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North Dakota Markers
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 1 — American Indian Leaders
Three prominent leaders among the Lakota and Dakota Sioux who called this region home and resisted encroachment by white Americans were Tatanka Iyotake (Sitting Bull), Pizi (Gall), and Inkpaduta (Red Point). Sitting Bull, born in 1831, became an international figure when his coalition of native tribes defeated Lt. Col. George Custer and his Seventh Cavalry at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in Montana in 1876. Sitting Bull retreated to Canada in 1877. Facing starvation in 1991, Sitting Bull . . . — Map (db m87775) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 2 — Bad Lands Cantonment
The Bad Lands Cantonment, a temporary military base to protect railroad construction workers from Indian attacks, was established on November 10, 1879. At first consisting of only canvas tents, the cantonment soon grew to eight lumber buildings, servicing a garrison of up to 60 men. Indians never did attack the cantonment, but in early June 1880, Indians ran off a horse picketed on a nearby ridge. A week later, a hunting party was attacked. A small detail of soldiers pursued the raiding . . . — Map (db m87804) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — Beef Corral Bottom
In the era of the open range cattle industry of the late 1800’s, ranchers would work together to round up their free-ranging cattle in the spring and fall. During roundups the cattle would be driven to a wide river bottom like this one, where they could be worked and sorted. Locally called “Beef Corral Bottom,” this area was reportedly the site of a large corral constructed in 1880 for the operations of the Marquis de Mores. The corral may have been a holding place for cattle . . . — Map (db m88612) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 3 — Billings County Courthouse
Billings County was formed in 1879 and organized in 1886. Medora became the county seat in 1886, three years before North Dakota became a state in 1889. The first county offices were located in Roberts Hall. Two small homes built in the 1880s were joined and the single building became the Billings County Courthouse in the early 1900s. The second floor with courtroom was added in 1913. The Register of Deeds vault (the brick addition on the north side) was added in the 1950s. A new courthouse, . . . — Map (db m88030) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — Building From Hard Times
The drought and depression of the 1930’s hit the badlands region hard. Small landowners, no longer able to eke out a living, sold their lands to the government with the hope of finding a new start elsewhere. Throughout the country, men were out of work. National relief programs, such as the Civilian Conservation Corps (C.C.C.), Emergency Relief Administration (E.R.A.), and Works Progress Administration (W.P.A.), were created to employ men and to accomplish conservation projects. Here in the . . . — Map (db m88610) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 4 — CCC Camp
The Civilian Conservation Corps was a peacetime “army” of civilians between 1933 and 1941 which served to create jobs for unemployed men and to protect natural resources. Two CCC camps were located near Medora. In 1934 the CCC camp of Company 2767 was established on the west bank of the Little Missouri River in what is now the South Unit of Theodore Roosevelt NationalPark. Two other camps were established in what is now the North Unit of Theodore Roosevelt National Park. One of . . . — Map (db m87782) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — Chateau de Mores
          The grey and red building that you see to the south is the Chateau built in 1883 by Marquis de Mores, a French nobleman, who founded the town of Medora. It was occupied as a part-time residence until the fall of 1886 and was frequently the scene of entertainment for nobility and eastern friends of Madame de Mores (nee Medora von Hoffman) daughter of a New York banker.           In the Chateau are household furnishings and personal effects left by the de Mores family. Many of these . . . — Map (db m87975) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 5 — Coal Mining
One of the goals of early exploring parties in this area was to find local fuel, coal that fit the bill needed for railroad construction. One of the first area coal mines was located just west of Medora. The Northern Pacific Coal Company operated this low-grade lignite mine, selling mostly to the railroad, though some was sold locally for heating. The mine closed in 1884 and a new mine opened at the base of the butte on the east side of Medora. Coal was also mined commercially in Medora from . . . — Map (db m88007) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 6 — Cowboys
