|Montana (Beaverhead County), Dillon — Bannack|
|Lewis and Clark Trail 1806
First important gold camp 1862
Scene of vigilante activities 1863
First capital Territory of Montana 1864-1865
First county seat of Beaverhead County 1864-1881
In grateful memory of the early pioneers who founded our Commonwealth — Map (db m49535) HM|
|Montana (Beaverhead County), Dillon — Nez Perce Camp|
|The Nez Perce camped near here on Horse Prairie Creek, Aug. 12 1877 following the Battle of the Big Hole Aug. 9-10. General Howard was summoned when beating drums arroused [sic] the citizens of Bannack. Women and children were quartered in the Meade Hotel where extra food, water and bedding were assembled. Dirt and log breastworks were thrown up at these two hill top sites but no attack took place. When Howard arrived the 14th, the Indians had left. — Map (db m49537) HM|
|Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Calhoun Hill — (Little Bighorn Battlefield)|
|This position was held by Co. L commanded by Lt. James Calhoun. It may have been used to hold off Chief Gall and his Sioux warriors and thus protect Custer's advance. From here these soldiers could have attracted Capt. Benteen's column and the pack train which Custer was expecting to come to his assistance from the southeast. — Map (db m21643) HM|
|Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Companies C & E — (Little Bighorn Battlefield)|
|The white markers on the knolls and in the ravines to the west and southwest show were the troopers of Co, C under Capt. Tom Custer and Co. E under Lt. Smith were found. The Indian encampment lay beyond on the flat across the river. — Map (db m21645) HM|
|Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Companies F and I — (Little Bighorn Battlefield)|
|Companies F and I were found on the northeast slope of this ridge. Capt. Keogh was to the right with Co. I. — Map (db m21644) HM|
|Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Crow's Nest — June 25, 1876 — Morning|
|From this promontory 13 miles away in the Wolf Mountains, Custer's scouts observe the Lakota, and Cheyenne pony herd and evidence of a large village in the valley behind you. Convinced the Indians had spotted his regiment and would soon scatter, Custer decides to attack before they flee. — Map (db m45580) HM|
|Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Custer Last Seen — (Little Bighorn Battlefield)|
|Gen. Custer and Lt. Cooke were last seen on this point by Maj. Reno's troops who were fighting in the valley. — Map (db m21638) HM|
|Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Little Bighorn Battlefield|
|This area was occupied by troops A, B, D, G, H, K, and M, 7th. U.S. Cavalry, and the pack train when they were besieged by the Sioux Indians June 25th and 26th 1876. — Map (db m21636) HM|
|Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument|
|(Bottom of Marker):
In memory of
Officers and soldiers who fell near this place
fighting with the 7th United States Cavalry
against the Sioux Indians
on the 25th and 26th of June,
(The rest of the marker includes names of the officers and soldiers who died on the battlefield. They include):
Bvt. Maj. Gen’l. G. A. Custer
M. W. Keogh • G.W. Yates • T. W. Custer
W. W. Cooke • A. E. Smith • Donald McIntosh • James Calhoun . . . — Map (db m7022) HM|
|Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Lone Tipi — June 25, 1876 — Approximately 2:00 p.m.|
|Advancing down Reno Creek, Custer pauses at a tipi located behind this ridge. The tipi contains the remains of a Sans Arc warrior killed a week before at the Battle of the Rosebud. Indians flee toward the village, prompting Custer to order Reno's battalion to continue down the creek and attack. Custer's five companies separate, and pass near here after observing 60-75 mounted warriors on these bluffs. While Custer's motives are not known, he may have intended to strike the village downstream. — Map (db m45581) HM|
|Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Medicine Tail Coulee Ford — (Little Bighorn Battlefield)|
|Chief Gall and his Sioux warriors forded the river here to attack Custer's troops on the high ground to the northeast. — Map (db m21642) HM|
|Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — National Cemetery|
|This National Cemetery, established in 1886, is for interment of those who served honorably in the Armed Forces of the United States. their immediate families also have burial privileges.|
Many from indian battles of the northwest are buried here. Among the burials of historic interest are those killed in the Fetterman fight (Wyoming) in 1866; wagon Box fight (Wyoming) and Hayfield fight (Montana) in 1867; Battle of Big Hole (Montana) and Battle of Bear Paw mountain (Montana) in 1877; and . . . — Map (db m45551) HM
|Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Reno's Skirmish Line - Warrior Counterattack — June 25, 1876 — Approximately 3:00 p.m.|
|Reno's battalion of 175 soldiers, civilian personnel, and Arikara and Crow Scouts halt in the valley and form a thin skirmish line. Warriors race out from the village to oppose him. After 10 minutes of fighting Lakota and Cheyenne warriors outflank Reno, forcing him into the timber on his right. — Map (db m45583) HM|
|Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Retreat Crossing — June 25, 1876 — Approximately 4:00 p.m.|
|During Reno's retreat from the timber, Crazy Horse, Wooden Leg, Black Elk, and perhaps as many as 600 warriors chase the soldiers across the Little Bighorn River. Reno's casualties are 40 men killed and 13 wounded. The remnants of Reno's command occupy a new position on the bluffs where you are standing. Lakota and Cheyenne casualties are few. — Map (db m45584) HM|
|Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Seventh Cavalry Horse Cemetery|
After the battle, 39 cavalry horses that had been shot for breastworks during Custer’s Last Stand, were found among the dead on Last Stand Hill. In 1879, a temporary cordwood monument was erected by the Army on the crest of the hill. The area, strewn with cavalry horse skeletons, was policed and the remains of the horses placed inside the cordwood monument. In July 1881, Lt. Charles F. Roe and a detail from the Second Cavalry replaced the temporary monument with the present granite monument, . . . — Map (db m45604) HM|
|Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Sharpshooter Ridge|
|June 25-26, 1876 - From the ridge to your right, Custer first views the village. Needing more information about the extent of the encampment, he moves further north. After witnessing the beginning of Reno's charge, Custer's five companies descend Cedar Coulee, the ravine to your immediate front. After Custer's destruction, this promontory was occupied by Lakota and Cheyenne warriors who poured a deadly and accurate fire into Reno and Benteen's besieged troops---thus the name Sharpshooter Ridge. — Map (db m45587) HM|
|Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — The Reno-Benteen Defense — June 25-26, 1876|
|After an unsuccessful attack on the Indian camp in the valley, Major Reno and his battalion retreated to this vicinity where they were soon reinforced by Captain Benteen's battalion and the pack train. In an attempt to find and rejoin Custer they moved northwest, but returned when confronted by warriors. Here the surrounded troops made a desperate stand until the next afternoon when the Indians withdrew as the Terry-Gibbon column approached. Please obtain a trail guide booklet from adjacent . . . — Map (db m45554) HM|
|Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Timber Fight — June 25, 1876 — Approximately 3:15 - 3:55 p.m.|
|Reno occupies a defensive position in the timber. Determined to defend their village, warriors soon penetrate the woods, convincing Reno that the position is untenable. After fighting for 30 minutes, Reno retreats across the Little Bighorn River. — Map (db m45585) HM|
|Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Weir Point Fight — (Little Bighorn Battlefield)|
|This is the farthest point reached by Capt. Weir in his attempt to assist Custer. Minutes after arriving, his company was joined by Capt. Benteen's company and others. They remained about 45 minutes until mounting warrior pressure forced them back to the Reno- Benteen battlefield. — Map (db m21640) HM|
|Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Wooden Leg Hill — June 25, 1876|
|The hill in front of you was occupied by Lakota, and Cheyenne during the fight on Last Stand Hill. An unknown Sioux warrior wearing a warbonnet was killed here while firing his rifle at soldiers positioned behind a horse barricade on the crest of the ridge behind you. As soldier carbine fire ceased, victorious warriors rush the hill.|
"A Sioux wearing a war bonnet was lying down behind a clump of sagebrush on the hillside only a short distance north of where now is a big stone...He was...up . . . — Map (db m45593) HM
|Montana (Big Horn County), Garryowen — Garryowen|
Garryowen, the old Irish tune, was the regimental marching song of the 7th U.S. Cavalry, General Custer's command.
The Battle of the Little Big Horn commenced in the valley just east of here June 25, 1876, after Custer had ordered Major Marcus A. Reno to move his battalion into action against the Tribes of Sioux and Cheyennes, led by Chiefs Gall, Crazy Horse, Two Moons and the Medicine Man, Sitting Bull.
Reno, with 112 men, came out of the hills about 2½ . . . — Map (db m67897) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — 105 North Broadway|
|Local physician Dr. Samuel Souders owned this commercial lot in 1909 when Dan Davis, an advocate for the construction of a fancy opera house, proposed it for the construction of his vision. The newspapers reported weekly for several months on Davis’ progress toward securing financial backing, but it was not until 1920 that the fabulous Theatorium was finally constructed elsewhere at 11th and Platt Street. Jeweler A. H. Davis purchased the lot from Souders as an investment in 1910, constructing . . . — Map (db m45384) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Alcazar (Star) Theater|
|A combination moving picture theater and boarding house were the original tenants of this two-story masonry building, completed in 1908. Several directors managed the rather short-lived Alcazar, including Steve Roman, whose family long monopolized Red Lodge’s theater business. Roman closed the theater in 1913, and building owners Larkin and Fleming remodeled, opening as McIntyre’s Pool Hall. A bordello called the “Orpheus Rooms” replaced the upper-floor boarding house. In 1986, fire . . . — Map (db m45387) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — B.P.O.E. Lodge #534|
|Americans organized much of their social life around fraternal groups at the turn of the twentieth century. The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks provided an important social and charitable outlet for Red Lodge's professionals, who circulated the charter petition in 1899 and established the Beartooth Lodge in 1900. By 1914, membership had grown from the original 40 members to over 160, and the organization needed "larger and more commodious" quarters than its rented rooms. The Elks raised . . . — Map (db m45395) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Carbon County Courthouse|
|Butte architect P. J. Donahue drew the plans for the 1899 landmark after fire destroyed its predecessor. Situated at the busy northern end of the commercial district, the building today provides an excellent example of restrained, classically proportioned public building design. When foundation settling after construction produced a wide crack on the northeast wall, fear of collapse caused rapid evacuation of the courtroom on several occasions before it was stabilized in the 1940s. Despite . . . — Map (db m45402) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Carbon County Hospital And Sanitarium|
|When prominent local physician and surgeon Dr. Samuel Souders built this magnificent hospital in 1909, it was considered “state-of-the-art.” Amenities included a central heating system, wide doorways and hallways, an elevator, and private telephones in patients’ rooms. The operating room featured white enameled walls and a white marble tile floor, then considered the best surfaces for sterilization. The Craftsman style facility follows a domestic floorplan common in period hospital . . . — Map (db m45404) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Charles Antilla Building|
|This two-story building was under construction in 1907, and for a short time housed part-owner Charles Antilla’s dry goods store. In 1912, new owners Ed Ricketts and C. V. Lucas located their Okay Meat Market, later the Red Lodge Meat Market, on the ground floor. The photography studio of Tofferi and Hongell occupied the upper floor from 1908-1918. Though the lower storefront has been remodeled, the upper façade retains the buff masonry, attractively corbeled parapet and sandstone trim typical . . . — Map (db m45388) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Foiled Bank Robbery Site|
|On Sept. 18, 1897, The Sundance Kid (Harry Longbaugh), Kid Curry and others of the "Wild Bunch" rode into Red Lodge after escaping from jail in Belle Fourche, S.D., and announced their intention of making an unauthorized withdrawal from the Carbon County Bank. They botched the job and Sheriff John Dunn rode off in hot pursuit. After an 80-mile chase, he an his posse captured them near Lavina. The robbers were returned to the Deadwood, S.D. jail, where they again escaped. — Map (db m80188) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Hawkes & Son Photography Studio|
|Photographer Mark E. Hawkes and his son Charley built a photography studio at this location where much of Red Lodge’s history was documented in pictures. Charley later struck out for Great Falls, and son Harry joined Mark. Hawkes & Son sold the business in 1919 to William Lewis. The son of a Welsh coal miner, Lewis ran the studio and continued to document the town’s history. In 1926, a depressed economy threatened the business, forcing Lewis to relocate to Seattle. Katie Psenda Egenes, who . . . — Map (db m45405) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — High Country Thoroughfare|
|Lieutenant General Philip Sheridan and 124 men forged the first documented passage over the Beartooth Mountains in 1881. Once thought impassible, the route was later modified by E. E. Van Dyke - a miner from coal rich Red Lodge, Montana. His route provided access through Rock Creek to Red Lodge but it remained a steep and rugged trail.
