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New Mexico Markers
455 markers matched your search criteria. The first 250 markers are listed. Next 205
New Mexico, Santa Fe — Cross of the MartyrsCruz de los Mártires
In 1598 a group of Spanish colonists, led by Juan de Oñate of Zacatecas, Mexico, established a settlement along the banks of the Rio Grande north of present-day Española. In 1610 Governor Pedro de Peralta relocated the capital of the province to Santa Fe. Between 1610 and 1680, colonists moved into New Mexico, living primarily along the Rio Grande. Franciscan friars established missions at most of the Indian pueblos. Life was not always peaceful. In order to regain control of their homeland, in . . . — Map (db m73092) HM
New Mexico, Santa Fe — Hitching Post at the End of the Trail1776 – 1976
Roadrunner cowbells dedicate this hitching post at the end of the trail to American cattlemen and their horses for their glorious role in winning the West. — Map (db m72745) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuqerque — Confederate Soldiers
Confederate Soldiers who served in Gen Sibley's Brig with Maj Trevanion T Teel were buried here when Conf Flag was flying over Old Albuqerque in April 1862 — Map (db m6677) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Alameda
This 18th century Spanish settlement was established on the site of an ancient Tiwa Indian Pueblo that was destroyed following the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. The pueblo was reestablished in 1702, but in 1708 the Spanish moved its Tiwa inhabitants to help resettle the pueblo of Isleta. Here the Camino Real passed by cottonwood groves from which the community derived its' name. — Map (db m45435) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — AlbuquerqueOn the Camino Real
Spanish settlers had lived here before the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, but the area was resettled when the "Villa de Alburquerque" was founded in 1706. In addition to promoting colonization, the new town was intended to provide protection from attacks by Indians in Rio Abajo, or lower Rio Grande Valley. — Map (db m8504) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Albuquerque
In 1706, New Mexico Governor Francisco Cuervo y Valdes founded the new Villa de Alburquerque (now Albuquerque), which became the principal settlement of the Rio Abajo, or lower river district. Here, the Camino Real wound its way through a series of farming and ranching communities and led to a nearby ford which linked the Camino Real to settlements on the west bank of the Rio Grande. — Map (db m45231) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Albuquerque Electric Streetcar System
An electric streetcar system in Albuquerque was constructed in 1904 to replace the horse-drawn trolleys. Two streetcar companies were established, one for the downtown Albuquerque and Old Town Plaza areas (the Albuquerque Traction Company) and another for the Huning Highlands-University area (the Highland). By 1908 six miles of track linked downtown Albuquerque to Old Town Plaza, with lines running north to the Lumber Mill, east to the Huning Highlands and the University, and south to Los . . . — Map (db m45447) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Casa de Armijo
Built in 1706 and occupied for many generations by the Armijo family who were prominent in local history. This hacienda was gay with social life. During the turmoil of the early settlement the Mexican, Spanish and American Civil War occupation it was used as a fort and a refuge. Later, still occupied by the Armijo family, portions were used as an early trading post. In 1930 it was restored from a ruin to its present condition and remodeled in conformity with its old character. — Map (db m703) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Cuarto Centenario Memorial
La Jornada (The Journey), the bronze sculptural grouping on the corner along with the adjacent earthen work Numbe Whageh (Our Center Place) make up the City of Albuquerque's 1% for the Arts Funds Cuarto Centenario Memorial. The memorial commemorates New Mexico's early peoples and their contribution to the present. Numbe Whageh (Our Center Place) 2005 Nora Naranjo Morse Earthen Work La Jornada (The Journey 2005 Betty Sabo & Sonny Rivera bronze. Rick Borkovetz Landscape . . . — Map (db m71142) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Dominguez Y Escalante Expedition1776 1976
(side one) To the Citizens of Albuquerque This Ramada is dedicated to the people of Albuquerque in commemoration of the Bicentennial re-tracing of the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition of 1776. In their vain attempt to find a northern route to Monterey, California, Fathers Dominguez and Escalante blazed a trail through the wilderness of the present Four Corners area. Documentation of their exploration became the basis for the development of later Spanish trails. The . . . — Map (db m45444) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Don Francisco Cuervo Y ValdesFounder of Albuquerque — April 23, 1706
Illustrious son of the Province of Asturias Spain, Governor of New Mexico. Sculpture funded by the City of Albuquerque 1% for Arts Program as per City Council Resolution 57, 1984. Buck McCain, Artist, Santa Fe Bronze, Inc. Foundry. Dedication Ceremonies held April 23, 1988 • El dia 23 de abril de 1706... "Certifico a su Majestad...a sus Virreyes...como funde una Villa en las Orillas y Vegas del Rio del Norte en buen paraje de tierras, aguas postos y lena...llamandola y . . . — Map (db m70364) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Doña Dolores "Lola" Chávez de Armijo(1858-1929)
(front) In 1912, State Librarian Lola Chávez de Armijo filed a gender discrimination law suit after the governor sought to replace her by court order, claiming that as a woman, she was unqualified to hold office under the constitution and laws of New Mexico. The New Mexico Supreme Court ruled in her favor and legislation followed, thereafter allowing women to hold appointed office. (rear) New Mexico Historic Women Marker Initiative The New Mexico Historic Women . . . — Map (db m45333) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Founding Women of Albuquerque
(front) In February 1706 several families participated in the founding of Albuquerque but the names of only 22 are preserved in the historical record. Within those families were many women honored as being founders of La Villa San Felipe de Alburquerque. Their success in the face of incredible challenges is testament to their courage and bravery. Their names are recorded on the back of this marker. (rear) Founding Women of Albuquerque Isabel Cedillo . . . — Map (db m45230) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Graciela Olivárez(1928-1987)
Side A: Attorney, public servant, and activist, Graciela Olivárez was a high school dropout who became the first woman graduate of Notre Dame Law School where an award is presented each year in her name. She led national anti-poverty efforts and ensured equal representation of men and women on the National Council of La Raza's Board of Directors. In 1980, she started the nation's first Spanish-language television network. Side B: New Mexico Historic Women Marker . . . — Map (db m45225) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Harvey Girls / Mary Elizabeth Jane Colter, 1869 - 1958
[Side A:] Harvey Girls In 1883, the Fred Harvey Company hired women to serve in its diners and hotels along the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. Thousands of respectable, intelligent women were recruited from the Midwest and East Coast to come west. Known as Harvey Girls, many of these women stayed and became founding members of their adopted communities, forever changing the cultural landscape of the Wild West. [Side B:] Mary Elizabeth Jane Colter, . . . — Map (db m45326) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Hotel Alvarado
Hotel Alvarado was constructed in 1902 and demolished in 1970 in spite of local efforts to preserve it. The hotel and depot complex, shown in this 1908 photograph looking west, was designed by Santa Fe Railroad architect Charles Whittlesey in California Mission Revival style. The hotel was named for Hernando de Alvarado of the Coronado Expedition of 1540. The hotel was the site of the Fred Harvey Restaurant and Indian Building. Mary J. Colter designed the interior using regional artifacts and . . . — Map (db m45446) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — In This Plaza Were EnactedA.D. 1706
By Governor and Captain General Don Francisco Cuervo Y. Valdez ceremonies incident to the founding of the Villa of Albuquerque named after the Spanish Viceroy Don Francisco Fernandez De La Cueva Enriquez Duke of Albuquerque — Map (db m45271) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — La Doctora María Dolores Gonzáles(1917-1975)
Side A: Dr. Gonzales was a pioneer in bilingual and bicultural education. She developed educational materials for students in New Mexico and Latin America and trained teachers in the curriculum. Born in Pecos, “Lola” taught in the area for many years and at the University of New Mexico. She held a master's degree from Columbia University and a doctorate from Pennsylvania State University. Dolores Gonzales Elementary School in Albuquerque is named in her honor. . . . — Map (db m45227) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — La Jornada
On January 26, 1598, amid embraces and farewells, Governor Juan de Onate left Santa Barbara, in present day Chihuahua, leading an expedition bound for New Mexico. Nearly 600 settlers accompanied him, along with Mexican Indian allies and Franciscan friars. In a great cloud of dust, the slow-moving oxen-pulled carreta caravan creaked through the Valley of San Bartomlome, sending its way northward. Driving thousands of sheep, pigs, goats, cattle, mules and horses before them, men, women, and . . . — Map (db m45443) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Los Padillas
Los Padillas is an extended family settlement which was resettled by Diego de Padilla. His grandparents had lived on the site prior to the 1680 Pueblo Revolt at which time they were forced to abandon it. In the 1790 census the town, referred to as San Andres de los Padillas, had a population of 168. This is the site of the old Los Padillas School, originally built in 1901 and replaced in 1912. — Map (db m67067) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Madonna of the Trail
(West Face): N.S.D.A.R. Memorial to the Pioneer Mothers of the Covered Wagon Days (South Face): Into the primitive west Face upflung toward the sun Bravely she came Her children besides her, Here she made them a home Beautiful Pioneer Mother! (East Face): The National Old Trails Road (North Face): To the pioneer mother of America through whose courage and sacrifice the desert has . . . — Map (db m45445) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Mountain Howitzers
Cast in the foundry of Cyrus Alger & Company of Boston, Massachusetts, and originally designed to be mule-pack artillery, the Model of 1835 12-Pounder Mountain Howitzer was the smallest U.S. cannon of the period and could fire a 12-pound exploding shell to a distance of 1000 yards. It was a light field piece of great mobility and intended for use in all kinds of rough terrain. In early April 1862, Civil War Confederate forces that had invaded New Mexico Territory began their retreat back . . . — Map (db m45274) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Old Armijo School
Constructed in 1914, this building was designed by Atanacio Montoya, a progressive educator who introduced many reforms into early 20th century rural schools. It served as the school for the Village of Armijo until 1948. This school incorporated architectural features that were considered quite innovative and advanced for its time and is the only surviving structure of its kind. — Map (db m45221) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Old Town History
Front of Marker - English: 1706-The Villa of "Alburquerque" was founded by Don Francisco Cuervo Y Valdes, Governor of the Spanish province of New Mexico. It stood on the Camino Real (Royal Road), which ran between Mexico City and Santa Fe. It became the regional seat of government for the Rio Abajo (lower river), as well as the areas agricultural center. 1821-Mexico declared its independence from Spain, New Mexico joined the new nation to the South, Alburquerque became . . . — Map (db m45278) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Rio Puerco Bridge
This Parker through truss located on the historic Route 66 was built in 1933. It was fabricated by the Kansas City Structural Steel Company and erected by F.D. Shufflebarger of Albuquerque. Its 250 foot long length is one of the longest in new Mexico. Repairs and remodeling were completed in 1957. This structure was replaced in 1999 and is being preserved by the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department. — Map (db m43874) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — San Felipe de Alburquerque
First marker on left: San Felipe de Alburquerque, named for King Phillip V of Spain and the Duke of Alburquerque was, founded in 1706 by Gov. Francisco Cuervo Valdez with 30 families from Bernalillo accompanied by soldiers to protect them from nomadic Indians. Spanish custom required the church to be ready when a town was established so it is assumed that the church was also built in 1706. The original church faced east toward the old plaza which extended north and south. After . . . — Map (db m45267) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — San Felipe De Neri
Oldest church in Albuquerque. Has continuously served the community without interruption since 1706. Originally founded and served by the Franciscan Friars, this parish church has been served successively by the Secular Clergy of Durango, Mexico 1817, the Jesuit Fathers and Brothers 1868, and since 1966 has been administered by the Secular Clergy of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe. Please enter this Church with respect. — Map (db m45276) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — Skirmish of AlbuquerqueApril 8-9, 1862
While Confederate Brigadier General H. H. Sibley was assembling the bulk of his army at Santa Fe, Union Colonel E.R.S. Canby moved 1200 men from Fort Craig to occupy Albuquerque – "If it can be done without serious loss." Though outnumbered six to one, a small detachment of Confederates under Captain William P. Hardeman repulsed the attack and maintained possession of the town. — Map (db m45270) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Albuquerque — The Honorable Mary Coon Walters / Chief Justice Pamela B. MinznerWomen of the Judiciary
[Side A:] The Honorable Mary Coons Walters (1922 - 2001) Ms. Walters, who was a transport pilot during World War II, was the only woman in her UNM law school class when she graduated at age 40. She served on the state Court of Appeals and as a probate judge. In 1984, she became the first female New Mexico Supreme Court justice. She was a role model and mentor to women in New Mexico's legal community. [Side B:] Chief Justice Pamela B. Minzner . . . — Map (db m45331) HM
New Mexico (Bernalillo County), Tijeras — Tijeras Canyon
The pass between the Sandia and Manzano Mountains has been a natural route of travel between eastern New Mexico and the Rio Grande Valley since pre-historic times. Known as Canon de Carnue in the spanish colonial period it takes it's present name from the villiage of Tijeras, Spanish for "scissors". — Map (db m72732) HM
New Mexico (Catron County), Glenwood — Mogollon
The mountains and the town were named for Juan Ignacio Flores Mogollón, governor of New Mexico from 1712 to 1715. The name also is applied to the Pueblo Indians who abandoned the area in the early 1400s. These mountains were inhabited by Apaches until the late 19th Century. — Map (db m38255) HM
New Mexico (Catron County), Glenwood — The Catwalk
This steel causeway follows two pipelines which supplied water and water power to the old town of Graham where gold and silver ores were milled from nearby mines in the 1890's. The causeway clings to the sides of a sheer box canyon in Saltwater Creek and is accessible by a foot trail from the Whitewater picnic ground. — Map (db m36378) HM
New Mexico (Catron County), Quemado — QuemadoPopulation 1,028 - Elevation 6,890 ft.
