|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — "The Natchez Burning"|
One of the deadliest fires in American history took the lives of over 200 people, including bandleader Walter Barnes and nine members of his dance orchestra at the Rhythm Club (less than a mile southeast of this site) on April 23, 1940. News of the tragedy reverberated throughout the country, especially among the African American community, and blues performers have recorded memorial songs such as “The Natchez Burning” and “The Mighty Fire” ever since. . . . — Map (db m70811) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Andrew Marschalk|
|Site of the printery of “father of Mississippi journalism.” Printed first book in state, 1799. Became first public printer and in 1802 founded famed newspaper, “Mississippi Herald.” — Map (db m70851) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Bernardo De Gálvez|
Don Bernardo de Gálvez, Spanish Governor of Louisiana, 1776-1783, in a brilliant campaign, with the aid of regular troops, militia, volunteers, and a few Americans, captured Baton Rouge from the British on September 21, 1779. Terms included the surrender of Fort Panmure in Natchez, which was occupied by Spanish troops on October 5, 1779. The signing of the Treaty of San Lorenzo on October 27, 1795 ended Spanish control of Natchez. — Map (db m76211) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Bluff Park - Memorials and Louisiana Connections — Natchez Trails|
|The Richard Wright historic marker recognizes the city’s most famous 20th-century writer. Born in 1908 on a cotton plantation near Natchez, Wright spent his early childhood in town in the home of his grandparents at 20 East Woodlawn Avenue (pictured above). In 1940, Wright’s novel Native Son was published and became the first book by an African American selected by the Book of the Month Club.
The Rhythm Club monument in the Bluff Park is a memorial to 209 . . . — Map (db m87176) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Bluff Park - Playground for the City — Natchez Trails|
|When the Spanish laid out the town of Natchez about 1790, they set aside land on the bluff for use as a public park. In 1839, after the city had sold off most of the park and built Broadway Street, writer Joseph Holt Ingraham complained that “the esplanade in front of the town, which has been for years the grazing spot for the cows, the playground for boys, the parade for soldiers, and the promenade of the citizens, is nearly filled up with buildings; whose encroachments upon . . . — Map (db m87177) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Bluff Park and South Broadway Street — Natchez Trails|
|Bontura, built in 1851, was the home of Robert Smith, a free African American who ran the city’s most successful carriage business in the 1850s. The house stands at the head of Silver Street, which leads to Natchez Under-the-Hill. Smith and his drivers met the steamboats and flatboats that provided a steady stream of business in passengers and freight. Smith was one of a small number of free African Americans who were economically successful but lived under restrictions due to race. . . . — Map (db m87179) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — 123 — Bud Scott|
Clarence “Bud” Scott, Sr., led one of the most popular dance bands in the Mississippi-Louisiana region for several decades beginning around 1900. Scott (1876-1938), a lifelong Natchez resident, was renowned among both white and black audiences. Although the dances were segregated, the entire community could hear Scott when he sang from the balcony of the Natchez Confectionery at this site. Scott’s son, Clarence, Jr., (1908-1940), also known as Bud, led the band in . . . — Map (db m70852) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Commercial Bank Building|
Built ca. 1836, this structure, a National Historic Landmark, is a fine example of the Greek Revival style. A Banker’s House attached to the rear insured security & gives the structure an unusual and practical plan. — Map (db m79346) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — DAR And The Natchez Trace|
|Mrs. Egbert Jones and Mrs. Ferriday Byrnes, members of the Mississippi State Society Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR), played important roles in the development of the Natchez Trace Parkway. Mrs. Jones, of Holly Springs, State Regent 1906 - 1908, first proposed to commemorate the Natchez Trace by erecting markers along the historic trail. Mrs. Byrnes, of Natchez, became president of the Natchez Trace Association in 1934 and for over thirty years tirelessly campaigned for the . . . — Map (db m42629) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Ealey Brothers|
The Ealey family of Sibley has produced some of the most talented musicians to emerge from the Natchez area. Brothers Theodis, YZ, and Melwyn Ealey performed together locally in the band YZ Ealey and the Merry Makers in the early 1960s. They later became recording artists, as did their older brother, David (“Bubba”) Ealey. Theodis developed a captivating blend of traditional blues and modern funk and soul music to achieve national prominence after leaving . . . — Map (db m87181) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Forks of the Road|
|Site of the South's second largest slave market in the 19th century. Enslaved people were also once sold on city streets and at the landing at Natchez Under the Hill. Natchez slaves were freed in July, 1863, when Union troops occupied the city. The Forks of the Road market then became a refuge for hundreds of emancipated people. — Map (db m37433) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Forks of the Road Historical Site|
| [Panel 1:]
Natchez in the Center of Slavery
Slavery is central to American history. The labor of enslaved African Americans built much of the nation’s wealth and enabled it to gain its economic independence. The enslavement of people also challenged America’s fundamental commitment to freedom.
You are standing at Forks of the Road, the site of several markets where enslaved humans were bought and sold from the 1830s until 1863. This was the center of the trade in Natchez, one . . . — Map (db m41533) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Fort Rosalie|
|On bluff to south stood Ft. Rosalie, established by the French in 1716. Became nucleus of settlements from which the Miss. Territory was founded. Near this marker stood the French warehouse that was a center of bloodshed during the Natchez Massacre of 1729.
Dedicated December 11, 1988
by the Mississippi State Society
Daughters of the American Revolution
Mrs. D. Kelly Love, State Regent — Map (db m5143) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Jefferson Street Methodist Church|
|This was the first Methodist congregration in Natchez formed in the early 1800s, and the 1st building was constructed in 1807. The 1st Sunday School south of Philadelphia, Pa., was organized here in 1829. — Map (db m29749) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Natchez|
|First settled by French, 1716-29. Lasting growth came with Britain, 1763-1779, and Spain, 1779-98. Cotton and trade made it commercial and cultural capital of Old South. — Map (db m4479) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Natchez|
|Here passed, in 1543, De Soto’s men under Moscoso. In 1682 La Salle and De Tonti here visited the Natchez Indians. In 1716 Bienville here built Fort Rosalie and established a French settlement. In 1763 the fort was ceded to the English and renamed Ft. Panmure; in 1779 it passed to the Spaniards; in 1798 it was occupied by American troops. Chartered in 1803, the city of Natchez was from 1798 to 1802, and from 1817 to 1821 the capital of Mississippi.
In this, the 224th year since its . . . — Map (db m87167) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Natchez City Cemetery|
|Established in 1822 on a ten acre tract, this cemetery grew into a park notable for its variety of 19th century iron and marble work. People of all walks of life are buried within the cemetery. — Map (db m50659) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Origin of the Natchez Trace|
|After the American Revolution, frontiersmen from the Ohio Valley carried their products down stream to Spanish controlled New Orleans and Natchez.
Returning home, boatmen followed a series of Indian trails from Natchez to Nashville—trails which evolved into the Natchez Trace.
After the United States acquired Natchez in 1798, the Government decided to clear a road between the newly-created Mississippi Territory and the State of Tennessee as an important communication link between . . . — Map (db m87224) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Richard N. Wright|
|Noted African-American author of Native Son and Black Boy was born in 1908 near Natchez, where he spent his early childhood. His lifelong quest for freedom led him to Paris, France, where he died in 1960. — Map (db m10059) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Rosalie Cemetery|
|This marker is placed as a memorial to those early settlers of Natchez whose buried remains were discovered here during the Natchez Bluffs Stabilization Project in 1999. This bluff was originally part of the property purchased on December 22, 1820, by Peter Little, the builder of Rosalie. The Mississippi State Society Daughters of the American Revolution (MSSDAR) acquired the bluff in the 1970s after purchasing Rosalie in 1938. The remains of four persons were exhumed and studied by . . . — Map (db m50696) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Site of Bank of Mississippi|
|Chartered in 1809 as the only bank in Mississippi Territory and given a monopoly as the official state bank in 1818. It occupied this site in 1826 but was supplanted by Planters' Bank in 1831. Closed solvent. — Map (db m70854) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Spanish Colonial Natchez — 1779 ~ 1798|
|Following acquisition of the Natchez District in 1779, the Spanish founded the City of Natchez ca.1790 to serve as the capital. Under Governor Manuel Gayoso, the city was planned and surveyed by John Girault in a typical Spanish grid plan around a central plaza and church with a common, on the bluff of the Mississippi River.
Dedicated March 27, 1998
by the Mississippi State Society Daughters of the American Revolution,
Mrs. Erwin Connel Ward, State Regent,
to commemorate the . . . — Map (db m10058) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — Temple B'Nai Israel — Established 1843|
Jewish Americans have been part of Mississippi’s economic, social and political life since the 1780’s. In 1843, the Jewish community of Natchez grew large enough to organize and sustain the state’s first permanent religious congregation, Temple B’Nai Israel (Children of Israel). In 1867 the congregation purchased property on Washington and Commerce streets, building its permanent synagogue in 1872.
Temple B’Nai Israel became a charter member of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations in . . . — Map (db m79345) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — The First Presbyterian Church|
|Congregation organized in 1817. The Sanctuary was built in 1828-29 and enlarged in 1851. The Romanesque Revival rear addition was built in 1900 in honor of Joseph Stratton, Pastor, 1843-1903. The church and its companion manse on South Rankin Street are two of the finest Federal style buildings in Mississippi. — Map (db m19027) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — The Natchez Trace|
| Marked by the Daughters of the American Revolution in Mississippi 1909.
This historic thoroughfare from Natchez to Nashville, Tenn. was used as a mail route in 1796.
Although it was a well known Indian trail in far earlier days. — Map (db m4555) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Natchez — William Johnson House — Natchez, Mississippi — Friends of Libraries U.S.A. Literary Landmark|
| William Johnson
was a free African American Businessman and Diarist. His diary, covering the period from 1835-1851 and published in 1951, contains an extensive description of everyday pre-Civil War life; it is a valuable contribution to the literature of the antebellum South. His home is designated a Literary Landmark by Friends of Libraries, U.S.A. United States National Park Service - February 26, 2005. Friends of Judge George W. Armstrong Library. Friends of . . . — Map (db m34877) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Stanton — A National Road|
A National Road
Natchez in the extreme south-western corner of the United States was threatened by Spain in 1800 and later by France and Great Britain.
President Jefferson in 1801 decided that a road from Nashville to Natchez was necessary for the safety and welfare of the nation.
“This road being completed, I shall consider our southern extremity secured, the Indians in that quarter at our feet and adjacent province laid open to us.” . . . — Map (db m87267) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Stanton — Emerald Mound|
|Before you is the second largest temple mound in the United States. Only Monks Mound in Cahokia, Illinois, is larger. This eight acre mound, constructed from a natural hill, was built and used from about 1300 to 1600 by the Mississippians, ancestors of the Natchez Indians.
Unlike dome shaped mounds constructed only for burials, Emerald Mound supported temples, ceremonial structures, and burials of a complex society's civic and religious leaders. — Map (db m61974) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Stanton — Emerald Mound|
|Before you is a 30 foot secondary mound on which once stood a temple containing sacred Indian images.
Archeological evidence indicates that at least two small mounds stood along the North and South sides of the primary platform. These mounds may have supported structures of wood plastered with clay.
Using primitive tools of wood, stone and bone, the Indians loaded the dirt into baskets or skins which they carried on their backs or heads. A base for temple mounds, the great platform is . . . — Map (db m87272) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Stanton — Loess Bluff|
|This bluff shows a deep deposit of windblown topsoil known as loess (pronounced LOW–ess). It was formed during the Ice Age when glaciers covered the northern half of the United States.
At this time nearly continuous duststorms swept in from the western plains and covered this area with windblown dust to a depth of 30 to 90 feet. Here it rests on sands and clays of an ancient sea. It originally covered a vast region but in this area is now confined to a strip east of the Mississippi . . . — Map (db m62182) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Stanton — Old Trace|
|Across the Parkway behind you is a portion of the Old Natchez Trace - - a wilderness road that originated from a series of trails used by the southeastern Indian tribes. The Natchez Trace was politically, economically, socially, and militarily important for the United States in its early developement. Among those that traveled this road were American Indians, traders, soldiers, “Kaintucks”, postriders, settlers, slaves, circuit-riding preachers, outlaws, and adventurers. The Old . . . — Map (db m87265) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Washington — Elizabeth Female Academy|
|First school for women chartered by Mississippi Legislature located here. Elizabeth Roach led in organization. School was important from 1818-1843. — Map (db m87231) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Washington — Elizabeth Female Academy|
|The Natchez Trace was still active and Mississippi had just become a state when the Elizabeth Female Academy opened its doors in November of 1818. Much can be learned about the culture of early Mississippi here in the community of Washington. As the young state’s first capital it boasted churches, advanced learning societies, and two institutions of higher education, Jefferson College (1811) and the Elizabeth Female Academy. Progressive thinking for the day, it was the first institution of . . . — Map (db m87232) HM|
|Mississippi (Adams County), Washington — Site of Elizabeth Female College|
|First women’s college in America chartered on Feb. 17, 1819 to confer degrees on women. Named in honor of Elizabeth Roach, through whose generosity the College was made possible. Audubon was on the faculty. — Map (db m87235) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — "A beehive of activity..." — A look at Civil War Corinth — --through the eyes of wartime artists and photographers|
|Tents, army wagons and soldiers crowd the area around the railway depot and Tishomingo Hotel in this view. Over the course of the war it is estimated that about 300,000 troops served in Corinth or passed through this railroad junction. Civilians, including families of army officers, also came to Corinth. Some, such as nine-year-old Maude Morrow, daughter of a Union Army doctor, wrote of their experience. Maude described living in the old Tishomingo Hotel in 1862. "We...were given headquarter in . . . — Map (db m51752) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — "Decision at the Crossroads" Corinth: October 4, 1862|
|On the morning of October 4, 1862, nearly 20,000 Confederates under Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn launched a massive assault on Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans' 20,000 Federal soldiers defending the interior line of Corinth's entrenchments. Attacking from the north and northwest, the Confederates breached the Union line at Battery Powell. A fierce street battle developed as rebel fought yankee from house to house as the fighting pressed into town.