Although early Native Americans, trappers and prospectors are part of the past, today’s travelers can cross much of the original route created over a . . . — Map (db m45244) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Iarussi Building|
|In the 1920s Italian shoemaker Ludovico Iarussi (later changed to Jarussi) owned this property containing his shop and several frame commercial buildings. In 1929 Iarussi razed the older shops and constructed the present building. Financially disabled in the stock market crash later that year, Iarussi was unable to afford occupancy himself. He leased part of the commercial space and sold the remainder. The Yugoslavian families of Yelich and then Thiel ran a saloon in the north portion until . . . — Map (db m45409) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Labor Temple|
|Red Lodge Miner’s Local No. 1771 had grown to more than a thousand members when this labor temple was built in 1909. The United Mine Workers of America organized nationally in 1896 and by 1898, Local No. 1771 had 200 members. The building is a testament to the labor struggles of Red Lodge coal miners and the primary symbol of labor history in the area. John Horne of Laurel designed the $36,000 building and Butte Local #22 contributed major funding. John Massow, building committee chairman, took . . . — Map (db m45412) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Neithammer Brothers Meat Market|
|German-born Victor and Otto Neithammer first established their meat market on North Broadway in 1912, raising their own livestock to supply this and other local family-run stores. Because the Neithammers' employees represented many ethnic groups, the shop enjoyed wide patronage despite local competition. In 1916, the prosperous brothers constructed a new meat-packing plant at this location. The poured concrete and brick building featured a brightly-lit retail shop in the front. A walk-in . . . — Map (db m45415) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Picket Block|
|Designed by Red Lodge carpenter and amateur architect Frank A. Sell and built by W. T. Pernham in 1902, this impressive brick commercial building was home to the Red Lodge Picket and, after 1918, the Picket-Journal, the primary news sources for the community and Carbon County for over fifty years. Publisher Walter Anderson, who came to Red Lodge in 1893, was the original owner. The newspaper’s offices and print shop were located on the second floor while a succession of . . . — Map (db m45416) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Plunkett's Hardware|
|High transom windows that provide interior light for a mezzanine commercial display area are an interesting design feature of this well-constructed commercial building. The simple chain-patterned ornamentation of buff brick across the tall parapet continues the rhythm of the district’s historic streetscape. James Plunkett moved his plumbing and hardware business to an earlier building at this location after 1909, and by 1917 he had completed this masonry replacement. During the 1930s, avid Red . . . — Map (db m45419) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Pollard Hotel|
|The Rocky Fork Coal Company constructed this hotel, originally the Spofford, which welcomed its first guests on July 4, 1893. This architectural landmark, built before the commercial district was platted, originally had its main entrance on 11th Street which was the busy roadway leading to the Eastside coal mines. Early guests included Buffalo Bill Cody, Calamity Jane, and William Jennings Bryan. In 1903 an annex added twenty-five guest rooms and the Golden Rule Store. By 1907 the entrance was . . . — Map (db m45390) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Red Lodge|
|Coal was discovered in the Rock Creek Valley nearly two decades before Red Lodge was established as a mail stop on the Meeteese Trail in 1884. In 1887, the Rocky Fork Coal Company opened the first large-scale mine at Red Lodge sparking the community’s first building boom, consisting mostly of “hastily constructed shacks and log huts.” The completion of the Northern Pacific Railway branch line to Red Lodge in 1890 resulted in the construction of many brick and sandstone buildings . . . — Map (db m45250) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Red Lodge Commercial District|
|Rapid growth of the young town of Red Lodge coincided with the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railroad’s branch line in 1889. The area became Montana’s leading coal mining region. Town lots were platted by the secretary of the Rocky Fork Town and Electric Company, a subsidiary of the mining company, in turn owned by the railroad. By the mid-1890s, businesses had moved from the old town site, and Red Lodge’s commercial center developed rapidly. Although half of Red Lodge’s population was . . . — Map (db m45386) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — The Beartooth Plateau|
|The Beartooth Plateau contains some of the oldest exposed rocks on Earth and provides a unique window into the history of our planet. About 55 million years ago, this massive block of metamorphic basement rock pushed its way upward nearly two miles along steep faults that extend deep into the Earth. The exposed rock consists of coarse-grained gray and pink granites, gneisses, and schists that formed about 3.3 billion years ago when older sedimentary and volcanic rocks were heated and . . . — Map (db m45251) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — The Iris Theater|
|Originally intended as a meeting hall with storefront space, tenants Byton Down and Robert Pryde redesigned the building’s ground floor before its completion for use as a theater. When the Iris opened in 1925, residents viewed it as welcome competition since ownership of Red Lodge theaters had previously been monopolized by one family. The Slavonian National Protective Society used the upper floor meeting hall while the front section held an apartment. Sound equipment was added in 1929 and the . . . — Map (db m45410) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — The Red Lodge Country|
|According to tradition, a band of Crow Indians left the main tribe and moved west into the foothills of the Beartooth Range many years ago. They painted their council tepee with red-clay and this old-time artistry resulted in the name Red Lodge.
This region is a bonanza for scientists. It is highly fossilized and Nature has opened a book on Beartooth Butte covering about a quarter of a billion years of geological history. It makes pretty snappy reading for parties interested in some of the . . . — Map (db m45247) HM|
|Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — W. A. Talmage Company Hardware|
|A keen sense of the town’s future prompted businessman William Talmage to move his hardware business away from the busy commercial center a few blocks south to this building in 1894. When other businesses began to move to the newly platted main street in 1895, owners “lined up” their buildings with Talmage’s storefront. The original one-story sandstone building acquired its second floor in 1902, and Talmage moved the iron lettering to the top of the parapet. By 1907, commercial . . . — Map (db m45420) HM|
|Montana (Cascade County), Great Falls — A "great" Set of Falls|
|Hidasta informants described a fall of water on the Missouri River near the mountains, so the Captains expected a short portage. Instead of one waterfall, Lewis happened upon a succession of five, and their hope for a short portage faded. Look upriver and see “upper pitch,” now called Black Eagle Falls, the last in the series. The remaining four cascades are downriver - the “sublimely grand” Great Falls is 8 river miles and a 20-minute drive away.
A . . . — Map (db m80319) HM|
|Montana (Cascade County), Great Falls — Black Eagle Falls|
|The uppermost of the Great Falls of the Missouri bears west of this point. The name is a modern one derived from an entry for June 14th, 1805 in the journal of Capt. Meriwether Lewis of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. He discovered the falls on that date and wrote, “... below this fall at a little distance a beautiful little Island well timbered is situated about the middle of the river. In this Island on a cottonwood tree an Eagle has placed her nest; a more inaccessable spot I . . . — Map (db m80427) HM|
|Montana (Cascade County), Great Falls — Formation of the Gorge and Falls|
... the rocks seems to be most happily fixed to present a sheet of the whitest beaten froath for 200 yards in length and about 80 feet perpendicular. — Meriwether Lewis, June 13, 1805
The Great Falls of the Missouri River was first described in writing by Meriwether Lewis on June 13, 1805. In 1915, the upper part of the falls was inundated by Ryan Dam to produce electricity. These photos are views of the falls before the dam was constructed.
... the . . . — Map (db m82766) HM|
|Montana (Cascade County), Great Falls — The Smallest River Runs Through It|
|From here you can witness one of the shortest rivers in the country flowing into the longest river. The Roe River ranks as one of the shortest rivers at only 201 feet in length. The Missouri River is the longest in the country stretching 2,540 miles, 200 miles longer than the Mississippi River.
The Roe River gets its name from the term “Roe”, which commonly means fish eggs. Learn about the various stages of fish growth and the hatchery process by visiting Giant Springs Fish . . . — Map (db m82765)|
|Montana (Cascade County), Great Falls — Where Does the Water Come From?|
|Geologists have determined that water seeps into the ground southeast of Great Falls in the Little Belt Mountains, where the Madison Limestone formation is exposed at the land surface. The water then travels through the formation toward Giant Springs.
In the springs area, the Madison Formation is about 400 feet below the surface. Pressure caused by the overlying rock layers forces the water from the Madison to escape upward, through the cracks in the overlying sandstone. These cracks are . . . — Map (db m82764)|
|Montana (Flathead County), West Glacier — A Glacial Lake|
|A river of ice over 2,000 feet thick moved down this valley. Lake McDonald is evidence of its passing.
When the glacier receded more than ten thousand years ago, it revealed a changed landscape. The ice had quarried away huge amounts of rock. A terminal moraine dammed McDonald Creek, impounding Lake McDonald.