Spanish word for “burned,” Quemado is located in an extinct volcanic area. This community was first settled in 1880 by Jose’ Antonio Padilla, who brought sheep and started the stock raising industry in this part of the state. Quemado was once famous for its colony of rodeo celebrities in Largo Canyon south of town. — Map (db m44056) HM
New Mexico (Catron County), Reserve — Elfego Baca1865-1945
"I will show the Texans there is at least one Mexican in the county who is not afraid of an American cowboy" Elfego Baca - 1884 In October 1884, seven drunken cowboys committed horrific acts against two Mexican men in Upper Frisco, (modern day Reserve). Just a stone's throw from where you now stand, in Milligan's Saloon, a man known as El Burro was brutally tortured and Epitacio Martinez, coming to the aid of his friend, was bound and shot for target practice. Both men lived. The . . . — Map (db m55914) HM
New Mexico (Catron County), Reserve — Reserve
Population 600 — Elevation 5765 ft. Located in the San Francisco Valley, Reserve was named upper San Francisco Plaza by its original Hispanic settlers in 1874. The name was later changed to Reserve in recognition of the U.S. Forest Service headquarters located here. Apaches made frequent attacks on the community, which lay within Apache hunting lands. — Map (db m36258) HM
New Mexico (Catron County), Reserve — Reserve
Population 600 — Elevation 5765 ft. Located in the San Francisco Valley, Reserve was named upper San Francisco Plaza by its original Hispanic settlers in 1874. The name was later changed to Reserve in recognition of the U.S. Forest Service headquarters located here. Apaches made frequent attacks on the community, which lay within Apache hunting lands. — Map (db m36261) HM
New Mexico (Chaves County), Hagerman — Blackdom Townsite
West of this location stood the now abandoned community of Blackdom. The community was founded circa 1908 by Francis Marion Boyer and his wife Ella. Several dozen African American families homesteaded nearly 15,000 acres of land and built a self-sustaining community that boasted a general store and a Baptist Church. Officially platted in 1920, the community was eventually abandoned due to continued problems with irrigation from the distant Pecos River. — Map (db m56143) HM
New Mexico (Chaves County), Hagerman — Rio Felix Bridge
Completed in 1926, the Rio Felix Bridge was one of the most important structures in New Mexico’s highway system. The bridge was placed across the river at nearly a 45-degree angle to increase stability during floods. Constructed with three 144 foot Pratt Truss spans, it is the longest bridge of its type in New Mexico. Bypassed in 1984, the bridge is listed in the National Register of Historic Places for its design, enhancing local farming and tourism at Carlsbad Caverns. — Map (db m56141) HM
New Mexico (Chaves County), Lake Arthur — Civilian Conservation CorpsLake Arthur Campsite
The Civilian Conservation Corps was established to provide employment for the nation's young men during the Great Depression of the 1930's. More than 50,000 were enrolled in the program in New Mexico between 1933 and 1942. CCC enrollees at the Lake Arthur camp improved grazing lands, and developed water sources for livestock and wildlife. — Map (db m56142) HM
New Mexico (Chaves County), Roswell — RoswellPopulation 50,000 -- Elevation 3,612
Roswell was a watering place for the Pecos Valley cattle drives of the 1870s and 1880s. It was incorporated in 1891 and is seat of Chaves County, named for Col. J. Francisco Chaves, Civil War soldier and delegate to the U. S. Congress from the Territory of New Mexico. In the 1930s, Dr. Robert Goddard conducted experiments in liquid fuel rocket flights here. — Map (db m38460) HM
New Mexico (Chaves County), Roswell — RoswellPopulation 50,000 - Elevation 3,612
Roswell was a watering place for the Pecos Valley cattle drives of the 1870s and 1880s. It was incorporated in 1891 and is seat of Chaves County, named for Col. J. Francisco Chaves, Civil War Soldier and delegate to the U.S. Congress from the Territory of New Mexico. In the 1930s, Dr. Robert Goddard conducted experiments in liquid fuel rocket flights here. — Map (db m56140) HM
New Mexico (Chaves County), Roswell — Roswell Pioneer Plaza
This location incorporates two of downtown Roswell's most historic buildings. East of this location is the Chaves County Courthouse, built in 1911. It is one of the best surviving examples of courthouses built in the Beaux Arts Revival "monumental civic style" architecture. The nearby Conoco service station was built in the 1920s. It is one of the few remaining architecturally intact gasoline stations from this early period of New Mexico's transportation history. — Map (db m56139) HM
New Mexico (Chaves County), Roswell — The Iron Cross
During World War II a prisoner of war camp was established by the War Department near Orchard Park southeast of Roswell, which housed some 4800 German prisoners of war. On January 1, 1943, the first prisoners arrived here from the “Afrikacorps”, Rommel’s men from the 8th Army. From 1943 to 1946, during the incarceration of these POWs, the men worked as field hands on the many farms in Chaves County, as well as in the Artesia and Mayhill areas. In 1943 a 50-man detail worked . . . — Map (db m72748) HM
New Mexico (Cibola County), Cubero — Old Acoma "Sky City"
Legend describes Acoma as a "place that always was". Archeological evidence shows it has been occupied since at least the 13th century. Established on this mesa for defensive purposes, Acoma was settled by inhabitants of nearby pueblos which had been abandoned. Nearly destroyed by the Spanish in 1599, Acoma was quickly reestablished by ancestors of it present occupants. — Map (db m36505) HM
New Mexico (Cibola County), Cubero — Pueblo of Ácoma
Built atop a great mesa for defensive purposes, Ácoma has been continuously occupied since the 13th century. A dramatic battle between the Ácomas and Oñate's forces occurred here in 1599. The mission church of San Esteban was built between 1629 and 1641, and today looks much as described by Fray Francisco Atanasio Dominquez in 1776. — Map (db m36502) HM
New Mexico (Cibola County), Cubero — Pueblo of Laguna
Keresan speaking refugees from Santo Domingo, Acoma, Cochiti, and other pueblos founded Laguna after the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 and the Spanish reconquest of 1692. Named by the Spaniards for a marshy lake to the west, the pueblo still occupies its original hilltop site today. — Map (db m36504) HM
New Mexico (Cibola County), Grants — GrantsPopulation 11,451 Elevation 6500 ft
Located just north of the great lava bed known as the Malpais, Grants began as a coaling station for the Santa Fe Railroad. Around 1880 it was known as Grant's Camp, after the Canadian bridge contractor Angus A. Grant. In 1950, the area's vast uranium deposits were discovered. — Map (db m36472) HM
New Mexico (Cibola County), Grants — GrantsPopulation 11,451 Elevation 6500 ft
Located just north of the great lava bed known as the Malpais, Grants began as a coaling station for the Santa Fe Railroad. Around 1880 it was known as Grant's Camp, after the Canadian bridge contractor Angus A. Grant. In 1950, the area's vast uranium deposits were discovered. — Map (db m36473) HM
New Mexico (Cibola County), Grants — San Rafael
San Rafael, formerly know as El Gallo, is located at a spring near the Malpais, the great lave flow to the east. The area was visited by members of Vásquez de Coronado's expedition in 1540. In 1862, it was selected as the original site of Fort Wingate, focus of the campaign against the Navajos. — Map (db m36475) HM
New Mexico (Cibola County), Grants — Vietnam Veterans MemorialGrants, NM
Honoring the 58,249 KIA As of August 1, 2005 — Map (db m36474) HM
New Mexico (Cibola County), Laguna — Pueblo of Laguna
Keresan speaking refugees from Santo Domingo, Acoma, Cochiti, and other pueblos founded Laguna after the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 and the Spanish reconquest of 1692. Named by the Spaniards for a marshy lake to the west, the pueblo still occupies its original hilltop site today. — Map (db m36506) HM
New Mexico (Cibola County), Laguna — Pueblo of Laguna
Keresan speaking refugees from Santo Domingo, Acoma, Cochiti, and other pueblos founded Laguna after the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 and the Spanish reconquest of 1692. Named by the Spaniards for a marshy lake to the west, the pueblo still occupies its original hilltop site today. — Map (db m36521) HM
New Mexico (Cibola County), Laguna — San José De La Laguna Mission
(Front of Marker:) The picturesque mission church of San José de la Laguna was built around 1706 by Fray Antonio Miranda and shows the single – aisle floor plan commonly used in pueblo churches. It has been repaired many times, and acquired its distinctive white stucco exterior in 1977. (see other side) Rear of Marker: (cont' from front side) The church contains a beautiful and well-preserved altar screen made between 1800 and 1808 by a folk artist known only as . . . — Map (db m36517) HM
New Mexico (Cibola County), Laguna — San José De La Laguna Mission
(Front of Marker:) The picturesque mission church of San José de la Laguna was built around 1706 by Fray Antonio Miranda and shows the single – aisle floor plan commonly used in pueblo churches. It has been repaired many times, and acquired its distinctive white stucco exterior in 1977. (see other side) Rear of Marker: (cont' from front side) The church contains a beautiful and well-preserved altar screen made between 1800 and 1808 by a folk artist known only as . . . — Map (db m36520) HM
New Mexico (Cibola County), Laguna — Susie Rayos Marmon - Ga-wa goo maa (Early Riser)1877-1988 — Laguna Pueblo
Educated at the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania under the U.S. policy of acculturating Indian children through school and removal from their homelands, Susie was instrumental in bringing education back to Laguna. A lifelong teacher, oral historian, and storyteller, Susie was honored with a school in her name in Albuquerque in 1989 and received many national and state citations for her commitment to educating students. — Map (db m36519) HM
New Mexico (Cibola County), Paraje — The Battle of Khe Sanh Vietnam, 1968"Home Was Where You Dug it" — Eternally Bonded
(Side A:) The Battle of Khe Sanh claimed the lives of 2,097 United States servicemen. This historic marker is dedicated to honor and preserve the memory of New Mexico Servicemen who were killed in action or later died of their wounds. The Khe Sanh Vietnam Veterans will forever live in each others' hearts (Side B:) These Servicement from New Mexico Were Killed in Action at Khe Sanh Cpl. Charles C. Aguirre, USMC, February 24, 1968, Silver City • Capt. Edmund D. . . . — Map (db m70175) WM
New Mexico (Cibola County), Ramah — El Morro National Monument Inscription Rock
Until it was by-passed by the railroad in the 1880’s, its waterhole made El Morro an important stop for travelers in the Acoma- Zuni region. Numerous inscriptions carved in the sandstone date from the prehistoric, Spanish, Mexican, and Territorial periods in New Mexico’s history. An important example is Oñate’s inscription, carved in 1605. — Map (db m14129) HM
New Mexico (Colfax County), Angel Fire — Vietnam Veterans National Memorial
This chapel was erected in 1968 by Dr. Victor Westphall in memory of his son David Westphall and all U.S. personnel killed in the fighting in Vietnam. It was first dedicated as the Vietnam Veterans Peace and Brotherhood Chapel, and on May 30, 1983, it was rededicated as the Disabled American Veterans (DAV) Vietnam Veterans National Memorial. — Map (db m45749) HM
New Mexico (Colfax County), Cimarron — Black Jack’s Hideout / Colfax County War
Side A: Black Jack’s Hideout In Turkey Creek Canyon near here, the outlaw gang of Thomas “Black Jack” Ketchum had one of its hideouts. After a train robbery in July 1899, a posse surprised the gang at the hideout. The outlaws scattered after a bloody battle, and the Ketchum gang was broken up. Side B: Colfax County War For twenty years after the 1869 sale of the Maxwell Land Grant, homesteaders, ranchers, and miners fought the new owners for . . . — Map (db m45784) HM
New Mexico (Colfax County), Cimarron — Cimarron Canyon
You are now at the Great Plains-Rocky Mountain boundary. The Cimarron Range, one of the eastern-most ranges of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in this part of New Mexico. Elevation 6,800 feet. — Map (db m45764) HM
New Mexico (Colfax County), Cimarron — Cimarron Canyon State Park
This high mountain park is part of a state wildlife area and is managed by the New Mexico State Park Division in cooperation with the New Mexico Department of Game and Fish. Trout fishing is excellent in the Cimarron River, and the park offers fine opportunities for backcountry hiking and wildlife viewing. The crenellated granite formations known as the Palisades are popular. — Map (db m45755) HM
New Mexico (Colfax County), Cimarron — Palisades Sill