Here in front (north) of the Tishomingo Hotel, . . . — Map (db m63296) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — An Act to Establish and to Protect National Cemeteries. — Approved February 22, 1867. — Section 3.|
And be it further enacted, That any person who shall willfully destroy, mutilate, deface, injure, or remove any monument, gravestone, or other structure, or shall willfully destroy, cut, break, injure, or remove any tree, shrub, or plant within the limits of any of said National Cemeteries shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof before any District or Circuit Court of the United States within any State or District where any of said National Cemeteries are . . . — Map (db m89097) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Battery F — Battle of Corinth|
|Only extant redan of six built in 1862 by U.S. troops as outer defense south and west of town. Taken on Oct. 3, 1862, by C.S. forces after fierce fighting. Battle resumed on Oct. 4, but C.S. troops forced to withdraw. — Map (db m66613) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Battle of Corinth - 1862|
|Site of Battery Williams. On Oct. 4 the cannonade from here devastated the Confederate troops attacking Battery Robinette. The advance failed, forcing Gen. Van Dorn to withdraw his forces. — Map (db m50324) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Battle of Corinth - 1862|
|Site of Battery Williams. On Oct. 4 the cannonade from here devastated the Confederate troops attacking Battery Robinette. The advance failed, forcing Gen. Van Dorn to withdraw his forces. — Map (db m66590) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Battle of Corinth Battery F — 1st. Day, October 3, 1862|
|The South suffered a strategic disaster when Corinth and its railroads fell to Union forces on May 30, 1862. The destruction of the Union force garrisoned in Corinth and recapture of this rail center quickly became vital Confederate objectives. In late September, 22,000 troops under Maj. Gens. Earl Van Dorn and Sterling Price marched toward Corinth to accomplish this.
On the morning of October 3, the Confederates attacked from the northwest, driving in Union pickets and slowly pushing the . . . — Map (db m66676) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Brigadier-General Joseph Lewis Hogg — Battery Robinett|
Joseph Lewis Hogg,
Born in 1809,
Died near here
May 16, 1862
1918 — Map (db m89039) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — C.S.A. Rifle Pit|
|S. 3/10 mi. to rear of school. Of unique circular design, about 50 ft. in diameter, this pit was one of series built in 1862 as second line of defence against U.S. troops advancing from Shiloh. — Map (db m50318) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Corinth|
|Began 1854 as Cross City. Proximity to Tennessee River and the railroads made it of great strategic value during Civil War. Battle of Corinth fought here, Oct. 3-4, 1862. — Map (db m21305) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Corinth|
|Began 1854 as Cross City. Proximity to Tennessee River and the railroads made it of great strategic value during the Civil War. Battle of Corinth fought here, Oct. 3-4, 1862. — Map (db m66533) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Corinth Confederate Memorial|
|In Memory of Confederate soldiers April -May 1862 who died from wounds or disease in the Siege of Corinth — Map (db m37280) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Corinth Confederate Monument|
Col. W.P. Rogers
2nd Texas Reg't.
Killed at Ft. Robinette
Oct. 4, 1862.
As long as courage, manliness and
patriotism exist, the name of
Rogers will be honored among
men. He fell in the front of
battle in the center of the
enemies stronghold. He sleeps
and glory is his sentinel.
Erected as a
tribute to the memory
of the Confederate
patriots who fell at
the Battle of Corinth
in October 1862
"On Fame's eternal . . . — Map (db m89036) WM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Corinth Panorama -- 1862|
|This view of Corinth appeared in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, June 21, 1862, not long after the Union army captured the town. Despite some inaccuracies, it depicts a scene familiar to many thousands of troops from both armies.
The Tishomingo Hotel is partly hidden by the railway station on the right. Prominent in the center background is the Corinth House, a popular hotel. The row of commercial buildings on the left faces Cruise Street. — Map (db m51758) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Fillmore Street Chapel|
|Corinth's oldest church bldg.; erected 1871 by Cumberland Presbyterian Church, the First church est. in Corinth. 1906~1976 served as Fillmore St. Pres. Ch. Now used as chapel by First United Methodist Church. — Map (db m28472) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Ft. Robinette|
|W. 1/2 mi. Now Confederate Park. Here, Oct. 5, 1862, during Battle of Corinth, occurred a C.S.A. charge as heedless of cost as those of Pickett at Gettysburg and Light Brigade at Balaclava. — Map (db m66738) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Generals' Headquarters|
|Built about 1857 for Hamilton Mask. Used in Civil War as Hq. of Generals Braxton Bragg, H.W. Halleck, and John B. Hood. Donated to Corinth in 1960 by S.H. Curlee family. — Map (db m66558) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Grant’s Headquarters|
|Site of hq. of Gen. Ulysses Simpson Grant in June, 1862. In mid-July Grant removed to plantation home of F. E. Whitfield, Sr., about 1 mi. S. of Corinth. — Map (db m21157) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Henry Cemetery|
|Founded in 1879 by the Milton B. Henry family on land sold by the Chickasaws to the U.S. government in 1832. Henry purchased 160 acres in 1856. Robert Henry Young, an infant grandson of M.B. Henry, was the first person buried here. The Henry Cemetery was incorporated on September 4, 1906. — Map (db m66591) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Johnston's Headquarters|
|Site of hq. of Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, April 1~4, 1862. After his death at Shiloh, April 6, body was brought here where it lay in state, April 7, 1862. — Map (db m29280) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Oak Home|
|Built in 1857 for Judge W.H. Kilpatrick. Used in Civil War as headquarters of General Leonidas Polk. Bought in 1866 by Mrs. Thomas Quincy Martin and occupied continuously by her descendants. — Map (db m66557) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Oak Home — A look at Civil War Corinth — through the eyes of wartime artists and photographers|
|Judge W.H. Kilpatrick of Corinth had Oak Home built in 1857 by Tom Chesney, a local house designer and builder. Mr. M.S. Miller, a civil engineer working in Corinth shortly before the war, made this sketch in 1860, the only known Civil War vintage picture of Oak Home. Miller notes that a wood fence surrounded the whole block and that the "fine house" was straw-colored with a yellow door bordered by sidelights.
Gen. Leonidas Polk, C.S.A. occupied Oak Home in 1862 until the siege of Corinth . . . — Map (db m66700) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Retreat From Battery F|
|This 5-gun Union battery stood between the attacking Confederates and Corinth's inner defenses. As the Battle of Corinth progressed, Confederate troops of Brig. Gen. Dabney H. Maury's division crossed the railroad and attacked from the north; Maj. Gen. Mansfield Lovell's division swung around to the south and flanked the battery. Faced with this indefensible position the Federals abandoned Battery F and withdrew to Corinth's inner defensive works.
Upon occupying Corinth, . . . — Map (db m66689) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Site of Rose Cottage — A look at Civil War Corinth — through the eyes of wartime artists and photographers|
|Among Corinth’s countless stories of personal wartime tragedy is that of General Albert Sidney Johnston, Confederate Commander of the War in the West, who made his headquarters in Rose Cottage. After Johnston received a fatal wound at the Battle of Shiloh, his body was returned to Corinth where it lay in state in Rose Cottage. The Confederacy suffered a great loss with the death of this commander, a close personal friend of Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederate States of America. — Map (db m29291) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Site of the Corinth House Hotel|
|The Corinth House stood in the distance, facing the historic railroad crossing and the Tishomingo Hotel. This photograph shows it after the Union Army occupied Corinth.
In the exciting months before Corinth fell to the Union Army in 1862, townsfolk and Confederate soldiers crowded its hotels, attending dances, parties and other social events. Shortly before the Battle of Shiloh Mr. and Mrs. Pannell, owners of the Corinth House during the war, hosted a grand Confederate Ball attended by . . . — Map (db m51757) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Site of the Mitchell House — A look at Civil War Corinth - — through the eyes of wartime artists and photographers|
Corinth City Hall now occupies this site, but early in the war the Houston Mitchell family lived in this spacious home. A favorite house among the general officers who served in Corinth at various times, the Mitchell residence was used as headquarters for both Confederate and Union generals.
The Mitchell House served as headquarters for these generals.
Gen. Frank Cheatham, CSA
Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, USA
Gen. William T. Sherman, USA
Gen. Don Carlos Buell, USA — Map (db m88942) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Site of the Provost Marshal's Office — A look at Civil War Corinth — through the eyes of wartime artists and photographers.|
|The Moss House, one of Corinth's popular hotels, stood across this intersection. When the Union army occupied Corinth in 1862, the Provost Marshal established headquarters in the building. Army officers who served as provost marshal had the responsibility for policing and maintaining order among both military and civilian occupants of the town.
The hotel served as a hospital after the Battles of Shiloh and Corinth. Unlike many of Corinth's buildings, the Moss House survived the war and . . . — Map (db m66739) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Texas Memorial|
|(Front): Texas remembers the valor and devotion of its sons which served at Corinth and its surrounding environs during the Western Campaign of 1862.
Here in the days following the retreat of Southern forces from the battlefield of Shiloh, two Confederate armies combined to defend the strategic railroad crossing at Corinth. Texans from 18 different units assisted in the defense until heavily outnumbered. The Confederates were compelled to abandon the city on the 30th of May.
In . . . — Map (db m42632) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — The Curlee House — A look at Civil War Corinth - — through the eyes of wartime artists and photographers|
One of Corinth's founders, surveyor Hamilton Mask, built this Greek Revival home in 1857, pictured above as it appeared about 1862. It became known as the "Verandah House" because of its porches and served as headquarters for both Union and Confederate officers. William P. Curlee, whose name it now bears, bought the property in 1875. Except for minor changes, it appears today much as it did in 1862. You are invited to tour the house during its open hours.
During the war high-ranking . . . — Map (db m88943) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — The Old Tishomingo Hotel — A look at Civil War Corinth — --through the eyes of wartime artists and photographers|
|Here, at the hub of activity in 1862, stood the Tishomingo Hotel. The railway station (hidden by the train) is at the crossing of the Mobile & Ohio and Memphis & Charleston railroads. The Tishomingo was popular as an unofficial railway station and following the Battle of Shiloh it housed a Confederate hospital. Union forces occupying Corinth continued its use as a hospital.
Visible in this photograph, taken after the Confederates abandoned Corinth on May 29, 1862, is a small . . . — Map (db m51753) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Union General Thomas Addresses the Troops — A look at Civil War Corinth - — through the eyes of wartime artists and photographers.|
This unusual Civil War photograph captures a news event as it is happening, rather than recording its aftermath. In the middle of the scene is a canvas topped speakers platform from which Union Adjutant General Lorenzo Thomas is speaking to troops on enlistment of African Americans into the Union Army. This was a burning issue of the times, although African Americans had previously fought in all American Wars. Two of the first Black regiments were organized in Corinth - the First (and . . . — Map (db m89030) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — Union Troops at Corinth — A look at Civil War Corinth — --through the eyes of wartime artists and photographers|
|Not a "spit and polish" outfit, but tough and practical fighters. A Civil War photographer caught this group in a candid mode. Before the 1850s, the public's conception of battle formed mostly from romanticized drawings and paintings. Photography changed that image during the Crimean War and the American Civil War, with pictures showing things the way they really were. The photographer took this picture in the vicinity of the Tishomingo Hotel and railway station. A tent encampment can be seen . . . — Map (db m51755) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — View Toward Batteries Robinett and Williams — A Look at Civil War Corinth — --through the eyes of wartime artists and photographers.|
|Looking northwest in this view along the right-of-way of the Memphis & Charleston RR, you can see the earthworks of Battery Williams to the left of the tracks. Battery Robinett lies in the distance to the right. One of the many military tent camps in Corinth lies between the foreground and Battery Robinett. In the Battle of Corinth, the Confederate attack focused upon the area where you are standing. Union forces finally halted the Confederate effort to regain Corinth in the savage fighting at Battery Robinett. — Map (db m29273) HM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Corinth — William P. Rogers — Battery Robinett|
| . . . — Map (db m89042) HM WM|
|Mississippi (Alcorn County), Jacinto — Jacinto|
E. 9 mi. Founded 1836 as seat of “Old” Tishomingo, including present Alcorn & Prentiss counties. Named for battle of San Jacinto. Courthouse dates from 1854. Lost county seat, 1870. Home of Sen. E.W. Carmack. — Map (db m77399) HM|
|Mississippi (Attala County), French Camp — Bethel Mission|
|About half a mile northwesterly, Bethel, meaning “House of God” was opened in 1822 as one of thirteen Choctaw mission stations. Indians, slaves, and other men “labored hard during four weeks ... frequently till 10 o’clock at night, by the light of the moon or large fires” to clear the forest and erect the buildings.
