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“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
 
 

Montana Historical Markers

Bannack State Park image, Click for more information
By Barry Swackhamer, August 7, 2009
Bannack State Park
Montana (Beaverhead County), Dillon — Bannack
Lewis and Clark Trail 1806 First important gold camp 1862 Scene of vigilante activities 1863 First capital Territory of Montana 1864-1865 First county seat of Beaverhead County 1864-1881 In grateful memory of the early pioneers who . . . — Map (db m49535) HM
Montana (Beaverhead County), Dillon — Nez Perce Camp
The Nez Perce camped near here on Horse Prairie Creek, Aug. 12 1877 following the Battle of the Big Hole Aug. 9-10. General Howard was summoned when beating drums arroused [sic] the citizens of Bannack. Women and children were quartered in the Meade . . . — Map (db m49537) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — 1984 Archeological SurveyLittle Bighorn Battlefield
On August 10, 1983 a prairie fire swept over the battlefield, burning nearly 600 acres of dense, thick vegetation. In May and June of 1984 the National Park Service began an unprecedented systematic archeological survey of the Custer Battlefield. . . . — Map (db m86810) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Bear Paw Memorial
In memory of enlisted men 2nd and 7th U. S. Cavalry and 5th U. S, Infantry killed in action near Bear Paw, Montana September 30, 1877 < Left Side of Monument : > 7th U. S. Cavalry Troop A 1st Serg’t Geo. McDermott Serg’t Otto Derglew . . . — Map (db m86873) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Bear Paw Monument1881
This monument was originally erected at Ft. Keogh in 1881 to honor U.S. Army casualties from the 1877 Nez Perce War. PLEASE NOTE: “Hostile Indians” is in historical context with a term used for Native American enemies of the United . . . — Map (db m86865) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Calhoun Hill(Little Bighorn Battlefield)
This position was held by Co. L commanded by Lt. James Calhoun. It may have been used to hold off Chief Gall and his Sioux warriors and thus protect Custer's advance. From here these soldiers could have attracted Capt. Benteen's column and the pack . . . — Map (db m21643) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Calhoun HillLittle Bighorn Battlefield
After separate skirmishing, Custer’s command reunites here. Company L, under Lt. James Calhoun, skirmishes with Gall, Crow King, Two Moons, and other warriors. From here these soldiers could have attracted Capt. Benteen’s column and the pack . . . — Map (db m86838) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Cheyenne Warrior MarkersLittle Bighorn Battlefield
After the battle, Sioux and Cheyenne removed their dead and buried them in tipis, scaffolds, and adjacent hillsides in the Little Bighorn valley. Southern Cheyenne Chief “Ve’ho’enohnenehe” (Lame White Man) and Northern Cheyenne . . . — Map (db m86860) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Chief Plenty CoupsLast Chief of the Crows — 1848 - 1932
      Plagued with the loss of the great buffalo herds, the confinement to reservations, disease, famine, and poverty, Chief Plenty Coups led the Crow people through a painful transition.       Gifted with vision, the power of impressive speech, . . . — Map (db m85999) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Companies C & E(Little Bighorn Battlefield)
The white markers on the knolls and in the ravines to the west and southwest show were the troopers of Co, C under Capt. Tom Custer and Co. E under Lt. Smith were found. The Indian encampment lay beyond on the flat across the river. — Map (db m21645) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Companies F and I(Little Bighorn Battlefield)
Companies F and I were found on the northeast slope of this ridge. Capt. Keogh was to the right with Co. I. — Map (db m21644) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Crow's NestJune 25, 1876 — Morning
From this promontory 13 miles away in the Wolf Mountains, Custer's scouts observe the Lakota, and Cheyenne pony herd and evidence of a large village in the valley behind you. Convinced the Indians had spotted his regiment and would soon scatter, . . . — Map (db m45580) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Custer Last Seen(Little Bighorn Battlefield)
Gen. Custer and Lt. Cooke were last seen on this point by Maj. Reno's troops who were fighting in the valley. — Map (db m21638) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Custer’s AdvanceLittle Bighorn Battlefield
From the Crow’s Nest, a vantage point 14 miles away in the Wolf Mountains, Custer’s Crow and Arikara scouts saw evidence of the massive Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho encampment. Convinced that he was discovered, Custer abandoned plans for a . . . — Map (db m86817) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Deep CouleeLittle Bighorn Battlefield
After the brief encounter near the river, Custer’s two companies retreat up the ravine to your right known as Deep Coulee. The remainder of Custer’s command skirmishes with warriors on the high ridge ½ mile to your right. Seizing the . . . — Map (db m86831) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Deep RavineLittle Bighorn Battlefield
Deep Ravine (Crazy Horse Gully & Grey Horse Ravine) was the scene of fierce fighting during the battle. Crazy Horse, and other Sioux and Cheyenne warriors crossed the Little Bighorn River (in front of you) and rode up the ravine during the attack . . . — Map (db m86800) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Deep RavineLittle Bighorn Battlefield
Custer’s command deploys in the current national cemetery area and advances into the basin across the road to your left before withdrawing to Last Stand Hill. Toward the conclusion of the battle, soldiers from Company E moved toward the Deep . . . — Map (db m86839) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Greasy Grass RidgeLittle Bighorn Battlefield
Warriors ascend the large ravine behind you pursuing Custer’s troops. Soldiers retreat through the area to your front and right. Indians position themselves along the ridge to your left knows as Greasy Grass Ridge. Archeologists discovered numerous . . . — Map (db m86834) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Here We Remember the FallenCuster National Cemetery at Little Bighorn Battlefield NM
Custer National Cemetery, like Arlington National Cemetery, provides a final resting place for many generations of those who faithfully served in the United States armed forces. Here, Americans of many races and beliefs rest side by side. Relive . . . — Map (db m86846) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Indian EncampmentLittle Bighorn Battlefield
On June 25, 1876, approximately 7,000 Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho, including 1,500 – 2,000 warriors, encamped below on the Greasy Grass River (Little Bighorn). Under the political and spiritual leadership of Tatanka-Iyotanka (Sitting Bull), . . . — Map (db m86814) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Indian MemorialLittle Bighorn Battlefield
An Indian memorial to honor Native American participation in the Battle of the Little Bighorn, June 25-26, 1876, and change the name of Custer Battlefield National Monument to Little Bighorn National Monument, was authorized by Congress in 1991 and . . . — Map (db m86804) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Keogh – Crazy Horse FightLittle Bighorn Battlefield
The Indian charge shatters the Calhoun defense and crashes through the soldier position at right, held by Capt. Myles Keogh’s Company I, Crazy Horse and White Bull cut down the retreating soldiers who flee northwest along this ridge in an effort to . . . — Map (db m86811) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Lame White Man ChargeLittle Bighorn Battlefield
This knoll was contested by Indians and soldiers. Some evidence indicates soldiers of Company C occupied this position since bodies of Sergeants Finckle and Finley were found here. Indian testimony suggests that Southern Cheyenne war leader Lame . . . — Map (db m86836) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Last Stand Hill, June 25, 1876Little Bighorn Battlefield
Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho warriors surrounded this position near the climax of the battle. Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer and approximately 41 men, shoot their horses for breastworks and fight to the death. Custer and several soldiers were . . . — Map (db m86801) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Little Bighorn Battlefield
This area was occupied by troops A, B, D, G, H, K, and M, 7th. U.S. Cavalry, and the pack train when they were besieged by the Sioux Indians June 25th and 26th 1876. — Map (db m21636) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument
(Bottom of Marker): In memory of Officers and soldiers who fell near this place fighting with the 7th United States Cavalry against the Sioux Indians on the 25th and 26th of June, A.D. 1876 (The rest of the marker includes . . . — Map (db m7022) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Little Bighorn Indian Memorial
Arikara “I shall not see you (sun) go down behind the mountains tonight . . .I am going home today, not the way we came, but in spirit, home to my people.”- Bloody Knife, Arikara (June 25, 1876) “These Old Scouts, . . . — Map (db m87723) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Lone TipiJune 25, 1876 — Approximately 2:00 p.m.
