifting channels, so they descended Canyon Hill where the route is still visible. In 1853, Maria Belshaw "...crossed Boise River at ford, 15 rods wide 3 feet deep, beautiful river, gravel bottom, very clear, large salmon in it." After crossing, the road headed westward along a route that became US 20. — Map (db m22326) HM|
|Idaho (Canyon County), Caldwell — 291 — The College of Idaho|
|Planned by the Presbyterians of southern Idaho in 1884 and opened with 19 students in 1891, this is Idaho's oldest college.
William Judson Boone, the founder, remained president 45 years. From a modest beginning with a faculty of 8 (including two later governors and a chief justice), it grew to full college status and moved in 1910 to this site, then an alkali desert. A Boise Valley electric railroad served the college, and an interurban station, always known as the "Hat," still stands on . . . — Map (db m26193) HM|
|Idaho (Canyon County), Givens Hot Springs — Givens Hot Springs|
|Milford and Martha (Mattie) Shirley Givens pulled up Missouri roots and headed west in 1878, apparently bound for Portland, Oregon where relatives were settled. Their journey eventually led them along the South Alternative Route of the Oregon Trail. Reaching the hot springs area, Mattie recognized the potential of the site that now bears the family name and declared,
"This is were I want to Live."
In the spring of 1881 the Givens took up Squatter's Rights on 154 1/2 acres that included two . . . — Map (db m47134) HM|
|Idaho (Canyon County), Givens Hot Springs — 358 — Givens Springs|
|Natural hot water available here
has been a popular attraction
for thousands of years.
A winter village site for about 5000 years, these hot springs had large pit houses typical of plateau communities northwest of here from 4,300 to about 1,200 years ago. After that, small huts used by Great Basin tribes became fashionable. Deer, rabbits and river mussels sustained the winter camp. After 1842, emigrants using an Oregon Trail alternate also patronized Givens Springs. — Map (db m47336) HM|
|Idaho (Canyon County), Melba — Guffey Bridge Snake River Idaho|
The historic Guffey Bridge is an elegant Parker-through truss railroad bridge, the State’s largest artifact, and the site of the most spectacular train wreck in Idaho.
The Boise, Nampa and Owyhee Railroad (BNO), was organized by owner Col. Wm. Dewey to transport gold and silver ore from the Silver City mining district.
The bridge was constructed between May 14 and Sept. 7, 1897.
This 450 ton bridge was, by all accounts, the tallest in the U.S. for many years.
Unfortunately, the . . . — Map (db m73344) HM|
|Idaho (Canyon County), Middleton — Hostility Erupts Into Violence — Ward Massacre|
|On August 20, 1854, the Alexander Ward Party of 20 men, women, and children were traveling on the Oregon Trail with five wagons, a day behind a larger party led by Alexander Yantis. The Wards pulled their wagons off the Trail for lunch and to water their stock when two white men and three Native Americans approached the party to trade for a horse. When the trade failed, one of the Indians attempted to ride off with the horse and was killed.
Fearing retribution, the Wards hurried back to the . . . — Map (db m22398) HM|
|Idaho (Canyon County), Middleton — Peaceful Trading Turns Hostile — Ward Massacre|
|In the 1830's, local tribes, including the Shoshone, Paiute, and Bannock began trading with Euro-American fur trappers and missionaries passing through southern Idaho. Peaceful exchanges beneficial to both groups increased in 1842 when wagon trains crossed southern Idaho on the Oregon Trail. As they moved through the Boise Valley, the trains obtained food, stock and services from native bands in exchange for a variety of goods and animals. What was only a few hundred wagons in 1842 became a . . . — Map (db m22333) HM|
|Idaho (Canyon County), Middleton — 75 — The Ward Massacre|
|Only 2 young boys survived the Indian attack on Alexander Ward's 20 member party, Oregon bound on August 20, 1854. Military retaliation for the slaughter so enraged the Indians that Hudson's Bay Co. posts Fort Boise and Fort Hall had to be abandoned, and the Oregon Trail became unsafe without army escort. Eight years of Indian terror followed. Finally the 1862 gold rush brought powerful forces, civilian and military, that gradually subdued the tribes. — Map (db m22328) HM|
|Idaho (Canyon County), Middleton — To the Memory of the Pioneers — Ward Massacre Memorial|
|To the memory of the pioneers who were massacred by Indians near this spot August 20, 1854.
This monument is dedicated by Pioneer Chapter
Daughters of the American Revolution Boise, Idaho
William Ward Age 44
Margaret Ward " 37
Mary Ward " 18
Robert Ward " 16
Edward Ward " 9
Francis Ward " 7
Flora Ward " 5
Susan Ward " 3
Eliza White " 30
George White . . . — Map (db m22336) HM|
|Idaho (Canyon County), Middleton — Violence is Avenged — Ward Massacre|
|In early September, 1854, Major Granville Hallar set out with a US military force from their post in Oregon to avenge the Ward-party deaths. Upon arrival at the rebuilt Hudson Bay's Fort Boise near the mouth of the Boise River, the Indians they encountered were arrested, but released after proving their innocence. The next day, four Indians were arrested - three were killed and one was wounded, but escaped.
The expedition next advanced up the Payette River tracking a suspect Indian band to . . . — Map (db m22366) HM|
|Idaho (Canyon County), Nampa — 415 — Northwest Nazarene University|
|In 1913, Eugene Emerson started a Christian school that his church developed into an accredited college on a campus he donated. The college, located on a campus 2 mile southwest of here, moved to university status in 1999.
Northwest Nazarene University continues to maintain its church relationship as reflected in its mission statement. "The basic mission of Northwest Nazarene University is the development of Christian character within the philosophy and framework of genuine scholarship." — Map (db m73204) HM|
|Idaho (Canyon County), Notus — 361 — Lower Boise|
|Confederate refugees from Missouri started farming in this area in 1863 and 1864, when gold and silver mining camps created a great demand for flour and cattle. Driven out from their Missouri River homes below Kansas City by extremely bitter Civil War border warfare, they got a new start by digging riverside canals and planting crops. They helped make Idaho an overwhelming southern Democratic territory from 1864 to 1880. Settlements from Caldwell to Notus were known as Dixie, and those farther west were Lower Boise. — Map (db m21988) HM|
|Idaho (Canyon County), Parma — 78 — Marie Dorion|
|An Iowa Indian who came through here with Wilson Price Hunt's fur trappers in 1811, Marie Dorion spent an incredible winter in this region in 1814. She and her two infant children were sole survivors of a mid-January Bannock Indian clash at John Reid's fur trade post 6 miles west of here. So they had to set out with two horses on a 200-mile retreat through deep mountain snow. Finally a Columbia River band of Walla Walla Indians rescued them in April. — Map (db m21995) HM|
|Idaho (Canyon County), Parma — 85 — Old Fort Boise|
|An important Hudson's Bay Company fur trade post was established in 1834 four miles west of here on the bank of the Snake River. Fur trading declined, but this British post became famous for its hospitality to American travellers on the Oregon Trail. An 1845 report spoke of "two acres of land under cultivation...1,991 sheep, 73 pigs, 17 horses, and 27 meat cattle - a welcome oasis at the ford of Snake River after 300 thirsty miles from Fort Hall. A flood in 1853 washed away the adobe . . . — Map (db m21992) HM|
|Idaho (Caribou County), Soda Springs — A Grand Vision — Brigham Young Summer Cabin|
|The first Mormon emigrants arrived in the Salt Lake Valley in 1847 and immediately began laying the groundwork for the small settlement that would become Salt Lake City. Church President Brigham Young however, had a much grander vision for his people: a Mormon Kingdom of God encompassing some 200,000 square miles.