The missionaries who took the gospel to the wilderness also taught farming, carpentry, weaving, and housekeeping as well as reading, writing, and . . . — Map (db m87479) HM|
|Mississippi (Attala County), French Camp — Cole Creek|
|Forests are fascinating places – whole new worlds unfold to anyone who takes time to explore them.
Across Cole Creek you will find a typical mixed hardwood forest. Here you can discover for yourself the many marvels in a bottomland forest which are more intriguing than you might suspect.
Time means little in a forest but a 15-minute adventure along this short trail will take you through the last stage of a tupelo-baldcypress swamp and into the first stage of a mixed hardwood bottomland forest. — Map (db m87477)|
|Mississippi (Attala County), Kosciusko — Hurricane Creek|
|Plants need water as much as men need money. Some are satisfied with little; some cannot flourish unless they have a lot; the majority can live contentedly with medium amounts.
From here, a trail descends to the vegetation that thrives in the wet bottomland along Hurricane Creek. The path winds upward among plants growing in soil of medium dampness and on to the top of a dry hill before returning here.
The differences in vegetation are due largely to the varying water content of the soil. — Map (db m87476)|
|Mississippi (Attala County), Kosciusko — MFWC Birthplace|
The Mississippi Federation of Women’s Clubs was founded here on May 25, 1898. Organized by Mrs. Fannie Clark Coleman of Kosciusko, charter clubs included Clarksdale, Jackson, Verona, Sallis, Okolona, Vicksburg, and Meridian. Mrs. D.N. Hebron was elected as the first president. The MFWC joined the General Federation in 1904. — Map (db m72683) HM|
|Mississippi (Benton County), Michigan City — Mississippi Central R.R. Campaign|
|On October 14, 1862, Confederate Gen. John Pemberton assumed command in Mississippi and east Louisiana. Eleven days later, Gen. Ulysses Grant became commander of Union forces in the region. Over the next 8½ months, their forces fought for control of Vicksburg and the Mississippi River. On November 2, Grant moved down the Mississippi Central R.R. and established an advance supply base at Grand Junction, Tennessee on the 4th. By November 28, the Federals were camped at Lamar, six miles south of here. — Map (db m84782) HM|
|Mississippi (Carroll County), Coila — Sgt. John A. Pittman — Medal of Honor|
|The Medal of Honor is the highest award for valor in action against an enemy force which can be bestowed upon an individual serving in the Armed Services of the United States of America. Sgt. Pittman earned this medal by his actions in Korea on 26 November 1950 as a Sergeant in the U.S. Army. His actions were “above and beyond the call of duty.” The Medal was conferred upon him by President Harry Truman. — Map (db m62805) WM|
|Mississippi (Chickasaw County), Houston — Bynum Mounds|
Raw materials and articles from distant areas reached the Indians of the Bynum site by trade along trails that were the forerunners of the Natchez Trace.
- Spool-shaped objects made of copper filled with lead were found with Bynum burials.
- Flint for tools and weapons came from as far away as the region of Ohio.
- Green stone for polished celts (axes) was obtained from the Alabama-Tennessee Piedmont.
- Marine shells came from the . . . — Map (db m84830) HM
|Mississippi (Chickasaw County), New Houlka — Archaeology at Owl Creek Mounds — Early Archaeology - Mound II|
|The first archaeological work at Owl Creek Mounds was supervised by Moreau Chambers in August, 1935. He was employed by the Mississippi Department of Archives and History and assisted by Slater Gordon. E.T. Winston, a Pontotoc journalist and local historian, also helped. The crew, hired by the Federal Employment Relief Administration, was composed of local men.
Excerpt from Chambers’ diary
Saturday, August 10, 1935
“During the morning I took Mr. Winston into Pontotoc to . . . — Map (db m84697) HM|
|Mississippi (Chickasaw County), New Houlka — Archaeology at Owl Creek Mounds — Modern-Day Archaeology - Mound I|
|In the summers of 1991 and 1992, archaeology field schools from Mississippi State University worked to learn more about the site. Most of the excavations were done on top of Mounds I and II, with small test units dug into Mounds III, IV, and V. Broken pieces of pottery and other artifacts were recovered. Information on pits, buildings, and mound construction stages was also gathered.
Because the mounds contained few artifacts, they probably were used for short-term ceremonies rather than . . . — Map (db m84698) HM|
|Mississippi (Chickasaw County), New Houlka — Archaeology Determines the Age of Owl Creek Mounds|
|Owl Creek Mounds were built between 800 and 900 years ago and were used for only about 100 years. This was determined by the dating of charcoal samples collected at the site and by studying the artifacts and type of building remains found in the mounds.
Artifacts provide an easy method for establishing the time period of a site. Pottery, even in broken pieces, works especially well. For example, people of the Mississippian culture made pots with crushed mussel shell added to the clay as . . . — Map (db m84699) HM|
|Mississippi (Chickasaw County), New Houlka — De Soto's Expedition — Was Owl Creek the Town of Chicasa?|
|Hernando De Soto landed in Florida at Tampa Bay in May, 1539. His army numbered around 800 Spaniards including two women. He also had 240 horses and several pigs. The expedition traveled through the Southeast to Texas and returned to the Mississippi River to float down to the Gulf of Mexico. Only about 300 Spaniards survived the four-year journey to reach Mexico in September of 1543.
Chicasa was a village occupied by the Chickasaw Indians. The Chickasaws attacked and burned their own . . . — Map (db m84690) HM|
|Mississippi (Chickasaw County), New Houlka — Owl Creek Mounds — A Ceremonial Site and Its Surrounding Area|
|The first humans came to North America by crossing the Bering Strait land bridge, which connected Siberia and Alaska. Their descendants arrived in this part of Mississippi nearly 12,000 years ago. The oldest mounds in the state were built by people who hunted animals and gathered wild plants for food. Later mounds were the handiwork of prehistoric farmers. The Owl Creek Mounds site was built and used by farming people belonging to the Mississippian culture, A.D. 1000 to 1500.
The Owl Creek . . . — Map (db m84696) HM|
|Mississippi (Chickasaw County), Woodland — Old Trace|
|Preserved here is a portion of a nearly 200-year old road – the Old Natchez Trace. Maintaining this 500-mile long wilderness road in the early 1800's was a difficult if not hopeless task.
As you look down the sunken trench note the large trees growing on the edge of the 10-foot wide strip we clear today. These trees are mute testimony to the endless struggle between man to alter and change, and nature to reclaim, restore, and heal. — Map (db m84832) HM|
|Mississippi (Choctaw County), Ackerman — Ackerman|
|Chartered February 16, 1884, upon the arrival of the Canton, Aberdeen, & Nashville Railroad, and named for the company's president, William K. Ackerman. Since 1896 County Seat of Choctaw County. — Map (db m51200) HM|
|Mississippi (Choctaw County), Ackerman — Coleman's Mill|
|On Yockanookany, 1/2 mi. S., was built in 1836 water mill of W.R. Coleman of Fairfield Co. S.C., first white settler after Choctaw cession in Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. — Map (db m51198) HM|
|Mississippi (Choctaw County), Ackerman — Jeff Busby Park|
|On February 15, 1934, while serving as U.S. Congressman from Mississippi, Thomas Jefferson Busby (1884-1964) introduced a bill authorizing a survey of the Old Natchez Trace. Four years later the historic road was designated a unit of the National Park System.
This area is named in Jeff Busby’s honor to commemorate his part in the Parkway’s establishment. — Map (db m87481) HM|
|Mississippi (Choctaw County), Ackerman — The Great Eastern Hardwood Forest|
The Great Eastern Hardwood Forest
Before Columbus, the world of the eastern Indian was one of a vast continuous forest stretching from Canada to the Gulf coast. A mature forest, it changed little over the centuries, and served as the home of many creatures, some now gone from the earth.
Passenger pigeons by the millions darkened the skies overhead. They fed on the nuts and other fruits of the forest. The last survivor died in . . . — Map (db m87480) HM|
|Mississippi (Choctaw County), Ackerman — 139 — Two Steps From The Blues — Mississippi Blues Trail Marker|
|"Two Steps From the Blues" might refer to Choctaw County's location, a bit off the path from the well-known blues highways and byways of Mississippi, but it is also the title of a classic blues song written by a native of Ackerman, "Texas" Johnny Brown. The son of another Ackerman bluesman, Cranston Exerville "Clarence" Brown, Johnny was born in 1928 and moved to Texas in the 1940s. Other blues artists from the county have included Levester "Big Lucky" Carter and Therley "Speedy" Ashford, who . . . — Map (db m51199) HM|
|Mississippi (Choctaw County), French Camp — Col. James Drane|
|President pro tem of the state Senate, 1857-65. Defeated by W. McWillie in governor’s race, 1857. Delegate to Charleston Dem. Convention, 1860. Son and grandson of Rev. soldiers. House moved here, 1981, and restored. — Map (db m87486) HM|
|Mississippi (Choctaw County), French Camp — D.A.R. Memorial of Natchez Trace|
|This memorial marks a stage on the “Natchez Trace.” The first highway opened through the lower South, by the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek in 1830, between the American government and the Choctaw Indians. The surrounding country became a part of the state of Mississippi. Here Andrew Jackson’s Tennessee and Kentucky commands rested on their way to join him, in his Coast Campaign in the War of 1812, during which second struggle for American independence, Mississippi took a heroic . . . — Map (db m87495) HM|
|Mississippi (Choctaw County), French Camp — French Camp|
|Louis Leflore first traded with the Choctaw Indians at a bluff now part of Jackson Mississippi. About 1812 he established his stand 900 feet to the northeast on the Natchez Trace.
Because of the storekeepers nationality, the area was often called French Camp, a name retained by the present village.
Leflore married a Choctaw woman. Their famous son, who changed his name to Greenwood Leflore became a Choctaw chief and a Mississippi State Senator. For him are named the city of Greenwood a county of Leflore. — Map (db m87485) HM|
|Mississippi (Choctaw County), Mathiston — Pigeon Roost|
|Pigeon Roost Creek, to your left, is a reminder of the millions of migrating passenger pigeons that once roosted in trees in this area. The species has been completely destroyed.
One mile east where the Natchez Trace crossed the creek, Nathaniel Folsom of New England and his Choctaw wife had a trading post before 1790. Their son, David, later operated it and accommodated travelers. When the Reverend Thomas Nixon stopped there in 1815, David’s wife “prepared suitable nourishment ... . . . — Map (db m87484) HM|
|Mississippi (Choctaw County), Mathiston — The Old Natchez Trace|
|In the early 1800's many thoughtful Americans believed that isolation and the difficulties of communication would force the Mississippi Valley settlements to form a separate nation. Hoping to hold the frontier, Congress in 1800 established a post route from Nashville to Natchez.
The Trace, then a series of Indian trails, had drawn from the Secretary of State the bitter comment, “The passage of mail from Natchez is as tedious as from Europe when westerly winds prevail.” To . . . — Map (db m87483) HM|
|Mississippi (Claiborne County), Port Gibson — Battle of Port Gibson|
| On May 1, 1863, Confederate forces under Brig. Gen. John Bowen clashed with elements of two Union corps commanded by Maj. Gen. U.S. Grant. The battle began around midnight near the Shaifer House four miles west of town. At dawn, the Federals advanced against the flanks of Bowen’s line posted on the Rodney and Bruinsburg roads, but separated by deep ravines. Forced back two miles, Bowen was finally compelled by overwhelming numbers to withdraw after 5 p.m. Two months later, Vicksburg surrendered. — Map (db m35542) HM|
|Mississippi (Claiborne County), Port Gibson — Bayou Pierre Presbyterian Church|
|Following the arrival of Presbyterian missionaries in 1801, Joseph Bullen and James Smylie organized the Bayou Pierre Church at this site in 1807. After part of the congregation formed the Bethel Church southwest of here in 1824, the remaining members moved to Port Gibson. The church was renamed First Presbyterian Church of Port Gibson in 1828. During the Battle of Port Gibson, fought on May 1, 1863, the 20th Alabama Infantry was posted here, anchoring the right flank of Confederate Brig. General Edward D. Tracy's Brigade. — Map (db m70394) HM|
|Mississippi (Claiborne County), Port Gibson — Grindstone Ford|
|This ford marked the beginning of the wilderness of the Choctaw nation and the end of the old Natchez District. Nearby Fort Deposit was a supply depot for troops clearing the Trace in 1801-02, and troops were assembled here during the Burr conspiracy allegedly to separate the Western States from the Union. The site takes its name from a nearby water mill.