Advancing down Reno Creek, Custer pauses at a tipi located behind this ridge. The tipi contains the remains of a Sans Arc warrior killed a week before at the Battle of the Rosebud. Indians flee toward the village, prompting Custer to order Reno's . . . — Map (db m45581) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Medicine Tail CouleeLittle Bighorn Battlefield
After leaving Cedar Coulee, Custer descends toward the Little Bighorn River in the ravine ahead known as Medicine Tail Coulee. Custer probably again divides his command: three companies likely ascend to the higher ridges beyond. Two companies . . . — Map (db m86824) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Medicine Tail Coulee Ford(Little Bighorn Battlefield)
Chief Gall and his Sioux warriors forded the river here to attack Custer's troops on the high ground to the northeast. — Map (db m21642) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Medicine Tail FordLittle Bighorn Battlefield
As soldiers descend Medicine Tail Coulee, the Minniconjou and Cheyenne camps were on the western bank. Archeological evidence supports Indian testimony, that initial fighting took place on the flats near the river to your left and cutbank directly . . . — Map (db m86827) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Memorial MarkersLittle Bighorn Battlefield
Following the battle, the Lakota and Cheyenne removed their dead and buried them in lodges, scaffolds, and the hillsides. Surviving members of the 7th Cavalry hastily buried the soldiers, Indian Scouts, and civilians on June 28, 1876. In 1877, . . . — Map (db m86844) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — National Cemetery
This National Cemetery, established in 1886, is for interment of those who served honorably in the Armed Forces of the United States. their immediate families also have burial privileges.

Many from indian battles of the northwest are buried here. . . . — Map (db m45551) HM

Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Peace Through UnityLittle Bighorn Battlefield
Indian descendants of participants in the Battle of the Little Bighorn helped form the vision of the Indian Memorial. The “Peace Through Unity” theme was conceived by the late Enos Poor Bear, Sr. and Austin Two Moons. Together, they . . . — Map (db m86806) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Reno’s RetreatLittle Bighorn Battlefield
Under mounting pressure, Reno abandons the timber. His retreat disintegrates into a rout as pursuing warriors ride in amongst the troopers killing more than 30 soldiers. Indian casualties are few. Lakota and Cheyennes drive the cavalry across the . . . — Map (db m86821) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Reno’s Valley FightLittle Bighorn Battlefield
After fording the Little Bighorn River one mile to your left, Reno’s battalion gallops down the valley below. Convinced he is vastly outnumbered, Reno dismounts, and forms a skirmish line across the valley floor, firing into the lodges. Warriors . . . — Map (db m86819) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Reno's Skirmish Line - Warrior CounterattackJune 25, 1876 — Approximately 3:00 p.m.
Reno's battalion of 175 soldiers, civilian personnel, and Arikara and Crow Scouts halt in the valley and form a thin skirmish line. Warriors race out from the village to oppose him. After 10 minutes of fighting Lakota and Cheyenne warriors outflank . . . — Map (db m45583) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Retreat CrossingJune 25, 1876 — Approximately 4:00 p.m.
During Reno's retreat from the timber, Crazy Horse, Wooden Leg, Black Elk, and perhaps as many as 600 warriors chase the soldiers across the Little Bighorn River. Reno's casualties are 40 men killed and 13 wounded. The remnants of Reno's command . . . — Map (db m45584) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Seventh Cavalry Horse Cemetery
After the battle, 39 cavalry horses that had been shot for breastworks during Custer’s Last Stand, were found among the dead on Last Stand Hill. In 1879, a temporary cordwood monument was erected by the Army on the crest of the hill. The area, . . . — Map (db m45604) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Sharpshooter Ridge
June 25-26, 1876 - From the ridge to your right, Custer first views the village. Needing more information about the extent of the encampment, he moves further north. After witnessing the beginning of Reno's charge, Custer's five companies descend . . . — Map (db m45587) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — The Reno-Benteen DefenseJune 25-26, 1876
After an unsuccessful attack on the Indian camp in the valley, Major Reno and his battalion retreated to this vicinity where they were soon reinforced by Captain Benteen's battalion and the pack train. In an attempt to find and rejoin Custer they . . . — Map (db m45554) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Timber FightJune 25, 1876 — Approximately 3:15 - 3:55 p.m.
Reno occupies a defensive position in the timber. Determined to defend their village, warriors soon penetrate the woods, convincing Reno that the position is untenable. After fighting for 30 minutes, Reno retreats across the Little Bighorn River. — Map (db m45585) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Weir PointLittle Bighorn Battlefield
In an attempt to locate Custer, Company D under Captain Thomas Weir advances to this hilltop position without orders late on June 25. Weir may have witnessed the conclusion of the battle three miles ahead. He is later joined by Captain Benteen and . . . — Map (db m86823) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Weir Point Fight(Little Bighorn Battlefield)
This is the farthest point reached by Capt. Weir in his attempt to assist Custer. Minutes after arriving, his company was joined by Capt. Benteen's company and others. They remained about 45 minutes until mounting warrior pressure forced them back . . . — Map (db m21640) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Crow Agency — Wooden Leg HillJune 25, 1876
The hill in front of you was occupied by Lakota, and Cheyenne during the fight on Last Stand Hill. An unknown Sioux warrior wearing a warbonnet was killed here while firing his rifle at soldiers positioned behind a horse barricade on the crest of . . . — Map (db m45593) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Garryowen — Garryowen
         Garryowen, the old Irish tune, was the regimental marching song of the 7th U.S. Cavalry, General Custer's command.          The Battle of the Little Big Horn commenced in the valley just east of here June 25, 1876, after Custer had . . . — Map (db m67897) HM
Montana (Big Horn County), Garryowen — Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
On this site in 1876 the historic Battle of the Little Big Horn began. “When we stand side by side in the circle of no beginning and no ending, the first maker, creator of all things, is in the center. He hears the words of supplication and . . . — Map (db m86022) HM
Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — 105 North Broadway
Local physician Dr. Samuel Souders owned this commercial lot in 1909 when Dan Davis, an advocate for the construction of a fancy opera house, proposed it for the construction of his vision. The newspapers reported weekly for several months on Davis’ . . . — Map (db m45384) HM
Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Alcazar (Star) Theater
A combination moving picture theater and boarding house were the original tenants of this two-story masonry building, completed in 1908. Several directors managed the rather short-lived Alcazar, including Steve Roman, whose family long monopolized . . . — Map (db m45387) HM
Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — B.P.O.E. Lodge #534