The American cowboy has become a mythical figure in the national consciousness. This would, no doubt, have surprised most of the common laborers who earned meager pay as cowboys. A number of them were indeed colorful characters. Some became outlaws and some became lawmen. Most, however, quietly worked and saved until they could start ranches of their own. Cowboys came from every ethnic background. They ranged in age from mere boys to old men. Some were well-educated and some were illiterate. . . . — Map (db m88061) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — De Mores
In memory of Antoine Manca de Vallombrosa Marquis de Mores Lieutenant French Cavalry Born in Paris 1858 Killed in North Africa 1896 and of his wife Medora who founded this town in 1883 — Map (db m87539) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — De Mores Packing Plant
was built on this site by the Marquis De Mores in 1883 to furnish dressed beef directly from the western ranges. It was successfully operated for several years, destroyed by fire 1907.Exhibits on other side < Reverse Side : > Site of the De Mores Packing PlantThe ruins on this site are all that remain of the meat packing establishment built by the Marquis de Mores, a French nobleman who came to the Badlands and founded the town of Medora in the spring of 1883. The packing plant . . . — Map (db m87790) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — Dreams of a Cattle EmpireChimney Park, De Mores State Historic Site
Antoine Amédé Marie Vincent Amat Manca de Vallombrosa, more commonly known as the Marquis de Mores, was a French aristocrat with an entrepreneurial spirit typical of the late 1800s. The Marquis was one of many who sought to profit from the cattle boom of the post-Civil War era. He came west in the spring of 1883 with the dream of gaining great wealth. His business ideas included letting sheep out on shares to local ranchers, owning his own cattle and running them on his range, slaughtering the . . . — Map (db m87796) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 7 — Frontier Military
The Little Missouri Badlands played a key strategic role in the conflict between American Indians and the expanding United States.
Map (db m87805) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — Great Western Trail
      Between 1874 and 1893, seven million head of cattle and horses went up the Great Western Trail from Texas through nine U.S. states into Canada. This famous trail lasted more years, carried more cattle, and was longer than any other cattle trail in the United States. The trail had a significant impact on the economy of the Western United States, assisting in the establishment of the ranching and livestock industry.       Longhorns gathered around Matamoras, Mexico, and south Texas were . . . — Map (db m87498) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — Historic Medora
Before you lies a scene not greatly changed since Theodore Roosevelt’s time here in the 1880s. Gone are the ambitious De Mores Packing Plant, the military cantonment and the early village of Little Missouri. But still present are the colorful buttes, the silvery thread of the Little Missouri, the shining rails of the former Northern Pacific, the Chateau de Mores and the old cowtown of Medora. Additions to the scene include TR’s Maltese Cross Ranch cabin relocated from its original site seven . . . — Map (db m87541) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 8 — Hotel de Mores
The Hotel de Mores was built by the Marquis de Mores in 1883 and served as a boarding house for up to 100 people. The 100-foot by 25-foot hotel was located north of the railroad depot and faced north. Manager George Fitzgerald advertised it as the best hotel in Medora, providing rooms for $2.00 per day or $6.00 per week. A livery stable and bar operated in connection with the hotel. The bar advertised the very best quality of wines, liquors and cigars. During the winter of the 1883-84, the . . . — Map (db m88037) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 9 — Hunting and Trapping
The Little Missouri Badlands have always been ideal habitat for wildlife. American Indians hunted these lands for centuries. The first known white explorers, the La Verendrye brothers, ventured into the badlands in 1742. Trapper Jean Baptiste La Page descended the Little Missouri River in late 1804 and joined Lewis and Clark in winter camp on the Missouri. Their expedition ushered in the Upper Missouri fur trade, which flourished in the second half of the 19th century. The Little Missouri . . . — Map (db m87992) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — In honor of a President . . . and His Conservation Legacy