The trail to your left takes you to the Old Trace and Grindstone Ford. — Map (db m61981) HM|
|Mississippi (Claiborne County), Port Gibson — Mangum Mound|
|Excavation of this site tells us much about the people of the late prehistoric periods. The Plaquemine culture included the ancestors of the modern tribes of Mississippi and Louisiana. It was a society with elaborate agriculturally oriented religious ceremonies. From the burials on the mound we have learned that there was a high infant mortality and that upon the death of a chief, a brutal ritual was enacted in which his retainers were slain and buried with him. — Map (db m87325) HM|
|Mississippi (Claiborne County), Port Gibson — Owens Creek|
|The sounds of a busy woodland stream and the quiet murmur of a lazy waterfall have long been stilled here. Only after a heavy rainfall does water fill the stream and set the waterfall singing.
Over the years the water table has dropped several feet, and the spring which feeds Owens Creek has all but disappeared.
Little remains of a scene once familiar to early residents of the Rocky Springs community. — Map (db m87327)|
|Mississippi (Claiborne County), Port Gibson — Rabbit Foot Minstrels — Mississippi Blues Trail|
| [front:] Rabbit Foot Minstrels. During the first half of the 20th century, the African American Rabbit Foot Minstrels entertainers played a major role in spreading the blues via tours across the South. Founded in 1900, the “Foots” were headquartered in Port Gibson between 1918 and 1950 under owner F.S. Wolcott. Notable members included Gertrude “Ma” Rainey, Ida Cox, Louis Jordan, and Rufus Thomas.
[logo:] Mississippi Blues Commission, est. 2003.
. . . — Map (db m35545) HM|
|Mississippi (Claiborne County), Port Gibson — Sunken Trace|
|Preserved here is a portion of the deeply eroded or “sunken” Old Trace. Hardships of journeying on the Old Trace included heat, mosquitoes, poor food, hard beds (if any), disease, swollen rivers, and sucking swamps.
Take 5 minutes to walk this sunken trail and let your imagination carry you back to the early 1800's when people walking 500 miles had to put up with these discomforts and where a broken leg or arm could spell death for the lone traveler. — Map (db m87313) HM|
|Mississippi (Claiborne County), Port Gibson — Windsor Ruins|
|Smith Coffee Daniell II, a successful cotton planter, completed construction of Windsor in 1861. Daniell owned 21,000 acres of plantation land in Louisiana and Mississippi. Ironically, he died in April 1861, only weeks after completing his mansion. His wife and children continued to live at Windsor but were left to suffer the loss of much of the family's holdings during the Civil War.
Windsor's basic style was Greek Revival but with added details borrowed from Italianate and Gothic . . . — Map (db m70541) HM|
|Mississippi (Claiborne County), Utica — Federals Occupy Rocky Springs|
|After U.S. Grant had planned much of his campaign at Mrs. Bagnell’s, four miles west, he arrived at Rocky Springs on May 7. He remained until May 10, allowing the XV Corps to cross the Mississippi and rejoin the army. McClernand’s XIII Corps arrived here on May 6 and moved to Little Sand Creek, one and a half miles northeast and Big Sand Creek, three miles northeast, on May 7. Grant issued motivational orders to his troops at Rocky Springs and reviewed McClernand’s men at Big Sand Creek on May 8. — Map (db m87358) HM|
|Mississippi (Claiborne County), Utica — The Old Natchez Trace|
|This is the Natchez Trace. For many years it served man well, but as with many things when its usefulness passed, it was abandoned.
Over the years, this time-worn path has been a silent witness to honor and dishonor. It bears the prints of countless men.
Walk down the shaded trail – leave your prints in the dust, not for others to see, but for the road to remember. — Map (db m87357) HM|
|Mississippi (Claiborne County), Utica — The Town of Rocky Springs|
|At the end of this trail is evidence of a once thriving rural community. First settled in the late 1790's, the town grew from a watering place along the Natchez Trace, and took its name from the source of that water -- the Rocky Spring. In 1860, a total of 2,616 people lived in this area covering about 25 square miles. The population of the town proper included 3 merchants, 4 physicians, 4 teachers, 3 clergy and 13 artisans; while the surrounding farming community included 54 planters, 28 . . . — Map (db m80147) HM|
|Mississippi (Clarke County), Enterprise — Enterprise|
|Center of early trade on Chickasawhay River with Gulf Coast. Served during Civil War as location of hospital and prison camp and temporary refuge of the State Government. — Map (db m84213) HM|
|Mississippi (Clarke County), Quitman — Clarke County Confederate Soldiers Monument|
To the Confederate
Though Your Ranks
Now Fast are Melting
and the Stars and
Bars are Furled,
Yet the South
Will Live Forever
In the Glory
Of Your World.
The Noble Men
Neath the Flag
Of the Stars
And Bars and
To the End. — Map (db m84239) WM|
|Mississippi (Clarke County), Quitman — Clarke County War Memorial|
Lest We Forget
To the Memory
Clarke County, Mississippi
Who Gave Their Lives
In the Service
World War I Army
Bartee, George A. PVT • Boutwell, Lewis L. PVT • Butler, Brist H. PVT • Goodman, William C. PVT • Graham, Ira W. PVT • Harger, Linton L. PVT • Hayes, Will PVT • Kennedy, William S. PVT • Lawson, Erma W. PVT • Long, Willis PVT • McKenney, James E. PVT • Mixon, Thomas J. PVT • Nichols, Robert L. PVT • Patrick, . . . — Map (db m84241) HM|
|Mississippi (Clay County), West Point — Howlin Wolf — Mississippi Blues Trail|
|One of the giants of post-World War II Chicago blues, Chester Arthur Burnett, aka “Howlin’ Wolf,” was born in White Station, just north of West Point, on June 10, 1910. In his early teens Burnett began performing in the Delta and was later a pioneer in electrifying the Delta blues. After moving north, Burnett nonetheless remained a strong presence on the Mississippi blues scene by returning home often for visits and performances.
An imposing figure both . . . — Map (db m50299) HM|
|Mississippi (Clay County), West Point — Waverley|
|E. 10 mi. Plantation home built c. 1852 by Geo. H. Young. Octagonal cupola. Gen. N.B. Forrest visited here during the Civil War. National Fox Hunters Assn. organized here. — Map (db m50160) HM|
|Mississippi (Clay County), West Point — Waverley|
|W. 5 mi. Built in 1852 by Col. Geo. H. Young, who used own plant for gas lighting. In Civil War housed refugee girls from Memphis & New Orleans. Site of organization of National Fox Hunters Association. — Map (db m51202) HM|
|Mississippi (Clay County), West Point — West Point|
|County seat of Clay ( formerly Colfax ) County. Chartered November 20, 1858, one year after the arrival of the Mobile and Ohio Railroad. — Map (db m50298) HM|
|Mississippi (Copiah County), Crystal Springs — Bus-Train Collision of 1942|
|On August 5, 1942, a southbound train collided with a westbound bus, killing fifteen bus passengers and injuring many more. The Greyhound bus, traveling from New Orleans to Jackson, stopped at the east side of the Marion Avenue railroad crossing to await the passing of a northbound freight train. As the last train car passed, the bus crossed the tracks and was struck in the rear by an unseen southbound troop train. Of the fifty-two bus passengers, twenty-six were U.S. Army Air Corps cadets. — Map (db m50894) HM|
|Mississippi (Copiah County), Crystal Springs — Tommy Johnson — Mississippi Blues Trail Marker|
|Tommy Johnson (1896-1956) was one of the most influential blues artists in Mississippi in the 1920s and 1930s. He grew up in the Crystal Springs area, where he often performed with his brothers LeDell and Mager. His original songs, which were widely covered by others, included “Canned Heat Blues,” “Big Road Blues,” and “Cool Drink of Water Blues.” He is buried in the Warm Springs Methodist Church cemetery north of town. (Back):
Tommy Johnson was a . . . — Map (db m50895) HM|
|Mississippi (Copiah County), Hazelhurst — Hazelhurst|
|Named for chief engineer of first Jackson - New Orleans railway. Last spike driven here on March 31, 1858. Town was raided by Grierson in 1863. Shipping point for cattle, truck crops, and lumber. — Map (db m50893) HM|
|Mississippi (Copiah County), Hazelhurst — Mrs. Annie Coleman Peyton — (1852 - 1894)|
|Mississippi State College for Women, first state-supported college for women in the U.S. was founded in 1884 through the efforts of Mrs Peyton, a citizen of Hazelhurst. — Map (db m50892) HM|
|Mississippi (Copiah County), Hazelhurst — Robert Johnson Birthplace|
|Robert Johnson born Hazelhurst, Mississippi May 8, 1911 Copiah County Map (db m50874) HM|
|Mississippi (Copiah County), Hazlehurst — Robert Johnson|
The legendary bluesman Robert Johnson was born on the northern outskirts of Hazlehurst to Julia Major and Noah Johnson, on May 8, 1911 (or possibly 1912). Johnson lived in Tunica County and in Memphis as a child, but in the early 1930s he returned for a stay in the Hazlehurst area, where he honed his skills playing with local blues guitarist Ike Zinnerman.
Robert Johnson whose body of twenty-nine recordings from 1936-37 is widely regarded as an artistic . . . — Map (db m81864) HM|
|Mississippi (Forrest County), Brooklyn — Forrest County Agricultural High School|
|Created in 1911 by an act of the Mississippi Legislature, as an agricultural boarding school. Set on 320 acres of donated land. Students from across the United States, Mississippi and several foreign countries have been educated here. In 1996 FCAHS was listed as a Mississippi Landmark. — Map (db m50077) HM|
|Mississippi (Forrest County), Camp Shelby — 2127 — Camp Shelby|
|Following activation for service in both WWI and WWII, Ky. Guard units, as part of the 38th Inf. Div. were sent to Camp Shelby for training in preparation for war. Ky. National Guard units trained at Camp Shelby during WWI and WWII: 75th Brig.; 149th Inf. Reg.; 63rd Fld. Arty. Brig.; 1st and 2nd Battalion, 138th Fld. Arty.
Presented by Ky. Dept. of Military Affairs — Map (db m71589) HM|
|Mississippi (Forrest County), Dixie — Dixie School Log Cabin|
|Citizens of the Dixie community built this structure 1/4 mile southeast of this site in the 1930s to serve as a cafeteria during the Depression era. The log cabin has also served as a meeting place, music hall and classroom. In 2003 the cabin was relocated to this site. Sponsor-M.A.R.C.L. Chapter 2583 U.D.C. — Map (db m56534) HM|
|Mississippi (Forrest County), Hattiesburg — Forrest County Confederate Monument|
To the Men and Women of
When their county called
they held back nothing.
They cheerfully gave their
property and their lives.
Through the devotion and
untiring efforts of the
Hattiesburg Chapter No. 422
of the United Daughters
of the Confederacy, this
monument is erected to
the honor and memory of
those who wore the gray. — Map (db m39867) HM|
|Mississippi (Forrest County), Hattiesburg — Hattiesburg — The Hub City — Centennial of Hattiesburg|
Formerly Choctaw Territory and later claimed by France, Britain, Spain and United States, this area entered by settlers in early 1800s and known as Ewin Forks, later Gordonville. Chosen as rail center by Captain William H. Hardy in 1880 and later renamed Hattiesburg after his wife, Hattie Lott.
Incorporated in 1884, the city grew as rail, timber and mercantile hub of south Mississippi, becoming major center of yellow pine industry and by 1911, state's fourth largest . . . — Map (db m58885) HM|
|Mississippi (Forrest County), Hattiesburg — Hattiesburg — The Hub City|
"...I was returning from the trip and
had reached the banks of a beautiful
piney woods stream...during July or
perhaps August 1800."
"...I then, and there, determined to
locate a station here because it was the
place where cross the New Orleans and|
Erected to Commemorate
the Centennial of Hattiesburg
City of . . . — Map (db m76703) HM
|Mississippi (Forrest County), Hattiesburg — Hub City Lodge No 627|
Free and Accepted Masons
Commemorates 96 Years
of Masonry in Hattiesburg
1886 - 1982
100th Anniversary of
Faith - Hope - Charity
July 16, 1982
Organized 1959 Chartered 1960 — Map (db m39897) HM|
|Mississippi (Forrest County), Hattiesburg — McLeod House|
has been placed on the
of Historic Places
by the United States
Department of the Interior
1897 — Map (db m39904) HM|
|Mississippi (Forrest County), Hattiesburg — Old Federal Building|
This Building, the
Old Federal Building
has been listed on the
National Register of Historic Places
U.S. Department of Interior
• • •
Supervised by architect James Knox Taylor, this first federal building in Hattiesburg was completed in 1910 as the U.S. Post Office, and served as such until 1932 when the present Post Office, across Pine Street, was completed.