Americans organized much of their social life around fraternal groups at the turn of the twentieth century. The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks provided an important social and charitable outlet for Red Lodge's professionals, who circulated . . . — Map (db m45395) HM
Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Carbon County Courthouse
Butte architect P. J. Donahue drew the plans for the 1899 landmark after fire destroyed its predecessor. Situated at the busy northern end of the commercial district, the building today provides an excellent example of restrained, classically . . . — Map (db m45402) HM
Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Carbon County Hospital And Sanitarium
When prominent local physician and surgeon Dr. Samuel Souders built this magnificent hospital in 1909, it was considered “state-of-the-art.” Amenities included a central heating system, wide doorways and hallways, an elevator, and . . . — Map (db m45404) HM
Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Charles Antilla Building
This two-story building was under construction in 1907, and for a short time housed part-owner Charles Antilla’s dry goods store. In 1912, new owners Ed Ricketts and C. V. Lucas located their Okay Meat Market, later the Red Lodge Meat Market, on the . . . — Map (db m45388) HM
Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Foiled Bank Robbery Site
On Sept. 18, 1897, The Sundance Kid (Harry Longbaugh), Kid Curry and others of the "Wild Bunch" rode into Red Lodge after escaping from jail in Belle Fourche, S.D., and announced their intention of making an unauthorized withdrawal from the Carbon . . . — Map (db m80188) HM
Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Hawkes & Son Photography Studio
Photographer Mark E. Hawkes and his son Charley built a photography studio at this location where much of Red Lodge’s history was documented in pictures. Charley later struck out for Great Falls, and son Harry joined Mark. Hawkes & Son sold the . . . — Map (db m45405) HM
Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — High Country Thoroughfare
Lieutenant General Philip Sheridan and 124 men forged the first documented passage over the Beartooth Mountains in 1881. Once thought impassible, the route was later modified by E. E. Van Dyke - a miner from coal rich Red Lodge, Montana. His route . . . — Map (db m45244) HM
Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Iarussi Building
In the 1920s Italian shoemaker Ludovico Iarussi (later changed to Jarussi) owned this property containing his shop and several frame commercial buildings. In 1929 Iarussi razed the older shops and constructed the present building. Financially . . . — Map (db m45409) HM
Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Labor Temple
Red Lodge Miner’s Local No. 1771 had grown to more than a thousand members when this labor temple was built in 1909. The United Mine Workers of America organized nationally in 1896 and by 1898, Local No. 1771 had 200 members. The building is a . . . — Map (db m45412) HM
Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Neithammer Brothers Meat Market
German-born Victor and Otto Neithammer first established their meat market on North Broadway in 1912, raising their own livestock to supply this and other local family-run stores. Because the Neithammers' employees represented many ethnic groups, . . . — Map (db m45415) HM
Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Picket Block
Designed by Red Lodge carpenter and amateur architect Frank A. Sell and built by W. T. Pernham in 1902, this impressive brick commercial building was home to the Red Lodge Picket and, after 1918, the Picket-Journal, the primary news . . . — Map (db m45416) HM
Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Plunkett's Hardware
High transom windows that provide interior light for a mezzanine commercial display area are an interesting design feature of this well-constructed commercial building. The simple chain-patterned ornamentation of buff brick across the tall parapet . . . — Map (db m45419) HM
Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Pollard Hotel
The Rocky Fork Coal Company constructed this hotel, originally the Spofford, which welcomed its first guests on July 4, 1893. This architectural landmark, built before the commercial district was platted, originally had its main entrance on 11th . . . — Map (db m45390) HM
Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Red Lodge
Coal was discovered in the Rock Creek Valley nearly two decades before Red Lodge was established as a mail stop on the Meeteese Trail in 1884. In 1887, the Rocky Fork Coal Company opened the first large-scale mine at Red Lodge sparking the . . . — Map (db m45250) HM
Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — Red Lodge Commercial District
Rapid growth of the young town of Red Lodge coincided with the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railroad’s branch line in 1889. The area became Montana’s leading coal mining region. Town lots were platted by the secretary of the Rocky Fork Town and . . . — Map (db m45386) HM
Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — The Beartooth Plateau
The Beartooth Plateau contains some of the oldest exposed rocks on Earth and provides a unique window into the history of our planet. About 55 million years ago, this massive block of metamorphic basement rock pushed its way upward nearly two miles . . . — Map (db m45251) HM
Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — The Iris Theater
Originally intended as a meeting hall with storefront space, tenants Byton Down and Robert Pryde redesigned the building’s ground floor before its completion for use as a theater. When the Iris opened in 1925, residents viewed it as welcome . . . — Map (db m45410) HM
Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — The Red Lodge Country
According to tradition, a band of Crow Indians left the main tribe and moved west into the foothills of the Beartooth Range many years ago. They painted their council tepee with red-clay and this old-time artistry resulted in the name Red Lodge. . . . — Map (db m45247) HM
Montana (Carbon County), Red Lodge — W. A. Talmage Company Hardware
A keen sense of the town’s future prompted businessman William Talmage to move his hardware business away from the busy commercial center a few blocks south to this building in 1894. When other businesses began to move to the newly platted main . . . — Map (db m45420) HM
Montana (Cascade County), Great Falls — A "great" Set of Falls
Hidasta informants described a fall of water on the Missouri River near the mountains, so the Captains expected a short portage. Instead of one waterfall, Lewis happened upon a succession of five, and their hope for a short portage faded. Look . . . — Map (db m80319) HM
Montana (Cascade County), Great Falls — Black Eagle Falls
The uppermost of the Great Falls of the Missouri bears west of this point. The name is a modern one derived from an entry for June 14th, 1805 in the journal of Capt. Meriwether Lewis of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. He discovered the falls on that . . . — Map (db m80427) HM
Montana (Cascade County), Great Falls — Formation of the Gorge and Falls
... the rocks seems to be most happily fixed to present a sheet of the whitest beaten froath for 200 yards in length and about 80 feet perpendicular. — Meriwether Lewis, June 13, 1805 The Great Falls of the Missouri . . . — Map (db m82766) HM
Montana (Cascade County), Great Falls — The Smallest River Runs Through It
From here you can witness one of the shortest rivers in the country flowing into the longest river. The Roe River ranks as one of the shortest rivers at only 201 feet in length. The Missouri River is the longest in the country stretching 2,540 . . . — Map (db m82765)
Montana (Cascade County), Great Falls — Where Does the Water Come From?