Glaciers are slow-moving rivers of ice. Like conveyor belts they transport large volumes of material. As rocks and dirt pile up along the edges of the melting ice, they form . . . — Map (db m82767)|
|Montana (Flathead County), West Glacier — Historic Boats|
|In 1895 there were no roads along Lake McDonald. Tourists arrived at this dock by wood-fired steamboat after getting off the train at Belton Depot and bumping along in a wagon to Apgar Landing.
The steamboat F.I. Whitney was the first boat to transport visitors and supplies on Lake McDonald. According to one passenger, “It was too hot below deck by the boiler, and if you rode topside, sparks burned holes in your clothes.” It was an adventure in transportation just to reach the threshold of the mountains. — Map (db m45061) HM|
|Montana (Flathead County), West Glacier — Time Machines — The Red Bus Rides Again|
A Glacier Tradition
National parks often seem timeless and are valued for the continuity of experience they offer to generations of visitors. At Glacier National Park, the past and future come together through a fleet of historic buses, time machines for a unique touring experience across the crown of the continent.
Glacier's time machines are refurbished vintage White Motor Company touring buses. These bright red icons of Going-to-the-Sun Road have been taking passengers . . . — Map (db m45060) HM|
|Montana (Flathead County), West Glacier — Wilderness Architecture — History of the Lake McDonald Lodge|
|Like many buildings in the park, Lake McDonald Lodge has a rustic architectural style. The lodge was built during the winter of 1913-14 with locally available materials, creating a rustic exterior of native stone and western cedar that blends with the natural setting. Construction materials not found locally were hauled to the site by boat.
Because no roads were built to the lodge until 1921, its “front” faces the lakeshore to greet guests who arrived by boat. — Map (db m45062) HM|
|Montana (Flathead County), Whitefish — Whitefish Depot — Historical Walking Tour of Whitefish, Montana|
|Built by the Great Northern Railway in 1927, the Whitefish Depot is not only a local landmark but is recognized fondly by hundred of thousands of people who have passed through Whitefish by train over the years. The building’s chalet-style architecture and gardens that surround it create a distinctive Whitefish “trademark.”|
The railroad’s decision to construct a 36-by-150-foot building, to replace a much smaller depot at the north end of Central Avenue, occasioned a banner . . . — Map (db m49491) HM
|Montana (Gallatin County), Bozeman — First People in the Gallatin Valley — To the Headwaters|
|For centuries distant and diverse tribes visited the Gallatin Valley to hunt. They stampeded buffalo over cliffs during the "dog days" before the acquisition of horses and guns. They hunted animals for food, clothing and shelter. They also mined chert to make projectile points.
The Minnitaree tribe of North Dakota captured Sacagawea in this valley in 1800. She and her trapper husband, Toussaint Charbonneau, joined the Lewis and Clark Expedition as interpreters. Sacagawea proved invaluable . . . — Map (db m29075) HM|
|Montana (Gallatin County), Bozeman — Fort Ellis — To the Headwaters|
|Conflicts along the Bozeman Trail between Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho Indians and settlers escalated with the establishment of forts along the route in 1866. After Indians killed John Bozeman, in the Yellowstone Valley in 1867, the federal government established Fort Ellis in the Gallatin Valley that same year. For the next two decades, soldiers from the 13th Infantry and the 2nd Cavalry manned this post, participating in battles at the Little Bighorn in 1876 and the Big Hole in . . . — Map (db m29079) HM|
|Montana (Gallatin County), Bozeman — Fur Trade — To the Headwaters|
|An abundance of beaver encouraged Corps of Discovery members John Colter and John Potts to return to the headwaters. In 1808, Blackfeet Indians killed Potts in a confrontation and stripped Colter bare, giving him a chance to run for his life. In one of the most famous foot races in American history, he outran his armed pursuers and escaped to the Madison River where he hid in a beaver lodge. Ten days and 200 miles later, Colter miraculously straggled into Fort Ramon near present day Custer, . . . — Map (db m29077) HM|
|Montana (Gallatin County), Bozeman — Lewis and Clark — To the Headwaters|
|Lewis and Clark's Corps of Discovery reached the headwaters of the Missouri River and named the three tributaries in July, 1805. With great difficulty the Corps of Discovery fought rapids and troublesome mosquitoes as they pulled their boats upstream to the west.
On their return trip in 1806, Expedition members separated at Travelers Rest near Lolo, Montana. Capt. Lewis and nine men headed east to Great Falls, while Clark and the rest of the party, along with 50 horses, returned to the . . . — Map (db m29072) HM|
|Montana (Gallatin County), Bozeman — Pioneer Museum — (Old County Jail) — Gallatin County Historical Society|
|The Pioneer Museum, located next to the Gallatin County Courthouse at 317 West Main, was the former County jail. Along with many museum exhibits showcasing the history of Gallatin County is an Historical Research Library. The photo archives, and one of the largest collections of books on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Build in 1911, the building served as the jail until a new facility was built in 1982. Many of the old jail's features have been preserved, including the gallows, isolation and . . . — Map (db m29085) HM|
|Montana (Gallatin County), Bozeman — Trail Through Time — To the Headwaters|
|First Peoples utilized the valley for over 11,000 years before the arrival of Lewis & Clark, and the others that would follow. Trails brought cattle and homesteaders to an agricultural paradise. The military followed, defending settlers, consuming local products and mounting expeditions into the Yellowstone. The railroad brought material goods and tied the region to the national economy.
Over 11,000 years ago The First Peoples moving into North America across an ice age land bridge came . . . — Map (db m29084) HM|
|Montana (Gallatin County), Bozeman — Valley of Opportunity — To the Headwaters|
|Settlers came to the Gallatin Valley on the heels of the first Montana gold strike at Grasshopper Creek near Bannack, Montana, in 1862. As Meriwether Lewis had predicted, farmers found the valley well suited for agriculture. They planted crops and raised stock to supply the rapidly growing town.
John Jacobs and John Bozeman laid out a cutoff from the Oregon Trail into western gold fields of Montana in 1863. Bozeman brought the first wagon train of miners and settlers over the Bozemen Trail. — Map (db m29078) HM|
|Montana (Gallatin County), Three Forks — Gallatin City Hotel - 1868|
Built by Jarvis Akin, the Hotel was originally a one-room building of hand-hewn logs. It was the center of Gallatin City's social life; travelers sometimes complained of not being able to sleep because of the ruckus. As the town died, the Hotel was turned into a barn; later, sections of it were torn down and carted away to be used elsewhere. — Map (db m73536) HM|
|Montana (Gallatin County), Three Forks — Lewis and Clark reach the Headwaters — July 25 & July 27, 1805|
You are standing at the headwaters of the great Missouri River.
The Jefferson and Madison Rivers converge with the Gallatin joining one mile downstream to become the Missouri River.
Here, the famed explorers accomplished a major goal of their expedition: to explore the Missouri River to its source.
The camped here for several days, exploring the area while the prepared to continue their journey. — Map (db m73542) HM|
|Montana (Gallatin County), West Yellowstone — Hebgen Lake and Quake Lake|
|By 1898 a 10-foot wide road was built through the Gallatin Canyon to Taylors Fork and the park line. In 1911 a crude, narrow wagon road went to "Yellowstone" (West Yellowstone), 90 miles from the county seat at Bozeman. In 1926, the road was graveled. West Yellowstone started with the coming of the railroad in 1908. |
This area contains many historical interests: Hebgen Lake and dam, Quake Lake and the Madison River Earthquake Visitor's Center at the site of the August 17, 1959 mountain . . . — Map (db m58454) HM
|Montana (Garfield County), Mosby — Bearpaw Shale and the Inland Ocean|
|The black shale rocks seen in this area represent the muddy sediments deposited by the last ocean to exist in Montana. The shale, known by geologists as the Bearpaw Shale contains fossils of sea-going creatures that lived and died some 70 million years ago. Twenty foot long swimming reptiles like Mososaurus and Tylosaurus fed on fishes and ammonites, relatives of squids and octopi. The remains of the gigantic coiled ammonites called Placentaceras and the straight shelled ammonites called . . . — Map (db m9697) HM|
|Montana (Garfield County), Mosby — Fort Musselshell|
|Fort Musselshell was located on the Missouri River about 35 miles north of here. It was a trading post in the ’60s and ’70s and as such had a brief but colorful career. The only whites in that part of the state were woodchoppers for the Missouri River steamboats, wolfers, trappers and Indian trappers.
The River Crows and Gros Ventre Indians traded there. A buffalo robe brought them 3 cups of coffee, or 6 cups of sugar, or 10 cups of flour. It was a tolerably profitable business from the . . . — Map (db m9698) HM|
|Montana (Garfield County), Mosby — Kerchival City|
|Competition to supply the mining camps was fierce in Montana in the 1860s. Many opportunists realized that the real money was not in mining for gold, but in “mining the miners” by providing essential goods and services. Fort Benton dominated upper Missouri trade. Steamboat landings and trading posts established downriver of the world’s innermost port sought to circumvent Fort Benton’s monopoly. The mouth of the Musselshell River, about 35 miles north of here, was ideal for a . . . — Map (db m9700) HM|
|Montana (Glacier County), Browning — Horns|
|Relentless glaciers sculpted Mt. Reynold's jagged summit. When several glaciers erode a mountaintop from different sides, a steep mountain peak or horn develops. The result is a glacial horn like the Swiss Matterhorn.
There are glacial horns in many locations throughout the park. But the only sure way to identify a horn is to hike around it or view it from other perspectives. Clements Mountain (behind you and to the right), despite its jagged profile, is not a true glacial horn. — Map (db m45059) HM|
|Montana (Glacier County), East Glacier Park — Time Machines — The Red Bus Rides Again|
A Glacier Tradition
National parks often seem timeless and are valued for the continuity of experience they offer to generations of visitors. At Glacier National Park, the past and future come together through a fleet of historic buses, time machines for a unique touring experience across the crown of the continent.
Glacier's time machines are refurbished vintage White Motor Company touring buses. These bright red icons of Going-to-the-Sun Road have been taking passengers . . . — Map (db m45054) HM|
|Montana (Glacier County), East Glacier Park — Trains, Trails, and Chalets|
|Arriving at East Glacier depot, tourist in the 1920s could gaze at the glaciated peaks looming beyond their first night's lodging. The hotel appeared to be their last taste of civilization before riding horseback into the primitive backcountry of Glacier National Park.