This Kingdom, called Deseret, was to include today's southeastern Idaho and southwestern Wyoming, western Colorado, Utah, Nevada, southern California, much of Arizona, and parts . . . — Map (db m35469) HM|
|Idaho (Caribou County), Soda Springs — 260 — Brigham Young Summer Home|
|On this site in 1870, the first house in Soda Springs, Uppertown was built under the direction of John Walmsley. It was a one room log cabin twenty-two by eighteen feet, with floor, windows, and shingle roof, known as the Brigham Young Summer Home. He enjoyed the health benefits from the famous springs os soda water. The cabin stood until 1944 when the roof caved in during an attempt to move it. From the logs in the cabin these rustic seats were made. Brigham Young planned the wide streets and square blocks of the settlement. — Map (db m35466) HM|
|Idaho (Cassia County), Albion — 306 — Diamondfield Jack|
|J.L. Davis... Diamondfield Jack... spent most of 6 years in the Cassia County jail while the courts and pardon board were trying to figure out what to do with him. By far the best known of the gunmen who fought in Idaho's sheep and cattle wars, he was tried here for shooting two sheepherders in 1896. After he was convicted, other cattlemen confessed to the crime. Twice he narrowly escaped hanging before the pardon board turned him loose late in 1902 after deciding he wasn't guilty after all. . . . — Map (db m31639) HM|
|Idaho (Cassia County), Burley — 208 — Milner Dam|
|When completed in 1904, Milner Dam raised Snake River 38 feet to divert water into major north and south side canals. A gravity system unmatched in size in national reclamation development, this project irrigates 360,000 acres of land. Twin Falls, Jerome, and a half dozen other communities suddenly sprang up in a desert plain watered by 160 miles of main canals. Located on lava channels formed by two rock islands, Milner Dam's three segments (462, 404, and 280 feet in length) were built by . . . — Map (db m31636) HM|
|Idaho (Cassia County), Burley — 28 — Starrh's Ferry|
|In 1880, George Starrh, a Snake River placer miner, started a ferry across Snake River one mile north of here. From 1880-2, freighters hauling supplies for a mining rush to Wood River used Starrh's ferry (powered by river current when stiff winds were not blowing too hard), and local traffic lasted until Milner reservoir flooded out summer operations after 1904. But a small town with a post office (1909-12) remained there for more than a decade. During that time, nearby bridges replaced Starrh's ferry. — Map (db m31635) HM|
|Idaho (Cassia County), Malta — 169 — Hudspeth's Cutoff|
|This shortcut to the California goldfields, followed by most of the 49'ers, came out of the hills to the east and joined the old California trail just about here. Opened by "Messrs. Hudspeth & Myers, of the Jackson County, Missouri, Company," who reached here on July 24, 1849, this new route was mistakenly thought to save nearly a hundred miles over the old way along Snake River to the north. From here, the 49'ers struck southwest for California and golden riches. — Map (db m31638) HM|
|Idaho (Cassia County), Oakley — 344 — City of Rocks|
|A vast display of towering granite rocks (16 miles southeast of here) attracted emigrants who were on their way to California. A gold rush visitor, July 14, 1849, reported that "you can imagine among these massive piles, church domes, spires, pyramids...with a little fancying you can see anything from the Capitol at Washington to a lowly thatched cottage." Emigrants who never had seen anything like that before were impressed by so many "rocks of the most singular shapes." City of Rocks is a . . . — Map (db m31637) HM|
|Idaho (Custer County), Challis — 303 — Michel Bourdon|
|This Valley was discovered in 1822 by an expedition of Hudson's Bay Company trappers led by Michel Bourdon. Bourdon had come to the Northwest with David Thompson, who had started the Idaho fur trade in 1808-9. Trappers searched everywhere for beaver, and were active south of here four years before Bourdon took them farther into this mountain wilderness. Fur hunting went on for another decade in these parts before the country was about trapped out and abandoned by the fur traders. — Map (db m59949) HM|
|Idaho (Elmore County), Glenns Ferry — Glenn's Ferry|
|After the golden spike was driven at Promontory Utah in 1869 the nearest railroad station to Boise was Kelton on the north shore of the Great Salt Lake. A ferry was built 1/2 mile up on the river as a joint effort by Gustavus Glenn, a local rancher who operated freight wagons in the area and Ken Lewis, to service traffic on the Kelton road. Stage coach operators preferred the more northerly route over King Hill and a crossing near Thousand Springs. Operators of heavy freight wagons preferred . . . — Map (db m31678) HM|
|Idaho (Elmore County), Glenns Ferry — 198 — Oregon Trail|
|A perilous ford at Three Island State Park was a formidable Oregon Trail barrier. Those who could not cross here faced a longer, more difficult southern route. No other ford between Missouri and Oregon troubled them so much. This was their largest river. Using two of three islands, they crossed three channels, but sometimes lost stock and wagons. Many emigrants depended upon Shoshoni Indian guides to get them across safely. — Map (db m31677) HM|
|Idaho (Elmore County), Glenns Ferry — To All Pioneers|
|To all pioneers who crossed over Three Island Crossing and helped to win the west. Erected 1931 by Troop One Boy Scouts of America Roslyn, New York Scoutmaster E.K. Pietsch — Map (db m31679) HM|
|Idaho (Elmore County), Mountain Home — 195 — Rattlesnake Station|
|At the junction of the Rocky Bar Road with the Oregon Trail, this was a major stage line stop for 20 years.
Stage service commenced in 1864, and a road to the Rocky Bar mines was opened 2 months later. In 1878 the station owners thought it would sound a lot better to call their place Mountain Home instead of Rattlesnake. Then the Union Pacific -- built out in the valley in 1883 -- replaced the freight wagons and stage lines that came through here. So Mountain Home was moved on down . . . — Map (db m70449) HM|
|Idaho (Franklin County), Franklin — FCMI Store 1858|
|This building is an example of the stone craftsmanship of the Mormon pioneers of southeastern Idaho. Built in 1868 of local stone cut with a rough , or rusticated, finish, the building demonstrates the gradual change in the late 19th century from Greek Revival to Italianate architecture for commercial and institutional buildings of southeastern Idaho. Italianate influence is shown in the shape of the building’s false front, while the Greek Revival style can be seen in the building’s simple . . . — Map (db m44454) HM|
|Idaho (Franklin County), Franklin — Franklin Relic Hall - 1937|
|The log Relic Hall is a fine example of Depression Era rustic architecture. Completed in 1937, it also represents a successful early effort to preserve and interpret community history. The building was designed in 1935 by architect Chris Gunderson to evoke the region’s pioneer past. Constructing the Relic Hall was a cooperative effort. It was built on land deeded to the State of Idaho by the pioneer association using timber provided by the U.S. Forest Service. The Franklin Relic Hall is a . . . — Map (db m44458) HM|
|Idaho (Franklin County), Preston — Bear River Massacre|
|Very few Northwestern Shoshoni survived a battle here that turned into a massacre by Col. P.E. Connor’s California Volunteers.|
In 1863, Conner and his force set out from salt Lake City on a cold January campaign in response to friction between the Indians and white travelers. They found more than 400 Shoshoni settled in a winter camp on Battle Creek. When Connor struck at daybreak on January 29, the Shoshoni suffered a massacre unrivaled in Western history. — Map (db m44461) HM
|Idaho (Franklin County), Preston — 236 — Pioneer Ferry and Bridge|
|Concrete shaft located one-half mile west on Bear River marks the site of the Nathan Williams Packer Toll Ferry and Bridge, one of the first on the river. The ferry operated with rope and carried equivalent of one team and wagon. In 1869 a bridge was built for use of mail and stage coaches en route to Montana mines, but was washed out. Rebuilt of cribs and log piling. Again destroyed by high waters. Across the river is the site of Bridge Port, an overland station consisting of dugouts and log . . . — Map (db m48977) HM|
|Idaho (Fremont County), Ashton — Big Falls Inn|
Holding a unique niche in Idaho’s history, Big Falls Inn was built around 1915 by the Snake River Electric Light and Power Company. Although it may originally have been constructed as a combination office and residence for workers, it eventually evolved into a well-known waystation on the Yellowstone highway. With its spectacular setting, the Inn also became a popular spot for dances and social gatherings for local ranchers, farmers, sportsman and tourists.
In 1936, Big Falls Inn was . . . — Map (db m73321) HM|
|Idaho (Fremont County), Ashton — 391 — Caldera Lookout|
High on Island Park Caldera's west rim, a 72-foot forest service lookout tower affords an excellent view of this large volcanic feature.
No other steel tower has been preserved in this part of Idaho. When it was erected in 1936, lookouts were essential for fire detection in all of this region's forests.
This one is still used in times of especially severe fire hazard, but planes now are responsible for regular fire patrol.
Forest Service road 80120 ascends to Bishop Mountain lookout at an elevation of 7810 feet. — Map (db m72955) HM|
|Idaho (Fremont County), Macks Inn — 452 — Pierre J. DeSmet — Jesuit leader|
|Roman Catholic Missionary services began in Idaho on Sunday July 10, 1840 in Teton Valley, followed by a mass held near here at Henry's Lake, July 23.