Geologists have determined that water seeps into the ground southeast of Great Falls in the Little Belt Mountains, where the Madison Limestone formation is exposed at the land surface. The water then travels through the formation toward Giant . . . — Map (db m82764)
Montana (Fergus County), Lewistown — Fort Maginnis
Fort Maginnis, the last army post created in Montana, was built about 8 miles north of here in 1880. This country was great buffalo range before that time, but cattlemen were bringing in stock from the western valleys and the Texas longhorns were . . . — Map (db m92697) HM
Montana (Flathead County), West Glacier — A Glacial Lake
A river of ice over 2,000 feet thick moved down this valley. Lake McDonald is evidence of its passing. When the glacier receded more than ten thousand years ago, it revealed a changed landscape. The ice had quarried away huge amounts of rock. A . . . — Map (db m82767)
Montana (Flathead County), West Glacier — Historic Boats
In 1895 there were no roads along Lake McDonald. Tourists arrived at this dock by wood-fired steamboat after getting off the train at Belton Depot and bumping along in a wagon to Apgar Landing. The steamboat F.I. Whitney was the first . . . — Map (db m45061) HM
Montana (Flathead County), West Glacier — Time MachinesThe Red Bus Rides Again
A Glacier Tradition National parks often seem timeless and are valued for the continuity of experience they offer to generations of visitors. At Glacier National Park, the past and future come together through a fleet of historic buses, . . . — Map (db m45060) HM
Montana (Flathead County), West Glacier — Wilderness ArchitectureHistory of the Lake McDonald Lodge
Like many buildings in the park, Lake McDonald Lodge has a rustic architectural style. The lodge was built during the winter of 1913-14 with locally available materials, creating a rustic exterior of native stone and western cedar that blends with . . . — Map (db m45062) HM
Montana (Flathead County), Whitefish — Whitefish DepotHistorical Walking Tour of Whitefish, Montana
Built by the Great Northern Railway in 1927, the Whitefish Depot is not only a local landmark but is recognized fondly by hundred of thousands of people who have passed through Whitefish by train over the years. The building’s chalet-style . . . — Map (db m49491) HM
Montana (Gallatin County), Bozeman — First People in the Gallatin ValleyTo the Headwaters
For centuries distant and diverse tribes visited the Gallatin Valley to hunt. They stampeded buffalo over cliffs during the "dog days" before the acquisition of horses and guns. They hunted animals for food, clothing and shelter. They also mined . . . — Map (db m29075) HM
Montana (Gallatin County), Bozeman — Fort EllisTo the Headwaters
Conflicts along the Bozeman Trail between Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho Indians and settlers escalated with the establishment of forts along the route in 1866. After Indians killed John Bozeman, in the Yellowstone Valley in 1867, the . . . — Map (db m29079) HM
Montana (Gallatin County), Bozeman — Fur TradeTo the Headwaters
An abundance of beaver encouraged Corps of Discovery members John Colter and John Potts to return to the headwaters. In 1808, Blackfeet Indians killed Potts in a confrontation and stripped Colter bare, giving him a chance to run for his life. In one . . . — Map (db m29077) HM
Montana (Gallatin County), Bozeman — Lewis and ClarkTo the Headwaters
Lewis and Clark's Corps of Discovery reached the headwaters of the Missouri River and named the three tributaries in July, 1805. With great difficulty the Corps of Discovery fought rapids and troublesome mosquitoes as they pulled their boats . . . — Map (db m29072) HM
Montana (Gallatin County), Bozeman — Pioneer Museum(Old County Jail) — Gallatin County Historical Society
The Pioneer Museum, located next to the Gallatin County Courthouse at 317 West Main, was the former County jail. Along with many museum exhibits showcasing the history of Gallatin County is an Historical Research Library. The photo archives, and one . . . — Map (db m29085) HM
Montana (Gallatin County), Bozeman — Trail Through TimeTo the Headwaters
First Peoples utilized the valley for over 11,000 years before the arrival of Lewis & Clark, and the others that would follow. Trails brought cattle and homesteaders to an agricultural paradise. The military followed, defending settlers, consuming . . . — Map (db m29084) HM
Montana (Gallatin County), Bozeman — Valley of OpportunityTo the Headwaters
Settlers came to the Gallatin Valley on the heels of the first Montana gold strike at Grasshopper Creek near Bannack, Montana, in 1862. As Meriwether Lewis had predicted, farmers found the valley well suited for agriculture. They planted crops and . . . — Map (db m29078) HM
Montana (Gallatin County), Three Forks — Gallatin City Hotel - 1868
Built by Jarvis Akin, the Hotel was originally a one-room building of hand-hewn logs. It was the center of Gallatin City's social life; travelers sometimes complained of not being able to sleep because of the ruckus. As the town died, the Hotel . . . — Map (db m73536) HM
Montana (Gallatin County), Three Forks — Lewis and Clark reach the HeadwatersJuly 25 & July 27, 1805
You are standing at the headwaters of the great Missouri River. The Jefferson and Madison Rivers converge with the Gallatin joining one mile downstream to become the Missouri River. Here, the famed explorers accomplished a major goal of their . . . — Map (db m73542) HM
Montana (Gallatin County), West Yellowstone — Hebgen Lake and Quake Lake
By 1898 a 10-foot wide road was built through the Gallatin Canyon to Taylors Fork and the park line. In 1911 a crude, narrow wagon road went to "Yellowstone" (West Yellowstone), 90 miles from the county seat at Bozeman. In 1926, the road was . . . — Map (db m58454) HM
Montana (Garfield County), Mosby — Bearpaw Shale and the Inland Ocean
The black shale rocks seen in this area represent the muddy sediments deposited by the last ocean to exist in Montana. The shale, known by geologists as the Bearpaw Shale contains fossils of sea-going creatures that lived and died some 70 million . . . — Map (db m9697) HM
Montana (Garfield County), Mosby — Fort Musselshell
Fort Musselshell was located on the Missouri River about 35 miles north of here. It was a trading post in the ’60s and ’70s and as such had a brief but colorful career. The only whites in that part of the state were woodchoppers for the Missouri . . . — Map (db m9698) HM
Montana (Garfield County), Mosby — Kerchival City
Competition to supply the mining camps was fierce in Montana in the 1860s. Many opportunists realized that the real money was not in mining for gold, but in “mining the miners” by providing essential goods and services. Fort Benton . . . — Map (db m9700) HM
Montana (Glacier County), Browning — Horns
Relentless glaciers sculpted Mt. Reynold's jagged summit. When several glaciers erode a mountaintop from different sides, a steep mountain peak or horn develops. The result is a glacial horn like the Swiss Matterhorn. There are glacial horns in . . . — Map (db m45059) HM
Montana (Glacier County), East Glacier Park — Time MachinesThe Red Bus Rides Again
A Glacier Tradition National parks often seem timeless and are valued for the continuity of experience they offer to generations of visitors. At Glacier National Park, the past and future come together through a fleet of historic buses, . . . — Map (db m45054) HM
Montana (Glacier County), East Glacier Park — Trains, Trails, and Chalets
Arriving at East Glacier depot, tourist in the 1920s could gaze at the glaciated peaks looming beyond their first night's lodging. The hotel appeared to be their last taste of civilization before riding horseback into the primitive backcountry of . . . — Map (db m45055) HM
Montana (Glacier County), Polebridge — Overnight in the WildernessHistoric Many Glacier Hotel
In the 1920s, large parties of tourist gathered on horseback at Many Glacier Hotel. The hotel was part of a network of chalets built a day's ride apart-a way for guest to cross the park's wild, roadless interior while spending nights in relative . . . — Map (db m45057) HM
Montana (Glacier County), Polebridge — When the Glaciers Melt
Only about 26 glaciers remain from the 150 that were here in 1850. That number is dropping steadily. If the weather is clear, you might be able to see what is left of five glaciers in the Many Glacier Valley. As climate changes, both the visible and . . . — Map (db m45058) HM
Montana (Granite County), Drummond — Madison Limestone and the Garnet Mountains
About 350 million years ago, much of Montana was submerged under a shallow sea. Billions of tiny marine creatures thrived in the water and when they died their bodies settled into the muck on the sea bed. After hundreds of millions of years of . . . — Map (db m71505) HM
Montana (Granite County), Drummond — Rattler Gulch Limestone Cliffs ACEC(Area of Critical Environmental Concern)
The limestone feature (outcrop), located across the road, known as the Madison Limestone Formation, was deposited about 350 million years ago in a shallow sea. It was uplifted about 65 million years ago during the Laramide Orogeny (when the Rocky . . . — Map (db m80318) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — 123 East Broadway
Local rancher Lee Degenhart financed the construction of this building in 1910. Fred Haverty, a contractor from Hal, Montana, who later ran a car dealership here in Philipsburg, was the builder. Design features include the original ornamental leaded . . . — Map (db m45224) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Bi-Metallic Aerial Tramway
