|Kentucky (Anderson County), Lawrenceburg — 1479 — Distinguished Officers - Alumni of Kavanaugh|
Rhoda C. Kavanaugh founded school on Woodford Street which became known as "Little Annapolis." First boarding student came to prepare for Naval Academy in 1914. From then until 1945, Mrs. Kavanaugh launched 150 future Navy officers from her "dry-land harbor." She also instructed students for West Point. Fifteen later became Army officers. Success of the school was due to her superior teaching methods. Students also received rigorous physical training coupled with stern . . . — Map (db m317) HM|
|Kentucky (Anderson County), Lawrenceburg — 1273 — Kavanaugh School — “The Sun Never Sets on Kavanaugh.”|
|Kavanaugh Academy 1904-09; Anderson Co. High School 1909-20; Kavanaugh High School 1920-49. Rhoda C. Kavanaugh, A.B., founder and principal 41 years. Under her direction it ranked among the nation's foremost preparatory schools for Annapolis and West Point.
Mrs. "K". Rhoda C. Kavanaugh dedicated her life to teaching boys and girls, and built the school into an institution recognized nationwide for the quality of its instruction. This plaque is erected in memory of her power to instill . . . — Map (db m315) HM|
|Kentucky (Anderson County), Lawrenceburg — 812 — Renowned Congressman|
|James Beauchamp (Champ) Clark born near here, 1850. Attended U. of K. Taught school in county, 1870-71. Pres. Marshall College, 1873-74. Congressman from Missouri 24 yrs. Led defeat of Cannonism, control of House by Speaker. Then Speaker, 1911-19. Candidate for nomination for president, 1912 Democratic Conv., through 46 ballots, but lost. Buried, 1921, Bowling Green, Mo.
— Map (db m313) HM|
|Kentucky (Anderson County), Lawrenceburg — 2029 — William H. Townsend — (1890 - 1964)|
| Side 1:
This renowned scholar, raconteur, and lawyer was born in Anderson Co. Educated first in a one-room school at Glensboro, he graduated from U.K. Law School in 1912. Among his books was Lincoln and the Bluegrass (1955). His talk on Cassius Clay, "The Lion of White Hall," now a taped classic.
Presented by Mary Genevieve and Joe Murphy
Townsend had the largest private collection of Lincolnania in U.S. Recognized as a leading expert on . . . — Map (db m34786) HM|
|Kentucky (Ballard County), Wickliffe — Burial Mound — (Mound C)|
|Native American Indian of the Mississippian culture were buried in this cemetery mound sometime in the A.D. 1200s. First excavated in 1932 by owner Col. Fain King, the mound was referred to as “Mound C”. A building was constructed over the exposed burials and placed on display for many decades. In 1991, the remains were taken from public view out of respect to native American Indians, and to be in compliance with federal laws that protect Indian burial mounds. Plastic replicas of . . . — Map (db m58870) HM|
|Kentucky (Ballard County), Wickliffe — Ceremonial Mound|
|Excavations have shown that building stood on several earlier levels of this mound.
We do not know how big those buildings were.
This structure is approximately the size of the posthole pattern in the architecture building (Mound B) — Map (db m58872) HM|
|Kentucky (Ballard County), Wickliffe — 826 — County Named, 1842|
|For Capt. Bland Ballard, 1759-1853. Born in Va. Came to Ky. in 1779. Devoted life protecting frontier. Scout for George Rogers Clark's Ohio expedition, 1780. '82; Wabash campaign 1786. In the battles of Fallen Timbers, 1793; Tippecanoe, 1811; River Raisin, 1813. In Ky. Legis. five terms. Legis. directed burial in the Frankfort Cemetery. County from McCraken, Hickman. — Map (db m18550) HM|
|Kentucky (Ballard County), Wickliffe — 27 — Fort Jefferson|
|Fort Jefferson (also known as Camp Crittenden) was the second of two Union Army posts established in Ballard County in September 1861, following the Confederate occupation of Columbus. Fort Jefferson was first established during the American Revolution by George Rogers Clark in 1780 and occupied until 1781. The Civil War era fort was located on the same site, just above the mouth of Mayfield Creek. The first post was Fort Holt, named for Joseph Holt, Secretary of War at the end of the Buchanan . . . — Map (db m18493) HM|
|Kentucky (Ballard County), Wickliffe — 1309 — Fort Jefferson Site / Indian Massacre|
|(North Side):Fort Jefferson Site Built in 1780 by George Rogers Clark as part of impressive plan of settlement, conceived by Gov. Patrick Henry of Virginia, later pursued by and named for Gov. Thomas Jefferson. The fort was to protect US claim to its western border and to be a key trading post. It was abandoned, 1781. Over. Resettled after Jackson Purchase. Important Union post in Civil War. (South Side):Indian Massacre In 1781, the Chickasaws, led by a Scotchman, . . . — Map (db m18639) HM|
|Kentucky (Ballard County), Wickliffe — King Mounds — "Ancient Buried City"|
|Site of an ancient religious and commercial center of the Mound Builder. Approximately one thousand years old, situated on the only high ground at the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. Tombs, temples, altars, jewels, dwellings, tools, etcetera, were uncovered. Excavations started October 2, 1932. For education and posterity. — Map (db m58869) HM|
|Kentucky (Ballard County), Wickliffe — Lewis & Clark at Old Fort Jefferson|
|Long before Lewis and Clark stopped near Wickliffe in western Kentucky on their outbound trip to the west, Fort Jefferson had been built in 1780-81 by George Rogers Clark during the Revolutionary War as an outpost against British-led Indian attacks. It was also constructed to project the claim of the infant United States to a western boundary on the Mississippi River. Decommissioned within a year, records have been located detailing the day-to-day activities of those who lived in the fort or . . . — Map (db m18548) HM|
|Kentucky (Ballard County), Wickliffe — 2209 — Lewis and Clark in Kentucky Fort Jefferson|
|(North Side):Lewis and Clark in Kentucky Fort Jefferson Lewis and Clark and a party of eight men visited the site of Fort Jefferson on Nov. 18, 1803, while on their epic 1803-1806 journey to the Pacific. Fort est. in 1780 by Clark's brother, George Rogers Clark, but was abandoned one year later. Over. (South Side):Fort Jefferson William Clark drew a map of the area in 1795 that showed the fort site. He also included it in an 1802 report that recommended a military post at . . . — Map (db m18545) HM|
|Kentucky (Ballard County), Wickliffe — 46 — The Prince of the French Explorers|
|(North Side):The Prince of the French Explorers Commissioned by Louis XIV of France, the Sieur Robert de LaSalle, sweeping down the Mississippi with his flotilla of canoes, stopped in 1682 at this place, in his quest for the mouth of the Mississippi and an outlet for the French fur trade. This river, called Ohio by the Iroquois and Quabache (Wabash) by the Algonquins, was proclaimed by LaSalle, April 9, 1682, to be the northern watershed of the New Province of Louisiana of the French . . . — Map (db m18551) HM|
|Kentucky (Ballard County), Wickliffe — 757 — Union Supply Base|
|One of first Kentucky positions, Fort Jefferson, occupied by Union troops after Confederate seizure of Columbus, Sept. 1861. From this base, Gen. U.S. Grant directed demonstration against Columbus, Jan. 1862. Troops from here joined in capturing Ft. Henry, Feb. 1862. One of four river ports in area used as Union supply bases for operations in the western theater. — Map (db m18519) HM|
|Kentucky (Ballard County), Wickliffe — Welcome to Wickliffe Mounds — State Historic Site|
|Nearly one thousand years ago, this village was home for Native Americans of the prehistoric Mississippian culture. Peaceful farmers, these mound building Indians lived throughout the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys. Exhibits at Wicklffe Mounds museum interpret the culture of the Mississippian people and the scientific discipline of archaeology. Research continues to provide important information about this archaeological site and its history. Operated by the Kentucky Department of Parks, . . . — Map (db m58873) HM|
|Kentucky (Barren County), Cave City — 1489 — Cave City Raid|
|CSA General John Hunt Morgan and a company of troops arrived here, May 11, 1862. They seized a train reported to be carrying some of Morgan's men captured at Lebanon, Tenn. Instead, it carried railroad employees whom he released. Morgan burned the train; later detained a second one carrying passengers. Among them were two officers of the command of Col. Frank Wolford, USA. — Map (db m321) HM|
|Kentucky (Barren County), Cave City — 4a — Morgan's Cave City Raid|
|On May 11, 1862 Col. John Hunt Morgan and his advance guard seized the Cave City depot and captured the next train that stopped. Morgan's entire command arrived shortly thereafter. Morgan's troops proceeded to destroy the train; four passenger cars, a locomotive, and forty-five freight cars. The firebox was filled with wood and set on fire. The Confederates then fired each car and sent the train racing down the tracks toward Bowling Green. Morgan remembered "It was a grand sight, that . . . — Map (db m322) HM|
|Kentucky (Barren County), Glasgow — Attack on Fort Williams|
October 6, 1863
One October 6, 1863 Confederate Col. John M. Hughes, commanding 129 men of the 25th Tennessee Infantry, attacked Fort Wiliams. The 37th Kentucky Mounted Infantry, some 420 men under the command of Maj. Samuel Martin, garrisoned the fort. At the time of the attack 50 men were camped in the court house square and 30 men were out on patrol. At dawn Col. Hughes attacked the men on the square. He then moved onto the fort. He later reported, "We killed 9, wounded 26 . . . — Map (db m72652) HM|
|Kentucky (Barren County), Glasgow — 544 — Christmas Mishap|
|On Dec. 24, 1862, main body of Morgan's Raiders made camp south of here. Capt. Quirk and scouts entered town although USA troops patrolled area. CSA scouts wished to celebrate Christmas Eve, and dismounted at tavern. A patrol of 2nd Mich. Cavalry, USA, rode up with same desire. After skirmish, with slight losses, both parties stampeded without a celebration. — Map (db m73020) HM|
|Kentucky (Barren County), Glasgow — 1133 — Confederate Congressional Medal of Honour / Barren County CSA Medalists|
Confederate Congressional Medal of Honour
The President (CSA), in 1862, was authorized to confer a Medal of Honour upon one enlisted man of each company for “every signal victory.” At first dress-parade, thereafter, the men engaged in the battle chose, by vote, the soldier most worthy to receive this honour. More from Barren than any other Ky. county received medal. Over
Barren County CSA Medalists
Stone's River . . . — Map (db m73018) HM|
|Kentucky (Barren County), Glasgow — 1290 — Fort Williams|
|Site of Civil War fort built in spring of 1863. Attacked Oct. 6 by Confederate Col. John M. Hughs and his 25th Tenn. Infantry. US troops under Maj. Samuel Martin surprised. Over 200 horses captured, part of fort burned, and 142 men taken prisoner, later paroled. In nearby cemetery is buried Gen. Joseph H. Lewis, Commander of lst Kentucky (Orphan) Brigade, CSA. — Map (db m39405) HM|
|Kentucky (Barren County), Glasgow — General Joseph H. Lewis|
General Joseph H. Lewis, commander of the famous Orphan Brigade, is buried just down the hill from Fort Williams. The Orphan Brigade was composed of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th and 9th Kentucky Infantry regiments along with two batteries of artillery. These men fought with the Confederate Army of Tennessee throughout the war. They left Kentucky in early 1862 and did not return until the war was over. Lewis was their last commander.
Joseph H. Lewis was born in Glasgow and was educated . . . — Map (db m72389) HM|
|Kentucky (Barren County), Glasgow — Glasgow Municipal Cemetery|
|The Glasgow Municipal Cemetery is situated on what was originally farmland on the outskirts of town, owned by the Depp and Lynn families. This cemetery is Glagow's third public burying ground. Glasgow's first graveyard was located behind the First Presbyterian Church on the corner of East Washington Street and Broadway; that burial ground was moved in the late 1920's. The second graveyard was located on West Cherry Street. This cemetery was originally incorporated by the Odd Fellows Lodge . . . — Map (db m71563) HM|
|Kentucky (Bath County), Owingsville — 940 — Bath County|
|Formed from Montgomery County, 1811. Named for its many mineral springs. The birthplace of CSA Gen. John B. Hood and US Senator Richard H. Menefee. Owingsville named for Col. Thomas D. Owings. Organizer US 28th Inf. Reg., 1812. Associate in ownership, operation of Bourbon Iron Works, 1795 - 1822. Host to Louis Philippe of France during part of his exile in US. — Map (db m26286) HM|
|Kentucky (Bath County), Owingsville — 1528 — Capt. John “Jack” Jouett, Jr.|
|This famous Revolutionary War hero, who rode 40 mi. to warn Jefferson, Patrick Henry and other legislators of British approach, June 3, 1781, is buried in Bath Co. Jack Jouett of Va. galloped all night from Cuckoo Tavern to Monticello to Charlottesville. Moved to Ky., 1782. Represented Mercer County in Va. Assembly, and Mercer and Woodford counties in Ky. Assembly. — Map (db m26285) HM|
|Kentucky (Bath County), Owingsville — 592 — Courthouse Burned|
|Twenty-two Kentucky courthouses were burned during the Civil War, nineteen in last fifteen months: twelve by Confederates, eight by guerillas, two by Union accident. See map on reverse side.