The building was remodeled in 1939 to serve the Hattiesburg . . . — Map (db m44961) HM|
|Mississippi (Forrest County), Hattiesburg — Old Hattiesburg High School|
| Under the direction of Principal J.T. Wallace, this building was Hattiesburg's High School from 1922 to 1959. Built in 1911, the structure acquired its present form when enlarged and remodeled in 1921 to the designs of Robert E. Lee, the city's most prominent architect of the early twentieth century. — Map (db m39906) HM|
|Mississippi (Forrest County), Hattiesburg — Veterans of All Wars Monument|
|Army Air Force Navy Marine
For God and Country
Allen B. Carter Post No. 24
and its Auxiliary Unit
The American Legion, Hattiesburg, Miss.
Dedicates This Monument to
The Veterans of All Wars
Living or Dead — Map (db m76704) HM|
|Mississippi (Forrest County), Hattiesburg — William Carey College|
E. 1 mi. Founded 1906 as S. Miss. College. Operated by Bapt. as Miss. Woman's College 1911-40. Coeducational 1953. Name changed to honor William Carey, 18th century English missionary. — Map (db m39896) HM|
|Mississippi (Forrest County), Hattiesburg — William Harris Hardy|
In 1880 near the banks of Gordon Creek, this lawyer, railroad builder and Confederate veteran selected the site for Hattiesburg. Incorporated in 1884, the town was named for Hardy's wife, Hattie Lott. — Map (db m40050) HM|
|Mississippi (Forrest County), Hattiesburg — William Harris Hardy — 1837 - 1917 — Lawyer Statesman Soldier|
|Builder of Railroads
Pioneer in the Development
of the Resources of
Founder of the Cities of
Hattiesburg and Gulfport
Whose dreams Came True — Map (db m76705) HM|
|Mississippi (Forrest County), Maxie — Old West Florida|
|Area to south, originally part of French Louisiana, became West Florida under England and Spain. After West Florida Revolution annexed by U. S. and in 1812 was added to the Mississippi Territory. — Map (db m39002) HM|
|Mississippi (George County), Lucedale — "Ornamental Nursery Capital of Mississippi"|
|In 1898, E.E. Bolen established a nursery and orchard company in George County. Other wholesale nurseries were established in the early 1900s. The production of ornamental plants, trees and shrubs has since become a thriving commercial industry in the area. — Map (db m56545) HM|
|Mississippi (Hancock County), Bay St. Louis — 132 — 100 Men D.B.A. Hall|
The 100 Men D.B.A. Hall, a longtime center of African American social life and entertainment, was built in 1922 by the One Hundred Members’ Debating Benevolent Association. Over the years the association sponsored many events and also rented the hall to promoters who brought in blues, rhythm & blues, and jazz acts. Local residents have recalled performances by Etta James, Big Joe Turner, Guitar Slim, Irma Thomas, Professor Longhair, Ernie K-Doe, Deacon John, Earl King, and . . . — Map (db m80992) HM|
|Mississippi (Hancock County), Bay St. Louis — Naval Battle of Bay St. Louis|
|On Dec. 14, 1814, five U.S. gunboats fired on a British fleet entering Lake Borgne. Their action was the last naval defense of the U.S. before the victory of General Andrew Jackson at New Orleans. — Map (db m78939) HM|
|Mississippi (Hancock County), Bay St. Louis — Publius Rutilius Rufus Pray|
|Born in Maine, 1793, Hancock Co. judge. Served in Miss. House of Representatives, 1827 - 29. Pres. of St. Const. Conven., 1832. Elected judge of High Court of Errors and Appeals, 1837. Died 1840. — Map (db m80400) HM|
|Mississippi (Hancock County), Bay St. Louis — St. Augustine’s Seminary|
|Founded 1920 in Greenville, Miss., by Divine Word Missionaries. Moved to Bay St. Louis, 1923. Oldest existing Catholic seminary in Miss. for training of young men as missionary brothers & priests. — Map (db m81044) HM|
|Mississippi (Hancock County), Gainesville — Gainesville Volunteers|
|In 1860, John Deason, a Mexican War Veteran, organized a militia company here. The "Gainesville Volunteers" entered Confederate service in 1861 as Co. G. of the Third Mississippi Infantry. During the Civil War the unit served in the Gulf Coast region and fought in the Vicksburg, Atlanta, Middle Tennessee,and Carolina campaigns. — Map (db m8755) HM|
|Mississippi (Hancock County), Waveland — Brown's Vineyard|
|Located at this site, Brown's Vineyard, established 1874, was a popular resort during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The wine, produced on site from scuppernong grapes, was marketed and sold across the United States. The vineyard, which also provided entertainment, was forced to close in 1920 due to Prohibition. — Map (db m49061) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Biloxi — Biloxi|
|Founded by the French as "New Biloxi." Capital of French colony of Louisiana, 1721-1722, prior to French removal to New Orleans. Incorporated as a town in 1850 by the Mississippi Legislature. — Map (db m68449) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Biloxi — Biloxi Lighthouse|
|Since its construction in 1848, this cast iron lighthouse has been the landmark for which Biloxi-bound vessels sail. Tended by the Younghans family, father, mother and daughter, from late 1866 until 1929. — Map (db m22778) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Biloxi — Birthplace of Barq's|
|Barq's root beer was created by Edward C. Barq, Sr. in 1898 and produced on this site until 1936, when the operation moved to Lameuse Street. A Mississippi Gulf Coast favorite, the number of franchise bottlers grew to over two hundred by 1950. Acquired by The Coca-Cola Company in 1995. — Map (db m68425) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Biloxi — Cathedral of the Nativity (B.V.M.)|
|Parent Catholic Parish on the Mississippi Gulf Coast, continuing missions dating back to French Colonial era. First church on this site dedicated 1844. Rebuilt after fire in 1900. Dedicated Cathedral for Diocese of Biloxi 1977. Restored in 1989 after damage by major hurricanes over a twenty-year period. — Map (db m22980) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Biloxi — 21 — Chris LeDoux|
Born in Biloxi, Chris LeDoux (1948-2005), the Singing Bronc Rider, pursued dreams of success as both a competitive rodeo cowboy and latter day Western singing star and achieved both. The 1976 World Champion Bareback Bronc Rider released modern and traditional cowboy song records for his rodeo fans from 1973-1991. When Garth Brooks, a fan of LeDoux’s exuberant live performing style mentioned him in a 1989 hit, LeDoux became a major label star on Capitol Records himself. . . . — Map (db m79086) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Biloxi — Civil Rights Wade-Ins|
|On May 14, 1959, April 24, 1960, and June 23, 1963, the Biloxi beach front was the site of planned civil rights wade-ins demanding equal access to the public beach. On April 24, 1960, several citizens, both black and white, were injured and arrested, including the leader of the wade-ins, physician Dr. Gilbert R. Mason Sr. This series of protests gave birth to the Biloxi branch of the NAACP, major voter registration drives in 1960, and a 1968 federal court ruling opening the beach to all citizens. — Map (db m68460) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Biloxi — Debuys-Hermann-Keller House|
|The Greek Revival mansion once located here was a "raised cottage" (meaning it was composed of a frame upper story set upon an above-ground brick basement to
protect the wooden portion from moisture and insects.) Probably built ca. 1850 for Peter Debuys, a French planter. It was acquired in 1851 by New Orleans cotton
broker L.F. Hermann and in 1871 by John Henry Keller. A New Orleans manufacturer and philanthropist, Keller organized the Seashore Assembly in Biloxi. The house
was lost in Hurricane Katrina in 2005. — Map (db m68423) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Biloxi — Moran Site|
|Located here was a French Colonial cemetery, now known as the Moran Site. Based on archaeological investigations, the cemetery dates to the founding of "New Biloxy" between 1717 and 1722, and includes at least thirty burials, primarily male Europeans. Artifacts recovered from the site include ceramics, a French Colonial wine glass and a metal crucifix. The Moran Site is the oldest known French Colonial cemetery in the South and the second oldest in the United States. — Map (db m68448) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Biloxi — Old Brick House|
|Site granted by Spanish to Jean Baptiste Carquote in 1790. Residence in Civil War of Mayor John L. Henley, who led defense against Union fleet, Sept., 1861. Restoration by Biloxi Garden Clubs. — Map (db m42855) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Biloxi — Robinson-Maloney-Dantzler House|
|Originally a raised-cottage Greek Revival mansion similar to Beauvoir, the house located here was built ca. 1849 by J.G. Robinson, a wealthy English cotton
planter. It was the center of an estate that included a ten-pin bowling alley, billiard hall, bath house, thoroughbred stables, kennels, gardens and a wharf for
docking two prized yachts. About 1908 the Maloney family enlarged the house with a second story addition and two-tiered wrap-around porches in the Neo-Classical
style. Destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. — Map (db m68456) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Biloxi — The Magnolia Hotel|
|Built by John Hohn in 1847. Its operation for a century attests to the Gulf Coast as a resort area. In 1972 structure moved to present location 100 yds. north of original site & restored by City of Biloxi. — Map (db m68447) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Biloxi — Tivoli Hotel|
|A six-story, blonde-brick structure with an arcaded gallery that wrapped its first story, the Italian Renaissance Revival-style Tivoli Hotel was one of Biloxi's early 20th century resorts, built in 1926-27 to designs by local architect Carl E. Matthes. The hotel
was expanded in the 1950s and renamed the Tradewinds. The Tivoli was heavily damaged in 2005 when rammed by a block-long casino barge propelled by Hurricane Katrina's
storm surge. It was later demolished. — Map (db m68464) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Biloxi — William Bartram Trail|
|William Bartram, noted naturalist and journalist, traveled down the Mississippi and along the Gulf Coast in 1777. His observations of plant life, geography and inhabitants were published in 1791. — Map (db m79087) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Biloxi — Woolmarket|
|S. 3 mi. Once center of wool industry. Here on July 16, 1910, three rural schools formed Woolmarket Vocational High School, considered to be the first consolidated high school in the state. — Map (db m20010) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Gulfport — Broadcasting the Blues|
Blues radio took off in the post-World War II era with the arrival of rhythm & blues programming. A new era for blues radio began in 2000 when Rip Daniels, a Gulfport native, launched the American Blues Network (ABN) at this site. Using satellite and Internet technology, ABN provided a mix of modern and vintage blues to listeners around the world.