The tramway was constructed in 1889 to carry ore from the Blaine Shaft in Granite to the Bi-Metallic Mill in Kirkville, near Philipsburg. The Bi-Metallic aerial tramway was 9750 feet long with a vertical drop of 1225 feet, and was the longest aerial . . . — Map (db m49547) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — C.T. Huffman Grocery
Built circa 1887, Lutey's Grocery and the Barrett and Jacky Harness Shop originally shared occupancy of this one-story commercial building. By the 1890s, Valentine Jacky shared this building with C. T. Huffman who supplied groceries to Philpsburg . . . — Map (db m45226) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Courtney Hotel
Brothers Morris and Humphery Courtney built this multi-purpose building in 1918 with the profits from manganese mining acquired during World War I. The building speaks to the coming of the automobile as the basement housed the Granite County Garage . . . — Map (db m49371) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Granite County Courthouse
The first permanent home for Granite County offices was completed in 1913. Prominent Montana architects John Link and Charles Haire designed the building. Its cut stonework is, appropriately, made of Montana granite. Granite County commissioners . . . — Map (db m45229) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Granite County Jail
The Granite County Jail was constructed in 1896, three years after Granite County was carved from two adjacent counties and Philipsburg made the county seat. The town served as a hub to extensive area mining and, later, ranching. The jail was the . . . — Map (db m45228) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Granite Ghost Town
Granite Mtn. Mine located July 6, 1875 and operated by the Granite Mtn. Company. A rich silver bonanza shoot was discovered in Nov. 1882. The mine closed in 1893 and reopened again in 1911 and 1912 and operated for a brief time. Deerlodge . . . — Map (db m49540) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Granite Mountain Mining Company Office
This two-story building, constructed in about 1885, was one of the first structures in Granite, and housed the brick vault that is seen here. The mining office handled the payroll for the men who worked at the Ruby Shaft and the two mills on the . . . — Map (db m49629) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — J.K. Merrill and Sons Dry Goods
The excellent design and spacious interior of this two-story commercial building represents Philipsburg’s prosperity and substantial population during the 1890s. Constructed for J.K. Merrill and Sons between 1892 and 1894, Freyschlag Huffman and . . . — Map (db m49370) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Jones' Run For Life
In July 1878, a band of Nez Perce Indians returning south from Canada after eluding U.S. Cavalry, crossed what is now Granite County. While passing through they attacked a small mining camp located on a tributary of Rock Creek at McKay Gulch. Three . . . — Map (db m45211) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Kaiser House
Michael Kaiser, founder of Philipsburg Water Company, built this grand hotel in 1881. One of Philipsburg's oldest masonry structures, the original hotel boasted a wrap-around porch extending halfway around the building. Second-story French doors, . . . — Map (db m45218) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Masonic Temple
Meetings in Philipsburg of Flint Creek Lodge No. 11 date back to 1867. This structure, built in 1911, provided a permanent home for the community-oriented fraternal organization. Chambers for lodge meetings occupy the entire top floor. The ground . . . — Map (db m45222) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — McDonald Opera House
Prominent businessman Angus A. McDonald constructed this two-story masonry theater in 1891. A metal-covered stage loft rises above the roof as evidence of the structures historic function. Beneath the south end were dressing rooms for the traveling . . . — Map (db m49373) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Mill A and B
The Granite Mountain Mining Company constructed two mills adjoining the mining operation know[n] as the Ruby Shaft. These structures, Mill A and Mill B, housed a total of 70 stamp mills which processed ore. Stamp mills were used to crush the ore so . . . — Map (db m49631) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Miner's Union Hall
Built in 1890 at a cost of $23,000, this three-story building was once the social center of a bustling mining town. The first floor was constructed of native granite. The cast iron front held 6 large windows and small colored glass panes. The upper . . . — Map (db m49628) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Morse Hall
Colonel J.W. Morse built Morse Hall in 1887. This elaborately detailed public lecture hall also served as county courthouse after 1893, an opera house, town hall, library and general community center. Its splendid second story dance floor was the . . . — Map (db m45213) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Philipsburg
Philipsburg's early-day fortunes ebbed and flowed with mining. Today, its historic district is one of Montana's best preserved late-19th-century mining towns, with commercial, public and private buildings dating from the boom period of silver . . . — Map (db m45209) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Philipsburg Historic District
Philipsburg's early-day fortunes ebbed and flowed with mining. Today, its historic district is one of Montana's best preserved late-19th-century mining towns, with commercial, public and private buildings dating from the boom period of silver . . . — Map (db m45210) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Pizer Building
One of a network of Jewish merchants who supplied miners in the Rocky Mountain West, nineteen-year-old Benjamin Pizer arrived in Helena from Poland with his wife Jessie Silverman and their newborn son David in 1869. With limited capital, he . . . — Map (db m45217) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Ruby Shaft
Most of the ore that brought tremendous riches and fame to Granite was brought out of the Ruby Shaft, operated by the Granite Mountain Mining Company. Several tunnels outside the Ruby Shaft were also important in producing the silver (and some gold) . . . — Map (db m49544) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Sayrs' Building
First known as the Hyde Block, this building was constructed by banker Joseph Hyde and his wife, Mary, in 1888. It housed the First National Bank until the silver crash of 1893. In 1904, Frank Sayrs purchased the building and it has since held a . . . — Map (db m45220) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Superintendent’s House“Silver Queen City”
By 1899, this house stood at the head of Magnolia Avenue, or “Silk Stocking Row,” where the elite of Granite lived. The first floor housed the living quarters for the Superintendent of the Granite Mountain Mining Co. The second floor may . . . — Map (db m49545) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Weinstein Building
Around the mountain from the mining camp of Cable in 1866 came Polish-born merchant William Weinstein with a wagon-load of goods to sell. He became Philipsburg's first general merchant, constructing the eastern half of this building in the late . . . — Map (db m45212) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philipsburg — Wilson Brothers Building
Charles A. and Frank J. Wilson, brothers from Wisconsin, built and established their businesses in this building by 1888. The building originally housed a furniture store on one side, a feed store on the other and a miners' boarding house/living . . . — Map (db m45214) HM
Montana (Granite County), Philpsburg — Walker Commercial Building
Prominent Missoula architect A. J. Gibson designed and built this two-story commercial building in 1905. The fine design includes a metal modillioned cornice and panels with a full height glass storefront and polished granite skirt below. The Walker . . . — Map (db m45223) HM
Montana (Jefferson County), Whitehall — The Great Divide TrophyHow Montana Became Montana Without the Great Divide Between the Bobcats and the Grizzlies — Path of the Continental Divide in Montana
Montana was part of Idaho Territory in 1863. In 1864 when the Idaho Territorial Legislature agreed to a separate Montana Territory, its members wanted the boundary to be the Continental Divide. When the separation bill was proposed in Congress, . . . — Map (db m91535) HM
Montana (Lewis and Clark County), Augusta — Record Cold Spot
The coldest official temperature ever recorded in the continental United States occurred at a mining camp near here January 20, 1954 when the temperature dropped to 70 degrees below zero. — Map (db m73525) HM
Montana (Lincoln County), Troy — Kootenai River
The river is named for the Kootenai tribe that lived and hunted in this part of Montana and adjoining territory in Idaho and Canada. They were settled south of Flathead Lake in 1855 with the Salish on the Flathead Reservation.      They were . . . — Map (db m71509) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Anaconda Hotel(Fairweather Inn)
The oldest section of this building, dating to 1863, was first a simple one-story building which housed a restaurant called the “Young American Eating House.” A butcher shop followed from 1866 to the 1880s, and then in the 1880s the . . . — Map (db m49474) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Barlett’s Blacksmith Shop
Virginia City boomed and land prices soared accordingly in 1863 and 1864, a trend well illustrated in the earliest ownership transactions of this choice commercial property. On May 13, 1864, George Parker paid $800 for the lot and sold it for $1400 . . . — Map (db m49441) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Boot Hill