March 21, 1864, Union troops fled courthouse here as CSA force came up. Overheated stove started fire, burning building. Guerillas burned many county records Dec. 4. (Map Caption on Reverse): -Route of Brig. Gen. Hylan B. Lyon. -Courthouses burned on Lyon's raid. -Other courthouses which . . . — Map (db m79165) HM|
|Kentucky (Bell County), Middlesboro — "This American Gibraltar"|
|"Cumberland Gap is the strongest position I have ever seen except Gibraltar." These were Union General George W. Morgan's words after viewing the fortification around the Gap. On June 19, 1862, he wrote to Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, "The enemy evacuated this American Gibraltar this morning... and DeCourcy's brigade took possession...." In honor of the capture, the Stars and Stripes were raised from the pinnacle of this mountain in proud ceremony. Three months later it was the Union . . . — Map (db m35770) HM|
|Kentucky (Bell County), Middlesboro — 129 — Colonel Arthur Campbell|
|Grave of Colonel Arthur Campbell (1743-1811). Statesman, revolutionary soldier, justice, legislator, county lieutenant. Sons, James and John killed in War of 1812. — Map (db m57938) HM|
|Kentucky (Bell County), Middlesboro — Defense of the Gap|
|During the Civil War this earthwork - called Fort Rains by the Confederates and Fort McCook by the Federals - was one of many fortifications ringing Cumberland Gap. These defenses were considered too formidable to be taken by direct assault, which accounts for the small number of soldiers killed here. The poor roads and rough country of the Gap made it difficult to resupply the outposts. An attacker could simply cut off supply lines, leaving the forts with little tactical value. Later in the . . . — Map (db m35733) HM|
|Kentucky (Bell County), Middlesboro — Gateway to Kaintuck|
|For travelers who had to walk, the Appalachian mountains seemed like an impenetrable wall, 600 miles long and 150 miles wide. Here at Cumberland Gap you could find both a good way in and a good way out of that rugged labyrinth of ridges, coves, and meandering streams. Woodland buffalo and parties of Cherokee and Shawnee passed north and south over this wilderness road for thousands of years. Frontier-era longhunters and settler families followed their trails, climbing up to the Gap and . . . — Map (db m35880) HM|
|Kentucky (Bell County), Middlesboro — Invasion through the Gap|
|For the North, Cumberland Gap was a natural invasion route into the South - providing access to vulnerable railroads and valuable minerals and salt works in East Tennessee and southwest Virginia. For the South, the Gap was a gateway for an invasion of Kentucky to drive out the Federal foe. Cumberland Gap exchanged hands four times during the Civil War August 1861 Confederates fortify Cumberland Gap. June 18, 1862 Union forces under General Morgan occupy the Gap. September 17, 1862 . . . — Map (db m35703) HM|
|Kentucky (Bell County), Middlesboro — 2217 — Lewis and Clark in Kentucky Cumberland Gap — Cumberland Gap|
Meriwether Lewis, coleader of the Lewis & Clark Expedition, with a party of Expedition veterans and a Mandan Indian delegation, went through Cumberland Gap in Nov. 1806 en route to Washington to report on the expedition. (Over)
Expedition coleader William Clark traveled through the Gap in Dec. 1806 on his way to Washington to reunite with Lewis and to report to President Thomas Jefferson and other government officials about the journey. — Map (db m33299) HM|
|Kentucky (Bell County), Middlesboro — 2225 — Middlesboro Meteorite Crater Impact Site|
| Side A:
Designated by the Kentucky Society of Professional Geologists as a Distinguished Geological Site. Middlesboro is one of only a few cities on the North American Continent located in the basin of a meteorite impact structure.
Sometime over the past 300 million years the impact of a meteorite in the heights of the Appalachian Mountains formed a circular basin approximately three miles in diameter in which the city of Middlesboro was built in 1889. — Map (db m33296) HM|
|Kentucky (Bell County), Middlesboro — 832 — Middlesborough|
|English colony founded in 1886 by Alexander Arthur. Project financed by English company, the American Association, because of timber and rich mineral deposits here. Almost 100,000 mountainous acres in Va., Tenn., and Ky. purchased for the settlement. Town was named for Middlesborough, England. Railroad to Knoxville and Cumberland Gap tunnel built by the company. — Map (db m33297) HM|
|Kentucky (Bell County), Middlesboro — 521 — Morgan's Retreat|
|During the Civil War, Cumberland Gap was held alternately by Union and CSA armies. USA forces under Gen. George W. Morgan occupied it June 18 to Sept. 17, 1862. Cut off from supplies and surrounded, Morgan with 9,000 men retreated successfully to Greenup on Ohio River, 200 miles in 16 days over mountain roads, and despite the harassment of CSA Morgan's Raiders. — Map (db m50230) HM|
|Kentucky (Bell County), Middlesboro — 1227 — Mountain Vision|
|Alexander Arthur, 1846-1912, an outstanding figure in history of Middlesboro. He came here in 1885 to prospect, discovering coal and iron ore deposits. President of American Association, formed to carry out his plans for a mining and manufacturing city. Watts Steel and Iron Company was one of the largest concerns, having blast furnaces, brick works, steel mills. — Map (db m33298) HM|
|Kentucky (Bell County), Middlesboro — Pinnacle Overlook|
|We started just as the sun began to gild the tops of the high mountains. We ascended Cumberland Mountain, from the top of which the bright luminary of the day appeared to our view in all his rising glory; the mists dispersed and the floating clouds hasted away at his appearing. This is the famous Cumberland Gap... Journal of James Smith, 1792 Know before you go During a thunderstorm move away from the overlook. Lighting strikes here often. Don't leave valuables visible in vehicles. Stay . . . — Map (db m35906) HM|
|Kentucky (Bell County), Middlesboro — The Emigrant's Dream|
|Cumberland Gap, the break in the ridgeline you see ahead, is far more than just a pass through a long, rugged mountain barrier. For a generation of American pioneers this was the gateway from their old lives and limitations out to a frontier wilderness, full of promise, and the chance to start a better life. What a buzzel is amongst people about Kentucke? To hear people speak of it one would think that it was a new found Paradise! Reverend John Brown, 1775 Ask these Pilgrims what . . . — Map (db m35899) HM|
|Kentucky (Bell County), Middlesboro — Two-Way Traffic|
|Two hundred years ago, pioneers poured through Cumberland Gap on their way west to a better life. But not all the traffic on the Wilderness Road was westbound. By the 1820s, drovers pushed huge herds of hogs and smaller herds of cattle and sheep eastward through the Gap to markets in Baltimore, Richmond, and Charleston, hundreds of miles from the growing Kentucky settlements. Before Daniel Boone there was Dr. Thomas Walker Cumberland Gap still bears the name Dr. Thomas Walker gave it when . . . — Map (db m35898) HM|
|Kentucky (Bell County), Middlesboro — Waiting for the Battle that Never Came|
|A natural thoroughfare through the Appalachian Mountain barrier, Cumberland Gap assumed great strategic importance in the Civil War. Both sides sought to control the Gap. It changed hands three times, but no battles were fought. Troops garrisoned here, Union and Confederate alike, endured months of inaction and boredom. Confederate soldier Seth Hannibal Hyatt from Cherokee County, North Carolina, wrote home on April 28, 1863 - Dear Father and Mother -: As I can get no letters from home to . . . — Map (db m35745) HM|
|Kentucky (Bell County), Pineville — 1426 — Cumberland Ford|
|One of the most important points on the Wilderness Road marked by Daniel Boone in 1775. Ford first used by Indians, then by early explorers and the Long Hunters. After Boone opened the way west, more than 100,000 settlers used the crossing as a gateway to Ky. During the Civil War ford occupied by both Union and CSA troops because of its strategic location. — Map (db m35831) HM|
|Kentucky (Bell County), Pineville — 198 — Joshua Fry Bell|
|Bell County formed from Harlan and Knox Counties, 1867. Named for Joshua Fry Bell, 1811-70, congressman, Ky. Sec. of State, comr. to peace conference in 1861 and state legislature. He was g. grandson of Dr. Thomas Walker, explorer of Ky. wilderness, 1750. — Map (db m35871) HM|
|Kentucky (Bell County), Pineville — Mountain Gateway|
|Bell County, named for Joshua Fry Bell (1811-1870), was formed just after the Civil War in February of 1867 from portions of Harlan and Knox Counties. Pineville, the county seat, being so near the site where pioneers on the Wilderness Road crossed the Cumberland River, had originally been called Cumberland Ford. Though the town was settled in 1781, it was only officially designated as Pineville upon the county's formation. In the early days, hunting parties penetrated into eastern Kentucky . . . — Map (db m35875) HM|
|Kentucky (Bell County), Pineville — 1272 — Wallsend Mine|
|The first to begin operations in Bell County, starting in 1889, with 1500 acres of coal land. Extension of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad to this area in 1888 marked the beginning of a new industrial era. This mine was not a financial success until it was purchased by Wallsend Coal and Coke Co., 1904, a Ky. corporation, but stock held mostly in England. — Map (db m35854) HM|
|Kentucky (Boone County), Florence — 1253 — Boone County, 1798|
Formed by legislative act from a part of Campbell County. Names for Daniel Boone, renowned Kentucky pioneer-explorer.
Big Boone Lick, graveyard of the mammoth, was discovered in 1729 by Capt. M. de Longueil. In 1756, Mary Inglis was brought here by Shawnees, the first white woman in Kentucky. In 1765-66, extensive bone collection sent to England. — Map (db m61867) HM|
|Kentucky (Boone County), Union — Big Bone Lick — Marker # 1 — Pre- Historic Site in Boone County, Kentucky|
|Discovered in 1739, by the French
Capt. Charles Lemoyne de Longueil
this famous saline- sulphur spring
was frequented for thousands of
years byIndians and vast herds of
buffalo, deer and other animals.
The first English explorers found
here scattered over the lick
countless bones and teeth of the
extinct Pleistocene elephants, the
mammoth and the mastodon.
Society of Colonial Wars in the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1938 — Map (db m79060) HM|
|Kentucky (Boone County), Union — 2124 — Big Bone Lick — Marker #2 - Marker at the Museum - with Lewis and Clark marker|
|Scientists consider William Clark’s
dig at Big Bone Lick in 1807 as
establishing American vertebrate
paleontology. Bones found here
by Clark included mastodon and
mammoth. Prehistoric native
American artifacts found were given
to Dr. Wm. Goforth in Cincinnati.
Sponsered by Friends of Big Bone, Ohio River
Chapter- Lewis & Clark Trail Heritage
Foundation, National Park Service, Kentucky
Lewis & Clark Bicentennial Commission. — Map (db m79062) HM|
|Kentucky (Boone County), Union — Big Bone Methodist Church — Historic Feature in Boone County, Kentucky|
|Big Bone Methodist Church
Big Bone Methodist Church was constructed in 1888
The original congregation, which was organized in 1887
and led by Reverend George Froh, helped in the construction.
As was the custom, a social order lodge shared the expense of the
construction and upkeep and occupied the upper floor, accessed
by a separate stairway. (picture, Big Bone Church in 1930)
The foundation of the church was made from limestone
rock, mostly carried up from Big Bone Creek. What . . . — Map (db m79030) HM|
|Kentucky (Boone County), Union — 2124 — Lewis and Clark in Kentucky — Big Bone Lick — ( Separate Visits by Both Explorers )|
|In Oct. 1803, while traveling down
Ohio River to meet Wm. Clark for
expedition to Pacific, Meriwether
Lewis visited Big Bone Lick. He
was to gather fossilized bones for
Pres. Thomas Jefferson. In Sept.
1807, clark supervised a 3-week
dig for bones at Jefferson’s request. — Map (db m79088) HM|
|Kentucky (Boone County), Union — Mary Draper Ingles — Marker #2 - Another Marker in Big Bone Lick State Park|
|In celebration & commemoration
the 250th anniversary of the daring escape of
Mary Draper Ingles
from her Shawnee captors here at
Big Bone Lick, Kentucky in the fall of 1755
Her direct descendants met here for a family reunion
to honor her unprecedented and unequaled
strength, courage, determination and fortitude
July 16, 2005
dedicated by the Friends of Big Bone — Map (db m79073) HM|
|Kentucky (Boone County), Union — 859 — Mary Ingles — (Marker #1) Another Marker at Big Bone Lick State Park|
|Reputed first white woman in Ky.
Shawnees captured her and two sons
in July 1755 at site Roanoke, Va.
Led to village at mouth of Scioto River,
separated from sons, taken to Big
Bone Lick. compelled to make salt
here; adopted by chief; given few
liberties. Escaped late fall with
another woman. After 40 days she
reached home. Died 1813, age 83.
A courageous, resourceful pioneer.
1965 Kentucky Historical Society Kentucky Department of Highways 859 — Map (db m79071) HM|
|Kentucky (Bourbon County), Paris — 1246 — Bourbon County, 1786|
|Named for the royal French family who aided the colonies in the War of Independence. Bourbon was one of nine Virginia counties formed before Kentucky became a state in 1792. From its original area all of twenty-four counties and parts of ten other new ones were made. At this site the first courthouse in 1787 marked the county seat. Known as Hopewell, renamed Paris. — Map (db m43621) HM|
|Kentucky (Bourbon County), Paris — 2295 — Bourbon Whiskey / Jacob Spears|
| Bourbon Whiskey
Named after Bourbon Co. because of quantity and quality of whiskey produced within its borders. Made from a fermented mash of at least 51% corn, with less wheat, rye, or barley, yeast and limestone water. Distilled at no more than 160 proof and aged in charred oak barrels. In 1964, Congress recognized bourbon as a distinctly American product.
Stone Castle, 1 mile south, built 1790 by Thomas Metcalfe for Jacob Spears. A Pennsylvanian who settled . . . — Map (db m35597) HM|
|Kentucky (Bourbon County), Paris — 51 — Cane Ridge Meeting House|
|Built by Presbyterians, 1791. Here Barton W. Stone began his ministry, 1796. Famous revival attended by pioneers of many faiths, 1801. Springfield Presbytery dissolved and "Christian Church" launched, June 28, 1804. — Map (db m9724) HM|
|Kentucky (Bourbon County), Paris — 93 — Duncan Tavern|
|Built in 1788.
Gathering place of pioneers.
Shrine, Museum, Library.
Kentucky Daughters of the
American Revolution. — Map (db m43624) HM|
|Kentucky (Bourbon County), Paris — 1824 — Eades Tavern|
|This log building lined with adz-hewn cherry was built as a tavern. In 1795 it became first post office in Paris. Thomas Eades then served as tavern owner and postmaster. Robert Trimble had home and law office here before becoming U.S. Supreme Court justice, 1826. It became site of Lizzie Walker's private school. Listed on National Register of Historic Places, 1973. — Map (db m43626) HM|
|Kentucky (Bourbon County), Paris — 1722 — John Edwards 1748-1837 / Westwood|
| John Edwards 1748-1837
As early legislator, Edwards was member of the Virginia House of Delegates in 1781-83, 1785, 1786. He was a delegate to the convention to ratify Federal Constitution, June 1788, and to conventions that separated Kentucky from Virginia. Edwards served as a representative to the 1792 convention which framed the first constitution of Ky. Over. |
Six miles west on Brentsville Road on Cooper's Run is the site of the home of John Edwards, one of . . . — Map (db m43623) HM
|Kentucky (Bourbon County), Paris — 1283 — Johnston's Inn|
|Robert Johnston, a Revolutionary War captain, was born in Virginia in 1749. He and his wife operated a tavern in their house here from 1796-1812. Located on what was the main road between Maysville and Lexington, this inn served stage and horseback passengers in its 30-foot tavern room with sleeping accommodations overhead. This house appears on first Ky. map of 1784. — Map (db m67703) HM|
|Kentucky (Bourbon County), Paris — 1596 — Silas Baptist Church — 1 mile west|
|Organized by 20 members of the Cooper's Run Church in 1800, with the help of Ambrose Dudley, George Eve and Augustine Eastin. They built at this site on land given, 1798, by Charles Smith, Sr. The log structure was replaced by a brick house of worship in 1850 and redecorated in 1902. It is the oldest church in the county continuing without interruption. — Map (db m35860) HM|
|Kentucky (Bourbon County), Paris — 178 — William Holmes McGuffey|
|Born September 23, 1800-Died May 4, 1873 Famous for his eclectic readers which introduced thousands of children to the treasures of literature. At this site he taught from 1823 to 1826 before joining the faculty of Miami University. — Map (db m50653) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyd County), Ashland — 1211 — Ashland|
| Settled by 1799 by members of the Poage family of Virginia. Known as Poage's Landing until named in 1854 for Henry Clay's Lexington estate, by the owners, Ky. Iron, Coal and Manufacturing Company. It engaged M. T. Hilton to lay out a town, then auctioned lots. City incorporated by act of Ky. Legislature, Feb. 23, 1856.