Yet this hotel was part of a network of chalets built a day's ride apart. From here, guests would trailride to Two Medicine and Cut Bank Chalets. Some riders crossed the entire park and spent each night in relative comfort . . . — Map (db m45055) HM|
|Montana (Glacier County), Polebridge — Overnight in the Wilderness — Historic Many Glacier Hotel|
|In the 1920s, large parties of tourist gathered on horseback at Many Glacier Hotel. The hotel was part of a network of chalets built a day's ride apart-a way for guest to cross the park's wild, roadless interior while spending nights in relative comfort and security. Sperry and Granite Park Chalets continue to play their historic roles by lodging overnight hikers.
A blend of rustic materials ans Swiss chalet style, the hotel's architecture expresses the paradox of Glacier National Park . . . — Map (db m45057) HM|
|Montana (Glacier County), Polebridge — When the Glaciers Melt|
|Only about 26 glaciers remain from the 150 that were here in 1850. That number is dropping steadily. If the weather is clear, you might be able to see what is left of five glaciers in the Many Glacier Valley. As climate changes, both the visible and not-so-visible features of the park will be altered. In just a couple of decades, the view from this spot may look dramatically different.
As climate warms, rainfall and snowfall are also likely to change. This will affect soil moisture, runoff . . . — Map (db m45058) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Drummond — Madison Limestone and the Garnet Mountains|
|About 350 million years ago, much of Montana was submerged under a shallow sea. Billions of tiny marine creatures thrived in the water and when they died their bodies settled into the muck on the sea bed. After hundreds of millions of years of accumulation and many more millions of years it metamorphosed into the pale gray rocks that known today as Madison Limestone. The limestone is common throughout Montana, eastern Idaho, northern Wyoming, and in the Dakotas. In Montana, the limestone beds . . . — Map (db m71505) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Drummond — Rattler Gulch Limestone Cliffs ACEC — (Area of Critical Environmental Concern)|
|The limestone feature (outcrop), located across the road, known as the Madison Limestone Formation, was deposited about 350 million years ago in a shallow sea. It was uplifted about 65 million years ago during the Laramide Orogeny (when the Rocky Mountains were formed.) During its uplift the cliffs were folded and faulted, adding to the geologic structure of the cliffs.
Approximately 1635 feet of the Madison Formation are exposed in this location. It is partly composed of the fossil . . . — Map (db m80318) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — 123 East Broadway|
|Local rancher Lee Degenhart financed the construction of this building in 1910. Fred Haverty, a contractor from Hal, Montana, who later ran a car dealership here in Philipsburg, was the builder. Design features include the original ornamental leaded glass and a decorative brick cornice. This and other commercial structures of like vintage illustrate the economic boom Philipsburg enjoyed between 1900 and 1914. The community's weekly newspaper The Philipsburg Mail has been headquartered in this building since 1941. — Map (db m45224) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Bi-Metallic Aerial Tramway|
|The tramway was constructed in 1889 to carry ore from the Blaine Shaft in Granite to the Bi-Metallic Mill in Kirkville, near Philipsburg. The Bi-Metallic aerial tramway was 9750 feet long with a vertical drop of 1225 feet, and was the longest aerial tramway in the United States at that time. The tramline consisted of wooden tower with rollers and guides on the ends of both arms. These rollers supported a very large moving cable that the tram cars were attached to.
The Granite Mountain Mining . . . — Map (db m49547) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — C.T. Huffman Grocery|
|Built circa 1887, Lutey's Grocery and the Barrett and Jacky Harness Shop originally shared occupancy of this one-story commercial building. By the 1890s, Valentine Jacky shared this building with C. T. Huffman who supplied groceries to Philpsburg and the nearby town of Granite. C. T. and A. S. Huffman eventually expanded their store into both sides of the building. Operated by A. S. Huffman's sons until the 1970s, the business was the state's oldest family-owned grocery. Meticulous . . . — Map (db m45226) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Courtney Hotel|
|Brothers Morris and Humphery Courtney built this multi-purpose building in 1918 with the profits from manganese mining acquired during World War I. The building speaks to the coming of the automobile as the basement housed the Granite County Garage and the first floor was a dealership and showroom for Overland automobiles. The wide door in the center made the interior showroom accessible. The upper two floors accommodated offices and hotel rooms, often occupied by schoolteachers.|
This . . . — Map (db m49371) HM
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Granite County Courthouse|
|The first permanent home for Granite County offices was completed in 1913. Prominent Montana architects John Link and Charles Haire designed the building. Its cut stonework is, appropriately, made of Montana granite. Granite County commissioners paid the Gagnon and Company construction firm $49,000 for completion of this elegant brick county courthouse. Look for the inscription “Granite Co.” in the keystone above the entry arch. — Map (db m45229) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Granite County Jail|
|The Granite County Jail was constructed in 1896, three years after Granite County was carved from two adjacent counties and Philipsburg made the county seat. The town served as a hub to extensive area mining and, later, ranching. The jail was the first major public building constructed for county use, reflecting early desire for law and order. This stately building contains jail space, the sheriff's office, and the sheriff's residence. It was constructed for an estimated $8,000 using features . . . — Map (db m45228) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Granite Ghost Town|
|Granite Mtn. Mine located July 6, 1875 and operated by the Granite Mtn. Company.
A rich silver bonanza shoot was discovered in Nov. 1882. The mine closed in 1893 and reopened again in 1911 and 1912 and operated for a brief time.
Deerlodge National Forest — Map (db m49540) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Granite Mountain Mining Company Office|
|This two-story building, constructed in about 1885, was one of the first structures in Granite, and housed the brick vault that is seen here. The mining office handled the payroll for the men who worked at the Ruby Shaft and the two mills on the hill across the road to your north. Newspapers articles of the day told of men being paid entirely in silver coins, and of merchants threatening to burn any paper money they encountered.
The first three Superintendents of the Granite Mountain works . . . — Map (db m49629) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — J.K. Merrill and Sons Dry Goods|
|The excellent design and spacious interior of this two-story commercial building represents Philipsburg’s prosperity and substantial population during the 1890s. Constructed for J.K. Merrill and Sons between 1892 and 1894, Freyschlag Huffman and Company took this location for its general merchandise emporium in 1893. Dry goods, clothing, groceries, hardware and wholesale liquors were displayed in the 12,000 feet of floor space. By 1897, it had become BiMetallic Mining’s company store. A . . . — Map (db m49370) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Jones' Run For Life|
|In July 1878, a band of Nez Perce Indians returning south from Canada after eluding U.S. Cavalry, crossed what is now Granite County. While passing through they attacked a small mining camp located on a tributary of Rock Creek at McKay Gulch. Three miners were killed. A fourth miner, James Jones, escaped in a hail of gunfire. Although wounded, Jones managed to out-maneuver his pursuers by climbing Mt. Emerine. He then struggled cross-country 25 miles back to Philipsburg to alert the town about . . . — Map (db m45211) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Kaiser House|
|Michael Kaiser, founder of Philipsburg Water Company, built this grand hotel in 1881. One of Philipsburg's oldest masonry structures, the original hotel boasted a wrap-around porch extending halfway around the building. Second-story French doors, matching windows below and four Norman arched double doors with fan transoms speak to its excellent design. A fine bar, billiard room and T-bone steaks for 50 cents made the Kaiser House a place applauded by travelers and residents alike. — Map (db m45218) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Masonic Temple|
|Meetings in Philipsburg of Flint Creek Lodge No. 11 date back to 1867. This structure, built in 1911, provided a permanent home for the community-oriented fraternal organization. Chambers for lodge meetings occupy the entire top floor. The ground floor originally housed the Philipsburg State Bank, and the outside entry to the bank's old vault still remains intact. A chamfered corner complemented by visual emphasis on horizontal lines of banded masonry reflect the period. — Map (db m45222) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — McDonald Opera House|
|Prominent businessman Angus A. McDonald constructed this two-story masonry theater in 1891. A metal-covered stage loft rises above the roof as evidence of the structures historic function. Beneath the south end were dressing rooms for the traveling entertainers that played the generous stage. Elaborate backdrops were painted by Montana artist Edgar S. Paxson. The advent of moving pictures with sound brought some interior changes in the 1930s, but a magician’s trap door at center stage is still . . . — Map (db m49373) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Mill A and B|
|The Granite Mountain Mining Company constructed two mills adjoining the mining operation know[n] as the Ruby Shaft. These structures, Mill A and Mill B, housed a total of 70 stamp mills which processed ore. Stamp mills were used to crush the ore so the metal could be separated from the base material by amalgamation of mercury. The stamp mills were very noisy and produced a great deal of dust. The mines and mills all operated six days a week.|
When the production of the Ruby Shaft exceeded . . . — Map (db m49631) HM
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Miner's Union Hall|
|Built in 1890 at a cost of $23,000, this three-story building was once the social center of a bustling mining town. The first floor was constructed of native granite. The cast iron front held 6 large windows and small colored glass panes. The upper stories were brick, and the roof was covered with sheet metal. Interior walls and ceilings were plastered, and elaborate molded pine trim was artificially grained to look like hardwood. Lighting was by oil lamps, one of which weighed 400 lbs.|
The . . . — Map (db m49628) HM
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Morse Hall|
|Colonel J.W. Morse built Morse Hall in 1887. This elaborately detailed public lecture hall also served as county courthouse after 1893, an opera house, town hall, library and general community center. Its splendid second story dance floor was the scene of many gala community dances as well as basketball games. The pressed metal cornice, hood moldings and full storefront supported by cast iron columns make this building a fine example of commercial vernacular architecture. — Map (db m45213) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Philipsburg|