This was Virginia City’s first Cemetery. There were many markers here, but only those of the road agents and Daltons remain. The road agent’s graves, which gave the Cemetery its name Boot Hill, were first marked by the city in 1907. William & Clara . . . — Map (db m49490) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Dance and Stuart Store
James Stuart and his brother Granville set up the first sluice boxes in the northern Rockies in 1852. Delaware native Walter B. Dance came to Gold Creek in 1862. James Stuart and Dance opened their mercantile in November, 1863. One of Virginia . . . — Map (db m49442) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Elling Bank
Bankers Nowlan and Weary set up business in this brick-veneered building, one of the town’s oldest stone structures, in 1864. Three well-proportioned gothic arches with elaborate tracery, removed during 1910 remodeling, originally graced this stone . . . — Map (db m49486) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — F.R. Merk Block
Gold dust was the common currency when George Higgins built this sturdy “fire-proof stone” business block circa 1866. F.R. Merk leased the new building for his mercantile, advertising fancy and staple groceries, liquors, Queensware, . . . — Map (db m49440) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Finney House
Construction layers of this original homestead tell much of Nevada City’s ‘boom and bust’ history. In 1864, miner Frank Finney and his bride, Mary, moved into a cabin on this property that had been constructed the previous year. The cabin forms the . . . — Map (db m49567) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Frank Prasch Blacksmith Shop
Like the blacksmith shop next door, this early building was probably a dance hall or saloon in the mid-1860s run by owner John Trollman. In 1865 Trollman was one of Virginia City’s seventy-three licensed retail liquor dealers. By the 1870, a larger . . . — Map (db m49410) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — G. Goldberg Store(McGovern Dry Goods)
This 1863 building features a classic Greek Revival style storefront with French doors, typical of the 1860s frontier. The lintel above the door still bears the name of G. Goldberg, who ran the Pioneer Clothing Store Company prior to 1866. The . . . — Map (db m49469) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Gallows Barn
Built in the 1890’s for the White Sulfur Springs Sheriff’s Department. In the year 1917 this barn had a legal gallows installed for the execution of three men. These men robbed a train south of White Sulfur Springs and murdered a trainman on January . . . — Map (db m49569) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Green Front Boarding House
These two adjoining log houses were probably built by Calvin Holly and William Douglas as dwellings in the late 1860s. By 1890, the two buildings were operated as “female boarding houses” or house of prostitution run by madames Myrtle . . . — Map (db m49385) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Hangman’s Building
On January 14, 1864 , the Vigilantes used the heavy center support beam of this building, then under construction, to hang five of Henry Plummer’s road agents: Frank Parish, Boone Helm, Jack Gallagher, Haze Lyons and Club Foot George Lane. Druggists . . . — Map (db m49487) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — J.B. LaBeau, Jeweler(Toy Store)
This property contributes to the Virginia City Historic District • Listed in the National Register of Historic Places By the United States Department of Interior • In cooperation with . . . — Map (db m49471) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — J.F. Stoer Saloon(Bale of Hay Saloon)
Retail liquor dealer J.F. Stoer operated here from the raucous 1860s until about 1890. From that time until 1908, Smith and Boyd who ran the livery next door ran this establishment, aptly renamed the “Bale of Hay.” After 1908, the . . . — Map (db m49390) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Kiskadden’s Stone Block(Vigilante Barn)
Virginia City’s first stone building, constructed during the summer of 1863, originally housed three stores on the ground floor and a meeting hall upstairs. Popular legend has long designated this as the meeting place of the Vigilantes, who . . . — Map (db m49473) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Kramer Building(Dress Shop)
The hasty construction on this remarkably preserved early dwelling reflects the excitement of the gold rush to Alder Gulch during the summer of 1863. Its original dirt-covered pole roof predates the first saw mills; the roof was later covered over . . . — Map (db m49443) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Madison County Pioneers
The gold rush to Alder Creek in 1863 spurred settlement of the Madison Valley, and among the first families to settle here were the Jeffers, the Switzers (whose home is preserved here in Nevada City) and the Careys. Irish-born Nick Carey walked to . . . — Map (db m49565) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Metropolitan Meat Market
George Gohn was one of the first to arrive at Alder Gulch in 1863 where he and Conrad Kohrs set up a meat market in a log cabin. Alkali dust sifted through the chinks and covered the meat prompting Gohn to experiment with various other locations . . . — Map (db m49479) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Montana’s Oldest Standing School
This little log building is Montana’s Oldest Standing Public School, built in 1867 in Twin Bridges, Montana, about 30 miles north of here. It served Twin Bridges until 1873, when the Masons built a two-story building with the first floor for use as . . . — Map (db m49568) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Nevada City
Nine booming gold camps sprawled along remote Alder Gulch in 1863. Nevada City and Virginia City were the largest. In December, 1863, Nevada City’s main street was the scene of the miner’s court and hanging of George Ives. This event was the . . . — Map (db m49563) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Old Masonic Temple
In the top story of his building the Grand Lodge of A.F. & A.M. of Montana was formed on January 24th to 29th AL. 5866 Virginia City Lodge No. 43 of Kansas Montana Lodge No. 9 of Colorado and Helena Lodge No. 10 of Colorado Which are now . . . — Map (db m49485) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Pfouts and Russel(Rank’s Drug – Old Masonic Temple)
Paris Pfouts, Vigilante president and Virginia City’s first mayor, was instrumental in laying out the town. He and his partner, Samuel Russell, built a log store on this site in summer, 1863. Local hell-raiser Jack Slade was arrested here on March . . . — Map (db m49484) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — S.L. Simpson Building(Barber Shop)
This narrow frame building may be one of Virginia City’s earliest structures, dating to the summer of 1863 when buildings like this were rented for up to $175 during the initial gold rush. Its odd-sized door appears to have been locally handmade. . . . — Map (db m49412) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Sauerbier Blacksmith Shop
A notorious dance hall was the original occupant of this 1863 building which encompasses a small cabin of V-notched logs, one of the first built in June of that year. Tall French doors and a few dentils clinging to the facade recall its former dance . . . — Map (db m49407) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Site of First Masonic Meetings
This Monument Marks The Site Wherein Virginia City Lodge No. 43 Of Kansas And Montana Lodge No. 9 Of Colorado Held Their First Meetings. Virginia City Lodge Held Its First Meeting February 27th, AL. 5864. Montana Lodge Held Its First Meeting May . . . — Map (db m89478) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Site of the Trial and Hanging of George Ives
Dec. 21, 1863 Most extraordinary trial in history. — Map (db m49566) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Smith & Boyd Livery Stable
This false-fronted rubble stone barn was constructed by Smith and Boyd circa 1900, replacing a log livery stable. The stone part of the building and the front doors and windows remain as they were at the turn of the century. The barn was converted . . . — Map (db m49387) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Stonewall Hall
From 1865 to 1875 when Virginia City was Montana’s territorial capital, the Territorial Legislature met on the second floor of this stone building. Constructed in 1864, it is Montana’s oldest standing capitol building. The second floor also housed . . . — Map (db m49439) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Strasburger’s Colorado Store(Jewelry Store)
This property contributes to the Virginia City Historic District • Listed in the National Register of Historic Places by the United States Department of the Interior • In cooperation . . . — Map (db m49470) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — The Buford Block
Built in 1899. one can see that this imposing structure was the pride, not only of Virginia City, but also of Montana – being, according to history the largest mercantile store in the state at that time. Hardware, hay, grain, salt, and . . . — Map (db m49438) HM
Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — The Mount Vernon Dredge
In its first five years, Alder Gulch produced between 30 and 60 million in gold. By 1874 about 35,000 people lived in the gulch. Times ran out but the gold never did. You can still find it here in the hills and streams of Alder Gulch.