These spectacular cliffs are cut by the Cimarron River through igneous rock known as a sill and composed of the rock type monzonite which was emplaced some 40 million years ago as these Southern Rocky Mountains were being uplifted. Elevation 8,000 feet. Text of marker from: New Mexico Historic Preservation Division, Public Relations, Official Scenic Historic Markers Map (db m45753) HM
New Mexico (Colfax County), Cimarron — Santa Fe Trail
Side A: The difficulty of bringing caravans over rocky and mountainous Raton Pass kept most wagon traffic on the Cimarron Cutoff of the Santa Fe Trail until the 1840's. Afterwards, the Mountain Branch, which here approaches Raton Pass, became more popular with traders, immigrants, gold seekers, and government supply trains. Side B: Opened by William Becknell in 1821, the Santa Fe Trail became the major trade route to Santa Fe from Missouri River towns. The two main . . . — Map (db m45821) HM
New Mexico (Colfax County), Cimarron — The Saint James Hotel
The Saint James Hotel Has been placed on the National Register Of Historic Places By the United States Department of the Interior 1872 — Map (db m45779) HM
New Mexico (Colfax County), Eagle Nest — Eagle Nest Lake State Park
Eagle Nest was a place where members of several Indian tribes were said to have come to collect ceremonial feathers. Before 1919, Charles Springer acquired the land and built a dam for irrigation. It now has a capacity of 78,000 acre feet and provides irrigation for many farmers in eastern New Mexico. Today Eagle Nest State Park is known for its premier trout fishing. — Map (db m45752) HM
New Mexico (Colfax County), Eagle Nest — Elizabethtown
The discovery of gold on Baldy Mountain in 1866 brought such a rush of fortune-seekers to the Moreno Valley that “E-town” became a roaring mining camp almost overnight. Because of water and transportation problems, and a decline in ore quality, it had become virtually a ghost town by 1875. — Map (db m45751) HM
New Mexico (Colfax County), Eagle Nest — Wheeler Peak
Across Moreno Valley stands Wheeler Peak, 13,161 feet, highest peak in New Mexico. Rocks of Wheeler Peak and the Taos Range are highly resistant granites and gneisses of Precambrian age. Moreno Valley is underlain by soft sandstones and shales which are covered by stream and glacial deposits. Placer gold was mined at Elizabethtown north of here during the 1860's. — Map (db m45750) HM
New Mexico (Colfax County), Springer — Old Colfax County Courthouse
Built in 1879 at a cost of $9,800, this building served as the Colfax County Courthouse from 1882 through 1897, when the county seat was moved to Raton. This building housed the New Mexico reform school for boys from 1910 to 1917 and has been a public library, town hall and city jail. — Map (db m55206) HM
New Mexico (Colfax County), Springer — Point of Rocks / The Dorsey Mansion
This is a two sided marker Side A: Point of Rocks Point of Rocks was a major landmark along the Santa Fe Trail. Located in Jicarilla Apache country, it was near here that the party of Santa Fe merchant J.W. White was attacked in 1849. Kit Carson was a member of the military party organized to rescue White's wife and daughter. Side B: The Dorsey Mansion Built by controversial Arkansas Senator Stephen W. Dorsey in the late 1870's and early 1880's, this . . . — Map (db m55207) HM
New Mexico (Colfax County), Springer — SpringerPopulation 1,696 - Elevation 5,857
Located in the old Maxwell Land Grant and near the Cimarron Cutoff of the Santa Fe Trail, Springer served as Colfax County seat from 1882 to 1897. Several men were killed here in one of the late flare-ups of the Colfax County War, a dispute between land grant owners and settlers. — Map (db m45823) HM
New Mexico (Colfax County), Springer — View of the Rockies
This is a two sided marker Side A: Reaching altitudes more than 13,000 feet, well watered, and forested, the Rocky Mountains are host to numerous recreational activities including skiing, fishing, hunting, and camping. To the north can be seen numerous volcanic peaks that lie east of the Rocky Mountains in both Colorado and New Mexico. Elevation here 6,300 feet. Side B: Treeless grasslands of the High Plains cover the eastern one third of New Mexico and stretch . . . — Map (db m55208) HM
New Mexico (Curry County), Texico — ClovisPopulation 31,194 -- Elevation 4,260
During the 1700s and early 1800s, Comanche Indian buffalo hunters used trails that passed near here. In 1907 the Santa Fe Railroad established Clovis to serve as the eastern terminal of the Belen Cutoff, which would connect with the transcontinental line at Belen. Formerly the domain of ranchers, the railroad opened the area to farmers. — Map (db m56110) HM
New Mexico (De Baca County), Fort Sumner — Old Fort Sumner and “Billy the Kid’s” Grave
Fort Sumner was established in 1862 to guard the Navajo and Apaches on the Bosque Redondo reservation. It was discontinued as a military post in 1868 and the buildings and site sold to Lucien B. Maxwell. William "Billy the Kid" Bonney was killed here by Sheriff Pat Garrett the night of July 14, 1881. Bonney is buried in the nearby cemetery. — Map (db m17374) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Anthony — Brazito Battlefield
One of the few battles of the Mexican War to be fought in New Mexico occured near here on Christmas Day, 1846. U.S. troops under Colonel Alexander W. Doniphan defeated a Mexican army commanded by General Antonio Ponce de León. Two days later, Doniphan entered El Paso without opposition. — Map (db m6552) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Anthony — Butterfield Trail/Espejo's Expedition/On the Camino Real
Stagecoaches of the Butterfield Overland Mail Co. began carrying passengers and mail from St. Louis to San Francisco, across southern New Mexico, in 1858. The 2,795-mile journey took 21-22 days. In 1861 the service was re-routed through Salt Lake City. Here the trail followed the Rio Grande northward to La Mesilla. [other side] Trying to locate two Franciscan friars, Antonio de Espejo in 1582 led an expedition up the Rio Grande near here. The two friars had remained among the Tiwa . . . — Map (db m6553) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Anthony — Oñate’s Route On the Camino Real
Juan de Oñate, first governor of New Mexico, passed near here with his colonizing expedition in May, 1598. Traveling north, he designated official campsites (called parajes) on the Camino Real, used by expeditions that followed. In Oñate's caravan were 129 men, many with their families and servants. [side 2] El Camino Real The King's Highway The oldest historical road in the United States, running over 2000 miles from Mexico City to Taos. Parts of the Camino Real were used by . . . — Map (db m6549) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Dona Ana — Bartlett GarciaContinental Survey Point
On April 24, 1851, John Russell Bartlett for the United States and Pedro Garcia-Conde for the Republic of Mexico, erected near here a monument designating 32° 22’ north latitude on the Rio Grande as the initial point for the official survey of the U.S. – Mexico boundary. After the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, the international boundary was moved south and the former Mexican lands were ceded to the U.S. — Map (db m38177) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Dona Ana — Doña Ana(On the Camino Real)
This site, named after the legendary women, Doña Ana, is first mentioned as a paraje along the Camino Real. Spanish rested near here as they retreated from New Mexico following the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. The community was founded in 1843 as the Doña Ana Bend Colony Grant. Today both the village and the historic Catholic Church, Nuestra Senora De Purificacion, are on the National Register of Historic Places. — Map (db m38178) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Dona Ana — Doña Ana (1604–1680)
The name of the county of Doña Ana originates from Doña Ana Robledo (1604–1680) who died near here while fleeing south with other settlers during the 1680 Pueblo Revolt. She was buried below the peak that now bears her surname in the Robledo Mountains, so named in memory of her grandfather who was buried their in 1598. — Map (db m38176) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Dona Ana — Shalam Colony1884-1901
In 1884, Shalam Colony was established on the banks of the Rio Grande near the village of Doña Ana by John Ballou Newbrough and a group of Utopian followers called Faithists. Newbrough’s “Book of Shalam" set forth a plan for gathering the outcast and orphaned children of the world and raising them to be the spiritual leaders of a new age. Shalam Colony was closed in 1901. — Map (db m38199) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Hatch — HatchPopulation 1,028  -  Elevation 4,055
Originally established as Santa Barbara in 1851, Apache raids drove the settlers away until 1853 when nearby Fort Thorn was established. Abandoned again in 1860 after the fort closed, it was reoccupied in 1875 and re-named for General Edward Hatch, then Commander of the New Mexico Military District. — Map (db m24745) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Las Cruces — America's First Battle of World War II: The Philippines
For America, WWII began of December 7, 1941, with the attack on Pearl Harbor, the first of Japan's day-long assault on locations throughout the Pacific. Major American installations on Luzon, the largest island of the Philippines, were also devastated; so began America's first great battle of WWII. The Japanese began their amphibious invasion of Luzon two weeks after the attack. By January 1942, American and Filipino Armies were pushed south towards the Bataan Peninsula. Wracked with . . . — Map (db m38286) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Las Cruces — Civil War Battle of Mesilla & Major Lynde's RetreatJuly 24-27, 1861
On July 24, 1861, Lt. Col. John Robert Baylor led 300 men consisting of two companies of the Second Texas Mounted Rifles, a Texas light-artillery company without its howitzers, an El Paso County scout company, and some civilian from Fort Bliss to Fort Fillmore, New Mexico Territory. The Texans reached the vicinity of Fort Fillmore at night and placed themselves between the fort and its water supply at the river. Baylor cancelled a planned attack after learning that one of his men had . . . — Map (db m38266) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Las Cruces — Doña Ana County Courthouse
County Seat Las Cruces, New Mexico Built 1937 — Map (db m38150) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Las Cruces — Fort Selden State Monument1865-1891
Fort Selden was established to protect settlers and railroad construction crews in the Mesilla Valley and the Jornada del Muerto from Apaches. The first regular army troops to garrison it were four companies of the black 125th Infantry. General Douglas MacArthur spent two years of his childhood here. The Fort was finally abandoned in 1891. — Map (db m45085) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Las Cruces — Heroes of BataanThe New Mexico Story
More than fourteen hundred New Mexicans fought with the 200th Coast Artillery (CAC) Regiment defending the Philippines and the Bataan Peninsula at the beginning of World War II. The regiment received the Presidential Distinguished Unit Citation with 2 Oak Leaf Clusters for its heroic performance during the battle. The War Department cited the 200th CAC as 'the best anti-aircraft regiment in the United States Army' before the war started. General Jonathan Wainwright, the 200th superior . . . — Map (db m38293) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Las Cruces — Jornada del MuertoOn the Camino Real
This stretch of the Camino Real leaves the Ríó Grande and cuts across 90 miles of desert with little water or shelter. Despite its difficulty, the dreaded “Journey of the Deadman” was heavily used by Spanish, Mexican, and Anglo travelers between El Paso and the northern New Mexico settlements. — Map (db m45083) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Las Cruces — La Mesilla
On November 16, 1854, a detachment from nearby Fort Fillmore raised the U.S. flag here confirming the Gadsden Purchase; thus the Gadsden territory was officially recognized as part of the United States. In 1858, the Butterfield stage began its run through Mesilla. During the Civil War, Mesilla was the capital of Confederate Arizona Territory. — Map (db m38149) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Las Cruces — Las Cruces on the Camino RealPopulation 74,267 -- Elevation 3,909
In 1849, following the Mexican War, fields were first broken in Las Cruces. The town became a flourishing stop on the Camino Real, deriving its name, "The Crosses", from the marking of graves of victims of an Apache attack. Las Cruces since 1881 has been the county seat of Doña Ana County. — Map (db m60679) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Las Cruces — Nike Hercules Missile
Anti-aircraft missiles like this Nike Hercules once stood guard around many major U.S. cities and facilities during the Cold War. They were capable of knocking down high-flying, fast-moving bombers with high-explosive warheads or, equipped with a nuclear warhead, destroying a whole formation of attacking enemy airplanes with one missile. The Nike Hercules is typical of weapon systems tested at White Sands Missile Range from many launched complexes stretching east from here. It was . . . — Map (db m38295) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Las Cruces — Paraje San Diego