      Behind the visitor center is an old, rustic cabin. Architecturally insignificant, a person might wonder why it is here. To understand, step over the threshold and walk inside the building that housed a future president at a pivotal moment in his development as a man.       Heavily burdened by grief and anguish, a twenty-four year old Theodore Roosevelt retreated to North Dakota after his young wife and his mother died at their home in New York within hours of each other. Attempting to . . . — Map (db m87230) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 10 — Joe Ferris General Store
Joe Ferris wore many hats in Medora. He was a hunting guide, a Medora postmaster and a successful merchant. Ferris opened his first general store in Little Missouri. In 1885 he began work in Medora on the current two-story, 25-foot by 75-foot structure. Ferris also operated a feed stable behind the store. Theodore Roosevelt rented one of the upstairs rooms to use on his trips to town. Legend has it that Roosevelt could be heard pacing at night as he worked on books and magazine articles. . . . — Map (db m88062) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 11 — Law Enforcement
From its formation in 1879 to its official organization on April 12, 1886, Billings County had no county offices or officials. All administrative duties were performed through the Morton County Courthouse at Mandan, some 130 miles to the east. The absence of a local lawman during the early boom years of Little Missouri and Medora resulted in the towns gaining a wide reputation as hell-roaring Wild West towns. This reputation was exaggerated in the press, but shootings did occur and at least . . . — Map (db m88025) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 13 — Little Missouri Bridge
The Little Missouri River was a challenge for motorists. Motorists had to ford the river or wait for a railroad crew to carry their autos across on a flatcar. Construction of a transcontinental highway system began in 1912. The lack of proper river crossings impeded the highway’s progress. Because Medora lacked the finances to build a bridge, the National Parks Highway Association solicited donations from communities along the route. In the spirit of “boosting” the region linked . . . — Map (db m87977) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 12 — Little Missouri: The Town
The town of Little Missouri was founded in 1880 at the site of the Northern Pacific Railroad section house and depot, on the west bank of the river. In late 1880, Frank Moore, the Post Trader of the nearby military cantonment, opened the Pyramid Park Hotel. The badlands were becoming a destination for hunters, scientists and tourists. The Little Missouri business community soon grew to include Big-Mouthed Bob’s Bug Juice Dispensary, a general store, and a boarding house. In 1883 two . . . — Map (db m87982) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — Loading DockChimney Park, De Mores State Historic Site
A spur track connected the slaughterhouse with the main line of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Ice from the icehouses to your right were used to cool the refrigerator cars when the meat was loaded into them. The Marquis owned cold storage facilities along the Northern Pacific rail line in Miles City, Montana Territory; Bismarck and Fargo, Dakota Territory; Brainerd and Duluth, Minnesota. These facilities were used to re-ice the cars in transit, to store the dressed meat, and to serve as local . . . — Map (db m87799) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 14 — Margaret Roberts
Margaret Barr was born in Ireland on September 15, 1853, and immigrated to Iowa with her family about 1864. In April 1871, she married John Lloyd Roberts from Wales, and soon became a pioneer wife to a cattle dealer and butcher. The couple arrived at Bismarck in 1877 and by 1882 Lloyd was foreman of the Eaton Brothers’ Custer Trail Ranch south of Medora. In 1883 the family built Sloping Bottom Ranch about 10 miles south of Medora, raising sheep, cattle and horses. In 1886, her husband John . . . — Map (db m88018) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 15 — Medora Business District
Medora’s business district originated north of 3rd Avenue. After Medora’s founding in 1883, carpenters, masons and other laborers filled the community, benefiting from a construction boom. Medora also became a supply hub for area ranchers and farmers. According to Medora’s first newspaper, The Bad Lands Cow Boy, the original tenant on the northwest corner of the 3rd Street intersection was a drug store. It then became a small dry goods store, and eventually the building became the LZ . . . — Map (db m88066) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 16 — Medora Cemetery