Pierre J. DeSmet a Belgian Jesuit leader accompanied a Pend Oreille - Flathead band on their way northwest to their homeland. Climbing a mountain here, along streams "descending from dizzy heights, leaping from rock to rock with a deafening noise," he invoked divine thanks for his succesfull tour into Idaho and Montana. — Map (db m31214) HM|
|Idaho (Gem County), Emmett — 377 — Black Canyon Dam|
|Constructed in 1924, this $1,500,000 concrete gravity dam has a 1,039 foot crest and a 183 foot structural height.
A 29 mile canal, along with lesser ditches, serves 58,250 acres of Boise and Payette valley farms. A power plant at Black Canyon Dam generates electricity for commercial use as well as for irrigation pumping. Farms far from early riverside canals benefit from this project. — Map (db m23237) HM|
|Idaho (Gooding County), Bliss — Formation of Malad Gorge|
|Thousands of years ago, immense flows of water from alpine glaciers and high levels of precipitation sent waters cascading over a broad area of the Snake River Canyon directly into the Snake River. Weak joints in the basalt walls gave way to these rushing waters at the mouth of Malad Canyon, concentrating the water into a narrow channel. These concentrated flows began to retreat and deepen over many years, following a zig zag direction that eventually created not one, but three canyons before . . . — Map (db m71547)|
|Idaho (Gooding County), Bliss — 300 — Fossil Beds|
|Fossil bones of zebras, beaver, otter, pelicans and other water birds are found in sediments left from a 3,400,000 year old pond on the bluff across the river. Lava flows, pouring out over the plains on this side, met and dammed up sedimentary deposits washed in on the other side, making lakes and swamps. Here the river divides these two important geologic settings, formed at a time when the climate was wetter, and the plains were tree-dotted grasslands where zebra-like horses used to graze. — Map (db m31598) HM|
|Idaho (Gooding County), Bliss — The Malad Springs — One of the Largest in the Country|
|Few places in Idaho or the United States show evidence of spring water more clearly than in Malad Gorge. These springs flow from the vast Snake River Aquifer through porous pillow basalts. On the opposite side of the canyon, where the river widens, is a concentrated spring flow measuring 600 cfs (cubic feet per second). This amounts to 300,000 gallons of water each minute that enters the Malad River.
From the waterfall upriver to the Snake River below, approximately 1200 cfs of spring . . . — Map (db m71549)|
|Idaho (Gooding County), Bliss — Woody's Cove / The Hagerman Valley|
This deep, basalt canyon was formed similar to Malad Gorge – by a retreating cataract, a huge waterfall. About four million years ago, local volcanoes spewed enormous amounts of lava over the area. Then, about one million years ago, runoff from rain and melt water from a nearby glacier flowed over the area. Following zones of weakness in the fractured volcanic rock, the forceful water formed this canyon. The great Bonneville Flood of 15,000 years ago and other . . . — Map (db m71593)|
|Idaho (Gooding County), Hagerman — History of the Malad River|
If eating food somewhere made you sick, how would you warn others of the danger? Fur trappers and traders named the Malad River the Riviere Aux Malad, or “sickly river,” after becoming hill from eating beaver trapped on its banks. The illness was attributed to poisonous roots the beaver fed upon. Exploration of the Malad area began in the early 1800s when British and American fur trappers competed for territory in southwest Idaho. Many expeditions were led . . . — Map (db m71603) HM|
|Idaho (Idaho County), Grangeville — 294 — Nez Perce War|
|Near the base of this hill, over 100 cavalrymen and volunteers met disaster in the opening battle of The Nez Perce War.
Rushing from Grangeville on the evening of June 16, 1877, Captain David Perry planned to stop the Indians from crossing Salmon River to safety from pursuit. At daylight the next morning he headed down the ravine below you. Some sixty to eighty Indians wiped out a third of his force and the survivors retired in disorder. No Indians were killed. — Map (db m4643) HM|
|Idaho (Idaho County), Lolo Summit — 247 — Lolo Summit|
|The Lewis and Clark party crossed this pass Sept. 13, 1805, westbound for the Pacific after a long detour to the south.
From the headwaters of the Missouri they had crossed the mountains to the Salmon. Finding that river impassable, they traded for pack horses, hired an Indian guide, and came north to an Indian trail across the mountains here. Tired and ill-fed, the men were to have a hard struggle in early snow along the steep ridges which the trail followed for most of the 125 mile course west to the Clearwater River. — Map (db m27120) HM|
|Idaho (Jerome County), Hunt — A Question of Loyalty|
|The Honor Roll sign listed the names of Minidoka men and women who served in World War II, attesting to their honor and loyal citizenship. But not all viewed honor and loyalty in the same way. The government issued a questionnaire in early 1943 to all internees, 17 or older, aimed at determining suitability for military service. But two problematic questions emerged.
Question 27 confused women and the elderly, who feared a "yes" answer might require they serve in the military. Question 28 . . . — Map (db m71748) HM|
|Idaho (Jerome County), Hunt — Honor Roll — Minidoka Relocation Center|
|Nearly every relocation center built an Honor Roll sign listing the names of Japanese American internees serving in World War II. Minidoka's sign, which stood near the rock garden, was erected on October 14, 1943. By the war's end nearly 1,000 names were listed. On February 1, 1943, President Roosevelt activated the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, a mostly Japanese American unit, which joined ranks with the 100th Infantry Battalion of the Hawaii National Guard. The combined Nisei 100th and 442nd . . . — Map (db m71749) HM|
|Idaho (Jerome County), Hunt — 340 — Hunt (Camp) — Minidoka Interment National Monument — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior|
| Excluded from their west coast homes by military authorities, more than 9000 Japanese Americans occupied Hunt Relocation Camp 4 miles north of here between 1942 & 1945.
Until they could resettle in other places, they live in wartime tarpaper barracks in a dusty desert, where they helped meet a local farm labor crisis, planting and harvesting crops. Finally a 1945 Supreme Court decision held that United States citizens no longer could be confined that way, and their camp became Idaho’s largest ghost town. — Map (db m61972) WM|
|Idaho (Jerome County), Hunt — Minidoka National Historic Site — Garden Under Guard — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior|
|Internees created a garden behind the Honor Roll sign. The entrance garden was a cultural expression of inner strength and patriotism in contrast to the entrance gate, a symbol of confinement and injustice. The garden spoke liberty. The gate spoke captivity. |
The ornamental garden, the vision of Fujitaro Kubota, was built in June 1944 after the Honor Roll sign was erected. Using traditional Japanese gardening techniques combined with Japanese and American Symbolism, Kubota’s crew built a . . . — Map (db m62957) HM WM
|Idaho (Jerome County), Hunt — Minidoka Relocation Center — August 16, 1942 to October 26, 1945|
|You are standing at the entrance area of the Minidoka Relocation Center, one of ten American concentration camps established in World War II to incarcerate the 110,000 Americans of Japanese decent in coastal regions off our Pacific states.|
Here 10,000 Japanese American victims of war-time hysteria occupied a 950-acre camp, living a bleak, humiliating life in tarpaper barracks, behind barbed wire and under armed guard.
May these camps serve to remind us what can happen when other . . . — Map (db m62956) HM
|Idaho (Jerome County), Hunt — On Guard — Minidoka Interment National Monument — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior|
|The camp’s entrance was a stark and constant reminder that the internees were prisoners in their own country. Even though most internees were U.S. born citizens loyal to the principles and values of the country, they were denied their civil, constitutional, and human rights. They were no longer free.|
Today the foundations of two of the four entrance gate buildings remain, the Military Police Building and the Reception Building. The entrance gate was the most heavily guarded location in the . . . — Map (db m62961) HM WM
|Idaho (Jerome County), Hunt — 276 — Prehistoric Hunters|
|Bone fragments of extinct species of ground sloth, horse, camel, and elephant found in a nearby cave mingle with weapons and radiocarbon dates from Idaho’s earliest hunters.|
Archaeologists have confirmed that people camped here at least 10,000 years ago, some suspect they might have arrived 6,000 years earlier. The youngest occupation layer began at 1300 A.D. and it includes figurines, baskets, moccasins and pottery---and bones of much smaller animals than those hunted by the Paleoindian pioneers. — Map (db m62963) HM
|Idaho (Jerome County), Hunt — Soothing Waters — Minidoka Internment National Monument — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior|
|The North Side Canal brought solace to internees homesick for the Pacific Northwest. Here in the dry Idaho desert, the canal reminded them of familiar scenes in Oregon, Washington, and Alaska, where flowing waters were commonplace. The canal was their home tie.|
Internees spent hours sitting on the canal listening to and watching the soothing waters. Anglers in the camp demonstrated their skill catching fish from waters deemed---caught brought moments of escape----and confinement of camp . . . — Map (db m62962) HM
|Idaho (Jerome County), Hunt — Supporting the Camp|
Toshio Toyoji and his 44 whse. (warehouse) 20 carpenters make and finish practically all of the office furniture. They remodel and alter barracks for schools and evacuee housing as well as the staff housing. The project sign shop is also located in whse. 20.