Radio emerged as the primary medium for the dissemination of music, advertisements, and news to the African . . . — Map (db m80988) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Gulfport — Gulf Coast College|
|Once located in the Handsboro Community, Gulf Coast College was founded in 1865 by Henry Leinhard as a private coeducational boarding school here on this site. In the early 1890's the college was converted into a public school. After the original building burned in 1911, classes were moved to a nearby two-story building until 1926. The students were then moved to Handsboro Elementary School, which was closed in 1973 and demolished in 1985. — Map (db m81008) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Gulfport — Gulf Coast Military Academy|
|This preparatory school for boys was founded in 1912. The senior division campus, closed in 1951, is now the site of the Armed Forces Retirement Home-Gulfport, formerly known as the United States Naval Home. The junior division campus, closed in 1976, was one quarter mile to the east. "Send us the boy and we will return the man." — Map (db m68452) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Gulfport — 184 — Gulfport Boogie|
Gulfport was once home to an active blues and rhythm & blues scene, particularly here in the North Gulfport area. Jaimoe, famed drummer with the Allman Brothers Band, was raised in Gulfport, as was the band’s onetime bassist Lamar Williams, and both performed in many clubs along the coast during their early years. Blues Hall of Fame pianist Roosevelt Sykes once lived here, and other Gulfport residents have included pianist Cozy Corley, singer Albennie Jones, and guitarist . . . — Map (db m80990) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Gulfport — Gulfport Civil Rights Wade-In|
|Near this spot on April 17 and April 24, 1960, Gulfport NAACP president Dr. Felix Dunn and his family joined in peaceful "wade-in" demonstrations to challenge the laws denying African-Americans use of the beach. Gulfport police officers removed the protestors but filed no charges. In Biloxi, similar protests led to arrests and white mob violence. These protests prompted the first intervention of the Civil Rights Division of the U. S. Justice Department challenging Mississippi's segregationist laws and practices. — Map (db m68450) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Gulfport — Handsboro|
|N.1 mi. Founded c. 1800. Famed, 1840-1900, for foundries, sawmills & shipyard; Coast's first newspaper, "Democrat" (1846); and many fine academies. Here Jeff. Davis attended Polar Star Lodge, founded in 1852. — Map (db m81006) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Gulfport — Handsboro Presbyterian Church|
|Organized November 18, 1877, by the New Orleans Presbytery. The present church building was erected in 1891 on the site of the original building which was destroyed by fire in 1889. — Map (db m81007) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Gulfport — Kellier-Sternberg House|
|The Ionic-columned, neoclassical house that once stood here was originally built ca. 1900 by T.G.B. Kellier and was later owned by Edward Sternberg, southeastern claims and litigation manager for the Louisville & Nashville Railroad. In 1999, "The Chimneys" restaurant moved into the house from its former location at the Long Beach harbor. The house was destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. — Map (db m68459) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Gulfport — Memorialization of Jefferson Davis|
|On site of old Harrison County Court House
where at age 80 he made this famed speech
— To the —
young men of Mississippi which stands
out as this great American's crowning service
to the United States through its far-reaching
admonitions and this memorable closing appeal-
"To lay aside all rancor all bitter sectional
feeling and take your places in ranks of those
who will bring about a consummation devoutly
wished for - reunited country." — Map (db m81014) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Gulfport — Mississippi City Courthouse|
|Constructed in 1893 as part of the Harrison County Circuit Clerk's office, the "Old Courthouse," located here, was a two-story, red brick edifice. It was the last remaining structure associated with a complex of courthouse buildings in Mississippi City, which served as the county seat from 1841 until 1902, when the county seat was moved to Gulfport. The original building was destroyed during Hurricane Katrina in 2005, and the present replica was constructed in 2009. — Map (db m81011) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Gulfport — St. Mark's Episcopal Church|
|St. Mark's Episcopal Church, once located here, was organized as a mission parish in 1846. Originally a simple rectangular frame building with twin front doors. The church was altered and enlarged over the years and was moved from its original beachfront location in 1925 to face 16th Street. Jefferson Davis was once a member of St. Mark's. The church was badly damaged by Hurricane Camille in 1969 and destroyed by Katrina in 2005, after which the congregation relocated to the corner of Cowan and E. Taylor Roads. — Map (db m81009) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Gulfport — The Magnolia Route|
|On April 20, 1925, the Magnolia Route opened with a forty-hour, 1,000 mile endurance drive from Gulfport to Chicago. This route was designed to bring more commerce and tourism to Mississippi. — Map (db m80995) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Long Beach — Boggsdale|
|Thomas Hale Boggs (1914-1972). U.S. Congressman from La. for 28 years, was born in the family home built on this site in 1875. The son of Wm. & Claire Hale Boggs, Rep. Boggs served as House Majority Leader, 1971-72. — Map (db m80996) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Long Beach — City of Long Beach Centennial 1905-2005|
First european settlers, Nicholas and Marianne Ladner, built a home in 1788 near Bear Point. Area first called "the chimneys" by coastal mariners after the landmark chimneys on the Ladner home. The village that developed in the 1800's was known as Rosalie, the name chosen by early settler J. J. McCaughan for his home. With the arrival of the railroad the area was named Scott's Station after George Scott who gave the land for the railroad station. On August 10, 1905, Governor . . . — Map (db m81052) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Long Beach — Early Bank and Post Office|
|Oldest commercial building on Jeff Davis Avenue. Built in 1924 by Hancock County Bank as its second branch. Located in Long Beach primarily to serve this area's growing truck farming industry. Because of the Great Depression, the branch was moved in 1933 to Gulfport. The city library located here for few months in 1939-1940. Southern Star Lodge No. 55 F. & A. M. purchased building in 1940. After renovations, Masons first met in this new upstairs hall February 7, 1941. Mrs Minnie Dubuisson, . . . — Map (db m81049) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Long Beach — Early Long Beach|
|In 1788, Nicholas and Marianne Ladner became the first Europeans to settle in this area. Their log house, know as "The Chimneys", was used as a navigation point for boats traveling from Mobile to New Orleans. After Nicholas's death, the Spanish granted the land to his widow. Much of modern Long Beach includes the Widow Ladner Claim. — Map (db m81001) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Long Beach — Early Long Beach|
|In 1788, Nicholas and Marianne Ladner became the first Europeans to settle in this area. Their log house, know as "The Chimneys," was used as a navigation point for boats traveling from Mobile to New Orleans. After Nicholas's death, the Spanish granted the land to his widow. Much of modern Long Beach includes the Widow Ladner Claim. — Map (db m81002) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Long Beach — Long Beach Schools|
|This site given by Harper McCaughan in 1885 for school purposes only. W. J. Quarles began teaching 11 children in his home on Railroad Street (1884-1886). One room wood-frame school erected 1886, enlarged 1887. First brick building built 1906. Principal and four teachers taught 10 grades. New Long Beach school built 1926. Twelve grades taught here 1926-1956. Long Beach School District organized 1927. Became Jeff Davis Elementary 1956-1976. Building demolished 1978. New Jeff Davis Elementary . . . — Map (db m81000) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Long Beach — St. Thomas the Apostle Catholic Church|
|St. Mary's Seminary of Perry County, Missouri, purchased land formerly owned by the Thomas family for a new church in 1904. The church was dedicated and staffed by Vincentian Priests in 1905. St. Thomas the Apostle was established as a parish on this site in 1915. An elementary school was built in 1923 and staffed by the Daughters of Charity. The original church building was destroyed in 1969 by Hurricane Camille. A new church was dedicated in 1972. The Diocese of Biloxi purchased the property . . . — Map (db m81005) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Long Beach — Truck Farming|
|Arrival of L&N Railroad in 1880's made possible Long Beach's development as a truck farming center. James Thomas and W. J. Quarles in 1884 began truck farm industry by raising and shipping green beans to northern markets. During next 25 years, over 70 individual growers, on area farms ranging from one to 125 acres, raised a variety of vegetables and fruits which were shipped by rail to northern markets. City became famous for growing Long Beach Long Reds radishes for patrons of northern beer . . . — Map (db m81047) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Pass Christian — 124 — Blues & Jazz in the Pass|
The histories of blues and jazz are often traced along separate pathways, but, especially on the Gulf Coast, the two genres were intertwined from the earliest days. Blues was a key element in the music of Pass Christian’s illustrious native son Captain John Handy (1900-1971) and other locals who played traditional jazz or rhythm & blues. Pass Christian has celebrated its rich African American musical heritage with various festivals, including "Jazz in the Pass," first held . . . — Map (db m80991) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Pass Christian — Constitution of the United States of America|
In 1787 delegates from the 13
original states met in Philadelphia
and wrote the Constitution at
a convention in which
was chosen the presiding officer. — Map (db m81110) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Pass Christian — Declaration of Independence|
Adopted by the
Continental Congress in Philadelphia
on July, 4, 1776
The 13 Original Colonies were Massachusetts,
Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire,
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania,
Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North
Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. — Map (db m81113) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Pass Christian — Dixie "White House"|
|Built by John Backe of New Orleans in 1851. Here in 1913 Pres. Woodrow Wilson and family spent winter vacation as guests of the owner, Miss Alice Herndon. — Map (db m80997) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Pass Christian — Independence Hall|
Begun in 1732 — Completed in 1753
Here the Declaration of
Independence was adopted on
July 4, 1776
and the Constitutional Convention
held in 1787 — Map (db m81115) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Pass Christian — Les Palmiers|
of Historic Places
Built in 1849 for Harold Payne as a
four room Coast cottage. Altered and
expanded in 1893 and 1904.
Abandoned after Hurricane Camille.
Bought, restored and expanded in
1989 by Dr. and Mrs. Harry Danielson.
aka Alva Villa, the Harrison Badier House, Belle B'Anne — Map (db m81054) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Pass Christian — Saucier-Bidwell-Pratt House|
Built ca. 1855 by Pierre Saucier,
whose son was later mayor of
Pass Christian, the two-story Greek
Revival House located here had
a central temple-like portico and
square-columned galleries spanning
its facade, and an octagonal Gothic
Revival outbuilding on its grounds. It
was later the home of renowned
New Orleans theatre impresario David
Bidwell. Known locally as "Union
Quarters," the house was destroyed
during Hurricane Katrina in 2005. . . . — Map (db m81033) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Pass Christian — Scenic Drive Historic District|
|Due to the large number of 19th and early 20th century mansions once located here, Pass Christian's Scenic Drive was heralded as "The Newport of the South." Composed of architecturally significant vacation villas set among live oaks, this National Register listed historic district had the largest and best preserved collection of noteworthy beachfront manors on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. In 2005 Hurricane Katrina destroyed many of the historic buildings, especially in the western half of the district. — Map (db m81042) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Pass Christian — The Flag of the United States of America|
The Stars and Stripes originated
as a result of a resolution
offered by the Marine Committee
of the Second Continental Congress
at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and
adopted June 14, 1777. — Map (db m81111) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Pass Christian — The Liberty Bell|
The bell bears the inscription
"Proclaim liberty throughout
all the land unto all the
inhabitants thereof." — Map (db m81112) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Pass Christian — The Star Spangled Banner|
The National Anthem
was written by
Francis Scott Key
during the bombardment of
September 13-14, 1814 — Map (db m81114) HM|
|Mississippi (Harrison County), Pass Christian — United States Merchant Marine Academy Cadet Memorial|
|These grounds, from September 16, 1942 to March 21, 1950, were the site of the Pass Christian United States Merchant Marine Cadet Corps Basic School.
From here and the sister school at San Mateo, California, over 6000 undergraduates of the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy at Kings Point, New York, went to sea in war and peace.
To those cadets, who in the course of their training or subsequent service, gave their lives for our country, this monument is respectfully dedicated. — Map (db m86086) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Bolton — 175 — Charley Patton Birthplace|
Mississippi blues master Charley Patton was born on this property when it was known as Herring's Place, according to Bolton bluesman Sam Chatmon. Patton's birthdate has often been reported as April 1891, but other sources cite earlier dates, including 1881, 1885, and 1887. (Birth certificates were not required in Mississippi until 1912.) Patton's astounding body of recorded work (1929-1934) remains unparalleled, and his live performances were reportedly even more awe-inspiring. Patton . . . — Map (db m80015) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Clinton — Clinton Cemetery|
|Established ca. 1800, the Clinton Cemetery is one of the oldest in central Mississippi. Buried here are families of pioneer settlers, ten college presidents, and sixty-three Confederate soldiers. — Map (db m69598) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Clinton — Cowles Mead Cemetery|
|Like many of his generation, Mead came from the east seeking opportunity in the Mississippi Territory. He owned a tavern on the Old Trace near Natchez and held several political offices, including acting governor in 1806. During this time, he ordered the arrest of Aaron Burr for treason but the former Vice President was acquitted. Mead followed the growth of the state and moved to the Jackson area. He built his beautifully landscaped home, “Greenwood” on this site. Little remains . . . — Map (db m69679) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Clinton — Indian Trading Post|
|Operated at junction of Natchez Trace and Old Vicksburg Rd. by Robert H. Bell (1783-1835) & his "yellow man Vincent," freed by Bell's will in 1835. Bell-Vincent Scholarship, Millsaps College, endowed with funds from the sale of this land, memorializes master and slave. — Map (db m50873) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Edwards — Big Black River Bridge|
|After the defeat at Champion Hill, Confederate forces retreated to the Big Black River on the night of May 16, 1863. Here, Generals John Bowen and John Vaughn defended the east bank of the river and the bridge. On May 17, Federal forces under Gen. Michael Lawler routed the Confederates in a bayonet charge lasting only a few minutes. Many retreating soldiers drowned in the Big Black River. Confederate losses included 1,700 men captured and eighteen cannon abandoned. — Map (db m80679) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Edwards — Champion House Site|
In 1853, the land now known as Champion Hill was given to Sid and Matilda Champion as a wedding present from her father, Eli Montgomery. They erected a two-story white frame house on the Old Jackson Road overlooking the railroad near Midway Station. Sid joined the 28th Regiment Mississippi Cavalry in Vicksburg, 1862, leaving Matilda in charge of the plantation. Her worst fears came true May 15, 1863, when she heard that Grant's army was marching westward toward Vicksburg. She gathered her . . . — Map (db m86780) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Edwards — Change of Plans|
|On May 12, 1863, Grant made his headquarters here at Dillon's Farm with Sherman's XV Corps. At Raymond, five and a half miles east along Fourteenmile Creek, McPherson's XVII Corps, with 12,000 men, defeated 3,000 Confederates under John Gregg. Grant heard the guns at Raymond and at sundown learned that McPherson was victorious. Realizing that Confederate forces were now on both his left and right flanks, however, Grant changed his planned movement north and ordered the army to wheel toward Jackson. — Map (db m80242) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Edwards — Lloyd Tilghman|
Brigadier General C.S.A.