|Philipsburg's early-day fortunes ebbed and flowed with mining. Today, its historic district is one of Montana's best preserved late-19th-century mining towns, with commercial, public and private buildings dating from the boom period of silver mining. Silver was discovered south of here in 1864, and only three years later Philipsburg (at elevation 5,270 feet) was growing at the “rate of one house per day,” an area newspaper reported. That same year, the St.Louis and Montana Mining . . . — Map (db m45209) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Philipsburg Historic District|
|Philipsburg's early-day fortunes ebbed and flowed with mining. Today, its historic district is one of Montana's best preserved late-19th-century mining towns, with commercial, public and private buildings dating from the boom period of silver mining. Silver was discovered south of here in 1864, and only three years later Philipsburg (at elevation 5,270 feet) was growing at the “rate of one house per day,” an area newspaper reported. That same year, the St.Louis and Montana Mining . . . — Map (db m45210) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Pizer Building|
|One of a network of Jewish merchants who supplied miners in the Rocky Mountain West, nineteen-year-old Benjamin Pizer arrived in Helena from Poland with his wife Jessie Silverman and their newborn son David in 1869. With limited capital, he purchased fifty pounds of dry goods, which he peddled to area miners. After seven years, he bought a wagon and expanded his territory. In 1878 he purchased a dry goods business in Philipsburg. A building boom fueled by Philipsburg-area silver mining and the . . . — Map (db m45217) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Ruby Shaft|
|Most of the ore that brought tremendous riches and fame to Granite was brought out of the Ruby Shaft, operated by the Granite Mountain Mining Company. Several tunnels outside the Ruby Shaft were also important in producing the silver (and some gold) ore that went to the mills and became ingots. The shaft work began in about 1880 when Mr. McIntyre was contracted to “sink a 50-foot shaft upon the ledge” in return for a one-quarter interest in the mine. The shaft that Mr. McIntyre . . . — Map (db m49544) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Sayrs' Building|
|First known as the Hyde Block, this building was constructed by banker Joseph Hyde and his wife, Mary, in 1888. It housed the First National Bank until the silver crash of 1893. In 1904, Frank Sayrs purchased the building and it has since held a number of businesses including a tailor's shop, drug stores and a recreation center. The fine design of this two-story commercial structure features a chamfered, or beveled, corner with a modillioned metal cornice and pediment. — Map (db m45220) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Superintendent’s House — “Silver Queen City”|
|By 1899, this house stood at the head of Magnolia Avenue, or “Silk Stocking Row,” where the elite of Granite lived. The first floor housed the living quarters for the Superintendent of the Granite Mountain Mining Co. The second floor may have originally housed the mine office, accessed through a door in the back reached by a plank bridgeway from the hillside. No inside connection has ever existed between the two floors.|
From 1889 to 1893, Superintendent Thomas Weir lived in this . . . — Map (db m49545) HM
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Weinstein Building|
|Around the mountain from the mining camp of Cable in 1866 came Polish-born merchant William Weinstein with a wagon-load of goods to sell. He became Philipsburg's first general merchant, constructing the eastern half of this building in the late 1870s or early 1880s to house his business. Ike Sparey located his restaurant and hotel in the western half, completed circa 1887. The structure has since served as a bank, a mortuary, and since 1950 as mining company offices for the current owner, the . . . — Map (db m45212) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Wilson Brothers Building|
|Charles A. and Frank J. Wilson, brothers from Wisconsin, built and established their businesses in this building by 1888. The building originally housed a furniture store on one side, a feed store on the other and a miners' boarding house/living quarters upstairs. Later in the 1890s, the businesses changed to hardware and groceries while the boarding house continued to operate upstairs. Inside, a hand-over-hand hoist that is still in use and tongue-and-groove maple flooring confirm the success . . . — Map (db m45214) HM|
|Montana (Granite County), Philpsburg — Walker Commercial Building|
|Prominent Missoula architect A. J. Gibson designed and built this two-story commercial building in 1905. The fine design includes a metal modillioned cornice and panels with a full height glass storefront and polished granite skirt below. The Walker Company operated stores in both Philipsburg and nearby Granite, selling dry goods and hardware. The Golden Rule handled similar merchandise at this location in the 1920s, and Philipsburg Hardware carried on the same tradition beginning in 1932. — Map (db m45223) HM|
|Montana (Lewis and Clark County), Augusta — Record Cold Spot|
The coldest official temperature ever recorded in the continental United States occurred at a mining camp near here January 20, 1954 when the temperature dropped to 70 degrees below zero. — Map (db m73525) HM|
|Montana (Lincoln County), Troy — Kootenai River|
|The river is named for the Kootenai tribe that lived and hunted in this part of Montana and adjoining territory in Idaho and Canada. They were settled south of Flathead Lake in 1855 with the Salish on the Flathead Reservation.
They were friendly with neighboring mountain tribes but suffered frequently from the incursions of their bitter enemies the Blackfeet, who came across the Continental Divide from the plains on horse stealing and scalp raising expeditions.
First white men in . . . — Map (db m71509) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Anaconda Hotel — (Fairweather Inn)|
|The oldest section of this building, dating to 1863, was first a simple one-story building which housed a restaurant called the “Young American Eating House.” A butcher shop followed from 1866 to the 1880s, and then in the 1880s the building was a hotel/saloon. It became the Anaconda Hotel and Saloon in the 1890s under proprietor Frank McKeen. Renaming it the Fairweather Inn after the discoverer of gold in Alder Gulch, in 1946 Charles Bovey raised the height of the old hotel to two . . . — Map (db m49474) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Barlett’s Blacksmith Shop|
|Virginia City boomed and land prices soared accordingly in 1863 and 1864, a trend well illustrated in the earliest ownership transactions of this choice commercial property. On May 13, 1864, George Parker paid $800 for the lot and sold it for $1400 on June 27. By 1869, the property owner was Herschfield, Hanauer & Company, bankers who specialized in gold exchange. A photograph from the early 1870s shows the original log building which first occupied this lot. The present rubblestone building . . . — Map (db m49441) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Boot Hill|
|This was Virginia City’s first Cemetery. There were many markers here, but only those of the road agents and Daltons remain. The road agent’s graves, which gave the Cemetery its name Boot Hill, were first marked by the city in 1907.
William & Clara Dalton were no relation to the notorious gang nor connected with the road agents. The arrived in Bannack in 1862 with Captain James L. Fisk’s first wagon train and moved to Virginia City in 1863. William & Clara died of natural caused in January . . . — Map (db m49490) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Dance and Stuart Store|
|James Stuart and his brother Granville set up the first sluice boxes in the northern Rockies in 1852. Delaware native Walter B. Dance came to Gold Creek in 1862. James Stuart and Dance opened their mercantile in November, 1863. One of Virginia City’s most complete and respected shops, Dance and Stuart also briefly housed the post office. Club Foot George Lane, reputed member of the infamous Plummer Gang, lived at the store and was arrested there by the Vigilantes in 1864. A year later, the . . . — Map (db m49442) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Elling Bank|
|Bankers Nowlan and Weary set up business in this brick-veneered building, one of the town’s oldest stone structures, in 1864. Three well-proportioned gothic arches with elaborate tracery, removed during 1910 remodeling, originally graced this stone facade. In 1873, Henry Elling took over the banking business. His first fortune, made in merchandising, had disappeared along with his partner, but Elling quickly recouped his losses. The buying of gold dust proved a most profitable venture and . . . — Map (db m49486) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — F.R. Merk Block|
|Gold dust was the common currency when George Higgins built this sturdy “fire-proof stone” business block circa 1866. F.R. Merk leased the new building for his mercantile, advertising fancy and staple groceries, liquors, Queensware, woodenware household implements and a tin shop with “prices to suit the times.” Merk bought the building for $1,800 in 1867, but soon went back to mining. Harrington, Baker & Company sold boots and shoes here during the 1870s and E.L. Smith . . . — Map (db m49440) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Finney House|
|Construction layers of this original homestead tell much of Nevada City’s ‘boom and bust’ history. In 1864, miner Frank Finney and his bride, Mary, moved into a cabin on this property that had been constructed the previous year. The cabin forms the core of the present house. The newlyweds soon added the front room, decorating the log wall and ceiling with muslin stretched smooth to mimic plastered walls, then applying wall paper over the muslin. Clapboard siding covered the rough exterior log . . . — Map (db m49567) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Frank Prasch Blacksmith Shop|
|Like the blacksmith shop next door, this early building was probably a dance hall or saloon in the mid-1860s run by owner John Trollman. In 1865 Trollman was one of Virginia City’s seventy-three licensed retail liquor dealers. By the 1870, a larger door and higher roof had been added to accommodate Frank Prasch and Fred Kohls’ blacksmith shop. Prasch operated the shop until about 1914, then sold out to Louis Romey who continued until 1946. The building, in near ruin, was rescued by the Historic . . . — Map (db m49410) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — G. Goldberg Store — (McGovern Dry Goods)|
|This 1863 building features a classic Greek Revival style storefront with French doors, typical of the 1860s frontier. The lintel above the door still bears the name of G. Goldberg, who ran the Pioneer Clothing Store Company prior to 1866. The single door on the left led to the Weston Hotel, a series of four tiny rooms. With accomodations [sic] at a premium, any inside space was better than sleeping in the snow. Circa 1908 sisters Hanna and Mary McGovern moved their ladies’ clothing store here. . . . — Map (db m49469) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Gallows Barn|
|Built in the 1890’s for the White Sulfur Springs Sheriff’s Department. In the year 1917 this barn had a legal gallows installed for the execution of three men. These men robbed a train south of White Sulfur Springs and murdered a trainman on January 16, 1917.
Hanged were: Henry Hall – February 16, 1917; Leslie Tahley – February 16, 1917; Harrison Gibson – February 16, 1917
The bar was donated to Bovey Restorations by the White Sulfur Springs Historical Society, and moved here intact in May 1975.