The Minidoka Interlude, 1943
Minidoka was run like a military post. You are standing in its warehouse area. A lumber yard and 17 warehouse buildings were located here. The buildings were used for storage, maintenance, . . . — Map (db m71760) HM|
|Idaho (Jerome County), Twin Falls — 326 — Emigrant Road|
|More than a century ago, fur trappers and emigrants followed an old Indian trail that crossed here on its way to Oregon.
Hudson's Bay Company traders preferred this route between Fort Hall and Fort Boise, but early emigrant wagons had to travel a road south of Snake River until ferries and road improvements let wagons come this way. Shoshone Falls -- known until 1849 as Canadian Falls to British and French trappers -- was a spectacular attraction along this road. — Map (db m31500) HM|
|Idaho (Kootenai County), Cataldo — 144 — Old Mission of the Sacred Heart|
|Opened for services in 1853, this is the oldest building in Idaho.
Black-robed Jesuits founded the mission on the St. Joe River in 1842, but moved here is 1846 and raised this imposing building in a complete wilderness. Dwellings and outbuildings are now gone, and the mission moved to Desmet in 1877, but the Mass is still celebrated here every year. — Map (db m27203) HM|
|Idaho (Lemhi County), Carmen — 241 — Fort Bonneville|
|In a grove of cottonwoods across the river, Capt. B.L.E. Bonneville established a winter fur trade post. Sept. 26, 1832. His fort, described by a rival trapper as "a miserable establishment" - - -"consisted of several log cabins, low, badly constructed, and admirably situated for beseigers only, who would be sheltered on every side by timber, brush, etc." But several bands of Friendly Flathead and Nez Perce Indians camped nearby, and Bonneville fully enjoyed his hunter's life here in the midst of "a wild and bustling scene." — Map (db m59848) HM|
|Idaho (Lemhi County), Gibbonsville — Deep Creek|
|Sept. 2, 1805 Lewis and Clark proceeded with much difficulty up the North Fork, they camped on the west side of the river in this vicinity.|
Clark wrote "...we were obliged to cut a road, over rocky hill Slides where our horses were in peteal danger of Slipping down to their certain distruction & up & Down Steep hills, where Several horses fell, Some turned over, and other Sliped down Steep hill Sides, one horse Crippled & 2 gave out." — Map (db m59864) HM
|Idaho (Lemhi County), Gibbonsville — 269 — Lewis and Clark|
|On their way north searching for a route over Idaho's mountain barrier, Lewis and Clark left this canyon and ascended a high ridge to reach Bitterroot Valley, September 3-4, 1805. No Indian trail came this way, but Tobe, their experienced Shoshoni guide, got them past here anyway. They had to follow a difficult ridgetop divide over peaks more than 1000 feet higher than this highway. They met some Flathead Indians who surprised them by speaking a language stranger than anything they had ever heard. — Map (db m59798) HM|
|Idaho (Lemhi County), North Fork — Hungry, Wet and Cold|
|The historic Lewis and Clark Expedition travelled along this river in 1805. As the first white men to document this region, their maps, diaries, and encounters with different cultures forever changed the western landscape.
Cold, wet and hungry, Captain Clark's Reconnaisance Party made camp near here. Winter was approaching and a decision had to be made as to whether or not to continue with the Expedition's mission of finding a "navigable" route to the Pacific Ocean. Find out what the small . . . — Map (db m59754) HM|
|Idaho (Lemhi County), North Fork — In Commemoration of Old Toby the Shoshone Indian — Members of the Lewis & Clark Expedition - August and September 1805|
|In commemoration of
the Shoshone Indian
who guided the Lewis & Clark expedition from the Salmon to the Bitterroot Valley after he had shown Captain Clark that the Salmon River Canyon was impassable. Old Toby served this famous expedition without fee, fame or reward.
Members of the Lewis & Clark Expedition
August & September 1805
Two leaders were provided in case of accident to one.
Captain Meriwether Lewis, First Infantry, U.S.A. . . . — Map (db m59632) HM|
|Idaho (Lemhi County), North Fork — In memory of Jeff Allen and Shane Heath|
|In memory of
Jeff Allen and Shane Heath,
Indianola Helitack Crew members,
lost in the Cramer Fire near here on July 22, 2003.
This will be a lasting place of remembrance and gratitude for their lives and service, a place for wildland firefighters to reflect in their memory, and a reminder to all who are involved with firefighting -from those on the line to those up the line - to find a way to bring everyone back safely from every fire.
Jeff "Phro" Allen
January 17, . . . — Map (db m59865) HM|
|Idaho (Lemhi County), North Fork — 122 — Lewis and Clark — Hoping for an Easy River Trip to the Pacific|
|Clark explored the first few miles of the rugged canyon of the Salmon below here late in August 1805. His small advance party camped here with poor but friendly Indians. Clark reported that the Salmon "is almost one continued rapid," and that passage "with Canoes is entirely impossible." so the expedition had to buy pack horses and go 110 miles north to an Indian trail across the mountains. Quotations from the Original Journals of Lewis and Clark. — Map (db m59847) HM|
|Idaho (Lemhi County), Salmon — Sacajawea Historic Byway — Guide to 10 Historic Stops Between I-15 and Salmon Idaho|
|[This marker also serves as a site map for historical and natural resource sites. The text is entered in the order of their numbers.]
1. Mud Lake Wildlife Management Area
Mud Lake Wildlife Management Area was established in 1940 by the Idaho Department of Fish & Game. The 8,853 acre wetland embodies the effort to preserve and improve nesting habitat for the trumpeter swan, sandhill crane, Canada goose, and a large variety of ducks.
2. Birch Creek
A monument along . . . — Map (db m59922) HM|
|Idaho (Lemhi County), Salmon — The Dog of Discovery|
|Inscribed on his collar:
"The greatest traveler of my species. My name is Seaman, the dog of Captain Meriwether Lewis, whom I accompanied to Pacifick Ocean through the interior of the continent of North America."
This statue is dedicated to "Seaman" and all the dogs of Lemhi County Idaho -
May 30, 2005.
Made possible by the Lemhi County Humane Society of Salmon, Idaho, the Idaho Governor's Lewis and Clark Trail Committee and the city of Salmon, Idaho.
Statue created by Utah . . . — Map (db m59654) HM|
|Idaho (Madison County), Rexburg — 404 — Brigham Young University - Idaho|
|Brigham Young University - Idaho had its beginning in 1888 as an academy affiliated with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.
Initially known as Bannock Stake Academy. It was renamed Fremont Stake Academy, Smith Academy, and Ricks Academy, Ricks Normal College, and eventually Ricks College. The name memorializes Thomas E. Ricks who founded Rexburg in 1883. In 2001, Ricks College became BYU-Idaho, a four year university and Idaho's largest private institution of higher education. — Map (db m35477) HM|
|Idaho (Madison County), Rexburg — 473 — Rexburg Milling Company|
|In the summer of 1883, William F. Rigby purchased, dismantled and moved by oxen a mill to the new community of Rexburg, establishing the only mill in southern Idaho. The mill was reconstructed on the west side of Third East, between Second and Third North. William Rigby, Thomas E. Ricks, and James E. Fogg, Sr. became partners starting the Rexburg Milling Company. On April 1, 1889, the mill burned. It was a great loss for the area since the closest flour mill was in Logan, Utah. . . . — Map (db m42052) HM|
|Idaho (Nez Perce County), Lewiston — Lewis and Clark|
|Lewis and Clark camped on the North Bank of Lewis's or Snake River October 10, 1805
Erected October 1955
by Alice Whitman Chapter D.A.R. — Map (db m23267) HM|
|Idaho (Oneida County), Keogh — 317 — Lake Bonneville|
|20,000 years ago, this land was under water. Not far to the north, you can see the old shore of Lake Bonneville. Formed in a basin from which no river reached the ocean, this became the largest lake in North America. Finally the lake rose high enough to overflow into the Snake River. Then after the climate got drier, and the great basin of Utah and Nevada became mostly a desert, the lake receded. Salt Lake and two other remnants are all that are left of this old 20,000 square mile lake. — Map (db m32888) HM|
|Idaho (Owyhee County), Marsing — 283 — Froman's Ferry|
|In 1888 George Froman built a ferry about a mile downstream from here. It operated until a bridge was built here in 1921.