This paraje, or stopping place, provided travelers along the Camino Real with a final opportunity to water their stock and prepare their caravans before leaving the Rio Grande Valley and entering the desolate Jornada del Muerto. Caravans on their way to Santa Fe started in the evening and traveled non-stop until they reached the Paraje de Fra Cristobal 100 miles to the north. — Map (db m45084) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Las Cruces — Pat Garrett Murder Site
Pat Garrett, the Lincoln County Sheriff who shot and killed William “Billy the Kid” Bonney at Fort Stanton in 1881, was himself murdered at a remote site nearby on February 29, 1908. Wayne Brazel, a local cowboy, confessed to shooting Garrett but was acquitted of all charges. The motive and circumstances surrounding Garrett's death are still being debated. — Map (db m38152) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Las Cruces — Rio Grande
Marker Front: The Rio Grande (big river) has been an integral part of the history of New Mexico for thousands of years. Running through the entire state, it is both its backbone and lifeblood. It originates in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado and then forms the boundary between Texas and Mexico before spilling into the Gulf of Mexico. Over 1,800 miles long, it is one of the great rivers of the world. (Continued on opposite side) Marker Reverse: The Rio Grande has . . . — Map (db m67023) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Las Cruces — Rio Grande Theatre1926 — City of Las Cruces
Has been placed on the National Register of Historic Buildings By the United States Department Of the Interior — Map (db m38271) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Las Cruces — San Augustín Pass
Divide between the Tularosa Basin to the east and Jornada del Muerto to the west, cut between the Organ Mountains to the south and the San Augustin-San Andres Mountains to the north. White gypsum sands glisten to the northeast. Roadcuts are in Tertiary monzonite. Organ mines yielded copper, lead, silver, gold, zinc, and fluorite. Elevation 5,710 feet. — Map (db m38153) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Las Cruces — Site of San Agustín Springs
Here on July 27, 1861, less than 300 Confederate troops intercepted 500 Union soldiers retreating from Fort Fillmore to Fort Stanton. Exhausted from the heat and famished for water, the Union troops straggled across the desert in a five-mile evacuation train. Unable to fight, Major Isaac Lynde surrendered his command without firing a single shot. — Map (db m38154) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Mesilla — All Servicemen and Women
In memory of: all Servicemen and Women of the Armed Forces who served their God and Country Dedicated July 4, 1957 by Ray McCorkle Post No. 3242 Veterans of Foreign Wars — Map (db m6989) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Mesilla — Butterfield Overland TrailSouth Central Region
Overland mail stage line, St. Louis to San Francisco 1858-1861 Forerunner to the Pony Express — Map (db m6987) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Mesilla — Doña Ana County Courthouse and Jail
has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places by the United States Department of the Interior 1850 — Map (db m26924) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Mesilla — Head Quarters, Dept. of New MexicoFort Fillmore, Nov. 15th, 1854
I. The laws of the United States having been extended by proclamation over the Mesilla Valley and the territory recently acquired from the Republic of Mexico, the undersigned as military Commander of the same directs that Lt. Colonel Miles 3rd Infantry proceed to the town of Mesilla, with a part of the garrison of Fort Fillmore, and there hoist the National Flag at noon on this day. II. The Flag will be honored with a Federal Salute. III. For the information of all concerned it is hereby . . . — Map (db m6991) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Mesilla — La Mesilla
After the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which concluded the Mexican War in 1848, the Mexican government commissioned Cura Ramón Ortiz to settle Mesilla. He brought families from New Mexico and from Paso del Norte (modern Ciúdad Juárez) to populate the Mesilla Civil Colony Grant, which by 1850 had over 800 inhabitants. — Map (db m6986) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Mesilla — Plaza de Mesilla
Conservation made possible by grants from United States Department of Commerce Economic Development Administration New Mexico American Revolution Bicentennial Commission and by matching funds from the Town of Mesilla and individual contributions 1976~1977 — Map (db m6988) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Mesilla — The Gadsden Purchase Celebration
The Gadsden Purchase celebration held at Mesilla New Mexico in 1854.                         By A. J. Fountain Sr. Map (db m6992) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Radium Springs — Fort Selden Cemetery
Fort Selden was established nearby in 1865 to help protect the settlements of the Mesilla Valley and travelers along the Jornada del Muerto from Apache raids. The post cemetery was located in this field until the fort was abandoned in 1891. Military personnel were reinterred at the National Cemetery at Santa Fe. A number of unmarked graves in an adjacent potters field apparently still remain. — Map (db m38201) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Radium Springs — Jornada del MuertoOn the Camino Real
This stretch of the Camino Real leaves the Río Grande and cuts across 90 miles of desert with little water or shelter. Despite its difficulty, the dreaded “Journey of the Deadman” was heavily used by Spanish, Mexican, and Anglo travelers between El Paso and the northern New Mexico settlements. — Map (db m38205) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Radium Springs — Jornada del Muerto
High plains of the Jornada del Muerto, elevation 4,340 feet, lie 400 feet above the Rio Grande Valley. It is a transitional area from the Basin and Range region to the west into tilted mountain ranges, such as the San Andres Mountains to the east, flanked by broad alluvial and wind-blown basins. — Map (db m38206) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Radium Springs — Paraje de Robledo
This paraje or resting place was named for Pedro Robledo, a member of the Juan de Oñate expedition, who was buried nearby on May 21, 1598. This camping place was a welcome sight for caravans entering or exiting the dreaded Jornada del Muerto, a part of the trail which had limited water. Its strategic location along the Camino Real made it an ideal site for establishment of Fort Selden in 1865. — Map (db m38200) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Radium Springs — Paraje San Diego
This paraje, or stopping place, provided travelers along the Camino Real with a final opportunity to water their stock and prepare their caravans before leaving the Rio Grande Valley and entering the desolate Jornada del Muerto. Caravans on their way to Santa Fe started in the evening and traveled non-stop until they reached the Paraje de Fra Cristobal 100 miles to the north. — Map (db m38204) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Radium Springs — Rio Grandé Bridge at Radium Springs
This structure – one of the best surviving examples of timber and beam bridge construction in the state – was erected in 1933. The superstructure consists of 19 spans, each 25 feet in length. The roadway is 475 feet long. During the 1920s and 30s, timber beam bridges were an economical and easily maintained solution for crossing arroyos and waterways. Although the bridge no longer carries motorized traffic, it continues to serve pedestrians, bicyclists and equestrians. — Map (db m38202) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Rincon — Rincón
Rincón was originally named El Rincón de Fray Diego in honor of a 17th century Franciscan who died here. Established as a settlement called Thorne in 1881, it became Rincón in 1883. With the establishment of the Santa Fe Railroad, Rincón became the area’s main business and trading center. The line forked here, one line going west to Deming, the other south to El Paso. — Map (db m45082) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Sunland Park — El Paso Del Rio Del Norte
This canyon cut here by the Rio Grande marks the crossing of the historic Camino Real, or Royal Road, to La Tierra Adentra. Trackers and traders crossed the river here to begin the arduous journey north to Santa Fe. Permanent settlement of this area began with establishment of the Mission of Nuestra Senor de Guadalupe in 1659 in present day Ciudad Juarez. — Map (db m38103) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Sunland Park — International Boundary and Water CommissionInternational Boundary Marker #1
[English Translation Marker:] The first international monument of the 276 installed to the west along the international land boundary which marks the international boundary between the United States and Mexico. This monument was placed on January 31, 1855 in accordance with the 1853 treaty and was registered by the International Water and Commission between the United States and Mexico on June 2, 1980 in commemoration of the first centennial of the establishment of this . . . — Map (db m38105) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), Valdo — Paraje de los Brazitos
Here the Camino Real between Santa Fe and El Paso passed along the eastern bank of the Rio Grande near a brazito, or small branch of the river that created a small island. At this paraje, or stopping place, American troops defeated a Mexican Army force on Christmas Day, 1846, in what was the only pitched battle of the Mexican War fought in present-day New Mexico. — Map (db m38148) HM
New Mexico (Dona Ana County), White Sands — White Sands Missile RangeThe American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronatics Historic Aerospace Site
White Sands Proving Ground, as it was first called, is home to America’s first large-scale rocket and missile launch facilities. Established in 1945, the launching here of 67 V-2 rockets and many other vehicles propelled the United States into the Space Age. Scientists and military researchers learned to handle large rockets and improved the emerging technology. Vital experiments to learn about the nature of the upper atmosphere and the fringes of outer space were conducted here. Tests here . . . — Map (db m71526) HM WM
New Mexico (Eddy County), Artesia — ArtesiaPopulation 10,385 – Elevation 3,350
Artesia, named for the area's many artesian wells, lies on the route of the Pecos Valley cattle trails used by Charles Goodnight, Oliver Loving, and John S. Chisum. The town, established in 1903, is located in what was once part of Chisum's vast cattle empire. — Map (db m61444) HM
New Mexico (Eddy County), Artesia — ArtesiaPopulation 10,385 – Elevation 3,350
Artesia, named for the area's many artesian wells, lies on the route of the Pecos Valley cattle trails used by Charles Goodnight, Oliver Loving, and John S. Chisum. The town, established in 1903, is located in what was once part of Chisum's vast cattle empire. — Map (db m61456) HM
New Mexico (Eddy County), Artesia — Castaño de Sosa’s Route
In 1590-91 Gaspar Castaño de Sosa, a Portuguese by birth, took an expedition up the Pecos River in an attempt to establish a colony in New Mexico. His venture was a failure, but it led to a permanent settlement under Don Juan de Onate in 1598. Castaño de Sosa passed near here in winter of 1590. — Map (db m61454) HM
New Mexico (Eddy County), Artesia — Independent Spirit
The men who drove cattle from Texas up along the Pecos River during the mid-1860s until the barbed-wire era of the early 1900s were tough, independent and courageous. Those who chose to settle down and ranch in the surrounding plains or rugged Guadalupe and Sacramento Mountains retained that Independent Spirit to a marked degree, which was necessary to face the rugged terrain, harsh climate and lawless conditions of the times. With the arrival of the railroad in 1894, Artesia became first, . . . — Map (db m61443) HM
New Mexico (Eddy County), Artesia — Seven Rivers Cemetery
Seven Rivers was located south of Artesia near the confluence of seven branches of a stream that flowed into the Pecos River. Settled in the mid-1860s, the town flourished as a trading post and refuge for participants in the Lincoln County War. The community declined until only the cemetery was left. When Brantley Dam was constructed in 1988, the cemetery itself was relocated behind Twin Oaks Memorial Park, north of Artesia. — Map (db m61457) HM
New Mexico (Eddy County), Artesia — The Derrick Floor
Dedicated to the men and women who take the risks and do the work to find, produce and refine New Mexico oil and gas. This monument of a 1950s drilling rig is unveiled in celebration of the 80th anniversary of the Illinois #3, the first commercial oil well in southwestern New Mexico and first oil well on state-owned lands in New Mexico. — Map (db m61445) HM