There were . . . — Map (db m49570) HM

Montana (Madison County), Virginia City — Virginia City National Historic Landmark District
The spectacular gold discovery in Alder Gulch on May 26, 1863, led to the rapid growth of this colorful and legendary gold camp town. Thousands of fortune-seekers rushed to the area, and by 1864 the Virginia City area boasted 30,000 residents. Rough . . . — Map (db m49382) HM
Montana (Meagher County), White Sulphur Springs — Fort Logan
The discovery of gold, silver, lead and copper in this area brought about the establishment of Camp Baker in 1869 to protect settlers from Indian raids. Named Fort Logan in 1877, the post was abandoned in 1880. The block house which . . . — Map (db m87546) HM
Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — A Battle That Could Not Be Won
“With the cinders and ashes falling all around him, and so dark that he could not see his horse’s head at three o’clock in the afternoon, [Barringer] rode up to the face of the fire…[and] collected his scattered crews….” - . . . — Map (db m45505) HM
Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — An Unlikely Safe Haven
“Fires of yesterday and last night have swept practically all the country from Avery to St. Regis. Nothing could have lived in the mountains last evening except for the tunnels.” - E. J. Pearson, Chief Engineer, Puget Sound . . . — Map (db m45511) HM
Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — Building From the Ashes
“All that remained was to salvage what material that could be salvaged from the disaster, and reorganize for a new start.” - Clarence B. Swim, Assistant Forester As the railroad operated rescue trains, Missoula residents . . . — Map (db m45509) HM
Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — Douse the Flames and Climb Aboard
“The whole twenty-five miles of railroad…between Avery and the Taft Tunnel was swept by a consuming blast of fire, so hot that pick handles lying in the open beside the track were utterly consumed.” - Elers Koch, Forest . . . — Map (db m45510) HM
Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — Life Along the Line
Just getting groceries up here could be a challenge Deep winter snow sometimes made getting to school, going to the doctor, or buying food an adventure. Families living at the top of the Bitterroot Mountains, here at East Portal and . . . — Map (db m45544) HM
Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — Pluck and Good Fortune
“I won’t die here in this creek… [I’m] getting out of here.” - Pinkie Adair, homesteader and camp cook During the 1910 Fires, perseverance often meant the difference between life and death. At 26 years old, Ione . . . — Map (db m45503) HM
Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — St. Paul Pass Tunnel
The Milwaukee Road faced the daunting task of drilling a tunnel 23 feet high, 16 feet wide and 1.7 miles long into Idaho. It was a damp, dark, dirty dig. After the approaches were prepared in 1906, and a faltering start in 1907, work . . . — Map (db m45550) HM
Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — Substation 13
Once a critical part of the longest electrified railroad in the world, the broken concrete foundation to your left is all that remains of the two-story, brick East Portal Substation. Essentially a gigantic electric vault, East Portal was . . . — Map (db m45542) HM
Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — The Route of the Hiawatha
The Last Transcontinental Railroad The Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway’s Pacific Extension survived for 71 colorful years. Racing silk trains sped along the route, and long, rumbling troop trains carried men and materiel through . . . — Map (db m45548) HM
Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — The Trail Follows the Trains
…and Historians Trace the History along the Trail. When the Milwaukee Road abandoned its route over the Bitterroot Mountains, salvage companies stripped the line of all the rails, ties, signals, posts and everything else of value. The . . . — Map (db m45549) HM
Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — The Wickedest City
Buried beneath busy Interstate 90 in the valley below are the bones of what the Chicago Tribune in 1909 named “the wickedest city in America”. This “den of iniquity” sprouted up when the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. . . . — Map (db m45552) HM
Montana (Mineral County), East Portal — When the Mountains Roared
“The fire by this time was an awe-inspiring spectacle, the whole horizon to the west was aflame and the noise caused by the falling timber was terrific.” - Roy A. Phillips, Lolo Forest Guard One of the most devastating . . . — Map (db m45508) HM
Montana (Missoula County), Bonner — Sand Park CemeteryWho was Frank Hamilton?
Who was Frank Hamilton? No one really knows. Simple grave markers pay a humble tribute to the five miners buried at the Sand Park Cemetery between 1898 and 1914. Little more is known than their names and year of death. Most of the other . . . — Map (db m71503) HM
Montana (Park County), Cooke City — The New World Mining District
Prospectors discovered rich mineral deposits in the Beartooth Mountains near here in 1874. Christened the New World Mining District, the area included claims with colorful names like Miner’s Delight, Hidden Treasure, Southern Spy and Silver King. . . . — Map (db m45240) HM
Montana (Park County), Corwin Springs — Along the Yellowstone RiverGallatin National Forest
A Blue Ribbon Flowing Through Paradise The Yellowstone is the longest free-flowing river in the lower 48 states. For the 103 miles downstream from Gardiner, the river is designated as a "Blue Ribbon" trout stream, the longest single . . . — Map (db m40554) HM
Montana (Park County), Emigrant — Emigrant Gulch
In August 1864,three emigrants, who came to Montana on the Bozeman Trail, arrived here and found men already hard at work mining the creek. The new arrivals decided to try their luck farther up the rugged gulch, finding pay dirt high up the side of . . . — Map (db m46256) HM
Montana (Park County), Gardiner — A Wildlife Paradise
Northern Yellowstone sustains one of the largest and most diverse populations of free-roaming wildlife seen anywhere on earth. It is often called "America's Serengeti." About half of the approximately 30,000 elk that summer in the park . . . — Map (db m40566) HM
Montana (Park County), Gardiner — Roosevelt ArchHistoric Gateway - Symbol of an Idea
When Yellowstone was established in 1872 as the world's first national park, it was remote and nearly inaccessible. Few "tourists" had the time or the means to travel here from the major cities of the east and west coasts. However, by 1903 the North . . . — Map (db m40560) HM
Montana (Park County), Gardiner — Take a walk through history on the Yankee Jim Trail
Visit the interpretive trail across the river and take a pleasant walk on an improve trail or enjoy a picnic. A series of interpretive signs will take you on a journey through time to some fascinating eras of history.

Past, present and future . . . — Map (db m46260) HM

Montana (Park County), Gardiner — Wildlife Migrations
In summer, pronghorn might be the only large mammals you see in this valley. In winter the wildlife picture changes dramatically. Herds of elk and bison, mule deer, and bighorn sheep descend from the snowy high country to look for food. Gardner . . . — Map (db m40579) HM
Montana (Park County), Gardiner — Wildlife of the Northern Range
Elk - Sometimes called "wapiti" (the Shawnee word for "one with a white rump"), elk are often seen in large herds in open areas where they graze on grasses and forbs. Bull elk have antlers that they shed every year. Each spring as the elk age, . . . — Map (db m40576) HM
Montana (Park County), Gardiner — Yellowstone Cutthroat TroutThe Cutthroat's Worth Saving
Montana's state fish has a sinister name and a fragile future. Set apart from other trout by red slash marks on either side of the lower jaw, the Yellowstone cutthroat trout is far from murderous. Native only to the Yellowstone River drainage, this . . . — Map (db m46257) HM
Montana (Park County), Gardiner — Yellowstone's Northern Range
What is different about the northern range soils? While most of Yellowstone is a high volcanic plateau composed of rhyolite, the northern portion of the park is more complex geologically. Here you find landslides, erodible shales and . . . — Map (db m40572) HM
Montana (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — Road Builders
In 1878 civilian Superintendent Philetus Norris began cutting crude wagon paths to Yellowstone's major features. However, better roads were needed, and from 1883 to 1918 the U.S. Army's Corps of Engineers built and maintained Yellowstone's roads and . . . — Map (db m40600) HM
Montana (Powell County), Avon — The Valley of a Thousand Haystacks
The Little Blackfoot Valley is filled with lush hay fields. You already may have noticed the rounded haystacks and commented on the strange lodgepole structures standing in many of the fields. This contraption that looks like a cross between a . . . — Map (db m71949) HM
Montana (Powell County), Deer Lodge — Winter of 1886Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior
This area’s climate includes dramatic fluctuations. As you imagine yourself ranching here, consider the effects of one winter during the heydays of the open ranch.