The ferry barge was connected by ropes to a pulley which slid along a cable spanning the river. By angling the barge into the swift current, the ferryman could make it across the stream in either direction with no other power. Ferries of this type were a common solution to the transportation problem imposed on the pioneers by western rivers. There were several others not far upstream. — Map (db m26192) HM|
|Idaho (Owyhee County), Melba — 194 — Steamer "Shoshone"|
|The boat was built in 1866 to provide easy river travel for a part of the route from the Columbia to Boise and Silver City. It was intended to ply 105 miles between here and Old's Ferry. Once it even explored the river for 60 miles above here, astonishing the jackrabbits with its ambitious whistle. But business was poor and firewood for the boilers was scarce, and service stopped after a few trips. Finally in a hair-raising ride, the 136-foot, 300-ton boat was run down through Hell's Canyon and to the Columbia. — Map (db m32175) HM|
|Idaho (Payette County), Fruitland — 336 — Salmon Festival|
|Long before fur hunters explored here in 1811, an annual Indian salmon festival was held each July in this area.
Indian peoples came great distances to trade, celebrate, and arrange intertribal marriages. Cheyenne and Arapaho bands brought elegant tipi poles from Colorado. Crow and Shoshoni buffalo hunters supplied meat and hides from Montana and Wyoming. Nez Perce and Walla Walla horsemen marketed superior stock they had developed, and Paiute weapon and tool makers provided obsidian from . . . — Map (db m23197) HM|
|Idaho (Payette County), Fruitland — 263 — Snake River|
|The valley of the Snake, historic passage from the Midwest to the Northwest, has been a primary route for travel since the days of Indians and fur traders.
The Oregon Trail forded the river at Old Fort Boise, the Hudson's Bay Company 12 miles upstream. Many a famous early westerner saw the valley you now see - though the look of the land has changed since white settlement brought irrigated farms. Today the river provides both irrigation and power along its thousand-mile course from the . . . — Map (db m23195) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — "In the Hole"|
When two trains met on the single track Milwaukee mainline one train would have to “go in the hole”. One train moved onto a side track or siding, letting the other train pass by.
Timing a “meet” was extremely important. An off schedule train could not only delay other trains, but might cause a major accident.
“Train Orders” specified which trains had priority and which ones must stop and hold on a siding. Passenger trains usually had priority . . . — Map (db m45635) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — “Wintering” Roland|
Bitterroot winters are frigid and long-lasting, with the snow staying on the ridges and packed into the draws and gullies well into the spring.
Roland and East Portal can receive up to a foot of snow an hour during a big storm. The snowpack can be twelve or fifteen feet deep at winter’s peak, piled up in countable layers, marking each storm just as a tree’s rings show the passing years.
The bitter cold drained off the heat from even the largest steam locomotive’s boiler, leaving it . . . — Map (db m45561) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — A Changing Landscape|
“Change is inevitable. Change is constant.” Benjamin Disraeli
At the beginning of the 20th century, majestic western white pine, western larch and western red cedar, some over 400 years old, along with Douglas-fir and grand fir carpeted the Bitterroots.
As the railroad built their mainline over these mountains in 1907-09 the Forest Service began harvesting white pine seeds from the lush hills to re-seed other forests. But the devastating 1910 fire killed most . . . — Map (db m45563) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Beast of the Bitterroots|
Turntable & Townsite
Roland, Idaho s started as a construction camp in 1906, housing men working on the west portion of the St. Paul Pass Tunnel. It evolved from a tent camp scattered along the right-of-way, into a town of log and tar paper buildings above the mouth of the tunnel.
In 1909, the railroad built a two-story depot here and developed a railroad community around it. With the tunnel work came electric power and lights. By . . . — Map (db m45556) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Bridging the Gaps|
Wood to Steel
The Milwaukee Road built temporary wood trestles at all but Kelly Creek and Clear Creek. Fire danger prompted the railroad to immediately begin replacing the wooden structures with earth-filled embankments or building steel bridges inside and over them.
The Milwaukee used a relatively new steel design—“deck girder bridges” with solid concrete floors. Large “I” beams on top of steel towers supported “U” shaped concrete . . . — Map (db m45614) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Bumps on the Milwaukee Road|
In 1925, the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway Company suffered the largest business failure in the history of the United States up to that time.
The bankruptcy resulted from a combination of problems related to the construction of its western extension. The final cost of the new line was $257 million, three times more than expected. More costs were incurred during World War I when the government temporarily seized the company. Additionally, the anticipated traffic over the . . . — Map (db m45650) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Busy Bogle Spur|
A logging railroad known as Bogle Spur snaked from here up the North Fork of the St. Joe River for seven miles. The spur was built to salvage timber killed during the 1910 fires. The little railroad operated from 1912 to 1915. When the logging railroad was abandoned the siding's name was changed to Pearson.
To move the log cars along this line, the logging contractors Bogle & Callahan purchased two 120,000-pound Shay geared locomotives.
Constructed for steep temporary logging . . . — Map (db m45654) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Electrified|
When Water Powered the Road
It made a great deal of sense to the Milwaukee Road’s directors to electrify portions of the mainline when building the western extension.
They could reduce the high cost of oil-fired, steam powered locomotives. Electric motors were more efficient than steam engines in cold northwest winters. Dangerous smoke and gas from steam locomotives would be eliminated in tunnels. Not least, some powerful board members owning interest in copper and electrical . . . — Map (db m45624) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Johnson’s Big Cut|
“Fire in the Hole!”
In 1908, a Milwaukee contractor named Johnson needed to blast out a path through the rock face next to the Barnes Creek Trestle, #218. Blasters chiseled out five “coyote holes”, stuffed them with 25,000 pounds of blasting powder, and touched it off.
In a fraction of a second, a gigantic blast threw tons of rock and car-sized boulders down the slope and onto Excavation Camp #1 below. No one was seriously injured or killed but most of . . . — Map (db m45629) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Laboring in Luxury|
For the price of a Pullman ticket, a common rail passenger could be waited upon and pampered in the grand manner of privileged gentry.
The Pullman porter provided the labor for that luxury…
After the Civil War, the Pullman Palace Car Company, which built and operated luxury passenger and sleeper cars on America's railroads, began staffing their cars with newly freed slaves as porters. It soon became the largest single employer of black Americans.
Pullman porters led a . . . — Map (db m45648) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Little in Name Only|
(Little Joes, The Locomotives Big Joe Stalin Never Got!)
Made for Joseph Stalin’s Soviet Union, the United States embargoed these magnificent locomotives as strategic material at the start of the “Cold War”.
The Milwaukee Road bought twelve of these 586,00 pound giants in 1950 and they quickly became known as, “Little Joes”. The test locomotive still had its Russian/Cyrillic labels.
The 5,530 horsepower EP/EF-4 . . . — Map (db m45633) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Man’s Mark on the Land|
|If you stood on this spot with a railroad surveyor in 1906, you would have gazed across a lush patchwork forest of large trees. The super hot 1910 fires burned the valley below and for years afterward the area presented travelers with a bleak view of black snags and thick brush. Today it takes a trained eye to recognize all of the changes caused by man in this valley.
The newly formed Forest Service had a lot to learn about planting trees in 1910. The foresters experimented on this ravaged . . . — Map (db m45567) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Milwaukee Road Muscle|
It took a lot of mechanical muscle to pull the Milwaukee Road’s long, heavy passenger and freight trains over the rugged Rocky Mountains and tough Bitterroot Range. The Milwaukee Road used a great variety of powerful locomotives to do the job. In 1923 the railroad had 2,110 steam engines. Diesel locomotives started replacing the older steam engines in 1941.