Presented by the City of Ashland — Map (db m59244) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyd County), Ashland — 1416 — Presbyterian Church|
Organized June 11, 1819, at home of Maj. Jas. Poage, north of this spot, as Bethesda Presbyterian Church by Rev. Robert Wilson with 20 members. First a mile SW on Pollard Rd.; moved 1828 to Beech Grove, ½ mile W. and in 1858 to this corner as First Presbyterian Church, oldest Boyd County church building and congregation, 1971.
Marker presented by Church members — Map (db m59242) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyd County), Ashland — 2125 — Putnam Stadium|
|This stadium served the Ashland Public Schools. Built in 1937 for $6,500 as a WPA project, it was dedicated on Thanksgiving Day that same year. The Ashland High School Tomcats record of success includes 11 state championships. In 1944, the Tomcats played under the lights at Putnam Stadium for the first time. Presented by Representative John Vincent. — Map (db m73802) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyd County), Ashland — War Memorial|
In grateful tribute
men and women
in the Armed Forces
of our country — Map (db m59243) WM|
|Kentucky (Boyd County), Catlettsburg — 643 — Civil War Army Base|
|USA post located here to protect Ohio River traffic. Became supply base and communications center for Union forces in the Big Sandy region. In winter 1861-62 troops under Col. J.A. Garfield, later 20th President U.S., drove CSA from area by victory at Middle Creek. Area cleared of CSA again in 1864 by USA Kentucky forces under Col. George W. Gallup. — Map (db m73765) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyd County), Catlettsburg — Country Music Highway — Small Town Big Fun|
|Boyd County was created in 1860 from parts of Greenup, Carter, and Lawrence and lies at a point where Ohio, West Virginia and Kentucky meet. Linked to Ohio by two bridges over the Ohio River and with two more to West Virginia (across the Big Sandy River), the county serves as a marketing area for some 420,805 people who live within 60 miles of Ashland (population 21,981 in 2000) the largest city, and the county seat of Catlettsburg (population 1,960), which stands at the confluence of the Ohio . . . — Map (db m73756) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyd County), Catlettsburg — 772 — County Named, 1860|
|For Linn Boyd. Born Tenn., 1800. Came to West Ky. in youth. Ky. Legislature, 1827-31. Congress, 1835-37, 1839-55, and Speaker 1851-55. Author of Resolution to annex Texas. The Ky. delegation proposed Boyd for Vice President at Democratic Convention, 1856, but convention chose Breckinridge of Ky. Boyd elected Lt. Gov., 1859. He died before taking office. — Map (db m73754) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyd County), Catlettsburg — Judge John M. Elliott|
|To the memory of Judge John M. Elliott, distinguished statesman and jurist. Assassinated while in the discharge of his official duties as Judge of the Court of Appeals of Kentucky. This monument respectively dedicated by his widow. — Map (db m73757) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyd County), Summit — Boyd County War Memorial|
This memorial is dedicated to those who
served their country in the Armed Forces.
Let us not forget those
Missing in Action and Prisoners of War.
[Roll of Honored Dead]
Dedicated Nov. 11, 1992
Honoring Boyd Co. War Dead — Map (db m63495) WM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 1958 — African American Business District - Doric Lodge No. 18 (F. & A.M.-P.H.A.)|
|In this block a thriving African American business district stood for over 100 years. Restaurants, barber and beauty shops, medical and dental offices, and retail shops drew patrons from Boyle and nearby counties. Until razed by urban renewal in 1973, the district was a center of local African American social and economic life.
(Reverse): Danville's Doric Lodge No. 18 was founded 1888 as Boyle Association and moved to this site in 1920. For 50 years, the lodge was a cultural and . . . — Map (db m49741) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — Dr. Ephraim McDowell House|
|McDowell House And Apothecary Shop
The pioneering spirit of Dr. Ephraim McDowell-father of abdominal surgery and most prominent surgeon west of the Alleghenies in the early 19th century-is celebrated today at McDowell House.
On Christmas Day 1809. Dr. McDowell performed the world's first successful ovarian surgery.
Mrs. Jane Todd Crawford, a 46-year old Green County housewife, had been told that she was pregnant with twins. Two doctors had not been able to help her deliver, . . . — Map (db m71041) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 2281 — Dr. Ephraim McDowell, 1771-1830/McDowell-Crawford Surgery|
|Burial site of Ephraim McDowell, the “father of modern surgery.” His family moved here from Va. in 1784. He studied medicine in Va. and Scotland before practicing in Danville. In 1802, he married Sarah Shelby, dau. of Ky.’s first gov. Was also a founder & early trustee of Centre College. Over.
Presented by Ephraim McDowell Health
(Reverse): McDowell-Crawford Surgery- Dec. 25, 1809, McDowell performed world’s 1st successful abdominal operation when he took a 22-pound . . . — Map (db m50814) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 2284 — Ephraim McDowell House|
Home of Ephraim McDowell, the “father of modern surgery.” Here on December 25, 1809, McDowell performed the first successful abdominal operation when he took a 22-pound ovarian cyst from Jane Todd Crawford of Green Co. With no anesthesia, she sang hymns during the operation. Crawford recovered in 25 days and lived until 1842.
Built in 3 stages. Brick ell, or single-story wing, built 1790s. McDowell purchased house in 1802 and . . . — Map (db m71047) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 2388 — First USCT Recruits at Camp Nelson|
May 23, 1864, nearly 250 black men, most of them slaves, left Boyle Co. to march to Camp Nelson in Jessamine Co. to enlist in the Union army. On the way, some Danville citizens threw stones and shot pistols at the recruits. When they reached camp, Union Col. Andrew Clark initially refused to accept them because no policy allowed for the recruitment of slaves.
Although a few local slave owners tried to reclaim some of the men, the . . . — Map (db m70996) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 1909 — Fisher's Garrison|
|Stephen Albert Fisher, Rev. War soldier from Va., assigned in 1775 to active duty and wounded while serving with Colonel John Bowman's militia. Returned to Ky. in 1779 with wife Mary Magdalene Garr. He established garrison of military significance in vicinity of 400-acre settlement tract. Bros. Adam (in Rev.) & Barnett followed to Ky.
Presented by Col. Richard Hampton Fisher, S.A.R. — Map (db m70981) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 755 — Grayson's Tavern|
|Danville's first tavern, operated in this building before 1800 by Benjamin Grayson. Often within these walls the burning political issues of the day were discussed. The Danville Political Society, organized in 1786 and the first of its kind in the West, met and dined here at Grayson's Tavern to "plan the course of the empire" before blazing log fires. — Map (db m49742) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — John Gill Weisiger Memorial Park|
John Gill Weisiger Memorial Park
The land embraced within this park, bounded by Main Street, First Street, Walnut Street and alleyway, was conveyed to the commonwealth of Kentucky as a gift by Miss Emma Weisiger, and accepted by the Governor of Kentucky on October 15, 1937, as a memorial to her brother, John Gill Weisiger
Here in April 1792 Kentucky's First Constitution was framed and adopted and another Empire was born — Map (db m71338) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 2244 — John Todd Stuart, 1807-1885|
|Abraham Lincoln’s friend and 1st law partner was born on Nov. 10, 1807, in Fayette Co. The son of a Presbyterian minister & Mary Todd Lincoln’s aunt, Stuart graduated from Centre College in 1826. Two years later he became a lawyer in Springfield, IL. Met Lincoln when an officer in Black Hawk War and encouraged him to study law. Over.
(Reverse): Lent Lincoln law books and they were law partners, 1837–1841. He was a Whig in IL legislature and US Cong. Backed John Bell over . . . — Map (db m49746) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 2216 — Lewis and Clark in Kentucky - Danville|
|In December 1806, William Clark, coleader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition to the Pacific Ocean, visited his nephews in school in Danville. Clark was en route to Washington to report to President Jefferson and other government officials about the journey. Over.
(Reverse): It is likely that the Expedition coleader Meriwether Lewis visited Danville in November 1806 with Expedition veterans and a Mandan Indian delegation while traveling the Wilderness Road eastward to Washington. — Map (db m49744) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 754 — Presbyterian Church|
|One of three founded, 1784, by Reverend David Rice; earliest of this denomination west of Alleghenies. Here worshipped: James G. Birney, whose presidential candidacy in 1844 caused defeat of Henry Clay; John C. Breckinridge, whose 1860 candidacy resulted in election of Lincoln; Samuel D. Burchard, whose "Rum, Romanism and Rebellion" defeated James G. Blaine in 1884. — Map (db m49745) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 190 — Walker Daniel|
|Founded Danville, 1781. First Atty. Gen. of Ky. District, 1783. As a member of Commission went to Falls of Ohio to allot lands in Clark's grant to members of Ill. Regt. Daniel was killed by Indians, Aug. 1784, on way to visit brother at Bullitt's Lick. — Map (db m49743) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — “For God’s Sake, Save That Battery” The 38th Indiana at Perryville — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|The 436 members of the 38th Indiana Infantry Regiment deployed here, in a cut cornfield, next to the 10th Wisconsin Infantry. These men supported Captain Peter Simonson’s six cannon, which were located to your right. It was a crucial position; along with Simonson’s guns, these infantrymen anchored the center of the Union battleline.
Simonson’s guns roared as an artillery duel opened the Battle of Perryville. The ground shook with the booming cannon, and the Northerners on this ridge . . . — Map (db m46482) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — “If You Meet the Enemy, Overpower Him” — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|About 4 PM on October 8, Colonel Samuel Powell was ordered to move his brigade westward and discover how many Federal troops were stationed west of Perryville. His 1,000-man force dutifully advanced along the Springfield Pike (today US 150 and 4th Street), and ran headlong into the 22,000 men of Acting Major General Charles C. Gilbert’s III Corps. Gilbert’s command, idle for most of the day, reacted to this probe with fury and soon sent Powell’s men scurrying back info Perryville with Federal . . . — Map (db m46416) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — 80th Indiana — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|The inexperienced 80th Indiana Infantry Regiment was part of Union Colonel George Webster’s brigade. This unit included the 50th, 98th, and 121st Ohio infantry regiments and the 19th Battery, Indiana Light Artillery, commanded by Captain Samuel Harris. The 80th Indiana was deployed here to support Harris’s artillery, which was located on this ridge, in front of you.
When the Confederate attack began, the 80th Indiana lay down to await the Southern assault. The roar of musketry and cannon . . . — Map (db m46493) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — 9-A — Act of Mercy — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|The Battle of Perryville was a fierce fight for the members of the 79th Pennsylvania Infantry. Fighting in these fields, this unit suffered 40 killed, 146 wounded, and 30 missing. This represents a loss of more than fifty percent of the regiment.
Among the casualties was William Woodward of company D. Shot in the left side by a Confederate “buck and ball” round (containing a round bullet and three smaller pieces of buckshot), Woodward was shot through the chest and lost a finger . . . — Map (db m46476) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Army of the Ohio — Major General Don Carlos Buell|
| First Army Corps Major General Alexander McD McCook Tenth Division Brigadier General James S. Jackson Thirty-Third Brigade Brigadier General William R. Terrill 80th, 123rd Illinois and 105th Ohio Infantry Regiments and detachments 7th, 32nd Kentucky 3rd Tennessee Infantry Parsons' Improvised United States Battery Thirty-Fourth Brigade Colonel George Webster 80th Indiana, 50th, 98th, 121st Ohio Infantry Regiments Harris' 19th Indiana Infantry Third Division Brigadier . . . — Map (db m21467) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Artillery Duel at Loomis Heights — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|Before the Confederate infantry attacked, the Southern army tried to weaken the Federal position by bombarding the Union lines with artillery fire. At noon, Captain William Carnes’ Confederate artillery battery took up position on one of the far ridges east of this location. From those distant hills in front of you, the Confederate cannon hammered these lines with fire.
With shells and cannonballs whistling through the air and exploding overhead, Cyrus Loomis’ Michigan battery located here . . . — Map (db m46487) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Assault from the Bottom House — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|They were outnumbered, but they were ready. Watching from the top of the hill across the road, members of the 3rd Ohio Infantry Regiment saw waves of attacking Confederate infantry moving toward them. These Federal soldiers, anchoring the southern end of the Union defensive line, knew that they had to hold their position.
With a cheer, a Confederate brigade led by Brigadier General Bushrod Johnson charged the hill. The obstinate Union defenders halted the Confederate advance halfway up the . . . — Map (db m46491) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Assault on Parsons’ Ridge — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|Maney’s Confederates immediately discovered the lethal danger of attacking the eight Union cannon on top of the ridge in front of you. The Confederates sought cover behind a split-rail fence, but the Union artillery shattered the rails, killing and wounding scores of soldiers. The Confederate attack slowed and then stopped.
With bullets smashing against the remaining wooden rails, the Confederates traded gunfire with Union infantry. As casualties mounted, the Southern officers knew their . . . — Map (db m46469) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — 58 — Battle of Perryville|
|October 8, 1862 Here 16,00 Confederates under General Braxton Bragg fought 22,000 Federals under General Don Carlos Buell. Bragg, facing superior forces, withdrew.Union casualties 4211; Confederate, 3396. — Map (db m5193) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — 553 — Battle of Perryville — October 8, 1862|
The battle was brought on by Confederate Lieut. Gen. Braxton Bragg as a delaying action to insure safe withdrawal of a huge wagon train of supplies and to enable him to effect a junction with the army of Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith in the vicinity of Versailles.