The Medora Cemetery consists of 1.93 acres located on a grassy plateau on the west bank of the Little Missouri River overlooking Medora. The Medora Cemetery Association was formed on October 15, 1919, by six pioneers of this area: Geo. R. Osterhout, Oren Kendley, Frank Shaw, Jim O. Gray, John F. Tester and Paul W. Lebo. November 27, 1919, Medora de Vallombrosa, wife of the Marquis de Mores, transferred the deed to the land to the Medora Cemetery Association. The first recorded burial in the . . . — Map (db m87984) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 17 — Medora Depot & Railroad
The railroad reached the Little Missouri River in 1880. The Northern Pacific Railroad named the stop Pyramid Park. When the Marquis de Mores and Theodore Roosevelt arrived in 1883, the train depot was on the west side of the Little Missouri River. In 1884, Northern Pacific Railroad trains began stopping in the new town of Medora, located on the east side of the river. The depot building was situated near the present day Medora Convenience Store. The building was perpendicular to the railroad . . . — Map (db m87986) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 18 — Medora Education
The need for educating local children was first publicly expressed in 1884 when St. Mary’s Catholic Church Pastor Rev. Martin Schmitt, O.S.B., appealed to Medora residents to establish a school. Classes were begun in a cantonment building west of the Little Missouri River in July 1884 with Dan Williams instructing. The first classes in Medora opened on December 15, 1884, in St. Mary’s Catholic Church, with a Miss Finger as teacher. Madame de Vallombrosa, wife of the Marquis de Mores, paid the . . . — Map (db m88020) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 19 — Medora Livery Stable
Stables were important in early Medora, serving the primary means of local transportation: horseback and horse-drawn vehicles. Livery stables offered horses, teams and wagons for hire. These stables were built in conjunction with hotels so guests’ horses would have a place to stay. Liveries were a study in contradiction. Besides transportation services they also offered hay, grain, coal and wood. They were also a source of stench, noise and vermin. The Medora Livery Stable, conveniently . . . — Map (db m88063) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 20 — Medora Stage and Forwarding Company
Marquis de Mores: A grand entrepreneur. In the fall of 1884 he inaugurated daily round-trip stage and freight service from Medora to the Black Hills of South Dakota. Four coaches were purchased. The Kittie, Medora, Dakota and Deadwood stages could make the trip to the gold fields with a four- to six-horse hitch in 36 hours, depending on the weather. The original Deadwood coach is on display at the Chateau de Mores. The cost of the 215-mile ride was $21.50 per person. In . . . — Map (db m88033) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 21 — Medora Town Hall
The Town Hall was built in 1924 to serve as an activity center for Medora. The building featured electric lights, a hot water heating system, partial basement, a furnished balcony and a projection booth. Opera chairs were provided for ordinary events. On occasions that drew large crowds, attendees brought their own chairs rather than sit on the planks and boxes provided. In the early days a Dickinson moving picture company showed silent movies every other week. The movie company provided a . . . — Map (db m88013) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — North Dakota Badlands
The badlands you see from here were so named because they were "badlands" to travel over before modern roads were built. Rain, wind and running water have carved these hills. A thick series of shale and sandstone layers, all of these rocks are a part of the Fort Union Formation ( Paleocene Age). Once part of the High Plains, this area has been deeply eroded. Flash floods which follow every storm are still cutting away the rock layers. — Map (db m4822) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 22 — Ralph “Doc” Hubbard
Ralph “Doc” Hubbard was one of the most accomplished people to call Medora home. He was born on June 22, 1885, in New York to Elbert Hubbard, a prominent author and publisher, and Bertha Crawford Hubbard. Doc first visited Medora around 1905, and eventually settled in the community in 1964, managing the Fur Trade and Wildlife Museum (present site of the North Dakota Cowboy Hall of Fame). Between 1905 and 1964, Hubbard wrote books, ranched, served in World War I, wrote a section of . . . — Map (db m88047) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 23 — Roberts Hall