The snowy winter of 1886-87 devastated the cattle ranches of Montana. Cattle . . . — Map (db m62050) HM

Montana (Powell County), Elliston — The Mullan Road
From this point west to the Idaho line, Us Highway 12 and I-90 follows the route of a military road located and constructed in Montana between 1859 - 62 by Captain John Mullan. The road was 624 miles long and connected Fort Benton, Montana, with . . . — Map (db m71950) HM
Montana (Powell County), Garrison — First Discovery of Gold in Montana
Opposite this point a creek flows into the Clark Fork River from the west. In 1852, a French mixed-blood named Francois “Benetsee,” Finlay, prospected the creek for placer gold. Although he raised some color, Finlay was ill-equipped to . . . — Map (db m71948) HM
Montana (Powell County), Ovando — The Bob Marshall Wilderness Country
North of here lies the second largest wilderness in the lower 48 states. Made up of the Bob Marshall, Scapegoat and Great Bear wilderness areas, its north end abuts Glacier National Park, creating a continuous corridor of unspoiled mountains and . . . — Map (db m23926) HM
Montana (Rosebud County), Colstrip — Custer Camped HereGeneral George Armstrong Custer Encampment
Custer Camped Here June 23, 1876 — Map (db m39297) HM
Montana (Sanders County), Paradise — Coursing Through Miles Of MontanaClark Fork Corridor: The River
More than 240 miles (456 km) east of here, Silver Bow Creek tumbles west from the Continental Divide above Butte, Montana. Thus begins the Clark Fork River, which drains more than 22,000 square miles of western Montana before it flows into Idaho. . . . — Map (db m45194) HM
Montana (Sanders County), Paradise — Native People Sustained Through Many MillenniaClark Fork Corridor: The People
Native people hunted this area 9,000 years ago for bighorn sheep, elk and long-horned bison. Making “seasonal rounds” to specific locations, they maintained a comfortable lifeway by hunting, fishing and harvesting native plants. . . . — Map (db m45191) HM
Montana (Sanders County), Paradise — Phantom Formation Is Rock Solid In CorridorClark Fork Corridor: The Land
Imagine a rock so old and so deep, that in some places, the bottom has never been found! The mountains you have been driving through are made up of such a rock—the Prichard Formation. Dating back 1.5 billion years, it is one of the oldest . . . — Map (db m45192) HM
Montana (Sanders County), Paradise — Searching For Fur And A Finer LifeClark Fork Corridor: The People
David Thompson was the first Euro-American to record his travels along this stretch of the river. Early in 1809 he came through searching for an ideal site to establish a fur trading post. Later that fall he built the “Saleesh House” . . . — Map (db m45195) HM
Montana (Sanders County), Paradise — The Earth's Blood Flows Past YouClark Fork Corridor: The River
For thousands of years the Sqelixw—people of the Salish, Pend Oreille and Kalispel tribes—inhabited the valleys of the Clark Fork and other rivers of western Montana. They used their extensive knowledge of the natural world to create and . . . — Map (db m45190) HM
Montana (Sanders County), Paradise — Wildlife Thrive In Corridor Year RoundClark Fork Corridor: The Land
Bighorn sheep, elk, mule deer, and white-tailed deer-you may see any of these large mammals grazing in this area, depending on the season. Most spend their summer higher above the river and move to lower, snow-free pastures in winter. Look for . . . — Map (db m45197) HM
Montana (Stillwater County), Columbus — Bozeman Trail
The Bozeman Trail was located ten miles south of here. John Bozeman pioneered the trail in this area in July 1864. After crossing the Bighorn River eight miles below the opening of the Bighorn Canyon, he led his wagon train northwest to the . . . — Map (db m4326) HM
Montana (Stillwater County), Park City — The Great Inland Seaway
For over sixty million years during the Cretaceous Period, much of eastern Montana was underwater, covered by an vast inland sea. As the Rocky Mountains formed to the west, it created a broad, flat coastal plain that was home to many different . . . — Map (db m29123) HM
Montana (Sweet Grass County), Greycliff — Captain Wm. Clark
You are now following the historic trail of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. On his return from the Pacific in July 1806, Captain Clark camped for six days about forty miles downstream, near Park City. The Expedition had been looking for timber . . . — Map (db m28948) HM
Montana (Sweet Grass County), Greycliff — The Crazy Mountains
Called Awaxaawippiia by the Apsaalooka (Crow) Indians, the Crazy Mountains, which you can see to the northwest, are an igneous formation forged about 50 million years ago. For the Apsaalooka, they are the most sacred and revered mountains on the . . . — Map (db m28947) HM
Montana (Sweet Grass County), Greycliff — The Thomas Party
In 1866 William Thomas, his son Charles, and a driver named Schultz left southern Illinois bound for the Gallatin Valley, Montana. Travelling by covered wagon they joined a prairie schooner outfit at Fort Laramie, Wyoming, and started over the . . . — Map (db m28975) HM
Montana (Yellowstone County), Billings — Along the Zimmerman Trail
Zimmerman Trail - The History by Artist John Potter. The original Zimmerman Trail was built during the summers of 1890 and 1891 by the brothers Joseph and Frank Zimmerman, born in Fellering, (Alsace-Lorraine) Germany. Joseph immigrated to the . . . — Map (db m29086) HM
Montana (Yellowstone County), Billings — Boothill Cemetery
Named Boothill because so many of its occupants went to their deaths with their boots on, this cemetery was the burying ground for Coulson, Yellowstone River town existing from 1877-1885 on the edge of what was to be Billings. Most famous buried . . . — Map (db m28939) HM
Montana (Yellowstone County), Billings — The Place Where the White Horse Went Down
In 1837-38 a smallpox epidemic spread from the American Fur Trading Company steamboat St. Peter which had docked at Fort Union. The terrible disease for which the Indians had no immunity eventually affected all Montana tribes. A story is told among . . . — Map (db m28814) HM
Montana (Yellowstone County), Worden — A Crossroads of Events
The Yellowstone Valley at Pompeys Pillar was a crossroads for travelers and wildlife and a cavalry campsite and staging area. The artist’s rendering on this sign depicts the area directly across the river as it may have looked in 1873 when Lt. . . . — Map (db m82763) HM
Montana (Yellowstone County), Worden — Camp #44 of the 1873 Yellowstone Expedition
In June, 1873, a Northern Pacific Railroad surveying party escorted by 1,500 soldiers, including the 7th Cavalry under the command of George Armstrong Custer, and 325 civilians, left Dakota Territory for the Yellowstone Valley to survey a route for . . . — Map (db m62147) HM
Montana (Yellowstone County), Worden — Pompey's Pillar
Called Iishiia Anaache or "Place Where the Mountain Lion Dwells" by the Apsaalooka (Crow) people, Pompey's Pillar was a well-known landmark to the Plains Indians. It was here, at a strategic natural crossing of the Yellowstone, or Elk River as it . . . — Map (db m62146) HM

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