In overall command of the Union Army (Army of the Ohio) was Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell, with Maj. General George H. Thomas second in command. Buell had three corps. First: Maj. Gen. Alexander McDowell McCook. . . . — Map (db m46239) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — 58 — Battle of Perryville — October 8, 1862|
|Here 16,000 Confederates under General Braxton Bragg fought 22,000 Federals under General Don Carlos Buell. Bragg, facing superior forces, withdrew. Union casualties, 4211; Confederate, 3396. — Map (db m55026) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — 58 — Battle of Perryville|
|October 8, 1862. Here 16,000 Confederates under General Braxton Bragg fought 22,000 Federals under General Don Carlos Buell. Bragg, facing superior forces, withdrew, Union casualties, 4211; Confederate, 3396. — Map (db m68552) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — 192 — Bottom House|
|Owned by Squire H. P. Bottom, it was a key position in Battle of Perryville, Oct. 8, 1862. At the beginning of battle held by USA troops. After a massed attack, Confederates took the house and held it. The battle over, Bottom identified and buried CSA dead. — Map (db m21422) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Bragg's Invasion of Kentucky|
|The Confederate Army’s advance into Kentucky in 1862 was initiated to relieve Tennessee of Union control, to align the help of dissatisfied Kentuckians and to gain access to the rich supplies Kentucky offered.
General Kirby Smith entered southeastern Kentucky advancing toward Louisville. General Braxton Bragg advanced northwestward to join General Smith at Louisville. General Bragg by vacillation lost the opportunity of capturing Louisville or of defeating General Don Carlos Buell’s Union . . . — Map (db m46404) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Confederate Cemetery — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|When the Battle of Perryville ended, hundreds of dead soldiers were left on the battlefield. The Confederates, who attacked the Union battle lines, lost 532 killed, 2,641 wounded, and 228 missing (3,401 total). Federal losses were just as staggering. The Union army suffered 890 killed, 2,893 wounded, and 437 missing (4,220 total). While there is no way to find exact numbers because of inaccurate casualty reports, these figures represent the most recent estimates.
Although the Confederate . . . — Map (db m46421) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — 193 — Crawford House|
|Used by Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg as headquarters during the Battle of Perryville, Oct. 8, 1862. Crawford Spring, back of the house, furnished vital water supply to CSA troops on the drought stricken battlefield. — Map (db m46248) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — 965 — Crawford Springs|
|As Confederate and Union armies converged over to the west the day and night before great Battle of Perryville, Oct. 8, 1862, there was constant fighting for water. Almost unprecedented drought had made water so scarce that troops contended for pools in dry creeks. This spring provided continuous supply to CSA Gen. Bragg's hdqrs. and troops on this side of river. — Map (db m68319) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Defense of Loomis’ Heights — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|In 1862, the ravine in front of you was planted in corn, the fields recently cut and harvested. Here, on this ridge, the Union soldiers established a strong defensive position. Two brigades and six cannon awaited the Confederate attack.
With a shout, Jones’ Confederate brigade crested the hill in front of you. Outnumbering the Confederate attackers, the Union troops’ muskets blazed. Sheets of flame erupted from the hundreds of rifles and the rapid fire at close range halted the attackers . . . — Map (db m46485) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Defense of Parsons’ Ridge — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|Union Brigadier General William Terrill was nearly panic-stricken. To his surprise, thousands of Confederates swarmed over the fields in front of you, moving toward the Federal lines. The shouts of attacking Southern troops and the crescendo of gunfire echoed among these hills. Terrill’s soldiers, mostly new recruits, were still maneuvering into position as they faced the terror of their first battle.
Terrill ordered the eight cannon on this ridge to fire into the Confederate ranks. As the . . . — Map (db m46470) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Defense of Parsons’ Ridge — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|As Maney’s Confederates reached the top of this hill they watched the fleeing Union soldiers retreat into the valley in front of you. The Southerners had lost hundreds of men killed and wounded during the fight to take this ridge, and their hearts must have sunk when they saw more Federal troops arriving on the ridges to the west.
Because of Perryville’s rolling terrain, the Union army established one defensive position after another, each on a hilltop or ridge. While this hill marked the . . . — Map (db m46471) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — 24 — Dixville Crossroads — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|During the Battle of Perryville, the Dixville Crossroads, the intersection in front of you, was a crucial tactical point on the battlefield.
Here, the Benton Road (now called Whites Road), which runs to Dixville in Mercer County, intersects the Perryville-Mackville Road (now Hayes May Road). On October 8, 1862, this was the key intersection of the battle. All of the Union supply wagons were parked behind you. These important supplies nearly fell into Confederate hands.
Had the . . . — Map (db m46492) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Donelson Persists — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|When Donelson’s shattered regiments reached this position, nearly half of his men had been killed and wounded. Despite the appalling casualties, the Confederate attack continued to the west.
With Donelson’s 16th Tennessee Infantry Regiment taking the lead, the stubborn Confederate advance moved past the ridge in front of you. Driving the Union defenders away from the Widow Gibson cabin, Donelson’s persistent soldiers were finally stopped by a Union brigade commanded by Colonel George . . . — Map (db m46480) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Donelson's Advance — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|When Donelson’s brigade moved into this valley, they were met with a deadly surprise. The rolling terrain had prevented the Confederates from seeing all of the Union troop positions. When the Confederates reached this valley, they became trapped in a deadly crossfire as Union artillery fired at them from both the west and the north.
Shells exploded overhead and cannonballs crashed into the Southern lines, but the brigade surged forward. Casualties were horrible from the crossfire, and the . . . — Map (db m46481) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Donelson's Attack — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
Confederate Brigadier General Daniel Donelson had been given great responsibility. His brigade was to open the Confederate attack by assaulting the northern end of the Union defensive line. Once Donelson’s brigade moved forward, other Southern troops would enter the battle. It was imperative for Donelson’s men to strike quickly and forcefully.
Before Donelson’s infantry deployed, Confederate cavalry rode through these fields, scouting out the Federal position and driving off a Union . . . — Map (db m46430) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — First Settlement of Perryville — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|The area around this cave was the site of Perryville’s original settlement, Harbison’s Station. Named for its founder, James Harbison, the station was settled in the 1770s. Harbison and the group of Virginians traveling with him chose this location because the cave housed a natural spring and was situated on the banks of the Chaplin River (to your left rear behind the buildings). A fort was built around the cave for protection, and Harbison’s Station soon became a center of pioneer life in what . . . — Map (db m46419) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Illinois Soldiers at Perryville|
|The Fifty-ninth Illinois Volunteers, commanded by Maj. Joshua Winters, here suffered 113 casualties of 325 engaged. The Seventy-fifth Illinois, Lieut. Col. John E. Bennett, lost 225 of 700. Serving with Col. Michael Gooding's Thirteenth Brigade, the regiments came to the aid of Maj. Gen. Alexander McD. McCook's Corps and coolly resisted vicious charges, firing with "terrible effect." — Map (db m46356) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Introduction — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
The Battle of Perryville
In the summer of 1862, Confederate General Braxton Bragg’s Army of the Mississippi invaded Kentucky. Bragg hoped to enlist recruits, pull Union troops out of Tennessee, and hold Kentucky for the Confederacy. With these objectives in mind, the Confederate army entered the Bluegrass State.
Union soldiers reacted quickly to Bragg’s invasion. Moving from Nashville, Union General Don Carlos Buell’s Army of the Ohio rushed to Kentucky. Realizing that Bragg . . . — Map (db m46422) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — 876 — Karrick-Parks House / Harberson's Station|
Bivouac for Confederate troops on Oct. 7, 1862, night before Battle of Perryville. Karricks ordered to vacate home the next day. Day after the battle they returned to survey damage, found little done. Officers, doctors lived in house for about 6 months. It was built early 1850s, bought in 1856 by James V. Karrick, who came from Shelby Co., Ky. See over.
First settled, 1781 or 1782, by group . . . — Map (db m46396) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — 2391 — Kirkland Home|
|Near here was the home of Charles King and Caroline Purdom Kirkland. To escape the Battle of Perryville, they traveled with their 3 young children 10 miles south to the home of Caroline’s father in Forkland. When they returned a few days later, they found their home had been used as a hospital and much of their property destroyed.
Presented By the Kirkland Family
Their blood-stained dining room table was used for operations and their clothes torn for . . . — Map (db m68320) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Lumsden's Battery|
|The scene must have been spectacular to the members of Captain Charles Lumsden's artillery battery. Rolling their four cannon up to this hill to support the attacking Confederate infantry, the Southern cannoneers beheld the Union line that stretched across the far ridge in front of you. Thousands of Federal soldiers were positioned on that ridge, their bayonets gleaming in the October sun. When Lumsden's artillery was put into action against the Union position, Perryville's hilly terrain . . . — Map (db m63361) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Maney's Attack — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|Confederate Brigadier General George Maney was growing concerned. On the hill to your front, eight Union cannon blasted away, killing and wounding dozens of Southern soldiers. Maney knew that his brigade had to take the hill and quickly silence those guns.
As he formed his 1,600 soldiers into two lines in the fields behind you, trees and rolling terrain hid his men from the Union battery. Four Confederate cannon rolled into position here and began answering the fire from the Union battery. . . . — Map (db m46467) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — 2223 — Merchants' Row / Street Fighting|
Originally known as Main St., the town's historic commercial center renamed Buell St. to honor Union general D.C. Buell. Now called Merchants' Row, most buildings built 1830-40. Temperance leader Carrie Nation lived here as a child. Buildings damaged during Perryville battle & used as field hospitals. Row later raided by pro-Confederate guerillas. Over.
Area saw fighting during the Oct. 8, 1862 . . . — Map (db m46399) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — 555 — Michigan at Perryville|
Among the 61,000 Union soldiers who at the Battle of Perryville ended Confederate attempts to gain control of Kentucky were six Michigan units. The most heavily engaged of these were Coldwater’s Loomis Battery (Battery A of the First Michigan Light Artillery), the Second Michigan Cavalry and the Twenty-First Michigan Infantry. During the course of the battle, Battery A, equipped with six ten-pounder Parrott guns prevented the right flank of General Daniel McCook’s corps . . . — Map (db m46357) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — On this Spot Brig. Gen. James S. Jackson Fell|
|Gen. Jackson was born in Fayette Co., Ky. 1823, died Perryville, Oct. 8, 1862. Graduated Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Penn. and Transylvania University. Lawyer, Hopkinsville. Lieutenant 1st, Ky. Cavalry, Mexican War. Member of Congress, 1861, resigned. Organized 3rd Ky. Union Cavalry Sept. 1861; Brig. Gen Aug. 13, 1862; Commanded 10th Div. 1st Army Corps. Army of Ohio in Battle of Perryville. Impressive in person, graceful in manner, kindly, chivalrous, he was the highest type of Kentucky gentleman. — Map (db m21418) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Perryvile and the Emancipation Proclamation|
|In mid-1862, President Abraham Lincoln wrestled with the idea of issuing the Emancipation Proclamation. With Confederate armies pressing into Maryland and Kentucky, Lincoln realized that he could not issue the Proclamation until the Union secured a major military victory. In addition, Lincoln feared how Unionists in Kentucky, Missouri, and Maryland would react, although the Proclamation did not free border-state slaves.
However, three Confederate failures in the autumn of 1862 gave Lincoln . . . — Map (db m46363) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — 1284 — Perryville|
|Established as Harberson's Fort before 1783 by James Harberson, Thomas Walker, Daniel Ewing and others at the crossroads of Danville-Louisville and Harrodsburg-Nashville routes. Town laid out by Edward Bullock and William Hall, 1815, named for Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, victorious at Battle of Lake Erie in 1813. Incorporated by act of Ky. Legislature, January 17, 1817. — Map (db m46400) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Perryville Battlefield|
|Perryville Battlefield has been designated a Registered National Historic Landmark Under the provisions of the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935 this site possesses exceptional value in commemorating and illustrating the history of the United States U.S. Department of the Interior National Park Service 1961 — Map (db m21450) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Perryville Confederate Memorial|
Nor braver bled for a brighter land, no brighter land had a cause so grand.
On flames eternal camping ground their tents are spread. And glory guards with solemn round the bivouac of the dead.
Capt. Cogar • Capt. Wm. B. Cathey. • T.J. Cogar. • James Stewart. • Jessie Brow. • William Crittenden. • William Patterson. • Edmund W. Ferris Macon. Miss • E.L. Hill, Co. A 37th Miss • William Jordan, " " • Lewis . . . — Map (db m68664) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Perryville in the Crucible of War — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|As the Union and Confederate armies deployed around Perryville on October 7 and 8, the city’s inhabitants found themselves caught in the middle. Many residents fled the town in haste, taking whatever belongings they could collect. Other civilians endured the battle in cellars or in the cave by the Chaplin River. As far as can be determined, no civilians died during the fighting on
October 8, 1862.
Bragg’s army abandoned Perryville on October 9, retreating northward toward Harrodsburg. . . . — Map (db m46417) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — 194 — Russell House|
|On the knoll, it was a key position on the Union left flank under Maj. Gen. McCook in Battle of Perryville, Oct. 8, 1862. The scene of desperate fighting, it changed hands twice and was hit many times. After the battle it was used as a hospital. — Map (db m46355) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Sanctuary — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|As fighting raged, Union soldiers in Brigadier General William Terrill’s brigade were driven from the ridge and the split rail fence in front of you. Most of these troops had never been in combat. This inexperience sometimes led men and officers to try to find sanctuary from the battle in dangerous places.
Union Captain Robert B. Taylor was one of these inexperienced officers. Born in Frankfort, Kentucky, in 1831, Taylor raised an infantry company and was quickly thrust into the Battle of . . . — Map (db m46484) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Sgt. Harris B. Cope Memorial|
Dedicated to the memory of
Sgt. Harris B. Cope
16th Tennessee Infantry
who fell in the fields ahead
October 8, 1862
The brigade of Brig. Gen. Daniel S. Donelson (nephew of President Andrew Jackson) consisted of the 8th, 15th, 16th, 38th, and 51st Tennessee Infantry regiments, and Capt. William Carnes’ Tennessee Light Artillery Battery, and was the first of the four brigades of Maj. Gen. Benjamin F. Cheatham’s . . . — Map (db m46420) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — 17 — Simonson’s Battery — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|The six guns of Union Captain Peter Simonson’s 5th Battery, Indiana Light Artillery were posted on this ridge. These Hoosiers had a commanding view of the Confederate advance, and their battery anchored the center of the Union battle line.