Bob Roberts had operated The Senate Billiard and Pool Hall in Little Missouri. Later he joined many of his fellow business owners across the river in Medora. An April 1884 edition of The Bad Lands Cow Boy reported the contract for construction of the new business was awarded to Thomas McClung and construction would begin almost immediately. The new business near the Hotel de Mores in full view of the railroad had a prime location. When contractors arrived later that month, construction . . . — Map (db m88016) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 24 — Rough Riders Hotel
George Fitzgerald’s success operating the Hotel de Mores was such that in November 1884 he began work on his own 35-feet by 80 feet two-story hotel. Brick veneer was planned but was never added. The Bad Lands Cow Boy described its interior as follows: “On the first flor are a bar room, office and dining room as well as small rooms for wash and baggage. Above are sixteen sleeping rooms and a parlor.” Fitzgerald opened the Metropolitan Hotel in February 1885. In October, he . . . — Map (db m87499) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 26 — St. Mary’s Catholic Church
Medora de Vallombrosa, wife of the Marquis de Mores, financed the construction of this brick church late in the summer of 1884. This gift to her namesake community was paid for from an annual income of $90,000, earned from a stock portfolio she received from her father before her marriage. Before the church was built, Medora had welcomed the visiting priest to hold mass once a month in her home, the Chateau de Mores. Peter Book, who operated a brick factory south of Medora, was the contractor . . . — Map (db m88001) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — Stephen Tyng MatherJuly 4, 1887 - Jan. 22, 1930
He laid the foundation of the National Park Service, defining and establishing the policies under which its areas shall be developed and conserved unimpaired for future generations. There will never come an end to the good that he has done. — Map (db m87237) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 27 — Stockmens State Bank
In late 1908, Christ Pederson of Dickinson purchased the General Store from Joe Ferris and moved to Medora. On August 6, 1909, Pederson, Harve Robinson, and George Burgess filed a Certificate of Organization. The Stockmens State Bank was capitalized at $15,000 and the ownership was equally divided among the three partners. Construction of a new building began at the corner of what today is Pacific Avenue and Main Street. By October 22, 1909, the building was awaiting fixtures and the vault . . . — Map (db m88040) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 28 — The Bad Lands Cow Boy
At the age of 22, Arthur T. Packard started Medora’s first newspaper, The Bad Lands Cow Boy. The first issue came off the press on February 7, 1884. Marquis de Mores was the major advertiser in the paper. Editor Packard produced a paper that balanced national news and feature articles with entertaining local news and coverage of the vital range cattle industry. As happened in most frontier towns, occasional shootings and violence were also featured in the local press. A frequent . . . — Map (db m88045) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 29 — The President Returns
Theodore Roosevelt first came to the badlands in September 1883 to hunt buffalo. “Old Four Eyes” loved the life of the badlands’ cowboys and participated in roundups, brandings and social events, earning the respect of those he so admired. He became enamored with the area. He invested in two cattle ranches, the Maltese Cross and the Elkhorn, which he maintained until 1898. After he left North Dakota, Roosevelt led the legendary Rough Riders up San Juan Hill, and became vice . . . — Map (db m88009) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 25 — The Shooting of Riley Luffsey
William Riley Luffsey was born in Wayne County, Missouri, around 1859. He died in a gun battle along the Little Missouri River on June 26, 1883, about a mile west of the twin towns of Little Missouri and Medora. Riley Luffsey was a popular young man. He and his partners, Frank O’Donald and John Reuter (Dutch Wannigan), were hunters, who supplied the military cantonment and the settlement with fresh game. They also guided visiting sportsmen. The arrival of the Marquis de Mores in April 1883 . . . — Map (db m87554) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — Tribute to the Civilian Conservation Corps
I propose to create a Civilian Conservation Corps . . . We can take a vast army of these unemployed out into healthful surroundings. We can eliminate to some extent at least the threat that enforced idleness brings to spiritual and moral srability.” President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s message to Congress, 1933 This commemorative plaque is placed in honor of the work performed by the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Companies #2767 and #2772 in North Dakota, . . . — Map (db m87538) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 30 — Von Hoffman House