Ten years later, the Milwaukee had 232 diesels, 838 steam locomotives and 116 electric engines. The railrod ran its last steam . . . — Map (db m45625) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Mountains of Copper?|
Depending on who you talk to, the hills around you contain either rich copper deposits or a lot of hot air....
Between 1889 and 1922, miners explored a number of promising mining properties near Adair. They encountered ore containing copper, sprinkled with small amounts of gold and silver.
Until 1910, the ore was hauled on wagons over the Bitterroot Mountains to the Northern Pacific Railroad Station at Saltese, Montana.
During World War I copper prices soared, spurring . . . — Map (db m45622) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — No One’s “Fault”|
It's nature’s “fault” this tunnel is closed…
Several major geologic fault lines run under these mountains. The mountainside here is slowly shifting along a fault line into the right side of this tunnel, collapsing it.
The tunnel runs through rock known as “argillite”, a highly compressed siltstone over a billion years old. Is it any wonder it has developed a few cracks?
The Milwaukee Road was a much a road of stone as a road of . . . — Map (db m45613) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Not So "Lucky" Swedes|
The Lucky Swede and Pearson Mining Companies used this siding to bring in mining equipment and hopefully, send out copper ore…
According to old-timer Harold Theriault,
“The lucky Swede Mine was a fairly large company, but only on paper. It had a number of investors, mostly from Minnesota, willing to finance the operations of the two Pearson brothers. Morris Pearson was responsible for the running of the mine, and Harry was the “brains” who attracted the . . . — Map (db m45656) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Olympian Luxury|
|Driving across the country today, fueling up at fast food outlets, it is hard to imagine that travel was once much more luxurious. The Milwaukee Road's Olympian and Columbian passenger trains carried elegant dining cars the entire distance from Chicago to Seattle.
The Milwaukee employed eminent chefs to supervise their dining car operations. Each train had a crew consisting of a steward, a chef, two or three cooks and three or four waiters.
The menu featured such delights as crabmeat . . . — Map (db m45632) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Railroad at WAR!|
The Milwaukee Road transported tons of war material and thousands of troops during World Wars I and II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War.
During World War I, the Federal Government seized railroads in the United States including the Milwaukee. One old-timer remembered that at age fourteen, he was hired by the Milwaukee to:
“…see that the bridges were not blown up from sabotage from the Germans… They had watchmen all along the railroad keeping on eye on tunnels and . . . — Map (db m45641) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Rough & Tumble Camps|
Primitive construction camps dotted the Bitterroot Mountains between 1906 and 1912.
Hardy colorful gangs of workers from around the globe called these bleak and often ugly temporary settlements home.
The hard work and disagreeable conditions on the Milwaukee’s Western Extension led many men to quit at the first excuse or opportunity. Winter snow and damp, miserable working conditions in the big tunnel caused many to look for better work elsewhere.
To induce workers to stay . . . — Map (db m45553) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Rough Roads & Wrecks|
High steel trestles, long curved tunnels and steep rocky embankments could be accidents waiting to happen…
But diligent, hard-working Milwaukee Roaders saw that relatively few wrecks shattered the quiet beauty of the Bitterroots. Occasionally destructive wrecks did occur.
Two steam locomotives collided head on in 1910. In 1919, “Motor Creek” got its name when a Box Cab electric engine derailed beside it.
Derailments became distressingly commonplace along the . . . — Map (db m45649) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Secluded Falcon|
You are standing on what was Falcon, Idaho, a lonely but important Milwaukee Road siding named for the raptors that nested in the area. Train passengers gave the place scant notice, but by 1915, a depot, a section house and several other buildings sprouted along the tracks. One section foreman ran a jewelry store out of his house with stock left over from his days as a merchant. A post office established at Falcon in 1911 persisted until 1933 when the Avery Post Office took over its duties. . . . — Map (db m45634) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Section Gangs|
Patrolling for problems on the track was the job of the section foreman and his “section gang” of 2 to 7 hardy laborers.
In the early 1900s the Milwaukee Road’s mainline was divided into 5.5 to 9.5 mile-long sections. A “gang” was assigned to each section for the inspection, safety and upkeep of the track, bridges and culverts. The foreman would walk over his assigned section every other day or once a week, depending on the weather.
The gang’s work was . . . — Map (db m45610) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Signs, Wires & Whistles|
Grief could come to a big, fast train suddenly. Railroaders needed to see and hear warnings and orders clearly and quickly.
The engineer and crew watched for standard signals over each section of track and kept their eyes and ears open for signs of trouble.
Signals could be signs, flags, lights, flares, bells or whistles, telegraph orders, or radio-phone calls.
The Milwaukee Road set up the first extensive use of color-light signals in the United States over its . . . — Map (db m45623) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Smooth as Silk|
“Highballing” fast freight trains..
…known as “Silks”, sped raw Asian silk from west coast seaports across the United States for processing into finished garments.
The silks had the right-of-way over freight and passenger trains alike. They rushed their multimillion dollar cargo across the continent because raw silk deteriorated quickly, insurance on it as very expensive, and the price of raw silk fluctuated, making even short delays very costly. A less . . . — Map (db m45640) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Temporary Trestles|
Get the Line Open Quickly!
That was the policy of the Milwaukee Road. To do this in 1907 and 1908, the Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound Railroad built numerous sturdy, but short-lived, wood trestles to prepare the new line for track as soon as possible.
Over the Bitterroot Mountains alone, the railroad constructed twenty-nine of these temporary trestles with a combined length of over 10,000 feet and an average height of about 110 feet.
These structures required the use of . . . — Map (db m45579) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — The 1910 Fires|
One of the largest forest fires in the history of the United States
...swept over Idaho and Montana on August 20 and 21, 1910, including the area where you now stand. The fire burned three million acres, destroyed eight billion board feet of timber and killed 86 people. Hurricane-force winds shot fireballs for miles across the mountains. The sky turned dark as far east as Colorado. An army of 10,000 firefighters made dramatic, but ultimately futile efforts to stop the blaze. . . . — Map (db m45615) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — The Big Blowup|
|The forest fires of August, 1910, burned millions of acres in Idaho, Montana and Washington. On the night of August 20, engineer Johnnie Mackedon, returning from a trip to St. Paul Pass, found the Falcon siding on fire. Over one hundred terrified men, women and children were gathered on the platform of the smoldering depot. He coupled to a flatcar on the adjoining siding and everyone scrambled on board for a harrowing ride to the safety of Tunnel 27.
“Why, all that you could see . . . — Map (db m45617) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — The End of the Road?|
Time Runs Out for “America s Resourceful Railroad”
Never-ending financial problems, speedy new interstate highways and jets killed Milwaukee's passenger service to the Pacific Coast by 1961. Stiff freight competition and corporate mismanagement put an end to railroad service altogether in late 1979.
On March 17, 1980 the last whistle sounded from the last train through the Bitterroots. It was a Milwaukee work train slowly rumbling out of Idaho manned by a small crew . . . — Map (db m45651) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — The Mighty Quills|
The Unknown Locomotive
Called the “unkown” locomotive by some rail enthusiasts, few people now recognize the heavyweight of the Milwaukee’s Rocky Mountain Division, the Baldwin-Westinghouse EP-3.
Between 1919 and 1955, these big motors pulled passenger trains over the rugged Rocky, Belt and Bitterroot Mountain Ranges between Harlowton, Montana and Avery, Idaho.
The Milwaukee purchased ten EP-3’s, each weighing 283 tons, standing 17 feet high, 88 feet 7 . . . — Map (db m45630) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — The Olympian Hiawatha|
On June 29, 1947 the pride of the Milwaukee Road was introduced-- an all new streamlined train called the “Olympian Hiawatha”.
The name “Hiawatha” originated with Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s poem “Song of Hiawatha” written in the mid-1800s. The Milwaukee Road chose the name for their fast streamlined passenger trains because of these lines:
Swift of foot was Hiawatha;
He could shoot an arrow from Him,
And run forward with such . . . — Map (db m45631) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — The Route of the Hiawatha|
Looking for the Right Route
In 1905, the Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway began looking for a route for their western extension over the Bitterroot Mountains. After five and a half months, exploring 930 miles, the railroad chose a route over St. Paul Pass.