Montana Heritage Commission. — Map (db m49569) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Green Front Boarding House|
|These two adjoining log houses were probably built by Calvin Holly and William Douglas as dwellings in the late 1860s. By 1890, the two buildings were operated as “female boarding houses” or house of prostitution run by madames Myrtle Butler and Pearl McGinnis. During the early years, this area was Virginia City’s thriving red-light district, but by the 1890’s the Green Front was surrounded by Virginia City’s “China Town.” This building faced the Chinese Temple which . . . — Map (db m49385) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Hangman’s Building|
|On January 14, 1864 , the Vigilantes used the heavy center support beam of this building, then under construction, to hang five of Henry Plummer’s road agents: Frank Parish, Boone Helm, Jack Gallagher, Haze Lyons and Club Foot George Lane. Druggists Clayton, Hale and then Morris occupied the completed building until the 1880s when the U.S. Post Office was located here. In 1903, the Virginia City Water Company, owned and operated by Sarah Bickford, purchased the property and maintained offices . . . — Map (db m49487) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — J.B. LaBeau, Jeweler — (Toy Store)|
contributes to the
Listed in the
By the United States
In cooperation with
Montana Historical Society
Ford, Robinson and Clark built this narrow building in late 1863 or early 1864. J.B. LaBeau purchased it for $500 in 1865 to house his shop, and pioneer surgeon Dr. I.C. Smith established his office here . . . — Map (db m49471) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — J.F. Stoer Saloon — (Bale of Hay Saloon)|
|Retail liquor dealer J.F. Stoer operated here from the raucous 1860s until about 1890. From that time until 1908, Smith and Boyd who ran the livery next door ran this establishment, aptly renamed the “Bale of Hay.” After 1908, the building stood empty until 1946 when the Boveys saved it from collapse and added a front porch. In 1983 a fire heavily damaged the building. Construction to repair the building was confined to the saloon’s interior, allowing the outer square-hewn log . . . — Map (db m49390) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Kiskadden’s Stone Block — (Vigilante Barn)|
|Virginia City’s first stone building, constructed during the summer of 1863, originally housed three stores on the ground floor and a meeting hall upstairs. Popular legend has long designated this as the meeting place of the Vigilantes, who prosecuted and hung two dozen outlaw road agents in Virginia City between 1863 and 1864. Grocer William Kiskadden, the original occupant, married the former Mrs. Jack Slade after Slade was hung by the Vigilantes. Blacksmith George Thexton remodeled the . . . — Map (db m49473) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Kramer Building — (Dress Shop)|
|The hasty construction on this remarkably preserved early dwelling reflects the excitement of the gold rush to Alder Gulch during the summer of 1863. Its original dirt-covered pole roof predates the first saw mills; the roof was later covered over with sawn boards. The interior illustrates the once-common use of muslin stretched over logs to imitate a smooth plastered wall. Early occupants were blacksmiths, and during the late 1880s and 1890s Julius and Frederick Kramer operated a saddlery . . . — Map (db m49443) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Madison County Pioneers|
|The gold rush to Alder Creek in 1863 spurred settlement of the Madison Valley, and among the first families to settle here were the Jeffers, the Switzers (whose home is preserved here in Nevada City) and the Careys. Irish-born Nick Carey walked to Virginia City from Denver with his possessions on his back. He established a mercantile and the first local post office where he was postmaster at nearby Adobetown from 1863 to 1905. In 1873 Nick married Mary Emerson, then 16. Their thirteen children . . . — Map (db m49565) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Metropolitan Meat Market|
|George Gohn was one of the first to arrive at Alder Gulch in 1863 where he and Conrad Kohrs set up a meat market in a log cabin. Alkali dust sifted through the chinks and covered the meat prompting Gohn to experiment with various other locations until he settled on this site in 1880. When fire destroyed much of the block in 1888, only Gohn rebuilt. The present building, completed that year, long stood solitary on this section of Wallace Street. Decorated pilasters, brackets and imitation . . . — Map (db m49479) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Montana’s Oldest Standing School|
|This little log building is Montana’s Oldest Standing Public School, built in 1867 in Twin Bridges, Montana, about 30 miles north of here. It served Twin Bridges until 1873, when the Masons built a two-story building with the first floor for use as a school.
Nevada City may have had the first school in Montana, started during the summer of 1863 by Miss Kate Dunlap. Another very early school started in Bannack and was taught by Miss Lucia Darling, niece of Governor Edgerton. “Miss . . . — Map (db m49568) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Nevada City|
|Nine booming gold camps sprawled along remote Alder Gulch in 1863. Nevada City and Virginia City were the largest. In December, 1863, Nevada City’s main street was the scene of the miner’s court and hanging of George Ives. This event was the catalyst for the forming of the Viglilantes.|
Dozen of stores and cabins extended back six blocks, but by 1876 only a few residents remained at Nevada City. The gold dredges later came through leaving piles of tailings as big as barns and by 1920, the . . . — Map (db m49563) HM
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Old Masonic Temple|
|In the top story of his building the Grand Lodge of A.F. & A.M. of Montana was formed on January 24th to 29th AL. 5866
Virginia City Lodge No. 43 of Kansas
Montana Lodge No. 9 of Colorado
Helena Lodge No. 10 of Colorado
Which are now members one, two and three of Montana — Map (db m49485) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Pfouts and Russel — (Rank’s Drug – Old Masonic Temple)|
|Paris Pfouts, Vigilante president and Virginia City’s first mayor, was instrumental in laying out the town. He and his partner, Samuel Russell, built a log store on this site in summer, 1863. Local hell-raiser Jack Slade was arrested here on March 10, 1864 and, in an execution controversial even among the Vigilantes, hanged on the corral gatepost behind the building in 1865. Lime was not yet available for mortar, so the stone walls were secured with adobe mud. A loyal Mason, Pfouts gave the . . . — Map (db m49484) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — S.L. Simpson Building — (Barber Shop)|
|This narrow frame building may be one of Virginia City’s earliest structures, dating to the summer of 1863 when buildings like this were rented for up to $175 during the initial gold rush. Its odd-sized door appears to have been locally handmade. First owner D.H. Weston also owned a “hotel” across the street, and S.L. Simpson and J.G. Vetters, owners in the 1870s, may have rented this building as a tonsorial parlor. An early photo shows a barber pole out front. The building served . . . — Map (db m49412) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Sauerbier Blacksmith Shop|
|A notorious dance hall was the original occupant of this 1863 building which encompasses a small cabin of V-notched logs, one of the first built in June of that year. Tall French doors and a few dentils clinging to the facade recall its former dance hall elegance. Converted to a blacksmith shop in the 1870s, Charles Saurbier and his son Karl operated the business until the 1940s. In the early years, Saurbier repaired stage coaches and shod the ox teams that pulled huge freight wagons of goods. . . . — Map (db m49407) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Site of the Trial and Hanging of George Ives|
|Dec. 21, 1863 Most extraordinary trial in history. — Map (db m49566) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Smith & Boyd Livery Stable|
|This false-fronted rubble stone barn was constructed by Smith and Boyd circa 1900, replacing a log livery stable. The stone part of the building and the front doors and windows remain as they were at the turn of the century. The barn was converted to a theater in 1949, with the additions made to the rear. The porch was salvaged from the famous Morgan Evans Mansion near Anaconda, and was added to the front at that time. The “Old Stone Barn” has been the home to the Virginia City . . . — Map (db m49387) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Stonewall Hall|
|From 1865 to 1875 when Virginia City was Montana’s territorial capital, the Territorial Legislature met on the second floor of this stone building. Constructed in 1864, it is Montana’s oldest standing capitol building. The second floor also housed the Virginia City Lyceum, a small library for “civilized” young men. The retail clothing store of Greenhood, Bohm & Company, a national chain whose company salesmen traveled by stage across Montana, occupied the first floor. Their sign . . . — Map (db m49439) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Strasburger’s Colorado Store — (Jewelry Store)|
This property contributes to the
of Historic Places
United States Department of the Interior
In cooperation with the Montana Historical Society
Inspired by the Renaissance Revival style, the impressive facade of this 1863 building reveals a storefront design very innovative for the 1860s. By the 1880s this “reverse by style” door and window . . . — Map (db m49470) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — The Buford Block|
|Built in 1899. one can see that this imposing structure was the pride, not only of Virginia City, but also of Montana – being, according to history the largest mercantile store in the state at that time. Hardware, hay, grain, salt, and groceries were available, AND WHISKEY BY THE BARREL! Original site of the Wells Fargo Co. from which the well known Wells Fargo Coffee Shop justly derives its name.
The Virginia Trading Co. — Map (db m49438) HM|
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — The Mount Vernon Dredge|
|In its first five years, Alder Gulch produced between 30 and 60 million in gold. By 1874 about 35,000 people lived in the gulch. Times ran out but the gold never did. You can still find it here in the hills and streams of Alder Gulch.|
There were 5 dredges working this stream at one time. They ranged in size fro a No. 2 to a No. 16, the world’s largest dredge. They removed from 150 to 200 million dollars in gold. The Mount Vernon Dredge is a No. 2 dredge and was donated to the museum by Mr. . . . — Map (db m49570) HM
|Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Virginia City National Historic Landmark District|
|The spectacular gold discovery in Alder Gulch on May 26, 1863, led to the rapid growth of this colorful and legendary gold camp town. Thousands of fortune-seekers rushed to the area, and by 1864 the Virginia City area boasted 30,000 residents. Rough characters attracted by the gold rush gave Virginia City an unsavory reputation, but these were tempered by pioneers and their families who settled here and helped to shape the new frontier. After the creation of the Territory of Montana, Virginia . . . — Map (db m49382) HM|
|Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — A Battle That Could Not Be Won|
“With the cinders and ashes falling all around him, and so dark that he could not see his horse’s head at three o’clock in the afternoon, [Barringer] rode up to the face of the fire…[and] collected his scattered crews….” - Elers Koch, Forest Supervisor
Only five years old when the fires struck, the fledgling U.S. Forest Service had no organized fire crews, relying instead on the young rangers committed to protecting the nation’s new National Forests. They hired any . . . — Map (db m45505) HM|
|Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — An Unlikely Safe Haven|
“Fires of yesterday and last night have swept practically all the country from Avery to St. Regis. Nothing could have lived in the mountains last evening except for the tunnels.” - E. J. Pearson, Chief Engineer, Puget Sound Railroad
Fleeing from the fires, people jumped into rivers, sheltered in mine shafts or ran for their lives. Others chose escape on the railroad, but sometimes even the trains could not move faster than the fires.
An engineer named C. H. Marshall . . . — Map (db m45511) HM|
|Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — Building From the Ashes|
“All that remained was to salvage what material that could be salvaged from the disaster, and reorganize for a new start.” - Clarence B. Swim, Assistant Forester
As the railroad operated rescue trains, Missoula residents met the refugees at the station offering food, clothing and lodging. When the rains came and the fires died down, the relief committee provided tents and supplies so families could return to rebuild their homes and lives. In spite of the widespread . . . — Map (db m45509) HM|
|Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — Douse the Flames and Climb Aboard|
“The whole twenty-five miles of railroad…between Avery and the Taft Tunnel was swept by a consuming blast of fire, so hot that pick handles lying in the open beside the track were utterly consumed.” - Elers Koch, Forest Supervisor
With fires raging in Idaho and Montana and seemingly closing in on all sides of numerous towns, the railroad was the lifeline for escape. Engineer John Mackedon and his fireman rode west toward Avery surrounded by fire and worried they would . . . — Map (db m45510) HM|
|Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — Life Along the Line|
Just getting groceries up here could be a challenge
Deep winter snow sometimes made getting to school, going to the doctor, or buying food an adventure.
Families living at the top of the Bitterroot Mountains, here at East Portal and Roland, made the most out of a lonely situation.
When winter’s deep snow closed the roads, residents ran errands on borrowed “motor cars” that ran on rails, or hitched rides on passing trains. The trains would drop off mail-order . . . — Map (db m45544) HM|
|Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — Pluck and Good Fortune|
“I won’t die here in this creek… [I’m] getting out of here.” - Pinkie Adair, homesteader and camp cook
During the 1910 Fires, perseverance often meant the difference between life and death. At 26 years old, Ione “Pinkie” Adair could ride, shoot and cook. She lived about 10 miles from where you are standing. When a fire crew set up camp nearby, Adair hired on to cook for the 74 men, including 60 prisoners released from jail to fight the fires.
On . . . — Map (db m45503) HM|
|Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — St. Paul Pass Tunnel|
The Milwaukee Road faced the daunting task of drilling a tunnel 23 feet high, 16 feet wide and 1.7 miles long into Idaho.