Commanding First Brigade
Killed here the afternoon of May 16, 1863, near
the close of the Battle of Champion's Hill. — Map (db m86785) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Edwards — North to the Railroads|
|On May 12, 1863, after Grant and two divisions of the XV Corps marched past, three divisions of the XIII Corps turned here onto the Telegraph Road. Four miles north, they met a portion of the 1st Missouri (Dismounted) Cavalry at Whitaker's Ford. After the Confederates fell back, the Federals secured the ford. Meanwhile, McClernand's reserve division captured Montgomery Bridge, two and a half miles west of Whitaker's Ford, securing Grant's left flank four and a half miles from the railroad. — Map (db m80290) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — 87 — Ace Records|
|Ace Records, founded in 1955 by Johnny Vincent (1925-2000), was the most successful Mississippi-based label of the 1950s and 1960s. Ace’s extensive catalog of blues, R&B, pop, rock, and soul included records by Mississippi blues artists Arthur Crudup, Sam Myers, King Edward, Pat Brown, and Willie Clayton, as well as hit singles by Louisiana singers Jimmy Clanton, Frankie Ford, Huey “Piano” Smith, and Earl King. Ace was based for many years on this block of West Capitol Street. . . . — Map (db m49681) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — Carter Jewelers|
|Established in 1849 by Carl J. Von Seutter as the Carl J. Von Seutter Jewelry and Art Emporium, this business was once located in the Majestic Arcade Building on Capitol Street. In 1918, one of Von Seutter's employees, John C. Carter, purchased the store. After his death in 1946, Lee G. Letwinger bought the business and moved it to this location. Purchased by Jerry Lake in 1997, Carter Jewelers is considered one of the oldest continuously operating jewelry businesses in the United States. — Map (db m51181) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — 100 — Cassandra Wilson|
| ~Front~ Grammy Award-winning jazz vocalist Cassandra Wilson, a native of Jackson, is known for her broad explorations of various forms of music, including the blues. Her recordings include versions of songs by Delta blues artists Robert Johnson, Son House, and Muddy Waters. Wilson’s father, bassist Herman Fowlkes, Jr., was a leading musician on the Jackson jazz scene. He recorded with Sonny Boy Williamson No. 2 and other blues artists. Wilson grew up here on Albermarle Road. . . . — Map (db m72134) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — 155 — Edwards Hotel|
|Constructed in 1923 and renamed the King Edward Hotel in 1954, the Edwards Hotel was the site of temporary studios set up by OKeh Records in 1930 and the American Record Corporation in 1935 to record blues artists Bo Carter, Robert Wilkins, Joe McCoy, Isaiah Nettles, the Mississippi Sheiks, and others. The Mississippi Sheiks also performed at the hotel, and Houston Stackhouse recalled that he played here together with fellow bluesman Robert Nighthawk and country music pioneer Jimmie Rodgers. . . . — Map (db m49680) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — Eudora Welty House|
|Eudora Welty (1909-2001), one of the most acclaimed writers of the twentieth century, lived in this house for seventy six years. This house was built by Welty's parents, Christian and Chestina Welty. In 1925, Eudora Welty wrote all of her major works here, including the Pulitzer Prize winning novel The Optimist's Daughter. Welty and her mother were devoted gardeners, and many of the flowers and bushes they planted still grow in the garden. The Eudora Welty House is a National Historic Landmark. — Map (db m49453) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — Fortenberry-Parkman Farm|
|This typical family farmstead was in operation from 1860 to 1960. The buildings were moved from Jefferson Davis Co. in 1981 and restored through the generosity of the family, friends and county supervisors. — Map (db m69944) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — Greenwood Cemetery|
|Greenwood Cemetery is the oldest landmark in Jackson. Authorized by the Mississippi Legislature on January 1, 1823. It was later expanded from six to twenty-two acres and given its present name. Among those buried here are numerous governors, public officials, teachers, clergy and Confederate soldiers. In 2001, acclaimed author Eudora Welty was buried here. Listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Greenwood was the main cemetery during Jackson’s first fifty years of existence. — Map (db m51179) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — 5 — Greyhound Bus Station|
On May 28, 1961, a Greyhound bus with nine Freedom Riders aboard arrived here, the third group of Riders into Jackson. The first two came on Trailways buses May 24. That summer 329 people were arrested in Jackson for integrating public transportation facilities. Convicted on "breach of peace" and jailed, most refused bail and were sent to the state penitentiary. Their protest worked. In September 1961, the federal government mandated that segregation in interstate . . . — Map (db m82000) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — 104 — Ishmon Bracey|
One of the earliest blues musicians from Mississippi to make recordings, Ishmon Bracey (1899-1970) is buried in the nearby Willow Park Cemetery. In the 1920s and '30s Bracey was a leading bluesman in the Jackson area and performed with prominent artists including Tommy Johnson, Rube Lacy, and Charlie McCoy. In the early '50s Bracey became an ordained minister and left the blues behind.
Bracey was born in Byram, about ten miles south of Jackson, in . . . — Map (db m71512) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — Jackson City Hall|
|Built 1846-47 by slave labor, of handmade brick. Original cost $7505.58. John Oldham, Mayor - Will Gibbon, Arch. Used as hospital for both Union and Confederate soldiers during War Between the States, this building was spared when the town, having been burned three times, became known as "Chimneyville." — Map (db m49682) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — MFWC Headquarters|
The Mississippi Federation of Women’s Clubs, organized in 1898 in Kosciusko, moved into this headquarters building in 1936. Designed by architect Robert Naef and built by the Works Projects Administration, the structure is of the Georgian-Revival style. Listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1988. — Map (db m72679) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — Millsaps College|
|Chartered Feb. 21, 1890 by Miss. Methodists. Named for & largely endowed by Maj. R.W. Millsaps. Bishop C.B. Galloway first president of board; Bishop W.B. Murrah first president of college. — Map (db m51205) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — Mississippi's Old Capitol|
|As the state capitol (1839-1903), this building was the site of the 1861 Secession Convention and 1868 and 1890 Constitutional Conventions. Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, and Jefferson Davis spoke here. After housing state offices 1917-1959, the Old Capitol was restored and opened in 1961 as the state historical museum. Damaged by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, it was restored again and reopened in 2009. — Map (db m71069) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — Monument to Women of the Confederacy|
To the women of the Confederacy “Whose pious ministrations to our wounded soldiers soothed the last hours of those who died far from the objects of their tenderest love, whose domestic labors contributed much to supply the wants of our defenders in the field,
whose zealous faith in our cause shone a guiding star undimmed by the darkest clouds of war, whose fortitude sustained them under all the privations to which they were subjected, whose floral . . . — Map (db m16720) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — Noel House|
|On this site was the house of Andrew J. and Susie Davis Noel, built 1924. Active in the NAACP, the Noels hosted Freedom Riders here in 1960. In 1948, Gladys Noel Bates filed the first lawsuit in the state seeking equal pay for black public school teachers. In 1951, equal pay was approved by the Mississippi Legislature. — Map (db m51173) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — Old Capitol|
|Begun in 1833. Here Henry Clay, Andrew Jackson, and Jefferson Davis spoke. Was scene of 1861 Secession Convention, Black and Tan Convention of 1868, & 1890 Constitutional Convention. — Map (db m71070) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — Osburn Stand|
|To improve communication to the Old Southwest, the Natchez Trace was declared a post road in 1800. Afterwards, with Choctaw permission, improvements to this section of the Old Trace began. In 1805, the Choctaw allowed inns, known as stands, to be built along the route to provide basic food and shelter to travelers. By 1811, Noble Osburn opened a stand near this spot. He was known to treat equally his Choctaw neighbors and American travelers. In 1821 at LeFleur’s Bluff along the Pearl River, the . . . — Map (db m87361) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — 164 — Otis Spann & Little Johnnie Jones|
| ~ Front Side ~
Otis Spann and Little Johnnie Jones, two of the acknowledged masters of Chicago blues piano, were cousins who lived in Jackson in the 1930s and '40s. On the vibrant post-World War II Chicago scene they both played with blues king Muddy Waters and other luminaries and were hailed for their stellar work both as accompanists and as featured recording artists. Spann and his family lived on this block of Roach Street.
~ Back Side ~
Otis Spann and Little Johnnie . . . — Map (db m81972) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — Pocahontas Mounds|
|Built and used between A.D 1000 and 1300, this platform mound and a nearby burial mound mark the ceremonial and political seat of a regional chiefdom of the Plaquemine culture. A thatched, clay-plastered ritual temple or chief's lodging stood atop this mound. Dwellings of villagers occupied surrounding fields. — Map (db m77266) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — St. Marks Episcopal Church|
|This church, organized in 1883, began as a Sunday School mission to blacks under the episcopate of Bishop Hugh M. Thompson. The first instructor was a Mr. Williams, an African American. The Rev. Richard T. Middleton became the first priest in 1904. This building was constructed in 1927 under the leadership of the Rev. James T. Jeffery. It housed a day school and the Fannie Johnson Memorial Clinic for the needy, regardless of race or creed. Parish status was attained in 1983, under the Rt. Rev. Duncan M. Gray, Jr., Bishop — Map (db m51176) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — Summers Hotel & Subway Lounge — Mississippi Blues Trail Marker|
|During the era of segregation, traveling African Americans had few options for lodging. In Jackson, many black musicians stayed at the Summers Hotel, established in 1944 by W.J. Summers. In 1966 Summers opened a club in the hotel basement that he called the Subway Lounge. The Subway was a regular jazz venue and offered popular late night blues shows from the mid-1980s until the hotel’s demolition in 2004. (Back):
During the segregated 1940s, ’50s, and ’60s, the two main Jackson . . . — Map (db m71513) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — Temple Beth Israel|
|Jackson's Jewish congregation was organized in 1861. While not the first congregation in Mississippi, Beth Israel was the first to build a temple. In 1867-1868 a wood frame structure was built on this site. Used as both a school and a house of worship, the building burned in 1874. Rebuilt here, the temple was relocated in 1940. — Map (db m40494) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — The Alamo Theatre — Mississippi Blues Trail Marker|
|The Alamo Theatre opened at this location in 1949. Prior to that the Alamo occupied two other spots in the area. The theatre showed movies, hosted music competitions, and presented blues and jazz concerts by artists such as Nat “King” Cole, Elmore James, Louis Jordan, and Cab Calloway during the 1940s and ‘50s. Gospel groups and vocal ensembles also performed. Local resident Dorothy Moore’s many victories at Alamo talent contests ultimately led to a successful recording career. . . . — Map (db m51197) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — The Eagle and Bowman Hotels|
|Two of Jackson’s historic hotels once stood at this site. The Eagle Hotel, originally a tavern, was built in 1823. Andrew Jackson was a guest here in 1840. Alexander McClung, editor and Mexican War hero, committed suicide at the hotel in 1855. The Eagle was torn down in 1856 and replaced in 1857 by the Bowman House, a five story brick structure. The scene of frequent political and social events, the hotel also served briefly as Union headquarters on May 14, 1863. The Bowman House burned on June 9, 1863. — Map (db m51178) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — The Gowdy Community|
|The Gowdy community was first settled prior to 1903. Named for Mr. W.B. Gowdy, former president of the Delta Cotton Oil and Fertilizer Plant. This African American community was awarded its own U.S. postal stop in 1915. The Gowdy community is located along the Yazoo and Mississippi Valley Railroad and west of Terry Road, and is bordered by Lynch, Hattiesburg, and Dansby Streets. The community encompasses the areas known as Washington Addition, Jackson College Addition, and Washington Annex. — Map (db m71366) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — Trumpet Records — Mississippi Blues Trail marker|
|Trumpet Records was the first record company in Mississippi to achieve national stature through its distribution, sales, radio airplay and promotion. Willard and Lillian McMurry launched the label from their retail store, the Record Mart, here at 309 North Farish Street, in 1950, and later converted the back room into a recording studio. The first releases by Mississippi blues legends Sonny Boy Williamson No. 2, Elmore James, and Willie Love appeared on Trumpet in 1951. (Back): . . . — Map (db m51196) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — U.S.S. Mississippi|
|Figurehead of the
Second Battleship Mississippi
Presented to the
State of Mississippi
By the U.S. Navy Department
December 1909 — Map (db m5142) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Jackson — Union Battery Position|
|Following the surrender of Vicksburg on July 4, 1863, Union forces under William T. Sherman pursued Joseph E. Johnston's Confederate army to Jackson and laid siege to the city. North of Jackson, Parke's IX Corps moved astride the Canton Road and placed artillery on this ridge, near the site of the state insane asylum. On July 11-14, the six guns of Batteries L and M, 3rd U.S. Artillery, fired 257 rounds into the city and its defenses. This gun emplacement is one of few intact Civil War site in Jackson. — Map (db m71101) HM WM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — A "Soldiers' Battle" in the Underbrush|
|Upstream, to your left, Confederate and Union soldiers fought through the creek’s thick underbrush. Here at the far right of the Confederate line, Col. Hiram Granbury’s 7th Texas regiment, CSA, charged into the thickets but were confronted by Ohio and Illinois troops, USA, who had already reached the deep-banked creek and occupied it as a fortification. Without any hope of dislodging entrenched troops, the Texans' charge broke and hand-to-hand fighting commenced.
Confusion Compounded . . . — Map (db m85100) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — A Battle Unfolds|
|From this vantage point, Maj. Gen. James McPherson, USA, should have been able to watch the unfolding of the battle, but the smoke and dust clouds hung motionless near the ground all day. Nevertheless, he was able to see a skirmish line along the creek where it crossed under the bridge, the Confederate battle line beyond, and additional forces on the Gallatin Road to the right.