Prior to the Confederate attack, Southern artillery posted on the far hills in front of you fired on Simonson’s battery and Captain Cyrus Loomis’s Union artillery, which was deployed to your right. Simonson’s rifled guns could shoot farther than the . . . — Map (db m46486) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — 2399 — Site of First Rural Electric Co-Op Substation in County|
|W. H. Rogers, president of Inter-County R.E.C.C., threw the switch at the Perryville substation on June 10, 1938, to energize 56 miles of line to 115 homes. In 2013, on the 75th anniversary of this event, Inter-County Energy served more than 25,000 members/owners within 12 counties, over more than 3,700 miles of line. — Map (db m68402) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Soldiers' Reaction to Lincoln's Emancipation|
|Whether a soldier was Union or Confederate in his loyalties during the Civil War, there was not a unified reaction to Abraham Lincoln’s preliminary or official Emancipation Proclamation. The individual reaction varied on either side of this struggle, both north and south of the Mason-Dixon Line.
President Lincoln’s Government seems to have exercised its ingenuity to dispel any such delusion. Its acts demonstrate clearly that the purpose is to subjugate us, . . . — Map (db m46364) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Starkweather’s Hill — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|Their faces and hands begrimed from the smoke of battle, and their ears ringing with the constant ripping of musketry, Starkweather’s shattered brigade retreated to the ridge in front of you. They had saved several cannon, pushing them back to a new position. Most of the Union infantry took cover behind a stone wall that ran across part of the hill. Perryville’s rolling terrain allowed the Federals to establish another defensive position on high ground.
Maney’s Confederates regrouped and . . . — Map (db m46473) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Starkweather's Hill — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|As Union Colonel John Starkweather stood on this hill, watching Terrill’s brigade retreat, he realized the importance of his position. With its twelve cannon, Starkweather’s brigade stood as the only Federal defense between the attacking Confederates and the Union wagons that carried ammunition and medical supplies. As the survivors of Terrill’s brigade and the 21st Wisconsin fled past their position, Starkweather’s men held firm and awaited the Confederate attack.
Although nearing . . . — Map (db m46475) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Stewart's Advance — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|The battle opened with great fury. To your left, Donelson's brigade hurled themselves against the Union lines, but their attack momentarily stalled. In the fields to your right, Maney's Confederate brigade also assaulted the Federal position.
To support these troops, Brigadier General A. P. Stewart's brigade entered the battle. Placing his five regiments into one long line, Stewart's men advanced behind the other attacking Confederate troops.
Stewart's regiments immediately came under . . . — Map (db m46432) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Stewart's Attack — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|Wedged between Donelson’s and Maney’s brigades, Stewart’s Confederates continued their advance. Two Union infantry regiments initially held this area, but Stewart’s attack hurled them back.
There was more work to be done. From the second ridge ahead of you, Union captain Samuel Harris’ artillery battery fired toward this position, into the advancing Southern line. Soon, this field was filled with the wounded, dead, and dying.
Eventually, Stewart’s regiments intermingled with other . . . — Map (db m46478) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — The 15th Kentucky Infantry (US) — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|On the ridge to your right front and across the paved road fought the 15th Kentucky Infantry (US). The 15th was recruited in the fall of 1861 from northern Kentucky and the Louisville area. At Perryville the regiment (part of Colonel William Lytle’s brigade of General Lovell Rousseau’s division) numbered 517 men and was commanded by Colonel Curran Pope, a graduate of West Point and a prominent Louisville politician. The 15th also contained several representatives of well-known Kentucky . . . — Map (db m46490) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — The Battle of Perryville|
|The battle which climaxed the major Confederate invasion of Kentucky was fought on these hills west of Perryville.
A sharp clash occurred on October 7 in order to gain possession of the only water supply in the vicinity. The opposing armies took their positions along a north-south battle line three miles in length. This part is located at the northern end of the battle line and it was here, at 2 o'clock on the afternoon of October 8, 1862, that a fierce charge from the
Confederate's . . . — Map (db m21474) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — The Battle of Perryville|
|The Battle of Perryville was fought on October 8, 1862. It was the climax of a campaign that lasted almost two months and affected the entire state of Kentucky. The campaign started when Edmund Kirby Smith’s Confederate army entered Kentucky on August 13, 1862. Smith’s army by-passed the Union stronghold at Cumberland Gap and smashed a hastily assembled Union force at Richmond, Kentucky on August 30. Smith’s army then occupied Lexington and Frankfort by early September.
Braxton Bragg’s . . . — Map (db m46372) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — The City of Perryville — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|The area that became Perryville was first settled between 1776 and 1780 by a group of Virginians led by James Harbison. The settlement became known as Harbison’s Station, and a stockade was built around a cave that exists today behind 403 South Buell Street. Settlers poured into the surrounding region in the decades after Kentucky achieved statehood in 1792.
Perryville was incorporated as a city on January 17, 1817. It was named in honor of Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, a War of 1812 . . . — Map (db m46415) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — The Cornfield — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|During the Battle of Perryville, a field of ten-foot high cornstalks, brown and dry from a severe drought, covered this valley. Obscured among the corn, 800 members of the 21st Wisconsin Infantry Regiment waited. In the army for less than a month, many of these new recruits had never before fired their rifles.
It must have been a terrifying experience. For more than an hour they listened as Terrill’s brigade battled Maney’s soldiers for control of the hill above the field. Then, as the . . . — Map (db m46472) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — The Dye House — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|In 1860, a forty-three year-old farmer named John Dye lived here with his wife, Elizabeth, their four children, and six slaves. The 120-acre farm produced hay, corn, and wheat, and the family also had a few cows, horses, and mules.
Two years later, the Battle of Perryville struck. Confederate General Simon Bolivar Buckner commandeered the house as his headquarters and most of the Confederate army passed by the house as they deployed to attack the Union right flank, which was located about . . . — Map (db m46405) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — 5b — Turner's Battery — Perryville — The Battle for Kentucky October 8, 1862|
|When General Maney’s Confederates attacked the Union left flank, located on the ridge in front of you, a Confederate artillery battery commanded by Lieutenant William Turner took position here. To support Maney’s advance, Tuner’s four cannon rained fire upon the Union position.
The Southerners drove the Union troops off of the ridge, and Turner moved his guns to that position to support the continued Confederate advance. More Confederate artillery commanded by Captain William Carnes then . . . — Map (db m46468) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Union Monument|
|To the valiant soldiers of the Army of the United States, who bravely and heroically fell in the Battle of Perryville October 8, 1862. This monument in grateful memory of their loyal service and noble sacrifice has been erected by the reunited republic they died to save. Base of Monument: Authorized by Act of Congress approved March 3, 1928. Rear of Monument: For freedoms battle, once begun, bequeathed by bleeding sire to son, though baffled oft, is ever won. — Map (db m21465) HM|
|Kentucky (Boyle County), Perryville — Widow Gibson Cabin|
|In 1862, the widow Mary Jane Gibson and her children lived here in a small cabin. The Gibsons were poor tenant farmers who scratched out a living on land owned by Henry Bottom, their first cousin. On October 8, the household was spun into confusion as blue-clad Union troops swarmed around the house. Soon, Donelson's Confederate brigade attacked and the Federal soldiers fell back to this ridge, where they reformed on the high ground around the cabin. For the Gibson family, it must have been a . . . — Map (db m63354) HM|
|Kentucky (Breathitt County), Jackson — 641 — "Bloody Breathitt"|
|The courthouse that stood here, 1899-1963, was a landmark of Kentucky's "feudin' 'n' fightin'." Stemming from Civil War, feuds and political disagreements, unnumbered slayings, ambushes, and assassinations occurred between 1870-1920. In 11 months, 1901-02, 40 men were slain. Probably 100 Breathitt County officials were killed in that era of the past. — Map (db m73893) HM|
|Kentucky (Breathitt County), Jackson — 961 — Breathitt County|
|Formed from parts of Estill, Clay, Perry Counties, 1839. Named for Gov. John Breathitt, who died in office, 1834. Breathitt born in Va. 1786. Family came to Logan County, Ky. 1800. Representative Ky. Legis. 3 terms, Lt. Gov. 1828, Gov. 1832-34. County seat first named Breathitt; change in 1845 to Jackson, honoring hero of New Orleans, the 7th U.S. President. — Map (db m73891) HM|
|Kentucky (Breathitt County), Jackson — 904 — Breathitt Volunteers|
|During World War I, this county attained national prominence by filling its quota of service men by volunteers. No men had to be drafted from Breathitt, the only county in U.S. with his record. During war 3,912 men registered, 405 volunteered, 324 were called, 281 inducted and 43 rejected. Kentuckians ranked among highest in nation in physical fitness. — Map (db m73892) WM|
|Kentucky (Breathitt County), Jackson — Broken Column|
|In ancient days a stately column or pillar was used to honor those persons of nobility and dignity who contributed much to the community or state. A broken column was used to honor those who died or were struck down and cut off in the vigor of life and indicated the great loss suffered by the community. With this broken column Breathitt County honors those noble and valiant sons she lost during the Korean War. — Map (db m73885) WM|
|Kentucky (Breathitt County), Jackson — Willie Sandlin|
|Kentuckys only medal of honor winner in World War I. Born at the head of Freeman fork of Longs Creek, Breathitt County, KY. Jan. 1. 1890. Single handedly destroyed three German machine gun nests. Killed 24 enemy soldiers near Bois De Froges France Sept. 26, 1918. Received medal for heroism July 19, 1919, died Leslie County, KY. age 59, May 29, 1949 of lingering lung infection, the result of inhaling poisonous gas during war. Originally buried in Leslie County. Re interred in Zachary Taylor National Cemetery, Louisville KY. — Map (db m73884) WM|
|Kentucky (Breathitt County), Morris Fork — 1289 — Sam and Nola of Morris Fork|
|Samuel VanderMeer came here from New Jersey in 1923. “Uncle Sam” to generations of Ky. Youngsters, he became pastor of the Morris Fork Presbyterian Church in 1927, the year he married nurse Nola Pease. Missionaries, community builders. They gave a total of 98 years of service and love to this area until retirement in 1968. Church and Community Center, 1 mile. — Map (db m39151) HM|
|Kentucky (Bullitt County), Shepherdsville — 1413 — Morgan - On To Ohio|
|July 2, 1863, CSA Gen. J.H. Morgan began raid to prevent USA move to Tenn. and Va. Repulsed at Green River, July 4. Defeated USA force at Lebanon, July 5. Moved through Bardstown, July 6. After night march, crossed here July 7. Rested troops few hours and proceeded to Brandenburg. Crossed to Indiana, July 8. He continued raid until captured in northeast Ohio, July 26. — Map (db m71984) HM|
|Kentucky (Caldwell County), Princeton — 579 — Courthouse Burned|
Gen. Hylan B. Lyon with 800 men invaded Ky., Dec. 1864, to enforce CSA draft law and divert USA from Nashville. In 23 days he burned seven courthouses used by Union forces. See map on reverse side. US troops fled Princeton as Lyon came from Eddyville. Courthouse burned on Dec. 15. Records saved. Next day, Lyon stopped US force, then moved toward Madisonville. — Map (db m79157) HM|
|Kentucky (Calloway County), New Concord — 147 — Fort Heiman|
|Confederate fort erected in 1861. Federals occupied 1862. Seized by CSA Gen. Forrest in fall 1864. With field cannon his cavalrymen sank 2 Union river transports. Captured another and a gunboat, and commandeered them. Due east, this side of Kentucky Lake. — Map (db m37939) HM|
|Kentucky (Calloway County), New Concord — 1373 — Gerard Furnace — Iron Made in Kentucky|
|(Front): Gerard Furnace Built 2¼ miles east in 1854 by Browder, Kentucky and Co. Inside it was 24ft. high and 10½ ft. across at widest point, burning locally made charcoal fuel. Its air blast machinery was powered by steam. In 34 weeks of 1857, it produced 1,595 tons of pig iron, mostly shipped by steamboats on Tennessee River. Did not operate after 1858. See other side. (Reverse): Iron Made in Kentucky A major producer since 1791, Ky. ranked 3rd in US in 1830s, 11th . . . — Map (db m37941) HM|
|Kentucky (Campbell County), Bellevue — Bellevue, Kentucky|
|Incorporated March 15, 1870, on part of original land grant to Gen. James Taylor, pioneer, for whose farm this city was named. A general in War of 1812, banker, and statesman, whose farm was an underground railroad station.
President of the first town trustees was George D. Allen.
Hometown of Anna E. Wolfram, one of Kentucky's first women doctors. — Map (db m49115) HM|
|Kentucky (Campbell County), Newport — Licking Furnace/Iron Made in Kentucky|
|Built three blocks east in 1859 by Swift's Iron and Steel Works. As rebuilt in 1869, it was 65 feet high, with a maximum diameter inside of 16 feet. Its annual capacity was 17,000 tons of iron, using Connellsville coke as fuel. Iron mostly converted to steel at same works. Furnace ceased operating by 1888. See over.
A major producer since 1791, Ky. ranked 3rd in US in 1830s, 11th in 1965. Charcoal timber, native ore, limestone supplied material for numerous furnaces . . . — Map (db m49114) HM|
|Kentucky (Campbell County), Southgate — William H. Horsfall — Evergreen Cemetery|
|William H. Horsfall-One of youngest Kentuckians to receive the Medal of Honor for service during the Civil War is buried in Evergreen Cem. Horsfall, born in Newport, 1847, was a drummer in Co. G. First Ky. Infantry (USA). Medal was awarded for saving the life of a wounded officer lying between the lines during combat at Corinth, Mississippi, May 21, 1862. This war hero died in 1922. — Map (db m62013) HM|
|Kentucky (Carlisle County), Bardwell — 563 — Demonstration - 1862|
|Jan. 1862, Brig. Gen. U.S. Grant sent 5,000 USA troops from Cairo as a demonstration against Columbus, a Confederate stronghold on the Miss. River. Combined forces led by Brig. Gen. J.A. McClernand from Ft. Jefferson at Wickliffe through here to Milburn and back to Cairo. It acquainted U.S. Army with the area. It "inspired hope" among many loyal Federal citizens. — Map (db m18487) HM|
|Kentucky (Carroll County), Carrollton — 216 — Carrollton|
|First settled 1792, incorporated as Port William 1794. Carroll County formed and name of town changed to Carrollton by the Kentucky Legislature, 1838, both honoring "Charles Carroll of Carrollton" of Maryland, bold signer of the Declaration of Independence. — Map (db m22149) HM|
|Kentucky (Carroll County), Carrollton — 2080 — Col. Percival Pierce Butler — 1761 - 1821|
| Marker Front:
Col. Percival Butler was appointed Ky.'s first adjutant gen. in Gov. Isaac Shelby's first term. Born in Penn., he was with Washington at Valley Forge and Lafayette at Yorktown. Immigrated to Jessamine Co., Ky., then moved to Carrollton, 1796. Establishing office in his Carrollton home, Butler served as adjutant general until ca. 1817.