It was a damp, dark, dirty dig. After the approaches were prepared in 1906, and a faltering start in 1907, work began in earnest in 1908. East and west crews toiled around the clock in wet, miserable conditions, and at their best could tunnel 20 feel a day. A company official remembered that:
“Men were hard to keep as the work was disagreeable and . . . — Map (db m45550) HM|
|Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — Substation 13|
Once a critical part of the longest electrified railroad in the world, the broken concrete foundation to your left is all that remains of the two-story, brick East Portal Substation.
Essentially a gigantic electric vault, East Portal was the largest of 22 substations constructed along the Milwaukee Road’s electrified portion of the main line from Harlowton, Montana to Tacoma, Washington. East Portal was one of four substations given gabled roofs to shed deep snow. Built in 1915, . . . — Map (db m45542) HM|
|Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — The Route of the Hiawatha|
The Last Transcontinental Railroad
The Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway’s Pacific Extension survived for 71 colorful years. Racing silk trains sped along the route, and long, rumbling troop trains carried men and materiel through four wars.
The Milwaukee’s famed electric locomotives hosted presidents and celebrities and showcased the streamlined Olympian Hiawatha passenger train.
The Route of the Hiawatha Rail-Trail, traces the most costly and difficult to build . . . — Map (db m45548) HM|
|Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — The Trail Follows the Trains|
…and Historians Trace the History along the Trail.
When the Milwaukee Road abandoned its route over the Bitterroot Mountains, salvage companies stripped the line of all the rails, ties, signals, posts and everything else of value. The small fragments left behind are the remains of one of America’s proudest railroads.
From 1907 to 1911 thousands of people lived, worked and played in this secluded part of the Bitterroot Mountains. They constructed a railroad while leaving faint . . . — Map (db m45549) HM|
|Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — The Wickedest City|
Buried beneath busy Interstate 90 in the valley below are the bones of what the Chicago Tribune in 1909 named “the wickedest city in America”.
This “den of iniquity” sprouted up when the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad began building the 1.7-mile long St. Paul Pass (Taft) Tunnel. Between 1907 and 1909 the town consisted of twenty-seven saloons, two theaters/dance halls/saloons, a butcher shop, a general store, a drug store, a hospital, and a hotel. . . . — Map (db m45552) HM|
|Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — When the Mountains Roared|
“The fire by this time was an awe-inspiring spectacle, the whole horizon to the west was aflame and the noise caused by the falling timber was terrific.” - Roy A. Phillips, Lolo Forest Guard
One of the most devastating fire seasons in the history of the United States began like any other. The 1910 Fires started with smoldering campfires, sparks from locomotives and a few lightning-caused fires. The many small fires grew larger and spread quickly. When the ferocious . . . — Map (db m45508) HM|
|Montana (Missoula County), Bonner — Sand Park Cemetery — Who was Frank Hamilton?|
|Who was Frank Hamilton? No one really knows. Simple grave markers pay a humble tribute to the five miners buried at the Sand Park Cemetery between 1898 and 1914. Little more is known than their names and year of death. Most of the other hard-rock-era miners who had family and means chose to be buried in "consecrated ground" in metropolitan areas like Missoula and Deer Lodge.
You're invited to walk across the road and spend a quiet moment at their graves. We can only surmise that . . . — Map (db m71503) HM|
|Montana (Park County), Cooke City — The New World Mining District|
|Prospectors discovered rich mineral deposits in the Beartooth Mountains near here in 1874. Christened the New World Mining District, the area included claims with colorful names like Miner’s Delight, Hidden Treasure, Southern Spy and Silver King. The miners established a small camp called “Shoo Fly” in recognition of the district’s most productive mine. By 1880, however, they changed the name to Cooke City in honor of Jay Cooke, Jr., a major investor in the mines. The Shoo Fly Mine . . . — Map (db m45240) HM|
|Montana (Park County), Corwin Springs — Along the Yellowstone River — Gallatin National Forest|
| A Blue Ribbon Flowing Through Paradise
The Yellowstone is the longest free-flowing river in the lower 48 states. For the 103 miles downstream from Gardiner, the river is designated as a "Blue Ribbon" trout stream, the longest single stretch of Blue Ribbon water in Montana. Anglers visit this nationally reknowned (sp) cold water trout fishery with hopes of reeling in brown, rainbow, or native Yellowstone cutthroat trout. Maybe that's one reason why this area is known as Paradise . . . — Map (db m40554) HM|
|Montana (Park County), Emigrant — Emigrant Gulch|
|In August 1864,three emigrants, who came to Montana on the Bozeman Trail, arrived here and found men already hard at work mining the creek. The new arrivals decided to try their luck farther up the rugged gulch, finding pay dirt high up the side of Emigrant Peak. The strike caused a stampede that drew several hundred miners and a few women to this remote area deep in Crow Indian country. The miners worked the gravel with moderate success for several weeks before cold weather drove them down to . . . — Map (db m46256) HM|
|Montana (Park County), Gardiner — A Wildlife Paradise|
|Northern Yellowstone sustains one of the largest and most diverse populations of free-roaming wildlife seen anywhere on earth.
It is often called "America's Serengeti." About half of the approximately 30,000 elk that summer in the park spend the winter here on the northern range. Elevations here are lower, and the area receives less moisture than elsewhere in the park. During winter, wind and sun keep the ridge tops and south-facing slopes relatively free of snow, allowing animals . . . — Map (db m40566) HM|
|Montana (Park County), Gardiner — Roosevelt Arch — Historic Gateway - Symbol of an Idea|
|When Yellowstone was established in 1872 as the world's first national park, it was remote and nearly inaccessible. Few "tourists" had the time or the means to travel here from the major cities of the east and west coasts. However, by 1903 the North Entrance to Yellowstone had become a bustling tourist destination. Most visitors arrived here by train, then boarded stagecoaches to begin the Grand Tour of Yellowstone's wonders.
Captain Hiram M. Chittenden, director of road construction, . . . — Map (db m40560) HM|
|Montana (Park County), Gardiner — Take a walk through history on the Yankee Jim Trail|
|Visit the interpretive trail across the river and take a pleasant walk on an improve trail or enjoy a picnic. A series of interpretive signs will take you on a journey through time to some fascinating eras of history.|
Past, present and future The Yankee Jim Canyon has played a significant role in Montana's transportation history. For at least 7,000 years, it has been a major travel route.
In 1998 Park County and the Gallatin National Forest joined together to make a interpretive trail . . . — Map (db m46260) HM
|Montana (Park County), Gardiner — Wildlife Migrations|
|In summer, pronghorn might be the only large mammals you see in this valley. In winter the wildlife picture changes dramatically. Herds of elk and bison, mule deer, and bighorn sheep descend from the snowy high country to look for food. Gardner River Valley lies at the lowest elevation in the park. Here, even in midwinter, grasses are often sill visible above the snow.
Background photo caption - Wildlife sightings are not random but are related to season and habitat.
Inset photo . . . — Map (db m40579) HM|
|Montana (Park County), Gardiner — Wildlife of the Northern Range|
| Elk - Sometimes called "wapiti" (the Shawnee word for "one with a white rump"), elk are often seen in large herds in open areas where they graze on grasses and forbs. Bull elk have antlers that they shed every year. Each spring as the elk age, the new antlers grow larger, and the branching increases. Calves, born in June, are spotted for the first few months of their life, which helps camouflage the from predators.
Bison - Bison, also called "buffalo," can weigh up to one ton, . . . — Map (db m40576) HM|
|Montana (Park County), Gardiner — Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout — The Cutthroat's Worth Saving|
|Montana's state fish has a sinister name and a fragile future. Set apart from other trout by red slash marks on either side of the lower jaw, the Yellowstone cutthroat trout is far from murderous. Native only to the Yellowstone River drainage, this fish feeds on aquatic insects. It lays eggs in clean-graveled, riffle areas and rests in cool, clear pools like those found here in front of you.|
Unlike some kinds of fish, Yellowstone cutthroat are extremely picky about where they live. They can't . . . — Map (db m46257) HM
|Montana (Park County), Gardiner — Yellowstone's Northern Range|
|What is different about the northern range soils?
While most of Yellowstone is a high volcanic plateau composed of rhyolite, the northern portion of the park is more complex geologically. Here you find landslides, erodible shales and sandstones, and glacial till deposits of mixed rock types. This particular area of the northern range is composed of soils that have a high clay content. These soils bind water tightly to the clay particles, which results in little water being available for . . . — Map (db m40572) HM|
|Montana (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — Road Builders|
|In 1878 civilian Superintendent Philetus Norris began cutting crude wagon paths to Yellowstone's major features. However, better roads were needed, and from 1883 to 1918 the U.S. Army's Corps of Engineers built and maintained Yellowstone's roads and bridges. When they left the park in 1918, the Corps had constructed over 400 miles of road and created the first road system of any size constructed according to uniform specifications. For its time, it was a unique and inspiring model.
The . . . — Map (db m40600) HM|
|Montana (Powell County), Avon — The Valley of a Thousand Haystacks|
|The Little Blackfoot Valley is filled with lush hay fields. You already may have noticed the rounded haystacks and commented on the strange lodgepole structures standing in many of the fields. This contraption that looks like a cross between a catapult and a cage is a hay-stacker that actually acts like a little of both. It was invented before 1910 by Dade Stephens and H. Armitage in the Big Hole Valley about sixty miles south of here. The device, called a beaver slide, revolutionized haying in . . . — Map (db m71949) HM|
|Montana (Powell County), Deer Lodge — Winter of 1886 — Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior|
|This area’s climate includes dramatic fluctuations. As you imagine yourself ranching here, consider the effects of one winter during the heydays of the open ranch.|
The snowy winter of 1886-87 devastated the cattle ranches of Montana. Cattle already lean from a dry summer faced a November and December of continuous snow. A midwinter thaw caused by a warm wind, or “Chinook,” allowed the grass to surface for a few weeks. Then a deadly freeze locked the range in ice, leaving little . . . — Map (db m62050) HM
|Montana (Powell County), Elliston — The Mullan Road|
|From this point west to the Idaho line, Us Highway 12 and I-90 follows the route of a military road located and constructed in Montana between 1859 - 62 by Captain John Mullan. The road was 624 miles long and connected Fort Benton, Montana, with Fort Walla Walla, Washington. Originally an Indian trail, Mullan mapped the road over the pass in the 1850s. In 1860, it was incorporated into the military road that would bear his name.