In August 1884, Athenais von Hoffman, mother-in-law of the Marquis de Mores, commissioned Peter Book to erect a brick cottage for use by her and her husband, Louis. The new home was completed in 1884 but was probably not occupied until the following summer when the Baron von Hoffman returned for several weeks. The Von Hoffman House, a rare surviving example of the craftsmanship of brickmason Peter Book, is listed on the National register of Historic Places. It is difficult to say if the . . . — Map (db m88004) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — 31 — Western Entertainment
The picturesque Little Missouri badlands are a unique landscape. The arrival of the railroad in 1880 opened the area to tourists who wanted to experience the western lifestyle. The first dude ranch in America opened in 1882, four miles south of Medora. Here Howard, Willis, and Alden Eaton started the Custer Trail Ranch, entertained visitors until 1904 when they moved to Wyoming. Other dude ranches followed: Buddy Ranch and Peaceful Valley Ranch. Peaceful Valley Ranch, located inside Theodore . . . — Map (db m87788) HM
North Dakota (Billings County), Medora — Wind Canyon – Carved by Wind and Water – Marred by Man
These soft sandstone deposits, built up by wind and water and then carved into strange and fantastic shapes by the same forces, have fascinated man for at least 5,000 years. Note the absence of carvings in the sculptured walls seen in this photograph taken in 1925. The fresh scars on the canyon wall in front of you point out a tragic fact: Man is quickly destroying this place of beauty. You can make a difference in what remains for future generations. Please enjoy this area without leaving . . . — Map (db m88632) HM
North Dakota (Bowman County), Rhame — Fort Dilts Historic Site
On this site in September 1864 an immigrant train, under the command of Capt. James L. Fisk, bound for the gold fields of Montana, was besieged by hostile Sioux Indians, despite the fact that an armed escort of 50 U. S. Cavalrymen had been provided for its protection. To defend themselves, the wagon train, and their stock, a breastwork of prairie sod was built which enabled them to successfully resist attacks for 14 days until a rescue party conducted them to Fort Rice. A number of civilians . . . — Map (db m33923) HM
North Dakota (Burleigh County), Bismarck — All Veterans Memorial
North Dakota Veterans Memorial 1989 In this year of North Dakots's centennial, this monument is dedicated to all North Dakotans who served in the armed forces since statehood.The names of the men and women listed on this memorial gave their lives in wartime service for their country.

The Memorial Sheltered by a dome and covered by a cube symbols of purity, unity and stability. The supporting columns symbolically define the inside and outside of the memorial, while linking it to the . . . — Map (db m44701) HM

North Dakota (Burleigh County), Bismarck — Boxcar used in the 1st World War
Presented by the French National Railroads to the State of North Dakota in gratitude for the help given to France by the American people — Map (db m44706) HM
North Dakota (Burleigh County), Bismarck — Combat Wounded VeteransMilitary Order of the Purple Heart — 1782 - 1932
Dedicated to all men and women wounded in all our wars.

My stone is red for the blood they shed. The medal I bear is my country's way to show they care if I could be seen by all mankind maybe peace will come in my lifetime. — Map (db m44704) HM

North Dakota (Burleigh County), Bismarck — First News of Custer’s Death
From approximately this spot on July 5, 1876, Colonel Clement A. Lounsberry, the founder of the Bismarck Tribune in a feat of newspaper enterprise that overcame many obstacles, flashed - - by telegraph - - to the New York Herald the first account of General Custer’s defeat and death at the Little Big Horn. Few news stories have so electrified a nation. -------------------- This spot marked by Sigma Delta Chi and N.D. Press Association April 10, 1953 — Map (db m85829) HM
North Dakota (Burleigh County), Bismarck — Sakakawea Statue
Sakakawea Sakakawea has become a recognized name as part of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Although her name is famous, few facts remain to document her life and contributions to the voyage. When Lewis and Clark met Sakakawea in 1804 she was about sixteen years old and married to the fur trader Toussaint Charbonneau. Sakakawea became a valuable member of the Corps of Discovery when Lewis and Clark hired Charbonneau as an interpreter to accompany them on their journey west.