Col. Butler served on staff of Maj. Gen. Samuel Hopkins during War of 1812. Following military service, he was . . . — Map (db m22097) HM|
|Kentucky (Carroll County), Carrollton — General William Orlando Butler — Soldier - Statesman - Lawyer|
| Born in Kentucky
April 19, 1791 - August 6, 1880
Transylvania University 1812
War of 1812 - Aide De Camp to Andrew Jackson
River Raisin - Pensacola - New Orleans
Mexican War - Major General of the Volunteers
Commanded 1st Volunteer Division of the Army of Occupation
Hero of the Battle of Monterey - February 18, 1848
Last Commanding General of the American Army - Mexican War
Democratic Congressman from Kentucky - 1839 - 1843
Democratic Vice-President nominee under . . . — Map (db m22100) HM|
|Kentucky (Carroll County), Carrollton — 634 — Home of Gen. Butler|
|Gen. William O. Butler, born Kentucky 1791, died here, 1880. War of 1812: River Raisin, Pensacola, and New Orleans. Gen. Andrew Jackson's staff 1816-17. Cited for heroism in Mexican War 1846-48. Practiced law here. Congressman 1839-43. Defeated as candidate for Governor 1844, Vice President 1848 and US Senate 1851. A Kentucky Commissioner to Peace Conference in Feb. 1861. — Map (db m22131) HM|
|Kentucky (Carroll County), Carrollton — Korea & Vietnam - - War Memorial of Carroll County Kentucky|
|In memory of the men of Carroll County
who gave their lives serving their Country and
to all people who have served their Country.
+ + + KOREA + + +
Clyde M. Carter
William A. Day
Bobby R. Schirmer
George W. Willett
+ + + VIETNAM + + +
Michael E. Ball
Luther M. Chappel
Paris D. Dusch
Nelson M. O’Neal
Orval Skirvin — Map (db m22156) WM|
|Kentucky (Carroll County), Carrollton — 1094 — Scott's Blockhouse — The Anchor Point of the Greenville Treaty Line — The Mouth of the Kentucky River|
|Blockhouse built here, 1789, by
Gen. Charles Scott for protection
of settlers against Indians who
had massacred and driven off
earlier families. Scott came
from Va., 1785. He was in the
French and Indian Wars. Organized
first company south of James River
in the Revolution. Indian fighter,
in Battle of Fallen Timbers, 1794.
Governor of Kentucky, 1808- 12. — Map (db m77353) HM|
|Kentucky (Carroll County), Carrollton — 1725 — The Masterson House|
| Side A Oldest brick house still standing in county, this was home of Richard and Sarah Masterson. Bricks laid in Flemish bond. House was center of town's activities. Mastersons, leading Methodists, opened their home for services before church erected in 1810. Masterson was among early trustees of Port William, now Carrollton, which was incorporated in 1794. See over.
Side B The Masterson House - First court of Gallatin County held here May 14, 1799. Bishop Francis Asbury . . . — Map (db m22128) HM|
|Kentucky (Carroll County), Carrollton — The Price of Freedom — All Kentucky Veterans|
The Price of Freedom
In honor and memory of all
Kentucky Veterans who served
our Country in times of Peace
and War, and to those who paid
the Supreme Sacrifice so that
we might enjoy freedom.
Their spirit, devotion, and love of
Country will be forever Remembered.
God - Duty - Honor - Country
Est. June 14, 1775
Responsible for military land
operations. The Army is prepared
to use swift . . . — Map (db m22321) HM|
|Kentucky (Carroll County), Carrollton — World War I & World War I I Memorial - - Carroll County, Kentucky|
| In Memory of the Men 0f CARROLL COUNTY
who gave their lives
Serving Their Country
+ + + World War I + + +
Otis Arvin • Golden Bowie • Frank L. Grimes • Lester Williams Howard • Guy Kirkland • Walter Lewis • Joseph B. Schirmer • Chester Shirley • Homer Joseph Slocum • Earl E. Smith • Millard Trinkle • Jesse Harsin
+ + + World War II + + +
Norman J. Lewellyn • Theodore Blackburn • Riley Junior McIntire • Paul Sutherland • Laverne Craig • Elizie McQuithy • Blan Stout • . . . — Map (db m22160) HM|
|Kentucky (Carter County), Grayson — 842 — A Masterful Retreat|
|As Gen. George W. Morgan's Union force, 8,000 when here, retreated from Cumberland Gap, they were harassed from West Liberty by CSA Gen. John H. Morgan's Raiders. Failure of reinforcements to reach here caused Confederates to leave Oct. 1, 1862 and rejoin main CSA force in Lexington. Union forces reached Greenup Oct. 3, 200 miles in 16 days. — Map (db m73803) WM|
|Kentucky (Carter County), Grayson — 221 — Civil War Reunion|
|In their blue and gray uniforms for over forty years, Civil War veterans gathered here annually, around campfires, with song and story, friends and former foes, revived war memories, and always a pilgrimage to graves of their comrades in cemetery of the hill. — Map (db m73788) WM|
|Kentucky (Carter County), Grayson — 1247 — County Named, 1838|
|For Col. William Grayson Carter, state senator, 1834-36. The 88th Ky. county formed, 32nd in size. Carter was created from Greenup and Lawrence. Noted in early years for 5 iron furnaces, its clay products, industry developed in late 1800's. Carter Caves, a major source of saltpeter during War of 1812, has been important tourist attraction since 1924. — Map (db m73789) HM WM|
|Kentucky (Carter County), Grayson — William Jason Fields|
|In memory of William Jason Fields, United States Representative 1911-1923, Governor of Commonwealth of Kentucky 1923-1927. Born Dec. 29, 1874, Willard Ky.-Carter Co. — Map (db m73791) HM|
|Kentucky (Carter County), Olive Hill — 209 — Saltpeter Cave|
|Saltpeter mined here from which gunpowder was made that was used by Kentucky riflemen during the war of 1812. There are remains of those works in cave, reputed rendezvous for counterfeiters in early years, artifacts and Indian graves found in cavern. — Map (db m73805) HM WM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — 625 — "Morgan's Men" Here|
|CSA Gen. John H. Morgan's cavalry first raided Kentucky July, 1862. Took Cynthiana but, faced by large USA forces, withdrew. Destroyed arms here on 19th and went to Richmond. On last raid, June 1864, after two battles at Mt. Sterling, they moved by here to Lexington and to Cynthiana where they met defeat on 12th and retreated to Virginia. See map on other side. — Map (db m67760) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — A Defensive Strategy|
Fortifying Central Kentucky
The small earthwork above was just one part of an overall defensive strategy devised by the Union army to guard against Confederate raids. It was part of a grand plan put forth by Capt. Thomas B. Brooks.
In a letter to his commanding officer, Gen. Quincy A. Gillmore, Capt. Brooks proposed that "...small defensive works be erected at the most important Fords, Ferries, Mountain Passes and Towns in this District South and East of this post [Lexington], or . . . — Map (db m74633) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — A Long, Steep Road|
This trail follows the road that took soldiers and supplies from the road below to the earthwork above. It is uncertain whether the military built the road or simply improved an existing trail or road.
The men and supplies at the earthwork came from Lexington, the main supply depot for the Union army in this region of Kentucky. Supplies for the Bluegrass were shipped from Cincinnati to Lexington on the Kentucky Central Railroad. A spur line ran to Nicholasville . . . — Map (db m74720) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — An Unrealized Plan|
The Front Moves South
Capt. Thomas Brooks' plan for the defense of the Kentucky River was never completely realized. The reason lies in the shifting fortunes of war. In 1863, General Ambrose Burnside was sent to Kentucky to lead an invasion of Tennessee. With his 9th Corps in Mississippi with Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, Burnside was forced to take the 23rd Corps, the troops responsible for defending Kentucky.
Burnside stripped the garrisons of men and supplies and marched to . . . — Map (db m74645) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — Building the Earthwork|
| Construction began in early 1863
Work on the Boonesboro earthwork progressed slowly, in part because of Confederate raids and in part because of bad weather, but by late spring or early summer the earthwork was complete.|
In 1863, there were, of course, no power tools. All work was accomplished with hand tools and manpower. The earth was broken up with picks and moved with shovels. Trees were cut with saws and axes, and there were a lot of trees to clear. All of the trees that . . . — Map (db m74476) HM
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — 2256 — Clark County Courthouse|
| Side 1:
Clark County, named in honor of Revolutionary War hero General George Rogers Clark, was created in 1792. A two-room log cabin courthouse built here in 1794 on land donated by John Baker. Replaced by two-story brick bldg. in 1797. Third courthouse, built 1821, was where Henry Clay argued his last case before a jury, 1849. Presented by the Clark County Fiscal Court
Today’s courthouse, designed by noted Lexington architect John McMurtry, was . . . — Map (db m67785) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — 1319 — Clark County Hemp|
|One of the ten Bluegrass counties which produced over 90 percent of the entire country's yield in late 1800s. Production increased from 155 tons in 1869 to over 1,000 tons in 1889, valued at about $125 per ton. In 1942, Winchester selected as site of one of 42 cordage plants built throughout country to offset fiber shortage during war. See over. — Map (db m67704) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — 1358 — Colbyville Tavern|
|Built in 1820s by Colby Taylor as a place of rest and entertainment on stage road from Winchester to Lexington. In 1832, President Andrew Jackson visited here on his trip to Winchester. During antebellum heyday in late 1840s, popular stop for those on way to Olympian Springs in Bath Co. These grounds were used as muster-and-drill area for the Winchester Light Infantry — Map (db m67745) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — Common Cliffside Plants|
|The cliffs and slopes bordering the Kentucky River are home to a number of wildflowers and trees, some of which are pictured below. Common plants visible for much of the summer include pokeweed, blackberry, wild grape, and poison ivy. One frequently seen plant is Japanese Honeysuckle, introduced into this country in 1862. This aggressive, fast-growing non-native vine often overwhelms native plants. Look for these plants as you walk the trail. — Map (db m74790) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — 1217 — County Named 1793 — Clark County|
|For General George Rogers Clark, who came to Kentucky territory from Virginia, 1775. He commanded expedition into Illinois territory in 1778-79, taking the British forts which held the northwest for future U S settlement, and capturing commander of area. Originally taken from Bourbon and Fayette; covered area of 5 present counties and parts of 8 others. — Map (db m67757) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — Daniel Boone — Born-1734---Died-1820|
| Explored Kentucky, 1769-1774 Opened wilderness road, 1776 Founded Boonesborough, 1775 Hunter-Surveyor-Soldier Foremost pioneer of Kentucky “An instrument ordained to settle the wilderness.” — Map (db m67784) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — Defending the Kentucky River|
Bridges, Fords and Ferries
Unlike the Ohio, the Kentucky River was never an important supply line for the Union Army. Because of its geology, the Kentucky acted as a barrier to the movement of supplies and men.
Much of the Kentucky River is bordered by towering walls of rock known as the Palisades. In central Kentucky there were only two wagon bridges across the Kentucky, one at Frankfort and the other just above Hickman Creek (Camp Nelson).
But bridges were not the only . . . — Map (db m74651) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — 1399 — East Broadway Cemetery|
|In 1833 town trustees bought about an acre for $45 for public burial ground. First cholera epidemic in U.S. reached here. Seventy-five victims were buried here in 1833. John Ward, town trustee and a leader in forming cemetery, and his wife were both plague victims. The cemetery used until 1854. Maintained as a memorial of that terrible tragedy. — Map (db m67786) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — Gov. James Clark Judicial Center|
|On this site, John Ward, a trustee for the new town of Winchester, operated a tavern in the early 1800s. The property later became the Sachett Academy for girls. In 1845 the First Christian Church erected a brick church which burned during the winter of 1907-08. The lot was purchased by the Federal Government and the present structure completed in 1912. It served as a United States Post Office until 1988. After extensive renovation by the county, including construction of an addition on the . . . — Map (db m67755) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — 127 — Governor James Clark|
|Home and monument of James Clark 1779-1839. Governor of Kentucky, 1836-1839. Member of Congress; Judge, Court of Appeals. As Circuit Judge he rendered his famous decision which set off the old and the new court fight in 1821. — Map (db m67748) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — 951 — Hanson Home Site|
|Here lived five Hanson brothers, Civil War soldiers, USA and CSA. For USA: Col. Charles S., hero of Battle of Lebanon, July, 1863; Pvt. Samuel K.-died in service. For CSA: Brig. Gen. Roger, mortally wounded in the Battle of Stone's River, Jan. 2, 1863; Pvt. Richard H. and Pvt. Isaac S. Sons of the Hon. Samuel and Matilda Hickman Hanson. — Map (db m67753) HM WM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — 1319 — Hemp in Kentucky|
|Hemp in Kentucky - First crop grown, 1775. From 1840 to 1860, Ky.'s production largest in U.S. Peak in 1850 was 40,000 tons, with value of $5,000,000. Scores of factories made twine, rope, oakum to caulk sailing ships and cotton bagging. State's largest cash crop until 1915. Market lost to imported jute, freed of tariff. As war measure, hemp grown again during World War II. See over. — Map (db m67705) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — 2250 — Homer C. Ledford|
| Side 1:
Homer Ledford (1927-2006) was a master craftsman, musician, and teacher. Born in Tennessee, he came to Kentucky to attend Berea College & graduated from Eastern Ky. University. Ledford founded the Cabin Creek Band in 1976 & led it for 30 years, entertained on four continents, and performed for five of Kentucky’s governors.