The Captain aside from his engineering ability, was a man of . . . — Map (db m71950) HM|
|Montana (Powell County), Garrison — First Discovery of Gold in Montana|
|Opposite this point a creek flows into the Clark Fork River from the west. In 1852, a French mixed-blood named Francois “Benetsee,” Finlay, prospected the creek for placer gold. Although he raised some color, Finlay was ill-equipped to take advantage of his discovery and the mine languished. Several years later, in 1858, brothers James and Granville Stuart, Reece Anderson and Thomas Adams, having heard of Finlay’s discovery, prospected the creek. They found enough gold to convince . . . — Map (db m71948) HM|
|Montana (Powell County), Ovando — The Bob Marshall Wilderness Country|
|North of here lies the second largest wilderness in the lower 48 states. Made up of the Bob Marshall, Scapegoat and Great Bear wilderness areas, its north end abuts Glacier National Park, creating a continuous corridor of unspoiled mountains and valleys that harbor grizzly bears, mountain goats, wolverines, elk, moose, deer and wolves.
Montana first protected part of this country in 1913 when the Sun River Game Preserve was created on the east side of the continental divide. Years of market . . . — Map (db m23926) HM|
|Montana (Rosebud County), Colstrip — Custer Camped Here — General George Armstrong Custer Encampment|
|Custer Camped Here
June 23, 1876 — Map (db m39297) HM|
|Montana (Sanders County), Paradise — Coursing Through Miles Of Montana — Clark Fork Corridor: The River|
|More than 240 miles (456 km) east of here, Silver Bow Creek tumbles west from the Continental Divide above Butte, Montana. Thus begins the Clark Fork River, which drains more than 22,000 square miles of western Montana before it flows into Idaho. Shortly before leaving Montana, its average discharge is greater than any other of Montana's rivers. Eventually these waters join the mighty Columbia River that drains much of the Pacific Northwest.
The Clark Fork is harnessed to generate . . . — Map (db m45194) HM|
|Montana (Sanders County), Paradise — Native People Sustained Through Many Millennia — Clark Fork Corridor: The People|
|Native people hunted this area 9,000 years ago for bighorn sheep, elk and long-horned bison. Making “seasonal rounds” to specific locations, they maintained a comfortable lifeway by hunting, fishing and harvesting native plants.
Euro-Americans arrived around 1810. In 1855, Governor Isaac Stevens and leaders of the Salish and Kootenai tribes signed the Hellgate Treaty. Native peoples ceded much of western Montana while retaining the Flathead Reservation east of here. The tribes . . . — Map (db m45191) HM|
|Montana (Sanders County), Paradise — Phantom Formation Is Rock Solid In Corridor — Clark Fork Corridor: The Land|
|Imagine a rock so old and so deep, that in some places, the bottom has never been found! The mountains you have been driving through are made up of such a rock—the Prichard Formation. Dating back 1.5 billion years, it is one of the oldest exposed sedimentary rocks in western Montana. The Prichard is over 4 miles thick at the confluence of the Clark Fork and Flathead rivers and its base has yet to be discovered.
Across the river, the uplifting and shifting of the mountains has tilted . . . — Map (db m45192) HM|
|Montana (Sanders County), Paradise — Searching For Fur And A Finer Life — Clark Fork Corridor: The People|
|David Thompson was the first Euro-American to record his travels along this stretch of the river. Early in 1809 he came through searching for an ideal site to establish a fur trading post. Later that fall he built the “Saleesh House” northwest of here near present day Thompson Falls.
For the next fifty years, miners, trappers, and traders passed through this canyon and settlers began homesteading the Wild Horse Plains Valley, twelve miles down river. In the late 1880’s a . . . — Map (db m45195) HM|
|Montana (Sanders County), Paradise — The Earth's Blood Flows Past You — Clark Fork Corridor: The River|
|For thousands of years the Sqelixw—people of the Salish, Pend Oreille and Kalispel tribes—inhabited the valleys of the Clark Fork and other rivers of western Montana. They used their extensive knowledge of the natural world to create and maintain a comfortable lifeway. By preserving and enhancing the Earth Mother and her plants, animals and waterways, they were, in turn, sustained by them.
Today, the Sqelixw follow their belief that all waterways are arteries of the Earth . . . — Map (db m45190) HM|
|Montana (Sanders County), Paradise — Wildlife Thrive In Corridor Year Round — Clark Fork Corridor: The Land|
|Bighorn sheep, elk, mule deer, and white-tailed deer-you may see any of these large mammals grazing in this area, depending on the season. Most spend their summer higher above the river and move to lower, snow-free pastures in winter.
Look for osprey and songbirds in the summer. Year round you can see bald eagles and waterfowl such as the common goldeneye. Dippers and kingfishers hunt these waters in every season, too.
Please remember, to avoid disturbing wildlife when viewing them, . . . — Map (db m45197) HM|
|Montana (Stillwater County), Columbus — Bozeman Trail|
|The Bozeman Trail was located ten miles south of here. John Bozeman pioneered the trail in this area in July 1864. After crossing the Bighorn River eight miles below the opening of the Bighorn Canyon, he led his wagon train northwest to the Yellowstone River opposite present day Billings. He then attempted to proceed up the south side of the Yellowstone, but the steep bluffs lining the bank forced him to turn south away from the river. Leaving the Yellowstone, he went up the west side of Clarks . . . — Map (db m4326) HM|
|Montana (Stillwater County), Park City — The Great Inland Seaway|
|For over sixty million years during the Cretaceous Period, much of eastern Montana was underwater, covered by an vast inland sea. As the Rocky Mountains formed to the west, it created a broad, flat coastal plain that was home to many different species of dinosaurs. Indeed, the long life of the sea saw the rise and extinction of many dinosaur species until it finally receded from Montana about 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous Period. The sediments deposited underwater or along . . . — Map (db m29123) HM|
|Montana (Sweet Grass County), Greycliff — Captain Wm. Clark|
|You are now following the historic trail of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. On his return from the Pacific in July 1806, Captain Clark camped for six days about forty miles downstream, near Park City. The Expedition had been looking for timber suitable for building canoes ever since striking the river near Livingston. They found a couple of large cottonwoods here that would serve. They fitted their axes with handles made from chokecherry and went to work making two canoes. When finished they . . . — Map (db m28948) HM|
|Montana (Sweet Grass County), Greycliff — The Crazy Mountains|
|Called Awaxaawippiia by the Apsaalooka (Crow) Indians, the Crazy Mountains, which you can see to the northwest, are an igneous formation forged about 50 million years ago. For the Apsaalooka, they are the most sacred and revered mountains on the northern Great Plains. Awaxaawippiia was a place of refuge and protection. The Apsaalooka's enemies would not follow them into the mountains. Because of their great spiritual power, Awaxaawippiia continues to be an important vision quest site for the . . . — Map (db m28947) HM|
|Montana (Sweet Grass County), Greycliff — The Thomas Party|
|In 1866 William Thomas, his son Charles, and a driver named Schultz left southern Illinois bound for the Gallatin Valley, Montana. Travelling by covered wagon they joined a prairie schooner outfit at Fort Laramie, Wyoming, and started over the Bridger Trail. The train was escorted by troops detailed to build a fort (C.F. Smith) on the Big Horn River.
From the site of this fort the Thomas party pushed on alone. A few days later they were killed at this spot by hostile Indians. Emigrants found . . . — Map (db m28975) HM|
|Montana (Yellowstone County), Billings — Along the Zimmerman Trail|
|Zimmerman Trail - The History by Artist John Potter.
The original Zimmerman Trail was built during the summers of 1890 and 1891 by the brothers Joseph and Frank Zimmerman, born in Fellering, (Alsace-Lorraine) Germany. Joseph immigrated to the United States in 1872; two years later, upon enlisting in the U.S. Cavalary, his duty brought him to Montana. In 1874, Frank followed his brother to Montana where he worked for the railroad until 1883. Frank briefly returned to Alsace-Lorraine, then . . . — Map (db m29086) HM|
|Montana (Yellowstone County), Billings — Boothill Cemetery|
|Named Boothill because so many of its occupants went to their deaths with their boots on, this cemetery was the burying ground for Coulson, Yellowstone River town existing from 1877-1885 on the edge of what was to be Billings. Most famous buried here was H.M. (Muggins) Taylor, scout who took news of Custer massacre June 25, 1876, from the battle area to Bozeman. Taylor, later a Deputy Sheriff, was gunned down in 1882 in Coulson's laundry as he attempted to stop the laundress' drunken husband from beating her. — Map (db m28939) HM|
|Montana (Yellowstone County), Billings — The Place Where the White Horse Went Down|
|In 1837-38 a smallpox epidemic spread from the American Fur Trading Company steamboat St. Peter which had docked at Fort Union. The terrible disease for which the Indians had no immunity eventually affected all Montana tribes. A story is told among the Crow of two young warriors returning from a war expedition who found their village stricken. One discovered his sweetheart among the dying, and both warriors, grieving over loss of friends and family, were despondent and frustrated because . . . — Map (db m28814) HM|
|Montana (Yellowstone County), Worden — A Crossroads of Events|
|The Yellowstone Valley at Pompeys Pillar was a crossroads for travelers and wildlife and a cavalry campsite and staging area.
The artist’s rendering on this sign depicts the area directly across the river as it may have looked in 1873 when Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer and men of the Yellowstone Expedition, commanded by Col. David Stanley, camped there.
The troops protected engineers and surveyors working on the Northern Pacific Line from Indian attacks. The completed railroad . . . — Map (db m82763) HM|
|Montana (Yellowstone County), Worden — Camp #44 of the 1873 Yellowstone Expedition|
|In June, 1873, a Northern Pacific Railroad surveying party escorted by 1,500 soldiers, including the 7th Cavalry under the command of George Armstrong Custer, and 325 civilians, left Dakota Territory for the Yellowstone Valley to survey a route for the second transcontinental railroad.
The Lakota Sioux and Cheyenne were opposed to the railroad and clashed with the soldiers on several occasions throughout July. On August 11th, the expedition camped for a well earned rest just north of here. . . . — Map (db m62147) HM|
|Montana (Yellowstone County), Worden — Pompey's Pillar|
|Called Iishiia Anaache or "Place Where the Mountain Lion Dwells" by the Apsaalooka (Crow) people, Pompey's Pillar was a well-known landmark to the Plains Indians. It was here, at a strategic natural crossing of the Yellowstone, or Elk River as it was known to the Apsaalooka, that the Indian people met to trade and exchange information. They painted pictographs and etched petroglyphs onto the sheer cliffs of the feature. Apsaalooka legend reports that Pompey's Pillar was once attached to the . . . — Map (db m62146) HM|