On April 7, . . . — Map (db m43838) HM

North Dakota (Burleigh County), Bismarck — The Honorable John Burkeof North Dakota
Legislator - Governor Supreme Court Justice Treasurer of the United States of America — Map (db m44700) HM
North Dakota (Burleigh County), Bismarck — The Pioneer Family
. . . — Map (db m85832) HM
North Dakota (Burleigh County), Menoken — Apple Creek
          Apple Creek today is only a mere trickle compared to what it was during the time it was formed from a large sheet of glacial ice. Looking out over the valley one can almost imagine the enormity of this creek during its formation. This creek as well as the numerous others draining into the Missouri Valley carried with them the rich fertile soil which supports the crops which in turn support the communities along the Missouri River. One of these communities, Bismarck, the capital of . . . — Map (db m85839) HM
North Dakota (Cass County), Fargo — Gasoline Horsepower
When autos appeared in the 1890s, only the wealthy could afford to buy them. But by the 1920s assembly lines made cars affordable for the middle class, and sales soared. At the end of the decade there were 25 million cars on the road and U.S. factories were building 5.3 million new cars each year.

Sweeping Changes The American workplace was transformed by gasoline engines. By 1920 motorized fire trucks, snow plows, police cars and construction rigs were replacing their horse-drawn . . . — Map (db m43834) HM

North Dakota (Cass County), Fargo — 'The Next Great City'
Moorhead and Fargo were platted when the Northern Pacific railroad arrived at the Red River in 1871 less than one block north of here.

The towns grew up at this intersection of river and rail. Steamboats traveling the shallow Red River stopped at this point and cargo from the boats was then transferred into wagons and boxcars.

Fargo-Moorhead became the most important shipping and marketing center in the region. The cities were energized by thousands who came here seeking new jobs and . . . — Map (db m43833) HM

North Dakota (McKenzie County), Watford City — “Cannon Ball” Concretions
      The large spherical boulders in front of you are called concretions. They may have any shape, but most are round. Concretions are formed within rocks (shale, clay, sandstone, etc.) by the deposition of mineral around a core. More concretions will be exposed here as erosion continues. — Map (db m88650) HM
North Dakota (McKenzie County), Watford City — Badlands Panorama
          The colorful and fantastic shapes along these canyon walls are part of an ever-changing landscape. The horizontal layers of multi-colored sandstone, clay and shale are complimented by scattered beds of lignite coal and patches of pastel pink scoria. Scoria, or clinker, is created when the soft lignite burns, baking the surrounding clay to this bright color.           Other layers contain concentrations of petrified logs and stumps of redwood, cypress and cedar. The rock layers are . . . — Map (db m85880) HM
North Dakota (McKenzie County), Watford City — Bentonitic Clay
      The blue-black popcorn-like soil that caps the plateau 50 feet below this point is bentonitic clay. Bentonite clays flow when wet. This bluish-colored layer can be traced for miles up and down the river. — Map (db m88636) HM
North Dakota (McKenzie County), Watford City — Building From Hard Times
The drought and depression of the 1930’s hit the badlands region hard. Small landowners, no longer able to eke out a living, sold their lands to the government with the hope of finding a new start elsewhere. Throughout the country, men were out of work. National relief programs, such as the Civilian Conservation Corps (C.C.C.), Emergency Relief Administration (E.R.A.), and Works Progress Administration (W.P.A.), were created to employ men and to accomplish conservation projects. Here in the . . . — Map (db m88634) HM
North Dakota (McKenzie County), Watford City — Edge of a Glacier
      These small boulders are clues to a fascinating story. Geologists believe they were ripped from bedrock 400 miles north in Canada and carried to this point by a great glacier which covered nearly all North America north and east of here.       The ice melted thousands of years ago, but these rocks, called “erratics” because they are “out of place”, are clear evidence the glacier once covered the ground upon which you stand.       The course of the Little . . . — Map (db m88638) HM
North Dakota (McKenzie County), Watford City — Long X Cattle Trail
      Abundant grass in North Dakota resulted in cattle being driven in the 1880’s along this trail to the Long X Ranch three miles north of this point. In North Dakota the trail passed through the place that is now the town of New England, then on west of Dickinson and the Killdeer Mountains. The trail crossed the Little Missouri River about a mile southeast of here and then led up the Squaw Creek Valley to your left. — Map (db m88651) HM