In laying out the route from the St. Paul Pass Tunnel the surveyors planned a line descending at a 1.7% gradient along the mountain slope
A big consideration in choosing this route was the potential for future traffic. . . . — Map (db m45559) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — The Route of the Hiawatha|
The Last Transcontinental Railroad
“It was the finest railroad in America.”
Those were the words of many former employees of the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific (Milwaukee Road). This trail follows the route of that glorious railroad. The rails are gone now, but many reminders of the Milwaukee remain.
This rail line, built to the Pacific Ocean between 1907 and 1909, operated until March, 1980. You are standing near milepost “1763”, meaning . . . — Map (db m45652) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — The Toughest Town|
People used to say “Taft, Montana was the toughest town in the west until Grand Forks, Idaho developed.”
Located across the valley at the mouth of Cliff Creek, a Forest Service employee described it as,
“…a wild mushroom construction town. The main section of town had no streets. It was built in the form of a hollow rectangle around a sort of court. Both sides and ends of this court were almost solid with rough lumber and log buildings.
Toward the . . . — Map (db m45636) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — The Traveler|
An astonishing contraption called “The Traveler”, a giant rolling crane, erected Kelly and Clear Creek Trestles in record time.
The Milwaukee decided to build Kelly and Clear Creek Trestles out of steel right From the beginning.
Horse and mule teams had already hauled in the concrete for the foundations of the two bridges during the early construction period in 1908.
Pre-fabricated steel bridge pieces, shipped from the eastern United Slates, arrived just as the . . . — Map (db m45618) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — This Place Had a Name?|
During the 1910 fires, fire fighters hopping off a train here at two in the morning wondered, “why anyone bothered to give this spot a name.”
In fact, Adair started out several years earlier as a boisterous railroad construction tent camp housing almost 400 men. Enterprising fellows quickly set up a saloon and bawdy house in the neighborhood.
After the railroad was built, and the first crowds left, Adair became a terminal for loading logs onto railcars. The logs . . . — Map (db m45620) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Tunneling Toward Tacoma|
|Snaking its railroad down the western side of the Bitterroot Mountains, the Milwaukee Road burrowed 16 tunnels to maintain a uniform grade down to Avery.
These tunnels were dug largely by hand using sledgehammers and hand drills. In some cases steam-powered drills and steam donkey engines were hauled to the work site to speed the digging. It took three years, and the toil of hundreds of men before the massive job was completed and the St. Paul Pass Tunnel was opened in March of 1909. . . . — Map (db m45608) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — Water Does the Work!|
A powerful man-made jet of water blasted the mountainside…
…washing soil and loose rock downslope to fill in the trestle.
By 1911, the Milwaukee Road filled twenty-two temporary wooden trestles between St. Regis, Montana and Avery, Idaho. On this side of the Bitterroot Mountains, two water flumes provided water for "sluicing" these bridges.
Others were filled by dumping material from train cars. You will have to look carefully to see where the sluicing removed the topsoil . . . — Map (db m45568) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — World Class Workers|
Who’s Been Working On The Railroad?
If you stood here sometime between 1907 and 1911, you would have heard a multitude of languages.
The hundreds of people employed during the construction of the Milwaukee Road included; Italians, Bulgarians, Japanese, Serbs, Croatians, Montenegrins, Austrians, Swedes, Irish, English, French Canadians, Hungarians, Belgians, Norwegians, Russian, Greeks, Germans, Polish, Spanish, Scotch, Dutch, Finnish, and still others.
The railroad’s . . . — Map (db m45637) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Avery — You want to be a Ranger?|
Do you have the right stuff to be a FOREST RANGER?!
Forest Service District Rangers today are resource professionals. She/he could be a forester, fish or wildlife biologist, hydrologist, botanist, landscape architect or other professional.
Teams of specialists with expertise in public participation, forestry, recreation, scenic quality, engineering, fire, hydrology, wildlife and botany participate in land management planning for large areas on the National Forest.
The . . . — Map (db m45643) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Mullan — History of Lookout Pass|
|Lookout Pass is one of the original U.S. Ski areas. The area was first utilized by local Scandinavians who hopped off Northern Pacific freight cars to enjoy a day of alpine skiing at the Pass. A rope tow was installed in 1936 through use of parts from an abandoned car wreck that was found along the old Yellowstone Hwy which is now I-90. The Idaho Ski Club officially opened Lookout Pass Ski Area on February 24, 1938. A highway maintenance shed was nicknamed “Buzzard's Roost” and . . . — Map (db m45200) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Murray — Gold|
Gold was first discovered near the town of Murray in 1882. A.J. Prichard and his partners, Markson, Gellatt and Gerard, had come to the Coeur d’Alenes from Walla Walla, WA. following Mullan’s Military Road.
Their prospecting started near Kellogg, ID and progressed to Beaver Cr. While en route they failed to discover the rich placer ground on Trail Cr. Working up Prichard Cr., the men’s tenacity yielded a strike. A.J. Prichard is credited with the area’s first gold discovery, but the actual . . . — Map (db m73474) HM|
|Idaho (Shoshone County), Wallace — 367 — Wallace|
|Founded as a mining town in 1884, Wallace became a railroad center in 1887 and the Shoshone County seat in 1898.
Rebuilt after a disastrous fire in 1890, Wallace has preserved its pioneer mining heritage. North Idaho's 2,000,000-acre forest fire was stopped here in 1910, and business buildings of that era survive in an impressive historic district. A museum in Wallace's restored 1901 Northern Pacific Depot, on 6th St., interprets the region's railway history. — Map (db m27170) HM|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Buhl — Balanced Rock|
48 ft. high & 40 ft. wide
Base is only
3 ft. x 175 in. wide
A rhyolite monolith shaped by
differential weathering — Map (db m70450)|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Hagerman — 330 — Fishing Falls|
|When John C. Fremont came this way mapping emigrant roads in 1843, he found an important Indian village at Fishing Falls (Kanaka rapids) about 4 miles above here. He reported that native salmon spearers there were "unusually gay...fond of laughter; and in their apparent good nature and merry character...entirely different from the Indians we had been accustomed to see." As Snake River's highest salmon cascades, Fishing Falls was included on many early western maps. — Map (db m31652) HM|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Hagerman — 206 — Payne's Ferry|
|A scow powered by oarsmen let Oregon Trail wagons cross Snake River here from 1852 to 1870. Then Overland Stage service from Boise to a rail terminal in Kelton, Utah was moved to this crossing, and M.E. Payne installed a large (14 by 60 foot) new cable ferry that used river current for power. After stage service was shifted to a more direct route at Glenn's Ferry in 1879, this boat handled mostly local traffic until 1910, when it broke away and sank 3 miles below here. — Map (db m31653) HM|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Hagerman — 204 — Salmon Falls|
|In 1812, Joseph Miller found 100 lodges of Indians spearing thousands of salmon each afternoon at a cascade below here. Each summer they dried a year's supply. After 1842, they also traded salmon to Oregon Trail emigrants. John C. Fremont marveled at Salmon Falls 18-foot vertical drop, adjacent to "a sheet of foaming water...divided and broken into cateracts" by islands that "give it much picturesque beauty, and make it one of those places that the traveler turns again and again to fix in his memory." — Map (db m31597) HM|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Hagerman — 166 — Thousand Springs|
|Old lava flow changed the geologic structure of this area and thus created a multitude of famous springs here. Over thousands of years, volcanic activity repeatedly spread lava over the Snake River plain, slowly forcing the river southward in a great curve. Successive channels of the river and its tributaries were filled with spongy lava, and became both reservoirs and underground conduits gathering water from far to the northeast. Torrents from one or more of these buried channels burst forth on the opposite canyon wall. — Map (db m31595) HM|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Hansen — Ancient Lake Bonneville — "Southern Idaho's Largest Flood in World History"|
The Flood that Reshaped Southern Idaho
The Snake River Canyon is one of Idaho's most recognizable geologic features. Volcanic forces dating back more than 10 million years ago created the canyon. But it took the second largest flood in the history of the world to reshape it and to give the canyon its unique appearance as we see it today.