“My regiment, like all the others, hurried along the country roads through dust that came to the shoe top. . . . — Map (db m84941) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — A Guide to the Campaign Trail — The Vicksburg Campaign and Siege — Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Parker Hills|
|In April of 1861, rumors of Civil War became a reality at Charleston harbor when Fort Sumter was fired upon by Southern forces. Many leaders, both North and South, believed that a dash to capture the opposing side’s capital city would bring a quick political end to the war. But Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis were Western-born men and realized that the Mississippi River, king of the waterways, was a geographic key to victory. It was the River that meandered southward for 2,320 miles and . . . — Map (db m85138) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — Battle of Raymond|
|May 12, 1863, on Fourteen Mile Creek, 2,500 Confederate troops under Gen. John Gregg attacked a 10,000 man corps under Gen. James B. McPherson. Outnumbered, Gregg was forced to withdraw to Jackson. — Map (db m26145) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — Battle of Raymond|
|By the time of the Civil War, the Natchez Trace had lost its significance as a national road. One of the sections ran from Port Gibson toward Jackson but the route veered from the original Trace to reach Raymond. In the spring of 1863, General U.S. Grant marched his Union army over this route after crossing the Mississippi and taking Port Gibson.
On May 12, Grant’s forces drew fire from a Confederate brigade, commanded by Brig. Gen. John Gregg, located on the southern edge of Raymond . . . — Map (db m87360) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — Battle of Raymond - This Walking Trail|
“A single field, dotted with spots of timber, separated the Lower Gallatin and Utica Roads, and the main force of the enemy was on the latter road. Finding that I would necessarily be driven into town by his artillery unless I moved up nearer, and believing from this evidence I had that his force was a single brigade, I made my dispositions to capture it ….”
Brig. Gen. John Gregg, CSA
While this trail covers only a portion of the battlefield, it includes . . . — Map (db m84987) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — Bledsoe's Battery|
|Anticipating that the enemy would approach Raymond from both of these roads, Confederate General Gregg positioned Capt. Hiram Bledsoe’s battery of three cannon and a battalion of infantry here to defend Raymond from either direction. However, on May 12 the center of action was along the Utica Road, near the bridge, toward which these cannon are aimed. In conjunction with the Confederate skirmishers along Fourteenmile Creek, these guns opened fire on the first Federal troops that approached the . . . — Map (db m85122) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — C.S. Bledsoe's Missouri Battery (3 Guns) — Gregg's Task Force|
C.S. Bledsoe’s Missouri Battery (3 Guns),
Gregg’s Task Force;
Capt. Hiram M. Bledsoe.
Around 9:30 a.m., May 12, 1863, Brig. Gen. John Gregg placed Captain Bledsoe’s two 12-pounder smoothbores and one Whitworth rifle here on a knoll at the junction of the Port Gibson and Utica roads, a position that commanded the Fourteenmile Creek bridge, 870 yards distant. At 10 a.m. Bledsoe’s guns opened fire on Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson’s approaching Federals of the XVII Corps. Around 2:30 . . . — Map (db m85124) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — C.S. Gregg's Task Force — 1st Tennessee Infantry Battalion|
C.S. Gregg’s Task Force
Brig. Gen. John Gregg
1st Tennessee Infantry Battalion
Maj. Stephen H. Colms
This battalion was initially posted north of here to the right of Bledsoe’s battery in support of the three guns. About 2 p.m., Major Colms was ordered to move his command southward to cover the hardpressed 7th Texas Infantry. General Gregg then ordered Colms to threaten the Union left at Fourteenmile Creek to prevent the Federals from flanking the Confederates. Colms’ Tennesseans . . . — Map (db m85102) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — C.S. Gregg's Task Force — 1st Mississippi Battalion State Troops|
C.S. Gregg’s Task Force
Miscellaneous Attached Units, May 12, 1863
1st Mississippi Battalion State Troops
Capt. James Hall
The 40-man detachment picketed the road to Utica and contested McPherson’s advance, but was unable to penetrate the 160-man Federal cavalry screen
Squadron, Wirt Adams’ Mississippi Cavalry
Capt. William Yerger
The squadron of 50 troopers patrolled northwest of Raymond to protect the roads to the railroad and to Clinton and Jackson.
3d Kentucky . . . — Map (db m85123) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — C.S. Gregg's Task Force — Gregg's Brigade|
C.S. Gregg’s Task Force
Brig. Gen. John Gregg
Col. Cyrus A. Sugg
3d Tennessee Infantry, Col. Calvin H. Walker
10th & 30th Tennessee Consolidated Infantry, Col. Randal MacGavock (K)
Lt. Col. James J. Turner
41st Tennessee Infantry, Col. Robert I. Farquharson
50th Tennessee Infantry, Lt. Col. Thomas S. Beaumont
1st Tennessee Infantry Battalion, Maj. Stephen H. Colms
7th Texas Infantry, Col. Hiram B. Granbury
The brigade moved from Port Hudson, . . . — Map (db m85125) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — Confederate Cemetery|
|The Confederate Cemetery in Raymond contains the graves of 140 Confederate soldiers who were killed during the battle of Raymond on May 12, 1863, or who died as a result of their wounds. Most of the men were from Tennessee and Texas; many died in homes and public buildings that had been appropriated as temporary hospitals. Union dead from the battle of Raymond were initially buried here but later moved to the Vicksburg National Cemetery. — Map (db m85108) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — Deans Stand|
|The Treaty of Doaks Stand, 1820, opened this land to white settlement. Land was quickly claimed, and pioneer families established themselves in this wilderness. William Dean and his wife Margaret settled near here on the Old Natchez Trace in 1823.
The Deans supplemented their farm income by offering lodging to travelers. The clientele was a cross section of the advancing frontier--the homeward-bound boatman, the hurrying mail rider, the trader in land and horses, the fugitive, or the . . . — Map (db m87359) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — DeGolyer's Battery and the Artist's Eye|
|As soon as the fighting broke out that morning, six guns of the 8th Michigan Light Artillery, marching near the front of the column, unlimbered and “went into battery” about a hundred yards from the bridge. They returned fire on the Confederate artillery about a thousand yards down the road, approximately where the water tower is seen today.
Realizing his cannon could be captured by enemy troops breaking out of the wooded undergrowth along the creek, DeGolyer moved back to a . . . — Map (db m85032) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — Eyewitnesses in the Storm|
“One officer, not more than thirty feet from where I stood, quietly loaded up an old Meerschaum, lit a match, his pistol hanging form his wrist, and when he had got his pipe agoing, he got hold of his pistol again, and went on popping away at us as leisurely as if he had been shooting rats. Why that fellow didn’t get shot I don’t know.”
“That it was a pretty tough time that we had of it, lying there by the brook and digging our toes into the ground for fear . . . — Map (db m85099) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — Gregg's Battle Plan|
|Confederate Brig. Gen. John Gregg arrived in Raymond on May 11 with orders from Pemberton to contain the right flank of the Federal army as it advanced north and determine where it was heading. Thinking he faced a force only half the size of his, the combative Gregg decided to attack. To insure victory, Gregg devised an ambush in which one regiment would stop the Federal advance at Fourteenmile Creek while the two other regiments would cross over from the Gallatin Road and push the Federals . . . — Map (db m85021) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — Hinds County Confederate Memorial|
We of the South Remember,
We of the South Revere.
Erected by the people of Hinds County in grateful memory of their men who in 1861-65 gave or offered to give their lives for the maintenance of constitutional government; and to the heroic women whose devotion to our cause in its darkest hour sustained the strong and strengthened the weak. — Map (db m85144) WM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — McPherson's Deployment|
|Marching north toward Raymond on the Utica Road, the vanguard of Logan’s Union division was met by gunfire as the soldiers approached the Fourteenmile Creek bridge. Although confident that he outnumbered the enemy, Maj. Gen. James McPherson cautiously committed his troops to the battle. As his troops came over the ridge behind you and down into this bottomland, they spread out in a battle line in the freshly plowed fields facing Fourteenmile Creek.
Windless and oppressive weather that day . . . — Map (db m85039) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — Raymond Courthouse|
|Built, 1857-9, by the famous Weldon brothers with skilled slave labor crew. After the Battle of Raymond, fought 1 ¼ m. S.W. of here, May 12, 1863, this building served as a Confederate hospital. — Map (db m85140) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — St. Mark's Episcopal Church|
|St. Mark’s was organized in 1837 by Rev. James McGregor Dale and construction of the sanctuary was completed in 1855. Following the battle of Raymond on May 12, 1863, the church was used as a hospital for Federal soldiers. The interior of the church was damaged during this time, and the pews were lost. After repairs had been made, St. Mark’s was consecrated by Bishop William Mercer Green on May 5, 1868. — Map (db m85142) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — Texas Memorial|
Remembers the valor and devotion of its sons who participated in the Battle of Raymond and in other engagements of the Vicksburg Campaign.
Upon this field on May 12, 1863, soldiers of the 7th Texas Infantry, led by Regimental Commander Colonel Hiram B. Granbury, and other regiments of Brigadier General John Gregg’s brigade fought with grim determination against two divisions of Federal forces under the command of Major General James B. McPherson. The . . . — Map (db m85976) WM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — The Battle of Raymond as a Pivotal Point in the Vicksburg Campaign|
“Move your command tonight to the next cross-roads if there is water, and tomorrow with all activity into Raymond.”
Maj. Gen. Grant to Maj. Gen. McPherson, USA, May 9, 1863
“Move your brigade promptly to Raymond, taking three days’ rations, and carrying only cooking utensils and ammunition; no baggage … Use Wirt Adams’ cavalry at Raymond for advance pickets.”
Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton, May 10, 1863
General Grant successfully . . . — Map (db m84988) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — The Campaign Turns East|
|By late afternoon, as Brig. Gen. John Gregg, his officers, and soldiers realized they were seriously outnumbered they managed to extricate themselves from the fight and withdraw through Raymond to Jackson.
From here you can see the road that follows the historic route west (left) to Dillon’s plantation, seven miles away. There, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman were camped and heard the sounds of battle coming from Raymond. When the reports came in, Grant realized . . . — Map (db m85101) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — The Little J Railroad|
|Two historic transportation routes are incorporated into this walking trail.
The concrete highway, ca. 1927, is generally the same route used by the Union army marching toward Raymond in May 1863. The bridge and highway, however, are more elevated and possibly a few feet to the west of the earlier roadway.
Another portion of the trail is the abandoned roadbed of the “Little J” railroad. Completed in 1882 between Natchez and Jackson, the Natchez, Jackson and Columbus . . . — Map (db m84990) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — The McCoy Brothers|
Joe McCoy and his brother Charlie McCoy, both born on a farm near Raymond, performed and recorded widely during the pre-World War II era, but their most important legacy may rest with the songs they wrote or cowrote. These include “Corrine Corrina,” which became a folk music standard, “When the Levee Breaks,” which was covered by Led Zeppelin, and “Why Don’t You Do Right,” a hit for both blues singer Lil Green and pop star Peggy Lee. . . . — Map (db m70324) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — The Vicksburg Campaign|
|“Vicksburg is the key,” said President Abraham Lincoln. “The war can never be brought to a close until that key is in our pocket.”
The United States government had to control the lower Mississippi River in order to move agricultural products to world markets, to split the South and sever its supply lines. In the spring of 1863, Major General Ulysses S. Grant launched the Army of the Tennessee on a series of maneuvers and battles to pocket Vicksburg and end the war. . . . — Map (db m84989) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — To Clinton and Jackson|
|On May 12, 1863, two divisions of the XVII Corps marched from the Roach Farm on the Utica Road and defeated Gregg’s Confederate brigade at Raymond. The next day, McPherson’s men moved to Clinton and cut the railroad. Meanwhile, two divisions of the XV Corps moved from Dillon’s Farm to Mississippi Springs, five miles east of Raymond. To protect the army’s rear as it pivoted toward Jackson, the XIII Corps feigned an attack on Confederate forces at Mt. Moriah, and Grant captured Jackson on May 14. — Map (db m85109) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — U.S. 11th Battery, Ohio Light Artillery|
U.S. 11th Battery,
Ohio Light Artillery;
7th Div.; 17th Corps; Army of the Tennessee.
Lieut. Fletcher E. Armstrong.
The two 12-pounder howitzers, two 6-pounder smoothbores, and two 12-pounder James rifles of this battery were the only guns of Brig. Gen. Marcellus Crocker’s Division to be engaged at Raymond. The guns were the last battery to arrive on the field and were moved into position around 12:30 p.m. The battery served in this location throughout the afternoon and brought . . . — Map (db m84928) HM|
|Mississippi (Hinds County), Raymond — U.S. 3d Battery, Ohio Light Artillery|
U.S. 3d Battery,
Ohio Light Artillery;
3d Div.; 17th Corps; Army of the Tennessee.
Capt. William S. Williams
This battery of four 12-pounder James rifles and two 6-pounder smoothbores was the third and final battery of Maj. Gen. John A. Logan’s division to arrive on the field. Going into battery around 11:30 a.m., May 12, 1863, Captain Williams’ guns served in this position on the left of the gun line to prevent any Confederate flanking movement from the west.
No casualties reported. — Map (db m84930) HM|