New Mexico (Eddy County), Carlsbad — Carlsbad Caverns National Park
These vast and magnificent caverns contain over 21 miles of explored corridors. The chambers contain countless stalactites and stalagmites unrivaled in size and beauty. The caverns are within a reef that formed in an ancient sea 240 million years ago. Millions of years later, the reef was fractured, allowing ground water to begin work fashioning the caverns. — Map (db m61473) HM
New Mexico (Eddy County), Carlsbad — Carlsbad Caverns National ParkCCC Rattlesnake Springs Campsite
The Civilian Conservation Corps provided employment for more than 50,000 young men in New Mexico during the great depression of the 1930's. At the National Park Service CCC Camp, they developed nearby Rattle Snake Springs into a permanent water source for Carlsbad Caverns, built roads, parking areas, and trails. Which made the park more accessible to the public. — Map (db m61474) HM
New Mexico (Eddy County), Carlsbad — Carlsbad Irrigation Flume
The massive concrete flume in the distance carries water from the Pecos River to irrigate much of the farmland in this area. It is a vital link in an extensive irrigation system which made possible development of the region's agricultural resources. A wooded flume constructed in 1890 washed away in 1902 and was replaced by the more substantial concrete structure in 1903. — Map (db m61458) HM
New Mexico (Eddy County), Carlsbad — Civilian Conservation Corps Carlsbad Campsite
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) provided employment for more than 50,000 young men in New Mexico during the Great Depression as part of President Roosevelt's New Deal Program. Three CCC companies were located where the Carlsbad Hospital now stands. They worked on flood control and reclamation projects along the Pecos River and the Guadalupe Mountains and helped build Carlsbad's "President Park". — Map (db m61461) HM
New Mexico (Eddy County), Carlsbad — Goodnight-Loving Trail
After leaving Fort Sumner, the Goodnight-Loving Trail forked in two directions. This branch, developed by Oliver Loving in 1866, followed the Pecos River to Las Vegas, and the Santa Fe Trail to Raton Pass. The great Texas cattle drives followed this and other routes to Colorado and Wyoming until 1880. — Map (db m61469) HM
New Mexico (Eddy County), Carlsbad — Guadalupe Escarpment Scenic Area
Fellow Travelers, imagine the land and mountains before you covered by a deep inland sea. Then imagine a large reef forming over 255 million years ago. As the inland sea vanished minerals such as calcite and aragonite bonded together the sea life that remained, which helped to create the unique mountains, canyons and caves of the Guadalupes. You may still find a trace of that sea life, a sponge, some algae, clams or snails as you journey through the Guadalupes. BLM manages these public . . . — Map (db m61488) HM
New Mexico (Eddy County), Carlsbad — Guadalupe Mountains
Guadalupe Mountains to southwest rise from Pecos River Valley, with higher southern peaks at 8,750 feet. Bold escarpment is of famous Capitan limestone, an ancient reef similar to Great Barrier Reef of Australia, and host to Carlsbad Cavern as well as deep petroleum and underground water. Elevation 3,270 feet. — Map (db m61487) HM
New Mexico (Eddy County), Carlsbad — Stephen Tyng MatherJuly 4, 1887 - Jan. 22, 1930
He laid the foundation of the National Park Service defining and establishing the policies under which its areas shall be developed and conserved unimpaired for future generations. There will never come an end to the good that he has done. — Map (db m5979) HM
New Mexico (Eddy County), Loving — Espejo's Trail
Don Antonio de Espejo, leader of the third expedition to explore New Mexico, passed near here on his return to Mexico City in 1583. After learning of the martyrdom of two Franciscan friars from an earlier expedition, he explored the Pueblo country and then followed the Pecos river valley south. — Map (db m61472) HM
New Mexico (Eddy County), Loving — Loving's Bend
In July 1867 Oliver Loving, a partner in the Goodnight-Loving cattle concern, was attacked by Comanches while driving cattle to Fort Sumner. Wounded, Loving held off the attack for two days and nights. With the help of Mexican traders, he made it to Fort Sumner, where he died of gangrene. Fulfilling his promise, Charles Goodnight exhumed Loving's body, reburying him a year later in Weatherford, Texas. — Map (db m61471) HM
New Mexico (Grant County), Bayard — BayardPopulation 3,036 - Elevation 6,152
Sites in the surrounding hills indicate that Indians of the Mogollon culture (A.D. 300 – 1450) lived here long before the Europeans. In the late 19th century, this was a stronghold of Apaches led by Victorio and Geronimo. Today Bayard, which was incorporated in 1925, lies in a great commercial mining region. — Map (db m38213) HM
New Mexico (Grant County), Bayard — BayardPopulation 3,036 - Elevation 6,152
Sites in the surrounding hills indicate that Indians of the Mogollon culture (A.D. 300 – 1450) lived here long before the Europeans. In the late 19th century, this was a stronghold of Apaches led by Victorio and Geronimo. Today Bayard, which was incorporated in 1925, lies in a great commercial mining region. — Map (db m38214) HM
New Mexico (Grant County), Bayard — Fort Bayard
Has been designated a National Historic Landmark For the important role it played in the military and medical history of southwest New Mexico This fort possesses National Significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America — Map (db m38303) HM
New Mexico (Grant County), Hachita — Hachita
Located in the Little Hatchet Mountains, Hachita was founded around 1875 as a mining camp. The mountains supplied the camp not only with silver and copper, but also its name, “little hatchet.” By 1884 Hachita grew to 300 residents. Soon after 1900, when railroad tracks were laid nine miles east of Hachita, another settlement sprang up, drawing away residents and dividing the community into Old Hachita and New Hachita. Hachita also served as the base for forces when the "punitive . . . — Map (db m37773) HM
New Mexico (Grant County), Hanover — Emory Pass
Named in honor of Lt. W.H. Emory, who passed by here with the Army of the West in 1846. His report to the U.S. Government is the earliest scientific account of this region which then belonged to Mexico. Elev. 8228 — Map (db m38210) HM
New Mexico (Grant County), Hanover — Fort Bayard - 1866-1900Fort Bayard National Cemetery
One of the several posts created on the Apache frontier, Fort Bayard protected the Pinos Altos mining district. Company B of the black 125th Infantry served here, as did Lt. John J. Pershing. In 1900 the fort became a military hospital, and today serves as Fort Bayard Medical Center. (Back): Originally established in 1866 as the military cemetery for Fort Bayard, many troopers, veterans, and civilians are buried here. It became a national cemetery, one of two in New Mexico, in 1973. — Map (db m38226) HM
New Mexico (Grant County), Hanover — Kneeling Nun
Most famous of the many historic landmarks in the Black Range country is the Kneeling Nun. So named for its resemblance to a nun kneeling in prayer before a great alter. Many legends have grown up around the giant monolith which rests near the summit of the Santa Rita Range. — Map (db m38228) HM
New Mexico (Grant County), Hanover — Ladies Auxiliary of Local 890Mine Mill & Smelter — (1951-1952)
After eight failed negotiating sessions and the expiration of their labor contract, Mexican-American workers at nearby Empire Zinc mine struck for wage and benefit equality. When an injunction prohibited union members from picketing, the women - wives, mothers, sisters, and daughters - took their places on the line. (back of marker): The "striking" women persevered despite life threatening situations, violence, incarceration and tension at home. Their determination made national . . . — Map (db m38229) HM
New Mexico (Grant County), Hanover — Santa Rita Copper Mines
Copper has been mined here since 1804. For five years, development by Francisco Manuel Elguea resulted in some 6,000,000 pounds of copper being transported annually to Mexico City by mule train. Brief periods of activity were halted by Apache opposition until the coming of the railroad in the 1880s, when the area became a major copper producer. — Map (db m38216) HM
New Mexico (Grant County), Hurley — City of Rocks State Park
Wind and water gradually sculpted the volcanic tuff at City of Rock creating the rows of monolithic blocks that gave this park its name. Camping/picnicking sites are tucked away among these Stonehenge-like formations and the park also features a cactus garden, biking trails and a playground. — Map (db m64725) HM
New Mexico (Grant County), Pinos Altos — Pinos Altos
Once the seat of Grant County, Pinos Altos, survived conflicts with the Apache. A gold discovery in 1860 by three 49ers from California stimulated a boom that led to the establishment of this mining camp which produced over $8,000,000 of gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc before the mines played out in the 20th century. — Map (db m38230) HM
New Mexico (Grant County), Santa Rita — Santa Rita Copper Mine
Before you is the Santa Rita copper mine, one of the oldest mines in North America. The Santa Rita Mine, of Chino Operations, is owned by Freeport-McMoran Copper and Gold Inc. Chino produces copper and molybdenum. An Industry Leader-Freeport-McMoran Copper & Gold Inc. is an international mining industry leader based in North America with large, long-lived, geographically diverse assets and significant, proven and probable reserves of copper, gold and molybdenum. — Map (db m71523) HM
New Mexico (Grant County), Silver City — GFWC Silver City Women's Club
This Pueblo Revival style building has served as the GFWC social and volunteer center since 1936. Site No. 1830 A Register cultural Property State of New Mexico — Map (db m38304) HM
New Mexico (Grant County), Silver City — McComas Incident
In March 1883, Judge and Mrs. H.C. McComas were killed in this vicinity by a group of Chiricahua Apaches led by Chatto. An extensive manhunt failed to rescue their six-year-old son, who had been taken captive. This incident was part of a violent outbreak toward the end of the Apache wars. — Map (db m38232) HM
New Mexico (Grant County), Silver City — Municipal MuseumTown of Silver City — New Mexico
Silver City Centennial 1970 Municipal Museum Town of Silver City New Mexico Built in 1881 as a private home for Harry B. Ailman Acquired by the town of Silver City in 1926 and dedicated as a historical museum by the town of Silver City in July 1967 — Map (db m38307) HM
New Mexico (Grant County), Silver City — O.B. McClintock Bank Clock1918
Returned to this, its original location through the generosity of Wells Fargo Bank, successor to the American National Bank, which occupied this corner for 55 years. The Town of Silver City Council Members Mayor Terry Fortneberry Judy Ward Nickolas C. Seibel Gary M. Clauss Steve May — Map (db m38308) HM
New Mexico (Grant County), Silver City — Silver CityPopulation 9,887 - Elevation 5,895
Silver City is located in the midst of rich mineral deposits. The Santa Rita Copper Mines, opened in 1805, were the second such mines operating in what is now the U.S. A silver strike in 1870 began the commercial mining for which the area is still known. The Apache chiefs Victorio, Geronimo, and Magnus Coloradas figured in its history. — Map (db m38231) HM
New Mexico (Guadalupe County), La Loma — Mela Leger-Bilingual Education Pioneer(1928-2006)
Side A: At four, Manuelita de Atocha (Mela) Lucero Leger read Spanish language newspapers to her blind grandfather in Colonias. Although New Mexico's constitution protects Spanish-speaking students, school children were often punished for speaking Spanish. As a pioneer in bilingual education, Mela changed that by founding one of the nation's first bilingual multi-cultural schools, developing curriculum, training teachers and helping write the historic 1973 Bilingual Education Act. . . . — Map (db m45893) HM
New Mexico (Guadalupe County), Santa Rosa — Puerto de Luna
Established by the early 1860s, Puerto de Luna is one of southeast New Mexico’s oldest permanent settlements. An important farming and ranching center, the town was the Guadalupe County seat from 1891 until 1903. A strong oral tradition maintains that William "Billy the Kid" Bonney had many friends here and frequently visited the village and patronized Alexander Grzelochowski's general store. — Map (db m45906) HM
New Mexico (Guadalupe County), Santa Rosa — Santa RosaPopulation 2,469 - Elevation 4,620
The Spanish explorer Antonio de Espejo passed through this area in 1583, as did Gaspar Castano de Sosa in 1590. Santa Rosa, the Guadalupe County seat, was laid out on the ranch of Celso Baca y Baca, a politician and rancher in the late 1800s. It was named for his wife, Dona Rosa. — Map (db m45894) HM
New Mexico (Guadalupe County), Santa Rosa — Santa RosaPopulation—2,469 - Elevation—4,620 ft.