Ledford crafted thousands of musical instruments. His banjos, violins, guitars, mandolins, and dulcimers are sought by musicians . . . — Map (db m67751) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — Inside the Earthwork|
An Unanswered Question
Was there a blockhouse at the Boonesboro earthwork? Because no written records have been found only intensive archaeological investigation can answer that question. However, Captain Thomas Brooks' recommendation specifically called for "...an enclosed earthwork, surrounded by an abattis and enclosing a blockhouse...." If Brooks' plan was carried out, a blockhouse was built at Boonesboro. In all likelihood it was similar to those designed by Colonel . . . — Map (db m74504) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — 1068 — Old Providence Church|
|Daniel Boone attended, Squire, Jr., Samuel, and Mary Boone baptized here. Church name changed, 1790, from Howard's Creek to Providence. William Bush, a member of Boone's second Ky. expedition, built the present stone structure of native limestone. United Baptists formed here, 1801. Building was passed to Negro Baptists, 1870. Restored after slight fire damage, 1949. — Map (db m30831) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — 710 — Rare 1860 Tombstones|
|In the burial ground, one-fourth mile east, are two rare Carrara marble tombstones carved in Italy by Joel Tanner Hart, the world renowned sculptor. He brought the stones to America, 1860, at time of unveiling of his great statue of Henry Clay in Richmond, Va. Visiting his birthplace near here, he placed stones in memory of his parents, Josiah and Judith Hart. — Map (db m67788) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — Roads in the Wilderness|
|Directly in front of you is a fragment of the original road built to take men and supplies from the road below, now KY 1924, to the earthwork. This road is now a foot trail, but many of Clark County's original roads are still in use. As the maps below illustrate, most of the roads in this portion of the county were in existence well before 1860.
Opening the Wilderness
We take paved roads, highway maps, bridges and directional signs for granted. But when Clark County was formed in . . . — Map (db m74728) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — Rock and Man|
| "Civilization exists by geological consent" (Will Durant (1885 - 1981), American historian, philosopher, and educator)
Not many people stop to think about the rock beneath their feet, but it is the type of rock, its structure and its history, together with climate, that determine the topography of the land and the type of soil. These, in turn, will determine what plants will grow and how much animal life the land will support.
Under the Bluegrass Region of Kentucky are . . . — Map (db m74768) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — 679 — Roy Stuart Cluke|
|Site of home and farm from which Cluke enlisted in the Confederate army. Commissioned Colonel of 8th Regt. Ky. Cavalry CSA, Sept. 1862. Immediate action in Ky. won the confidence of Gen. John H. Morgan; was with Morgan in Dec. 1862 and July 1863 raids when captured in Ohio. He died December 31, 1863, in U.S. prison, age 39. Buried near Morgan in Lexington Cemetery. — Map (db m67706) WM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — 731 — Sculptor's Birthplace — Joel Tanner Hart|
|Birthplace of Joel Tanner Hart, 1810, sculptor and poet. Began as stone-cutter, 1830. Went to Florence, Italy, 1840. Famed for busts: John Jordan Crittenden, Cassius M. Clay, Henry Clay, Andrew Jackson. Marble statues: Woman Triumphant, Il Penseroso, Henry Clay, Angelina and others. Died, Italy, 1871. By Legislative Act, reburied Frankfort, 1887 — Map (db m67787) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — The Eye of the Rich Land|
| Kentucky Primeval
Huge herds of bison graze in immense meadows beneath an open canopy of oak, ash, cherry, hickory, and sugar maple. Many of the trees are four feet or more in diameter. Elk and deer are abundant. Impenetrable canebreaks cover miles. Dense, closed forests blanket the steep creek and river valleys. Turkeys roost in flocks of hundreds. Brightly colored Carolina parakeets flit overhead. Flocks of passenger pigeons, over two billion birds strong, darken the skies as they . . . — Map (db m74754) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — The Quest for Land|
| Land Fever
Why did so many people brave the dangers of frontier life to come to Clark County and the Bluegrass? The answer is land -- cheap land, fertile land. The quest for land drove the settlement of Kentucky. |
John Findley was a hunter and fur trader who, in 1752, spent several months at the Shawnee town Eskippakithiki in Clark County. Findley returned to the eastern colonies with tales of rich land. It was Findley who told Daniel Boone, then 21, of the beautiful, fertile . . . — Map (db m74753) HM
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — Thomas B. Brooks, Army Engineer|
Army Engineers - A Proud Tradition
The Continental Congress first authorized an army with a chief engineer in 1775. In the years that followed, the Army Corps of Engineers supervised the construction of coastal fortifications, aided in mapping much of the American West and, in wartime, provided mapping and construction services and troop leaders in theaters of operations. During the Civil War, many men who had been Corps engineers became noted leaders, among them Union generals George . . . — Map (db m74554) HM|
|Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — Three Confederate Raids|
Constant Confederate Raids Forced the Union Army to Take Action
In the spring and summer of 1863 Confederate raids led by Col. Roy S. Cluke, Gen. John Pegram and Col. John S. Scott crossed and recrossed the Kentucky River. Their mission was twofold - to confuse the Union command and to obtain needed supplies for the Confederate army.
Union troops in central Kentucky were ordered to do everything possible to stop the Confederate raiders. The raids kept the soldiers' attention . . . — Map (db m74678) HM|
|Kentucky (Clay County), Manchester — 568 — A Masterful Retreat|
|Gen. George W. Morgan's Union forces occupied Cumberland Gap June 18 to Sept. 17, 1862. Cut off from supplies and surrounded, Morgan with 9,000 men withdrew. They camped here Sept. 19-21, to perfect organization for march. Made fruitless supply search. Entire retreat to Ohio River, 200 miles, made in 16 days despite harassment by CSA Morgan's Raiders. — Map (db m73926) WM|
|Kentucky (Clay County), Manchester — 836 — County Named, 1806|
|For Gen. Green Clay, 1757-1826. Born in Va. Came to Ky., 1777. Va. Legislature, 1788-89, and Va. Convention that ratified Federal Constitution. From 1793 t0 1808 in Ky. House, Senate, Const. Conv. May, 1813,Gen Clay with 3000 Kentuckians, at Ft. Meigs, held back British and Indians. Cousin of Henry Clay. County formed from parts of Madison, Floyd, and Knox. — Map (db m49184) HM|
|Kentucky (Clay County), Manchester — 531 — Goose Creek Salt Works|
|On Oct. 23, 1862, 22nd USA Brig. including 1st, 2nd and 20th Ky. Infantry moved here in wake of retreating CSA forces. 500 men worked 36 hours to destroy salt works mainly owned by unionists but used by Confederates. Loyal USA citizens allowed to remove salt enough for their own needs on taking oath none of it would be used to benefit Confederacy. — Map (db m73925) WM|
|Kentucky (Clay County), Manchester — 1929 — Gov. Bert T. Combs (1959-1963)/Bert T. Combs (1911 – 1991)|
|(Front): Gov. Bert T. Combs (1959-1963)
Accomplishments during Comb’s administration included highways connecting eastern and western Ky., expansion of state parks system, a statutory merit system for state employees, an end to segregation in public facilities, increased funding for teachers’ salaries and state universities, 3% sales tax, and Ky. Educational Television.
Bert T. Combs (1911 – 1991)
Born in Clay Co., future gov. Combs practiced law in . . . — Map (db m49185) HM|
|Kentucky (Clay County), Oneida — 2024 — Oneida Baptist Institute|
|The land for what became Oneida Baptist Institute was donated by Martha Coldiron Hogg and S.P. Hogg in September 1899. The school was founded by James Anderson Burns, December 20, 1899, as Mamre Baptist College to meet the social, educational, and spiritual needs of Clay County children. Mamre opened on January 1, 1900. — Map (db m39148) HM|
|Kentucky (Daviess County), Knottsville — 2354 — Knottsville, Kentucky/Leonard Knott Homestead|
On this site in 1827, Leonard Knott built the first house in Knottsville. James Millay named the town in 1833 when he opened a store and post office nearby. In 1834, the name was officially set in the Kentucky Legislature by the Honorable William R. Griffith, and the town was formally laid out by Millay and Griffith in 1836.
Dedicated to the people of Knottsville
Leonard Knott Homestead
In 1795, James . . . — Map (db m47838) HM|
|Kentucky (Edmonson County), Cave City — 1385 — Sand Cave|
|Floyd Collins was first to explore Sand Cave. Fallen rock trapped him in narrow passage 150 ft. from entrance, Jan. 30, 1925. Rescuers reached him with food and heat for short time. Aid cut off by shifting earth closing passage. Engineers sank 55-foot shaft but were unable to reach Collins' body until February 16. Rescue attempt publicized worldwide. Aroused sympathy of nation. — Map (db m319) HM|
|Kentucky (Edmonson County), Mammoth Cave — Stephen Tyng Mather — July 4, 1867 - Jan. 22, 1930|
|He laid the foundation of the National Park Service, defining and establishing the policies under which its areas shall be developed and conserved unimpaired for future generations. There will never come an end to the good that he has done. — Map (db m71150) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — 1 — "Ashland"|
|Historic home of Henry Clay Orator - Statesman - Patriot Kentucky's favorite son Born - 1777 Died - 1852. — Map (db m35838) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — A. B. Hancock Sr. — 1875 - 1957|
|Arthur Boyd Hancock Sr. was the son of Capt. Richard Hancock, who established Ellerslie as the leading horse farm in Virginia late in the 19th Century. Arthur Sr. returned from the University of Chicago in 1895 to assist his father, and later, as head of Ellerslie, held onto the farm and broodmares despite the near demise of racing during a wave of antagonistic legislation. In 1915, Hancock started a second farm, in Paris, Ky., on land inherited by his wife, Nancy Clay. After running both farms . . . — Map (db m58285) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — 1928 — African American Physicians|
|Site of office building which housed prominent African-American physicians and pharmacy. Among the doctors who practiced here between 1909 and 1930 were Obed Cooley; Nathaniel J. Ridley; J.C. Coleman; John Hunter, first African-American surgeon at St. Joseph's Hospital; and Joseph Laine, who later founded a medical clinic in Louisville.
Presented by Professor Doris Wilkinson, Historical Sociologist at University of Ky. — Map (db m68193) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt — 1912 - 1999|
|Son of a sporting coachman, who went down on the Lusitania, Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt took over his family's Sagamore Farm in Maryland after his 21st birthday in 1933. He soon purchased Discovery, which campaigned across the country for several years as one of America's most rugged Thoroughbred champions. Vanderbilt also was drawn into race track management. Pimlico Race Course, and its Preakness Stakes, prospered under his presidency, and Vanderbilt had two stints as president of New York . . . — Map (db m58313) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — Allen Paulson — 1922 - 2000|
|Long before he owned the international champion Cigar, Allen Paulson had established an American success story honored by the Horatio Alger Association and the Wright Brothers Trophy. Born in Clinton, Iowa, into a family that was to be bankrupted by the Depression, Paulson ventured to California, where he worked on a cattle ranch. He would wash planes for local pilots in exchange for rides. At nineteen, he joined TWA and later developed and patented an improved lubrication valve for aircraft. . . . — Map (db m58319) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — Andrew Jackson — 1767 - 1845|
|George Washington's diary included references to attending horse racing and Thomas Jefferson was also an avid horseman. Their interest, however, could hardly match that of Andrew Jackson, who stabled some of his race horses on the White House Grounds during his presidency. While Jackson's fame in America rightly comes from service as President, general, and jurist, he was also a sportsman throughout life. When he moved westward from North Carolina, he at one time conceived of building a race . . . — Map (db m58344) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — Arthur B. Hancock, Jr. — 1910 - 1972|
|Arthur B. Hancock, Jr. was given the nickname of "Bull" while in school. He was known as such thereafter, the name fitting his large physical frame and deep, commanding voice. Hancock inherited responsibility for Claiborne Farm in Paris, Kentucky, which had been established by his father and mother. The family connection to Thoroughbred racing went back one earlier generation to Capt. Richard Hancock, who settled on a farm in Virginia after being wounded there while in service to Gen. Stonewall . . . — Map (db m57720) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — 2381 — Artistides|
|(Obverse) In May 1875, an estimated 10,000 racing fans watched the first running of the Kentucky Derby. Among the field of fifteen thoroughbreds, Aristides, the “little red horse,” won the mile-and-one-half race. Oliver Lewis, a nineteen-year-old African American jockey, rode Aristides to his unexpected victory.
Class of 2011 |
(Reverse) Aristides was born on Hal Price McGrath’s farm, McGrathiana. The colt was trained by Ansel Williamson, who was inducted into the . . . — Map (db m78750) HM
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — 2235 — Ashland / Clay & Abraham Lincoln|
|Ashland Home of Henry Clay, born April 12, 1777, died June 29, 1852. Served as a state legislator, US rep. & senator, house speaker, secretary of state. He ran for president in 1824, 1832, & 1844. Also an attorney, he practiced law for more than 50 years. He imported and bred fine livestock here, including champion thoroughbreds. Clay & Abraham Lincoln
Lincoln called Clay "my beau ideal of a statesman, for whom I fought all my humble life." Lincoln voted for Clay in 1832 & 1844. . . . — Map (db m35845) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — 2305 — Ashland Park / Olmsted Brothers In KY|
In 1904, descendants of Henry Clay hired famed landscape architects, Frederick Law Olmsted Jr. and John Charles Olmsted, to design Ashland Park neighborhood on the 600-acre estate. Constructed over a 15-year period, development was completed around 1930. The brothers designed U.S. Capitol & White House grounds, and the Chicago World's Fair 1893.
Olmstead Brothers in Ky.