The Second Largest Flood in the World
Imagine standing here as a four hundred-foot tall wall of water racing at 177,000 cubic feet per . . . — Map (db m70474)|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Hansen — 393 — Hansen Bridge|
|Until 1919, when a high suspension bridge was completed here, this 16-mile long river gorge could be crossed only in a rowboat. With 14 cables, each more than 900 feet long, a $100,000 suspension bridge was wide enough to accommodate two lanes of farm wagons or early cars that had begun to gain popularity then. From it's deck, nearly 400 feet above Snake River, travelers had a spectacular view that still can be seen from it's replacement, built in 1966. — Map (db m62131) HM|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Hansen — Rock Creek|
|The lush willow bottoms of Rock Creek provided Native Americans with a natural campsite. During the early and mid-1800s, Rock Creek was an oasis for the trappers, explorers and Oregon-bound emigrants attempting to traverse the arid Snake River Plain. Astorian Robert Stuart camped in this vicinity August 28-29, 1812 during his epic eastward trek from Astoria to St. Louis in which he pioneered what would become the Oregon Trail. Captain John C. Fremont camped near this spot on September 30, 1843, . . . — Map (db m31522) HM|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Hansen — 342 — Rock Creek Station|
|An 1864 overland stage station at Rock Creek, 5 miles south and a mile west of here, offered a desert oasis for 40 years before irrigated farming transformed this area. James Bascom's 1865 store and Herman Stricker's 1900 mansion have been preserved as there as reminders of pioneer life in an isolated outpost. In addition to freight wagons and Oregon Trail emigrants, miners and ranchers came from many miles to get their supplies there. — Map (db m31521) HM|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Hansen — The Desert Bloomed — "The Miracle of Water and the Beginning of Idaho's Magic Valley"|
Magic in the Desert
Here, at the Hansen Overlook, you are in the heart of Idaho's Magic Valley. Once this valley was a dry sagebrush covered desert. Water from the Snake River magically transformed the desert seemingly overnight into one of Idaho's most productive farmlands.
Ira Burton Perrine (I.B. Perrine) is recognized as being the first to propose diverting Snake River water into canals for irrigation. His visionary thinking eventually made the desert bloom where rich . . . — Map (db m70473) HM|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Murtaugh — 284 — Caldron Linn|
|In 1811 the Hunt party likened the terrific torrent of the Snake River three miles east of here to a boiling caldron, adding the the old Scottish word "linn," meaning a waterfall. They had lost a man and a canoe in a roaring chute upstream. Finding worse water ahead they abandoned river travel. Next year, another explorer said of Caldron Linn, "Its terrific appearance beggars all description." Today no road reaches the spot and the name is forgotten. — Map (db m31523) HM|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Twin Falls — 411 — College of Southern Idaho|
|In 1964, Twin Falls County voters established a community college, and Jerome County soon voted to join their college district. Started in 1965 as part of a state and national effort to expand local educational opportunity, College of Southern Idaho arts, science, and vocational-technical programs also provide related community services for this area. In 1968, a modern campus was occupied a mile west of here, with a civic auditorium and a museum facility incorporated into that site. — Map (db m31519) HM|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Twin Falls — Ira Burton Perrine — May 7, 1861-Oct 2, 1943 — Sculpted by Ralph Lehrman|
|I. B. Perrine was an early Twin Falls settler and developer who made his home — Blue Lakes Ranch — in the Snake River Canyon. His vision, planning and dedication led to Twin Falls growth from a desert outpost to a flourishing city. — Map (db m62964) HM|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Twin Falls — Perrine Memorial Bridge|
| Lower marker:
The structure you now see spanning the Snake River Canyon was completed in July 1976 at a cost of $9,700,000. It is 1500 feet in length with the roadway approximately 480 feet above the Snake River. This arch structure replaced the truss bridge depicted in the above etching. The original structure, built as a toll facility in 1927 at a cost of $650,000, was purchased by the state of Idaho in 1940. The plaque above commemorates the May 31, 1940 dedication of the bridge to . . . — Map (db m62965) HM|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Twin Falls — Robert Evel Knievel — Explorer, Motorcyclist and Daredevil|
|Attempted a mile long leap of the Snake River Canyon on Sept. 8, 1974 employing a unique skycycle. The large dirt ramp is visible approx. 2 miles east of this point on the south ridge of the canyon. Donated to the community by Sunset Memorial — Map (db m62966) HM|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Twin Falls — 172 — Shoshone Falls|
|4 miles east of here, the Snake River falls in thunder 210 feet over a rocky ledge higher than famous Niagara. Indians, trappers, and travellers all knew the "Great Shoshonie." Now the waters upstream have been harnessed for irrigation and power, and in the dry summer months the rocks can be seen. But the foaming river and the sheer walls of the canyon combine with the paths and shady lawns of the park and picnic area to make one of Idaho's most spectacular scenes. At Shoshone Falls, a natural . . . — Map (db m31520) HM|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Twin Falls — Shoshone Falls — The History of Shoshone Falls Dam|
| Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project.
In 1900 Ira B. Perrine began seeking investors for a hydroelectric plant at Shoshone Falls, ultimately forming the Shoshone Falls Power Company on March 9, 1904. In 1907, the site was sold to William S. Kuhn, and became the Great Shoshone and Twin Falls Water Power Company. The 500-kilowatt (kW) plant finally began generating power in August 1907.
The early days of Idaho’s electricity business were chaotic and ultimately forced the company into . . . — Map (db m62971) HM|
|Idaho (Twin Falls County), Twin Falls — Shoshone Falls Project|
|Owned and operated by Idaho Power, the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project located on the Snake River, is licensed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission as Project No. 2778.
The reservoir provides recreation opportunities for boating, fishing, hunting and sightseeing. Public access to the reservoir is from the south side of the canyon through Shoshone Falls Park. The day-use Park is owned and maintained by the City of Twin Falls. Picnicking, hiking, photography and viewing the falls . . . — Map (db m26478) HM|
|Idaho (Valley County), Cascade — 155 — Long Valley Ambush|
|While hunting stolen horses on Aug. 20, 1878, WM. Monday, Jake Groseclose, Tom Healy, & "Three Finger" Smith were ambushed in a rocky basin 9/10 mile by road from here.
Monday and Groseclose were killed immediately, and Healy wounded; Smith, "being a man of experience in such matters," fled. He made it 40 miles to Salmon Meadows. Infantrymen buried the 3, marked the spot, and took up the Indian trail. Smith estimated there were 75 Indians; army trackers finally concluded there were only 5 -- but they never caught them. — Map (db m23231) HM|
|Idaho (Valley County), Smiths Ferry — 496 — Splash Dams|
|Prior to the arrival of the railroad in 1912, the North Fork of the Payette River provided an avenue for logs destined to downstream mills in Horseshoe Bend and Emmett.
In 1903, $100,000 was spent to dynamite open a clear channel in the river. Splash Dams were built to store logs. During the winter of 1903-04, logs were held in a 36-acre pond. In April, the logs were blasted loose when the main dam was opened. Less then half of the logs made it to the mills and four men lost their lives . . . — Map (db m23233) HM|
|Idaho (Washington County), Cambridge — 185 — Brownlee Ferry|
|Guiding Oregon Trail emigrants and a party of prospectors who had discovered gold in Boise Basin, Tim Goodale opened a new miners' trail through here in August 1862.
A gold rush followed that fall, and John Brownlee operated a ferry here from 1862 to 1864, before leaving to work his own Boise Basin mine. A new ferry commenced here a year after James Ruth and T.J. Heath discovered silver mines on Brownlee Creek in 1874, with service continuing until after 1920. — Map (db m23227) HM|
|Idaho (Washington County), Cambridge — 378 — Seven Devils Mines|
|More than a century ago, miners faced a hopeless problem of hauling copper ore to this canyon for shipment to smelters.
They started with Albert Kleinschmidt's road grade down from their mine, more than a vertical mile above Snake River, and more than 30 miles downstream from here. After a steamboat failed in 1891, a railroad (now under water) was built past here to their river landing. That did not work either. Large ore trucks finally solved their problem in 1968. — Map (db m23228) HM|
|Idaho (Washington County), Weiser — 487 — 11,000 Years of Indian Occupation|
|The Weiser Valley provided an abundant environment for early hunters and food gatherers.
Archaeological excavation along Monroe Creek in conjunction with US-95 realignment yielded one of the most significant prehistoric sites in the region. Spear and arrow points and radiocarbon dates suggest the site was occupied for 11,000 years. Inhabitants hunted deer, mountain goat, and rabbit and gathered salmon, roots, berries, and seeds. Artifacts were found ten feet below the ground surface. — Map (db m23220) HM|