The Spanish explorer Antonio de Espejo passed through this area in 1583, as did Gaspar Castaño de Sosa in 1590. Santa Rosa, the Guadalupe County seat, was laid out on the ranch of Celso Baca y Baca, a politician and rancher in the late 1800s. It was named for his wife, Dona Rosa. — Map (db m45895) HM
New Mexico (Guadalupe County), Vaughn — VaughnPopulation 737 - Elevation 5965
Vaughn, a division point in the transcontinental railway system, is located along the route of the Stinson cattle trail. In 1882, Jim Stinson, manager of the New Mexico Land and Livestock Co., drove 20,000 cattle in eight separate herds along this important trail from Texas to the Estancia Valley. — Map (db m47146) HM
New Mexico (Harding County), Roy — Canadian River Canyon
Flowing out of the Rockies, the Canadian River has cut a gorge 600 feet deep through sedimentary strata of the High Plains. Rim elevation is 5,400 feet. — Map (db m62852) HM
New Mexico (Harding County), Roy — Mills Canyon
The site of one of New Mexico's most spectacular horticultural enterprises, the Orchard Ranch, established by Melvin W. Mills of Springer and notable for its skillfully engineered irrigation system. The ranch cultivated 12 miles of land along the Canadian River. Vegetable gardens and thousands of fruit trees flourished in the 1880's and later. A destructive flood wiped out orchards, irrigation system, buildings, and other improvements in 1904. They were never replaced. — Map (db m63777) HM
New Mexico (Hidalgo County), Animas — Smugglers’ Trail
Smugglers once crossed this area with mule trains of contraband from Mexico, to be traded for merchandise in Arizona. In the summer of 1881, a group of Mexican smugglers was killed in Skeleton Canyon by members of the Clanton gang, including Old Man Clanton, Ike and Billy Clanton and Curly Bill. — Map (db m37770) HM
New Mexico (Hidalgo County), Animas — The Clanton Hideout
The infamous Clanton Gang had two crude dugouts here in the 1880s that served as hideouts and a base for wide-ranging outlaw activities, particularly in connection with the Curly Bill Gang’s depredations along the Smugglers’ Trail that passed by here. Old Man Clanton was ambushed below the border in revenge for a Skeleton Canyon massacre. — Map (db m37771) HM
New Mexico (Hidalgo County), Annimas — 7 — History of Treck Through MountainsU.S. Mormon Battalion Trail — Historical Landmark No. 7
On November 28, 1896 the Mormon Battalion of the U. S. Army West crossed these mountains near this summit enroute to California during the Mexican War. Col. Cooke had dispatched scouts ahead to find the best route. An Indian guide, Charonneau, while scouting ahead was attacked by three grizzly bears. He killed one bear which provided meat for the troops. Lt. Stoneman with 21 men could not find a suitable route down the mountain. They began cutting a road but the task was to laborious and . . . — Map (db m53012) HM
New Mexico (Hidalgo County), Lordsburg — Camp Lordsburg
Near this site the US Army operated a camp during World War II. It opened as an internment camp for the Japanese and Japanese-American civilians from 1942-43. It later reopened as the Lordsburg Prisoner of War Camp for Germans and Italians from 1943-45. This camp is one of the few sites in the US to house Japanese, Germans and Italians during its operations. — Map (db m60678) HM
New Mexico (Hidalgo County), Lordsburg — Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument
Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument was established in 1907 by Theodore Roosevelt to protect the prehistoric material culture of the Mogollon people and others who inhabited this area. The first scientific description of a pueblo ruin on the upper Gila River was written in 1874 by Henry Wetherbee Henshaw of the Wheeler Geographical Surveys of the Territories of the United States West of the 100th Meridian. — Map (db m38242) HM
New Mexico (Hidalgo County), Lordsburg — LordsburgPopulation 3,195 — Elevation 4,245
Lordsburg was founded in 1880 on the route of the Southern Pacific Railroad, near that used by the Butterfield Overland Mail Co., 1858-1861. It eventually absorbed most of the population of Shakespeare, a now-deserted mining town three miles south. — Map (db m38233) HM
New Mexico (Hidalgo County), Lordsburg — LordsburgElevation 4,245
Lordsburg was founded in 1880 on the route of the Southern Pacific Railroad, near that used by the Butterfield Overland Mail Co., 1858-1861. The town was named for Delbert Lord, an engineer with the railroad. In 1927, Charles Lindbergh landed his famed Spirit of St. Louis on Lordsburg. For years, the town catered to motorists traveling the Old Spanish Trail highway and later U.S. 60. — Map (db m38244) HM
New Mexico (Hidalgo County), Lordsburg — Shakespeare
Located at the north end of the Pyramid Mountains, near the old stage stop at Mexican Springs, Shakespeare was first known as Pyramid Station. Later named Ralston, a diamond swindle caused its collapse in 1874. The town was revived as Shakespeare in 1879, named for the Shakespeare silver mining company, but the economic depression of 1893 closed the mines and made it a ghost town. — Map (db m38243) HM
New Mexico (Hidalgo County), Lordsburg — The Women of Shakespeare
(Front): Emma Marble Muir (1873–1959) Rita Wells Hill (1901–1985) Janaloo Hill Hough (1939–2005) Emma Marble Muir arrived at the mining town of Shakespeare in 1882. She and her daughter, Rita Wells Muir, learned to appreciate and preserve the town's history. Rita and her husband bought Shakespeare as part of their ranch in 1935. Rita passed the ranch to her daughter, Janaloo Hill Hough. (Back of marker): Janaloo and her husband continued . . . — Map (db m38246) HM
New Mexico (Hidalgo County), Lordsburg — Yucca Plains / Yucca/ New Mexico's State Flower
Marker Front: Wide alluvial plains of Southwest New Mexico are feature of basin and range province with isolated fault block mountains scattered like islands from a sandy sea. Volcanic rocks form most of Cedar Mountains to south and Pyramid Mountains to west but Burro Mountains to northwest are mainly ancient granites. Elevation 4,560 feet. Marker Reverse: The Yucca is a member of the lily family. Its spring blossoms are pearly white. Early Indians used its tender shoots for . . . — Map (db m42271) HM
New Mexico (Hidalgo County), Playas — Playas Siding
In 1902, Phelps, Dodge and Company built the El Paso and Southwestern Railroad to link El Paso, Texas with the copper mines of Bisbee, Arizona, and eventually, with several other mining towns throughout the region. Highway 9, New Mexico’s “Border Route” between Columbus and Rodeo, parallels the old rail line, and actually utilizes a portion of the abandoned EP & SW railroad bed between Columbus and Anapra. — Map (db m37772) HM
New Mexico (Hidalgo County), Rodeo — Rodeo Intermediate Field Civil Aeronautics Authority # 57A
The intermediate field system, developed by the U.S. Department of Commerce, greatly increased safety in early commercial aviation. Rodeo Intermediate Field 57A was established in 1930 to enhance navigation for Standard Airlines -later TWA- from California to El Paso, and served as an army auxiliary field during WWII. Its building foundations, earthen air strips and red directional arrow pointing the way to El Paso still are visible today. — Map (db m62752) HM
New Mexico (Hidalgo County), Rodeo — Rodeo Station
The El Paso and Southwestern railroad was constructed in 1902 by Phelps, Dodge and Company, to link El Paso, Texas with the copper mines of Bisbee, Arizona. New Mexico Highway 9, the "Border Route", between Columbus and Rodeo, parallels the rail line, and actually utilizes a portion of the abandoned railroad bed. The Southern Pacific's "Golden State Limited" and "Californian" passenger trains passed through Rodeo until 1952. — Map (db m34856) HM
New Mexico (Lea County), Hobbs — HobbsPopulation 28,794 – Elevation 3615 ft.
Named for the family of James Hobbs which homesteaded here in 1907, Hobbs became first a trading village for ranchers and then a major oil town after the discovery of oil by the Midwest Oil Company in 1928. — Map (db m61441) HM
New Mexico (Lea County), Hobbs — Llano Estacado
Nomadic Indians and countless buffalo herds dominated the vast plain when the Vasquez de Coronado expedition explored it in 1541. Later it was the focus of Comanchero activity, and in the 19th century it became a center for cattle ranching. The name Llano Estacado, or stockaded planes, refers to the fortress-like appearance of its escarpments. — Map (db m61440) HM
New Mexico (Lea County), Hobbs — Oil and Gas
A completion of the Discovery Well of the Hobbs Pool six miles south, April 12, 1929 focuses attention upon the potential of New Mexico as a major source of oil and natural gas. Steady development under the state conservation program, gradually moved New Mexico into sixth nationwide in oil production and fourth in gas production. While Lea County attained first place in the value of oil and gas production, these positions, achieved during the 1950's and 60's, were maintained as the decade of the 1970's opened. — Map (db m61424) HM
New Mexico (Lea County), Monument — Monument
Settled in 1885 and named for a marker at the springs a few miles west, Monument remained a ranching community until oil was discovered in 1928. The Indian statue, called Geronimo by residents, was erected in 1928 by land developers. Monument has produced 4 world champion rodeo performers: George Weir & Roy, Betty Gayle & Jimmie B. Cooper. A centennial celebration was held in 1985. — Map (db m61442) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Capitan — CapitanPopulation 1400 -- Elevation 6350 Ft.
Many incidents in the Lincoln County War, 1876-1879, occurred in the area around Capitan. The promoters Charles B. and John A. Eddy platted the townsite in 1900, after building a spur of the El Paso & Northeastern Railroad from Carrizozo in order to open the Salado coal fields. The mines were abandoned in 1901. — Map (db m45949) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Capitan — CapitánPopulation 1400 -- Elevation 6350 Ft.
[This is a two-sided marker] Side A: Many incidents in the Lincoln County War, 1876-1879, occurred in the area around Capitán. The promoters Charles B. and John A. Eddy platted the townsite in 1900, after building a spur of the El Paso & Northeastern Railroad from Carrizozo in order to open the Salado coal fields. The mines were abandoned in 1901. Side B: In 1950, a little bear cub, his feet badly burned, was rescued from a forest fire near here. The cub . . . — Map (db m45950) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Capitan — CapitánPopulation 1400 -- Elevation 6350 Ft.
Many incidents in the Lincoln County War, 1876-1879, occurred in the area around Capitán. The promoters Charles B. and John A. Eddy platted the townsite in 1900, after building a spur of the El Paso & Northeastern Railroad from Carrizozo in order to open the Salado coal fields. The mines were abandoned in 1901. — Map (db m45951) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Capitan — Eve Ball (1890-1984)Author and Preservationist
Side A: A pioneer in the preservation of the history of people in Southeastern New Mexico, Eve wrote over 150 articles and numerous books chronicling Mescalero and Chiricahua Apaches, Anglo and Hispanic settlers. Her honesty, patience and determination to learn from them, won the confidence of Apache elders, saving oral histories certain to be lost without her. Side B: New Mexico Historic Women Marker Initiative The New Mexico Historic Women Marker Initiative . . . — Map (db m45957) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Capitan — Fort Stanton1855-1896
Fort Stanton, named for Captain Henry Stanton, was established to control the Mescalero Apaches. It was burned and evacuated by Union troops in 1861, held briefly by the Confederates, and then reoccupied by Colonel Kit Carson for the Union in 1862. Since its abandonment as a military post, it has been used as a hospital. — Map (db m45954) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Capitan — Fort Stanton
Established Apr., 1855 by Brig. Gnl. Garland. Named for Capt. Stanton, killed near here in fighting Apaches. One of several forts controlling Indians and aiding westward migration. Partly destroyed, 1861, before a Confederate approach, reoccupied 1863, by Volunteers. — Map (db m45955) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Capitan — Smokey Bear
This is the resting place of the first living Smokey Bear. In 1950 when Smokey was a tiny cub, wildfire burned his forest home in the nearby Capitan Mountains of the Lincoln National Forest. Firefighters found the badly burned cub clinging to a blackened tree and saved his life. In June 1950,the cub was flown to our Nation's Capitol to become the living symbol of wildfire prevention and wildlife conservation. After 25 years he was replaced by another orphaned black bear from the Lincoln National Forest. — Map (db m25111) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Capitan — Smokey Bear Historical Park
This park commemorates Smokey Bear and describes the history and development of this national symbol of forest fire protection. The original Smokey is buried here within sight of the mountain where he was found orphaned by a fire raging in the Lincoln National Forest. The park offers extensive historical exhibits as well as a trail that identifies native plants. — Map (db m45953) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Carrizozo — CarrizozoPopulation 1,222 – Elevation 5,438
Carrizozo, county seat of Lincoln County, was established in 1899, a new town on the El Paso and Northeastern Railroad. The ghost town of White Oaks, once a booming mining camp, is nearby. Billy the Kid, Sheriff Pat Garrett, Governor Lew Wallace, and Albert Bacon Fall all figured prominently in the history of the area. — Map (db m45909) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Carrizozo — CarrizozoPopulation 1,222 - Elevation 5,438 Ft
Carrizozo, county seat of Lincoln County, was established in 1899, a new town on the El Paso and Northeastern Railroad. The ghost town of White Oaks, once a booming mining camp, is nearby. Billy the Kid, Sheriff Pat Garrett, Governor Lew Wallace, and Albert Bacon Fall all figured prominently in the history of the area. — Map (db m45910) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Carrizozo — CarrizozoPopulation 1,222 - Elevation 5,438 Ft