This landscape design firm from Brookline, Mass. . . . — Map (db m57505) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — August Belmont II — 1853 - 1924|
|Man O’ War, the legendary race horse from the Golden Age of Sport, was bred in Kentucky by August Belmont II. For more than a quarter-century, Belmont was perhaps the most important figure in Thoroughbred racing, as chairman of the Jockey Club, a member of the New York Racing Commission and president of the Grand Race Track named Belmont Park for his father. He also was influential outside racing, particularly in his key role of financing the New York Subway System and the Cape Cod Canal. . . . — Map (db m57640) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — 14 — Beck House|
|Residence of James Burnie Beck. Born Dumfriesshire, Scot., 1822, died Washington, D.C., 1890. Law partner John C. Breckinridge. Congressman from Ky., 1867-75. U.S. Senator from Ky. 1876-90. — Map (db m35840) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — Bing Crosby — 1904 - 1977|
|After Meadow Court wom the Irish Sweeps Derby of 1965, fans were treated to Bing Crosby's impromptu crooning of "When Irish Eyes Are Smiling." The famous singer and actor was part owner of the winning colt. Years before, Crosby had greeted the opening-day crowd at Del Mar Race Track in California with a rendition of "Where the Surf Meets the Turf." He and actor Pat O'Brien were original owners of Del Mar, where Crosby's knowledge of technical developments led to introduction of the photo . . . — Map (db m57709) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — 1742 — Breckinridge's Last Home|
|Built circa 1866, this house was occupied by John C. Breckinridge in 1874-1875. The former U.S. senator and youngest U.S. vice-president was also a Confederate general and secretary of war. After exile, he returned to Lexington in 1869 and resumed the practice of law. He rented this house the last year of his life and died here May 17, 1875. — Map (db m57476) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — 21 — Bryan's Station|
|Camping place in 1775-76 of the brothers Morgan, James, William and Joseph Bryan. In 1779 was fortified as a station which in Aug. 1782 repelled a siege of Indians and Canadians under Capt. William Caldwell and Simon Girty. — Map (db m35894) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — C. V. Whitney — 1899 - 1992|
|Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney represented the third generation of the Whitney family's prominence in business, society, and racing. His mother was a granddaughter of shipping and railroad tycoon Cornelius Vanderbilt. C. V. Whitney and a cousin, John Hay Whitney, financed early color motion pictures, including Gone With the Wind, and Whitney's own company later produced the John Wayne film The searchers. Whitney was among the founders of Pan American Airways and served as Assistant Secretary of . . . — Map (db m58299) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — Capt. Harry Guggenheim — 1890 - 1971|
|Charles Lindbergh regarded Capt. Harry F. Guggenheim and Dr. Robert Goddard as the two most forward looking men in the early history of aerospace. Guggenheim financed much of Goddard's research and was himself a combat flyer in both world wars. Guggenheim also served as United States Ambassador to Cuba, and his 1950 address on hemisphere relations was a virtual outline of the Organization of American States. Guggenheim spent much of his professional life overseeing the philanthropies of the . . . — Map (db m58321) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — 1783 — Cedar Hall - Helm Place|
|This antebellum Greek Revival Home was part of Bowman estate. Col. Abraham Bowman commanded 8th Va. Regt. in Revolution. Behind house was Todd's Station, built 1779 by Levi Todd, grandfather of Mary Todd Lincoln and Emilie Todd Helm. Mrs. Helm, wife of CSA Gen. Ben H. Helm, bought house in 1912. Later owned by Wm. H. Townsend, Lincoln authority. Listed on National Register, 1978 — Map (db m14009) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — Civil War Action At "Ashland" — October 18, 1862|
While Confederate Armies were retreating from Kentucky after the Battle of Perryville, Colonel John Hunt Morgan operated behind the pursuing Union Army, with Colonel Basil W. Duke's Second Kentucky Cavalry Regiment, Colonel Richard M. Gano's Cavalry Battalion and Colonel William Campbell Preston Breckinridge's Cavalry Battalion, along with a two-gun section of artillery under Sergeant C. C. Corbett. Morgan rode from Bryantsville through Lancaster to Gum Springs and . . . — Map (db m60962) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — Col. E. R. Bradley — 1859 - 1946|
|The activities of Col. E. R. Bradley ranged from operating Palm Beach's Beach Club casino to staging charity race days for orphans. A product of a burgeoning nation in the 19th century, Bradley worked in steel mills in Pittsburgh as a youngster, then roamed the nation as a cowboy, prospector and miner. By the time he testified before Huey long in a Senate hearing in 1934, Bradley proclaimed, "I an a speculator, race horse breeder and gambler." Asked what he gambled in, he replied "Almost . . . — Map (db m58351) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — Col. Phil T. Chinn — 1874 - 1962|
|Col. Phil T. Chinn's place in the history of Thoroughbred racing and breeding would be secure on the facts alone, for he bred, trained, raced, bought, and sold a number of important horses. It was as a character and raconteur, however, that Col. Chinn was best remembered by those who knew him.
Son of Black Jack Chinn, a rough-hewn Kentucky politician, horseman, and brawler, Phil Thompson Chinn was about twelve when he won the Somerset Derby on a family mare. He later headed for the . . . — Map (db m58320) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — 1613 — Col. Robert Patterson (1753-1827) / Patterson Cabin|
Col. Robert Patterson (1753-1827)
A large landholder, Patterson took part in founding Lexington, Cincinnati and Dayton. Chose site of Lexington, helped erect fort, April 1779, and laid off town; on Board of Trustees for many years. He helped charter Transylvania Univ. Urged separation from Va., 1784; elected representative from Fayette County, 1792, and served eight years. Moved to Dayton, 1803.
Built by Robert . . . — Map (db m61080) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — 166 — Coldstream Farm|
|Famous Kentucky horse farm. Known earlier as McGrathiana. The home of Aristides, the first winner of the Kentucky Derby. — Map (db m70578) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — 125 — Colonel George Nicholas|
|Grave of George Nicholas
Virginia House of Delegates
Father of Kentucky Constitution
First Kentucky Attorney General
Professor of Law at Transylvania University — Map (db m61134) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — Daniel Swigert — 1833 - 1912|
|Elmendorf Farms, one of the enduring symbols of the Bluegrass, on Paris Pike, was named by Daniel Swigert. He purchased the 544-acre core of the farm in 1881 for $150,000 from John Sanford, who had called the property Preakness Stud. Earlier, Swigert had been the horse manager of the great Woodburn Stud and also had owned a smaller property, Stockwood Farm. A succession of owners for more than a century have retained the name of Elmendorf. The stallions Virgil and Glenelg were standing at . . . — Map (db m58282) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — Dr. Elisha Warfield — 1781 - 1859|
|His name having wafted down through history as The Father of the Kentucky Turf, Dr. Elisha Warfield had the overriding distinction of having been the breeder of the stallion Lexington. Depicted elsewhere in this park, Lexington was a bellwether individual among 18th Century American Thoroughbreds. A champion on the race track, first racing for Dr. Warfield and afterward for new owner Richard Ten Broeck, Lexington proceeded to lead the national list of sires a record 16 times. Dr. Warfield's . . . — Map (db m57742) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — E. P. Taylor — 1901 - 1989|
|A Canadian whose breeding farms were in Ontario and Maryland, E. P. Taylor nevertheless had a profound influence on Kentucky. His patronage of the Keeneland select yearling sale was significant in its emergence as the elite among international auctions, and his Windfields Farm was the sale's leading consignor three times. As the breeder of Northern Dancer and his son Nijinsky II, Taylor created a lasting influence on international breeding. Northern Dancer, winner of the 1964 Kentucky Derby, . . . — Map (db m57708) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — 1033 — Eastern State Hospital|
|The second State Mental Hospital built in the U.S. Established by legislative act of Dec. 4, 1822, which named commissioners to buy and operate it in Fayette County. They acquired The Fayette Hospital organized in 1816. "The Lunatic Asylum" opened May 1, 1824. It has been continuously operated by the Commonwealth since. By 1913, it was named Eastern State Hospital. — Map (db m35844) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — Elizabeth Arden Graham — 1884 - 1966|
|The proprietress of the famed cosmetics house, Elizabeth Arden was born Florence Nightingale Graham near Toronto, Canada. At age twenty-four she moved to New York, later borrowed $6000 from her brother, and began her own firm. By 1945, the Elizabeth Arden company was worth $26 million, and she was cited by Fortune Magazine as one of the distinguished figures in American business. After several marriages, she reverted to her maiden name. Mrs. Graham had begun racing horses in 1931, and by 1944 . . . — Map (db m58291) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — 1001 — Ellerslie|
|The home which stood on this site from 1787 to 1947 was built by Levi Todd (1756-1807), who named it for his ancestral village in Scotland. He was one of a party of hunters who named Lexington in 1775; first Fayette County clerk; aide to George Rogers Clark, 1779, Kaskaskia Expedition; Maj., Battle Blue Licks; trustee, Transylvania; grandfather of Mary Todd Lincoln. — Map (db m70579) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — 1440 — Fayette County|
|One of the three original counties formed when Kentucky Co., Virginia, was divided by Va. Act in 1780. Included area north and east of Ky. River, 37 persent-day counties and parts of 7 others. Reduced to its present boundaries by 1799.
Named for Marquis de Lafayette, French champion of liberty, who came to America in 1777 to assist with our war for independence. — Map (db m14016) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — Fayette County World War I Memorial — 1917 1919|
|The Men of Fayette County who gave their lives in Service During the World War.
Fred M. Blakeman •
Don Mullis Burris •
Marshall Corum •
Harry W. Cunningham •
Johnson Clay Eales •
Clarence R. Gaugh •
Sydney Gordon •
Herman Gray Moores •
Alex F. Mattingly •
Lewis Martin •
Geo. A. Pennington •
Capt. George C. Rogers •
Sterling Rocket •
John E. Slattery •
Enoch Stone •
Benjamin Wierman •
1st Lieut. J. C. Hobbs •
Wm. Preston Clark • . . . — Map (db m14090) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — 1551 — First Inauguration|
|Isaac Shelby was inaugurated as lst governor of Kentucky, June 4, 1792, at building on West Main Street; built as a market house, 1791-92. After Kentucky's admission to Union, the structure was also used as a State House during the legislative sessions of 1792. The Lexington Library was organized in same building in January, 1795.
Presented by Lexington-Fayette Co. Historic Commission — Map (db m68215) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — 2277 — First Presbyterian Church|
Founded 1784. Oldest congregation in continuous existence in city. Founders were hunting party members who selected city’s site and named it Lexington in honor of first battle of the American Revolution. First pastor Adam Rankin’s home, oldest house in Lexington at 317 South Mill St., built in 1784. Over
Abraham Lincoln attended several services during the pastorate of Robert J. Breckinridge, 1847-53, initiating a lifelong friendship. This building, . . . — Map (db m59162) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — 6 — First Race Course|
|Near this spot pioneers in 1780 established the starting point of the first race path in Kentucky, extending southward one quarter mile. — Map (db m35841) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — 9 — Fort Clay|
|Extensive earthworks with ditch, drawbridges and magazine were constructed here by Federal forces after the Battle of "Ashland," May 1862. — Map (db m35842) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — George D. Widener — 1889 - 1971|
|George D. Widened was a prototype sportsman from a distinguished Philadelphia family. Several years after his father was lost on the Titanic, Widener purchased Erdenheim, the Pennsylvania property which had been birthplace of Iroquois, first American-bred to win the English Derby. Widener's own horses were bred in Lexington, however. He and an uncle, Joseph E. Widener, purchased Elmendorf Farm here in 1923. The uncle retained that historic name, while George D. Widener took the portion known as . . . — Map (db m58288) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — George M. Humphrey — 1890 - 1970|
|Among modern political figures involved in Thoroughbred racing have been national Treasury Secretaries George M. Humphrey, william Simon, and Nicholas Brady. Humphrey joined President Eisenhower's Cabinet in 1953, after a vigorous business career which included the restructuring of M. A. Hanna Co., formulation of National Steel Company, and working of a remote iron ore source along the Labrador-Quebec border. Humphrey had been a breeder and owner of saddle and harness horses, and later . . . — Map (db m58287) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — George Washington — 1732 - 1799|
|The first President of the United States was an avid horseman and outdoorsman, as befit his era, and he at times was a participant in horse racing. The cherished tale of his Magnolia running against a horse owned by Thomas Jefferson was refuted by historians, but Magnolia was, in fact, a race horse owned by Gen. Washington. Alas, he was not a very successful one, although, being a politician as well as a horse trader, Washington wrote to Light Horse Harry Lee that the horse "is in high health, . . . — Map (db m58334) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — Hal Price Headley — 1888 - 1962|
|Hal Price Headley embodied the image of the Bluegrass horseman. He was sophisticated in business, but always a man of agriculture, raising tobacco as well as Thoroughbreds. His lasting legacy to Lexington was his instrumental role in formation of Keeneland Race course, which since the 1930s has typified the best traditions of the sport of Thoroughbred racing. He was president of Keeneland for some 15 years, after which son-in-law Louis Lee Haggin II took the reins. Succeeding generations . . . — Map (db m58352) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — Harry Payne Whitney — 1872 - 1930|
|The stamp affixed on Thoroughbred racing by William Collins Whitney and his son Harry Payne Whitney remains indelible. It was W. C. Whitney who poured funding into revitalization of Saratoga, the charming old Victorian race track still operating in upstate New York. Secretary of the Navy under Grover Cleveland and founder of the New York utilities giant now known as Con Ed, W. C. Whitney was racing's leading owner three times before his death in 1904. Son Harry Payne Whitney, already a race . . . — Map (db m58325) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — Henry Clay — 1777 - 1852|
|Visitors familiar with Lexington's Ashland, the home of Henry Clay, know it as a graceful old house, with lovely gardens and grounds. In an earlier time, when Henry Clay built it to some 2,000 acres, Ashland was also the home of Thoroughbreds. Henry Clay, known in history for his political acumen in such matters as the Treaty of Ghent and for his four attempts at becoming president, was also an avid agriculturalist. He was a member of the Lexington Jockey Club and its successor, the Kentucky . . . — Map (db m58346) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — Henry Clay — Pioneer Purebred Livestock Breeder|
|Brought to "Ashland" and its pastures Hereford Cattle from England, in 1817, and added them to his herd of shorthorns. Here he pioneered thoroughbred horse breeding in the Blue Grass. To this farm he brought jack stock from Spain. Here he bred Merino sheep, Red and Belted hogs, and by his example constantly inspired other farmers to improve their livestock. This memorial is presented by "Country Home Magazine" and dedicated by the Kentucky Live Stock Improvement Association October 21, 1937 — Map (db m60864) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — 139 — Henry Clay's Law Office|
|Erected 1803-04, this is the only office standing used by Clay; he occupied it from 1804 until ca. 1810. During these significant years in his career, Clay was elected to successive terms in legislature and to unexpired terms in the United States Senate. Builders Stephens and Winslow used their characteristic brick basement. Original floorboards remain. — Map (db m59165) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — 1806 — Historic Land|
|The land upon which Pleasant Green Baptist Church stands was conveyed in 1822 by Dr. Frederick Ridgely, a white surgeon in Lexington, to trustees Harry Quills, Benjamin Admon, and Solomon Walker, all slaves, for purpose of erecting an African church. From date of deed, black congregation has continued to worship at this site. — Map (db m68132) HM|
|Kentucky (Fayette County), Lexington — HRM Queen Elizabeth II — 1926 -|
|The English Royal family has been instrumental in Thoroughbred racing through many successions, and no monarch has been more knowledgeable about the sport that Queen Elizabeth II. There was a Royal Stud farm in the time of Henry VIII, and with Charles II, the term Sport of Kings took on new meaning, for the king was so fond of racing that he personally rode in match races. Queen Victoria's son, the Prince of Wales (afterward Edward VII), lent additional prestige to racing in the latter 19th and . . . — Map (db m58316) HM|