Carrizozo, county seat of Lincoln County, was established in 1899, a new town on the El Paso and Northeastern Railroad. The ghost town of White Oaks, once a booming mining camp, is nearby. Billy the Kid, Sheriff Pat Garrett, Governor Lew Wallace, and Albert Bacon Fall all figured prominently in the history of the area. — Map (db m45912) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Carrizozo — CarrizozoPopulation 1,222 – Elevation 5,438
Carrizozo, county seat of Lincoln County, was established in 1899, a new town on the El Paso and Northeastern Railroad. The ghost town of White Oaks, once a booming mining camp, is nearby. Billy the Kid, Sheriff Pat Garrett, Governor Lew Wallace, and Albert Bacon Fall all figured prominently in the history of the area. — Map (db m45914) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Carrizozo — MalpaisValley of Fires
Spanish explorers called this extensive lava flow malpais, or badlands. The river of lava that flowed down this "Valley of Fires" erupted from a volcano some 7 miles north of here about 1000 years ago. Extending through the valley for 44 miles, the malpais averages 3 miles in width. This ropy type of lava is called "pahoehoe." — Map (db m45911) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Corona — Corona, New MexicoPopulation: 210 (1990 Census) Elevation: 6666 feet Founded in 1903 Incorporated in 1947
The earliest settlers in the area were the Spanish ranchers who raised sheep and cattle on the open rangelands surrounding Corona. In the 1850's, a stage line was established from Las Vegas to White Oaks and Fort Stanton, transporting passengers, mail & supplies for the army from Ft. Union to Ft. Stanton. Among the stage stops were Pinos Wells, Red Cloud Post Office, and Greathouse Tavern. Mining began as early as 1881 in the Red Cloud area of the Gallinas mountains, but proved to be . . . — Map (db m45907) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Corona — Greathouse Station and Tavern
In late November, 1880, William “Billy the Kid” Bonney, David Rudabaugh and William Wilson were hiding out near here at a store and tavern operated by James Greathouse and a partner named Kuch. The night of November 27, they were surrounded by a posse. Duputy James Carlyle was accidentally killed when he attemped to negotiate the outlaw's surrender. Bonney and his companions escaped unharmed. — Map (db m45908) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Glencoe — John H. TunstallMurder Site
In one of the Lincoln County War’s earliest violent encounters, John H. Tunstall was shot and killed at a nearby site on February 18, 1878. Tunstall’s death set off a series of violent reprisals between his friends, among whom was William “Billy the Kid” Bonney, and forces of the Murphy/Dolan faction of the tragic conflict. Tunstall, an English businessman, came to New Mexico in 1876. — Map (db m46009) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Hondo — San Patricio
This farming and ranching community was the scene of many events associated with the Lincoln County War. In July 1878, a posse ransacked the village while looking for William "Billy the Kid" Bonney and others of the faction known as the "Regulators" who frequently visited the town or had hiding places in the vicinity. More recently, renowned artist Peter Hurd made his home here. — Map (db m46005) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Lincoln — Col. Dudley's Camping Place
Encamped a few yards away on July 19, 1878 were U.S. troops from Fort Stanton. Allegedly brought to protect lives and property, their presence quickened Murphy party into firing McSween's residence and pillaging the Tunstall store. — Map (db m45989) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Lincoln — Earliest Courthouse
Three room adobe, seat of law and justice when Lincoln County was established, 1869. Routine issuing of warrants and records, trials for crimes large and small, all issued from it. Now called Priest's House, belongs with neighboring church. — Map (db m45971) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Lincoln — Lincoln
This is a two-sided marker Side A: Spanish-speaking settlers established a town here in the 1850s, after the U.S. Army began to control the Mescalero Apaches. First known as Las Placitas del Río Bonito, the name of the community was changed to Lincoln when Lincoln County was created in 1869. Side B: Center of the turbulent Lincoln County War, 1876-79, a land and cattle feud marked by violence on both sides. Lincoln's historic landmarks include the . . . — Map (db m45958) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Lincoln — Lincoln
Side A: Spanish-speaking settlers established a town here in the 1850's, after the U. S. Army began to control the Mescalero Apaches. First known as Las Placitas del Rio Bonito, the name of the community was changed to Lincoln when Lincoln County was created in 1869. Side B: Center of the turbulent Lincoln County War, 1876-79, a land and cattle feud marked by violence on both sides. Lincoln's historic landmarks include the Murphy-Dolan store, which later became . . . — Map (db m46007) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Lincoln — Montano Store
Owned by Montano family, one of first in Lincoln. Operated as a general store by Jose Montano, neutral in Lincoln County War. Its 25 man garrison of McSween men, led by Martin Chaves, were driven out by Col. Dudley and troops in July fight. — Map (db m45972) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Lincoln — Murphy-Dolan Store
Built in 1874, as place of business and residence of L.G. Murphy & Co., a dominant factor in area in 1870's, and headquarters of the Murphy faction during Lincoln County War. Firm failed, and store became county gov't and judicial center for 33 years. — Map (db m45959) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Lincoln — Old Dolan Home
Built in 1888 by J.J. Dolan, who took part in the L.C. War on the Murphy side, and afterwards was conspicuous in county affairs. In later times the building served as a hotel, the most familiar name being Bonito Inn. — Map (db m45961) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Lincoln — 12 — San Juan Church
La Iglesia de San Juan Bautista was dedicated in 1887 and was restored by the New Mexico State Monuments in 1984. — Map (db m45970) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Lincoln — Site of Old Wortley Hotel
In this frontier hostelry lodged judges during court terms, court's retainers. Here Robt. M. Ollinger, at table, noon, April 28, 1881, heard shooting from Courthouse, rushed to his death at hands of William H. Bonney. — Map (db m45960) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Lincoln — Site of Squire Wilson's Home
South some 75 yds. was the lone adobe house of J.B. Wilson, noted J.P. in Lincoln Co. War. At night, Mar 17, 1879 he helped Gov. Lew Wallace meet with Bill Bonney, leader of remaining McSween men, and arranged a surrender under promise of protection. — Map (db m45969) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Lincoln — Site of the McSween Home
Opening a law office in Lincoln, 1875, Alex A. McSween rebuilt an old adobe into a ten room house. On July 19, 1878, Peppin's posse fired it to oust inmates. Leading victim of this strategm was McSween himself. The burned-down house was never rebuilt. — Map (db m45992) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Lincoln — Torreon
One of Lincoln's earliest structures. Built in the 1850's, its thick walls protected Spanish-Americans against the Apaches. In Lincoln Co. War Murphy's sharpshooters were here stationed. In 1937 Chaves County Historical Society undertook restoration of tower. — Map (db m45990) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Lincoln — Tunstall-McSween Store
J.H. Tunstall and A. A. McSween erected-1877. A focal point in Lincoln County War in which both partners were slain. Despite looting by Seven Rivers group, building continued as a store under pioneer merchants, notably John M. Penfield. — Map (db m45991) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Ruidoso — Old Dowlin Mill
Part original structure. Famous landmark for 100 years. Originally grist and sawmill. Used as rendezvous by William H. Bonney (Billy, the Kid), Pat Garrett, Johnny Riley, J.J. Pershing (then Lt. at Ft Stanton) and other historic figures. — Map (db m46014) HM
New Mexico (Lincoln County), Ruidoso Downs — Old Dowlin Mill
Famous New Mexico landmark for over 100 years. Original building still stands and water turns massive water wheel during the summer. Billy the Kid, Pat Garrett and General Pershing visited here. Turn on NM 48, 2.7 miles to west, then proceed 1.4 miles. — Map (db m46011) HM
New Mexico (Los Alamos County), Los Alamos — Peggy Pond Church — (1903–1986)
Peggy Pond Church, author of the Southwest classic The House at Otowi Bridge and daughter of Los Alamos Ranch School founder Ashley Pond, will forever be “The First Lady of New Mexican Poetry.” As she rode the Pajarito Plateau and camped beneath tall pines, she came to understand that “it is the land that wants to be said.” She captured it in her sensitive poems. — Map (db m64820) HM
New Mexico (Luna County), Columbus — Columbus
Columbus was founded in 1891 as a U.S./Mexico border station but eventually coalesced around the railroad station three miles to the north in 1903. The area’s history is tied to a March 9, 1916, raid on Columbus by Mexican revolutionary leader Francisco “Pancho" Villa. President Woodrow Wilson dispatched General John J. Pershing and 10,000 troops into Mexico to pursue Villa. This punitive expedition ultimately failed. — Map (db m37778) HM
New Mexico (Luna County), Columbus — Columbus
Columbus was founded in 1891 as a U.S./Mexico border station but eventually coalesced around the railroad station three miles to the north in 1903. The area’s history is tied to a March 9, 1916, raid on Columbus by Mexican revolutionary leader Francisco “Pancho" Villa. President Woodrow Wilson dispatched General John J. Pershing and 10,000 troops into Mexico to pursue Villa. This punitive expedition ultimately failed. — Map (db m37780) HM
New Mexico (Luna County), Columbus — In Memory of Citizens Killed / In Memory of Thirteenth CavalryPancho Villa Raid of 1916
[Side A:] In Memory Citizens Killed – March 9, 1916 W. A. Davidson • Harry Davis • James T. Dean • Dr. H. M. Hart • Bessie James • C.C. Miller • C.D. Miller • J. J. Moore • Wm. T. Ritchie • J. W. Walker [Side B:] Thirteeth Calvary In Memory Soldiers Killed - March 9, 1916 Pvt. Thomas F. Butler • Sgt. Mark A. Dobbs • Pvt. Fred A. Griffin • Pvt. Frank T. Kindval • Sgt. John G. Nievergelt • Cpl. Paul Simon • Pvt. Jessie P. Taylor • Cpl. Harry . . . — Map (db m37791) HM
New Mexico (Luna County), Columbus — Last Hostile Action by Foreign Troops
Site of the Last Hostile Action by Foreign Troops in the Continental United States. Led by General Francisco (Pancho) Villa, insurgent Mexican forces on the night of March 9, 1916 raided camp Furlong a United States army cantonment, and the nearby town of Columbus. Several people were killed, many others were wounded and numerous buildings and tents were burned. The underlying motive of the raid is still a dispute among survivors and historian. Six days later United States punitive forces . . . — Map (db m37901) HM
New Mexico (Luna County), Columbus — Pancho Villa State Park
Pancho Villa State Park commemorates the historic Columbus Raid of 1916. Ruins of Camp Furlong, headquarters for General John Pershing's expeditionary force, still exist at the park. The old Columbus Customs Service building has been restored to house exhibits about the raid and Pershing's Punitive Expedition into Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa and his raiders. Camping/picnicking sites are scattered throughout a beautiful desert botanical garden. — Map (db m37775) HM
New Mexico (Luna County), Columbus — Pancho Villa State Park
Pancho Villa State Park commemorates the historic Columbus Raid of 1916. Ruins of Camp Furlong, headquarters for General John Pershing's expeditionary force, still exist at the park. The old Columbus Customs Service building has been restored to house exhibits about the raid and Pershing's Punitive Expedition into Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa and his raiders. Camping/picnicking sites are scattered throughout a beautiful desert botanical garden. — Map (db m37777) HM
New Mexico (Luna County), Columbus — Pancho Villa’s Raid
On March 9, 1916, Francisco “Pancho” Villa, a major figure in the Mexican Revolution, crossed the international border with a large force, attacking and looting Columbus, New Mexico. Eighteen U.S. soldiers and civilians, and approximately 100 Villistas were killed. Gen John J. "Black Jack" Pershing led an expeditionary force into Mexico in pursuit of Villa. — Map (db m37776) HM
New Mexico (Luna County), Columbus — 390-B — Southern Pacific Railroad Depot
Now the site of the Columbus Historical Society Museum the depot was built C. 1902 by the El Paso & Southwestern Railroad which was merged with the Southern Pacific in 1924. Site No. 390-B A Registered cultural Property State of New Mexico — Map (db m37782) HM
New Mexico (Luna County), Deming — Cathay Williams(c1850 – Death Date Unknown)
Born into slavery, Cathay was liberated in 1861 and worked as a cook for the Union army during the Civil War. In 1866 she enlisted in the U.S. Army as Private William Cathey serving with the Buffalo Soldiers at Fort Cummings and Fort Bayard until 1868. She is the only documented woman to serve as an enlisted soldier in the Regular U.S. Army during the 19th century. (Back): New Mexico Historic Women Marker Initiative New Mexico Historic Women Marker Initiative The New Mexico Historic . . . — Map (db m38211) HM
New Mexico (Luna County), Deming — Cooke’s Wagon RoadBasin and Range Country
In 1846, while leading the Mormon Battalion to California during the Mexican War, Lt. Col. Philip St. George Cooke blazed a wagon road from New Mexico to the West Coast. The potential use of the route for the railroad construction was one of the reasons for the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. Cooke entered Arizona through Guadalupe Pass. (Back): Basin and Range province of southeast New Mexico is of broad alluvial plains from which isolated fault block mountains rise like islands in a sandy . . . — Map (db m38236) HM
New Mexico (Luna County), Deming — DemingElevation – 4,331 ft
In 1780, Governor Juan Bautista de Anza passed here while searching for a trade route between Santa Fe and the mines of Sonora, Mexico. Deming, named for Mary Anne Deming, was founded in 1881 when the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific Railroads were connected, giving New Mexico its first railway access to both the Atlantic and the Pacific. — Map (db m38212) HM
New Mexico (Luna County), Deming — Deming Armory
Built in 1916 in reaction to border conflicts arising our of the Mexican Revolution Site No. 584 A Register Cultural Property State of New Mexico — Map (db m38299) HM
New Mexico (Luna County), Deming — First Road to Southern California
Here crossed the first road to Southern California opened for wagons by Capt. Cooke, who passed here in command of the Mormon Battalion, Nov. 1846 – later it became the California Emigrant Road – from 1858-1861, the route of the Butterfield Overland Mail, St. Louis to San Francisco, the longest land mail route ever attempted- — Map (db m38302) HM
New Mexico (Luna County), Deming — Lest We Forget
Jan. 1941 – The New Mexico National Guard was inducted into federal service. They were trained at Ft. Bliss and became the 200th Coast Artillery (AA). Sept. 1941 – The 200th Coast Artillery (AA) was sent to the Philippines. Dec. 1941 – Immediately after Pearl Harbor Day, the Philippines were attacked and invaded by the Japanese. Apr. 1942 – The Americans in the Philippines surrendered to the Japanese and endured the atrocities of the Bataan Death March. . . . — Map (db m38300) HM
New Mexico (Luna County), Deming — Pearl Harbor Memorial
In Memory of those 2403 Heroes who made the supreme sacrifice and to the survivors of Pearl Harbor Oahu, Hawaii December 7, 1941 A day that will live in infamy * * * "Remember Pearl Harbor" "Keep America Alert" — Map (db m38301) HM
New Mexico (Luna County), Deming — Rockhound State Park
Located on the rugged slopes of the Florida Mountains, this is one of the most unusual parks in the nation. Here "rockhounds" are encouraged to take home samples (up to 15 pounds) of rocks and minerals. The park also offers camping and picnicking facilities, hiking trails and a playground — Map (db m72718) HM
New Mexico (Luna County), Deming — Seamon Field House
This Property has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places by the United States Department of the Interior. Built 1898. Also known as the Untied States Custom House. Site No. 1499 A Register Cultural Property State of New Mexico — Map (db m38298) HM
New Mexico (McKinley County), Gallup — GallupPopulation 18,161 - Elevation 6600 ft
Long a major trading center for the Navajo and Zuni Indians living in communities north and south of the town. Gallup emerged in 1881 from a railroad construction camp. It is named for David Gallup, who in 1880 was paymaster for the Atlantic & Pacific (now the Santa Fe) Railroad. — Map (db m36541) HM
New Mexico (McKinley County), Gallup — In Memory of All Vietnam Veterans
This memorial was erected in memory of the young individuals who went to war as kids and lost their youthful dreams, and some their lives, for a cause – freedom and honor – and came back as men with the horrors of war instilled in every fiber of their being and were never given the respect and honor they so dearly deserved from the public of United States government. God will one day judge our actions. Until then, He will shine in the lives of each veteran now and forever more . . . — Map (db m36559) HM
New Mexico (McKinley County), Gallup — Navajo Code TalkersDeparture — May 4, 1942
29 Marines prepare to depart during World War II — Map (db m36558) HM
New Mexico (McKinley County), Red Rock — Fort Wingate
The first Fort Wingate was established near San Rafael in 1862, to serve as the base of Col. Kit Carson's campaigns against the Navajos. In 1868 the garrison was transferred to the second Fort Wingate near Gallup. In that same year, the Navajos returned here after their imprisonment at Fort Sumner. — Map (db m36538) HM
New Mexico (McKinley County), Zuni — Pueblo of Zuni
The six original Zuni pueblos were the legendary "Seven Cities of Cibola" sought by Vasquez de Coronado in 1540. They were abandoned during the Pueblo Revolt, and the present pueblo was settled in 1699 after the Spanish reconquest. In 1970 Zuni became the first Indian community to administer its own reservation affairs. — Map (db m36582) HM
New Mexico (McKinley County), Zuni — Pueblo of Zuni
The six original Zuni pueblos were the legendary "Seven Cities of Cibola" sought by Vasquez de Coronado in 1540. They were abandoned during the Pueblo Revolt, and the present pueblo was settled in 1699 after the Spanish reconquest. In 1970 Zuni became the first Indian community to administer its own reservation affairs. — Map (db m36584) HM
New Mexico (McKinley County), Zuni — Zuni Olla Maidens - Zuni Pueblo
The Zuni Olla Maidens are an all-women's group renowned for their skill and ability to balance fragile water jars or ollas on their heads. Historically, Zuni women collected water in ollas from nearby springs for everyday use. Today, they perform in parades and community events, walking with water jars placed on their heads while singing their own compositions and those traditionally sung by Zuni men. — Map (db m36580) HM
New Mexico (Mora County), Wagon Mound — Wagon Mound
This last great landmark on the Santa Fe Trail was named for its resemblance to the top of a covered wagon. At Wagon Mound, travelers could cross from the Cimarron Cutoff to Fort Union, which is located on the Mountain Branch of the Trail. The two branches joined south of here at Watrous. — Map (db m45824) HM
New Mexico (Mora County), Watrous — Fort Union National Monument / Santa Fe Trail1851-1891
Side A: Fort Union National Monument 1851-1891 Once the largest post in the Southwest, Fort Union was established to control the Jicarilla Apaches and Utes, to protect the Santa Fe Trail, and to serve as a supply depot for other New Mexico forts. The arrival of the railroad and the pacification of the region led to its abandonment in 1891. Side B: Santa Fe Trail The difficulty of bringing caravans over rocky and mountainous Raton Pass kept most wagon . . . — Map (db m45829) HM
New Mexico (Mora County), Watrous — Santa Fe Trail
Opened by William Becknell in 1821, the Santa Fe Trail became the major trade route to Santa Fe from Missouri River towns. The two main branches, the Cimarron Cutoff and the Mountain Branch, joined at Watrous. Travel over the Trail ceased with the coming of the railroad in 1879. — Map (db m55199) HM
New Mexico (Mora County), Watrous — Watrous
The Mountain Branch and the Cimarron Cutoff of the Santa Fe Trail meet at Watrous. This important spot on the Trail was first known at La Junta, "junction" in Spanish. In 1879, with the coming of the railroad, it was named for Samuel B. Watrous, a prominent local rancher. — Map (db m55198) HM
New Mexico (Otero County), Alamagordo — Commission for the Blind Orientation Center
The Orientation Center teaches persons who are blind or visually impaired the skills to live independently and work competitively. Originally part of the New Mexico School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, the “Training Center” opened in 1949 before integrated work became the preferred choice. In the "sheltered shop" graduates made brooms and cane products. NMSBVI transferred the center to the Commission for the Blind in 1968. — Map (db m46076) HM
New Mexico (Otero County), Alamagordo — Disappearance of Albert J. Fountain and his son Henry
Albert Jennings Fountain was a Civil War veteran, New Mexico legislator and prominent lawyer. On February 1, 1896, Fountain and his eight-year-old son, Henry, were traveling home to Mesilla from Lincoln. They carried grand jury indictments against cattle rustlers. Both disappeared at Chalk Hill, and their bodies were never found. In 1899 Oliver Lee and James Gililland were tried for their murder. Both were acquitted. — Map (db m46077) HM
New Mexico (Otero County), Alamagordo — New Mexico School for the Blind and Visually Impaired
The New Mexico School for the Blind and Visually Impaired was founded on granted land in 1903 by the new territorial governor. The teacher and later regent was the blind daughter of lawman Pat Garrett, Elizabeth Garrett, who solicited the support of Helen Keller for the school's expansion. Ms. Garret also wrote the state song, O,Fair New Mexico. — Map (db m46075) HM
New Mexico (Otero County), Alamogordo — Dog Canyon(Cañon Del Perro)
For the Mescalero Apache, Dog Canyon was a favorite camping area and trail through the Sacramento Mountains. It was the scene of several battles in the 19th century. In 1863 a group of Mescaleros was attacked by soldiers, and the survivors were sent to the Bosque Redondo Reservation. — Map (db m72719) HM
New Mexico (Otero County), Bent — Blazer’s Mill
An early fight in the Lincoln County War occurred near this sawmill on April 5, 1878, when several men of the McSween faction, including Dick Brewer and Billy the Kid, attempted to arrest Buckshot Roberts. Roberts and Brewer were killed, and two others wounded, in the battle that followed. — Map (db m46038) HM
New Mexico (Otero County), Cloudcroft — Cloud-Climbing Railroad
In order to provide timber for the construction of his El Paso & Northeastern Railroad north of Alamagordo, Charles B. Eddy in 1898 built a spur into the Sacramento Mountains. The line operated as far as Cloudcroft until 1947. The Cloudcroft Trestle is all that remains. — Map (db m59164) HM
New Mexico (Otero County), Cloudcroft — Restoring a Local Treasure
The Mexican Canyon Trestle was restored in 2009-2010. Over 420 timbers were replaced and large sections of the trestle were rebuilt. The US Forest Service, New Mexico Rails-to-Trails and local efforts continue to preserve this treasure. The Mexican Canyon Trestle, built in 1899, is 323 feet long and 60 feet high. It was abandoned on September 12, 1947. Of the 58 timber frame trestles along the "Cloud-Climbing Railroad", this trestle is the last that remains standing. Engineering . . . — Map (db m59346) HM
New Mexico (Otero County), La Luz — La Luz
In 1719, Spanish Franciscan missionaries built a chapel here dedicated to Nuestra Señora de la Luz, Our Lady of the Light. The naming of the village is also attributed to the will o’wisp light in the canyon, a perpetually burning lamp in an elderly woman’s home and a signal fire left by the male settlers, which when seen by the female settlers exclaimed "La Luz! Allà està la luz !, The Light, there is the light!" Settlement of the village did not begin until around 1860, when settlers . . . — Map (db m46073) HM
New Mexico (Otero County), Mescalero — Lozen, Little Sister“A Shield to Her People” — (ca. 1840-1889)
Lozen, a warrior and sister of the famous Warm Springs Apache chief Victorio, fought alongside her brother until his death in 1880 and later with his successors, Nana and Geronimo. Lozen also was a medicine woman and healer and, it was said, with outstretched hands she could determine the location of an enemy. She died a prisoner at Mt. Vernon Barracks in Alabama. — Map (db m46033) HM
New Mexico (Otero County), Mescalero — Sierra Blanca
Sierra Blanca, a complex ancient volcano, rises more than 7,300 feet above Tularosa Basin to peak at 12,003 feet. Vertical geologic movement between ranges and basin is about 2 miles. San Andrés Mountains on the west side of Tularosa Basin are uplifted on east side ant tilted westward. Elevation 4,670 feet. — Map (db m46036) HM
New Mexico (Otero County), Tularosa — Three Rivers
Located in the Tularosa Basin east of the great lava flows known as the Malpais, Three Rivers was once prominent in the cattle empires of Albert Bacon Fall, John S. Chisum, and Susie McSween Barber, “the cattle queen of New Mexico.” Charles B. Eddy’s El Paso & Northeastern Railroad reached here in 1899. — Map (db m46039) HM
New Mexico (Otero County), Tularosa — Three Rivers Petroglyph Site
Inhabitants of a nearby village made the Three Rivers Petroglyphs (rock carvings) over 600 years ago. Over 20,000 petrogpyphs have been identified in the area. The people were of the Jornada Mogollon (hor-NAH-da muggy-OWN) prehistoric Indian culture, of which there are no known modern descendants. The petroglyphs' purpose and meaning are not entirely clear. Some depict the animals and plants the people saw around them. Many almost certainly had religious meaning. The ridge may have been . . . — Map (db m46042) HM
New Mexico (Otero County), Tularosa — Three Rivers Petroglyphs
Three miles to the east is a mile-long array of pictures pecked into the solid rock walls of a volcanic ridge. They include both geometric and animal forms. They were likely made by prehistoric Mogollón Indians between ca. A.D. 1000 and 1400. — Map (db m46040) HM
New Mexico (Otero County), Tularosa — Tularosa
The Tularosa Basin has been occupied by Indian groups for thousands of years. The first Hispanic settlers moved here from the Rio Grande Valley in 1862. Anglo settlers and cattlemen began moving into the region in the 1870s. The original 1862 townsite has been designated a State and National Historic District. Tularosa appears as "Oasis" in the novels of Eugene Manlove Rhodes. — Map (db m46072) HM
New Mexico (Quay County), Tucumcari — Fort Bascom1863 - 1870
Built under Brigadier General James H. Carleton. Firt Post Commander Captain Peter W.L. Plympton with Company F, 7th U.S. Infantry and Company 1st New Mexico Volunteer Cavalry. Named after Captain George N. Bascom, 16th U.S. Infantry. Officers quarters constructed of sandstone and roofed with poles and earth. All other buildings constructed of adobe. — Map (db m63510)
New Mexico (Quay County), Tucumcari — Tucumcari Mountain
Tucumcari Mountain has long been a landmark for travelers along the Canadian River. Pedro Vial mentioned it in 1793,while opening a trail between Santa Fe and St Louis. In order to find the best route from Arkansas to California, Capt. Randolph B. Marcy led an expedition past here in 1849. — Map (db m4378) HM
New Mexico (Rio Arriba County), Abiquiu — Georgia O’Keeffe(1887–1986) — New Mexico Historic Women Marker Initiative
One of America’s great and most celebrated painters of the twentieth century, Georgia O’Keeffe is known for her unique depictions of natural and architectural forms. She began spending summers painting in Northern New Mexico in 1929 and moved from New York to make it her permanent home in 1949. The Georgia O’Keeffe Museum was founded in 1997 in Santa Fe to honor her legacy and extraordinary achievement. — Map (db m73124) HM
New Mexico (Rio Arriba County), Abiquiu — Red Rocks
The colorful formations exposed here are the slope forming Chinle Shale of Triassic age, deposited in streams, lakes, and floodplains some 250 million years ago and the cliff-forming Entrada Sandstone of Jurassic age deposited as windblown sand some 160 million years ago. These are typical landforms of the Colorado Plateau province. — Map (db m73158) HM
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