North Dakota (McKenzie County), Watford City — Longhorns
Good grass and shelter attracted ranching interests to the badlands. Taking advantage of the void left by the killing of the bison, a Texas trail drive pushed 4,000 head of longhorn cattle into this region in the fall of 1884. Other trail drives followed, bringing thousands of longhorns. Hardy animals, longhorns fared well on the long walk from Texas. Turned loose on the open range, they adapted quickly and were ready for market in two years. Twenty years later, the longhorns had almost . . . — Map (db m88641) HM
North Dakota (McKenzie County), Watford City — Man and Grass
      Throughout history livestock growing has depended upon abundant grasslands. An unused sea of grass in this region attracted cattlemen who brought large herds here in the early 1880’s. Damage from overstocking and overgrazing brought a quick decline of the open range cattle industry. Protection today is healing the effects of past abuse of the vegetation. Grass within the park now supports the native wildlife. — Map (db m88637) HM
North Dakota (McKenzie County), Watford City — Roosevelt and the Boat Thieves
      In the spring of 1886 thieves stole Theodore Roosevelt’s boat from his Elkhorn Ranch, 25 miles south of here. Roosevelt pursued the thieves past this point and captured them at the mouth of Cherry Creek about 24 miles downstream. He then marched the thieves overland to Dickinson where they were tried and convicted. — Map (db m87201) HM
North Dakota (McKenzie County), Watford City — Slump Formation
      These tilted mounds were once part of the higher cliffs beyond. Stream cutting against their base over-steepened the cliffs. During wet periods, blocks of earth slid downhill, retaining their original layered sequence.       Can you match the layers? — Map (db m88649) HM
North Dakota (McKenzie County), Watford City — Walter H. Chaloner
In memory of Walter H. Chaloner 1918 – 1933 Near this spot, this pioneer’s son failed in an attempt to jump a washout because of the tie-down on his horse. After five days of searching, he was found alive pinned under his horse. He did not survive. Fifty years in saddle — Map (db m85879) HM
North Dakota (McLean County), Washburn — Seaman
While preparing for the expedition to the Pacific, Meriwether Lewis visited Philadelphia for instructions in natural sciences, astronomical navigation and field medicine. It is believed that it was during this period that Lewis purchased Seaman, his ”dogg of the Newfoundland breed,” for $20. Although Lewis left unsaid his reason for selecting a Newfoundland, he may have been impressed with the breed’s size, strength and swimming abilities and its reputation for having a keen . . . — Map (db m36352) HM
North Dakota (Mercer County), Fort Clark — Fort Clark Historic Site
On this site are the remains of a large earthlodge village originally settled by the Mandan Indians (ca.1822) and the trading forts Clark and Primeau. Previous to the establishment of Fort Clark, an unnamed post was built in the area by James Kipp and a Mr.Tilton for the Columbia Fur Company (ca. 1822-1823), but this post was abandoned shortly thereafter as a result of pressures by Arikara. Tilton returned to St. Louis, but Kipp remained at the Mandan village and built Fort Clark in 1831 . . . — Map (db m33313) HM
North Dakota (Mercer County), Stanton — Lewis & Clark at the Knife River Indian VillagesLewis & Clark in North Dakota
With 168 days and 1,600 miles behind them, the Lewis and Clark Expedition arrived near the Knife River Villages. Captain William Clark wrote: October 27, 1804 "came too at the Village on the L.S. this village is situated on an eminance of about 50 feet above the Water in a handsome plain it containes [40 or 50] houses in a kind of Picket work, the houses are round and verry large containing several families, as also their horses which is tied on one Side of the . . . — Map (db m33610) HM
North Dakota (Morton County), Mandan — Mandan Scenic OverlookLewis & Clark in North Dakota
Sunday, October 21, 1804 A driving northeast wind, cold temperatures, and freezing rain and snow led Lewis and Clark to seek shelter after only 7 miles. During the day, they passed the mouth of the Heart River learning from their Arikara passenger that the Mandans had sacred sites in that area. Several other abandoned earth lodge villages were reported, including one located in "a butifull & extensive plain." Clark killed a buffalo near their campsite northeast of modern Mandan on the west bank of the river. — Map (db m44707) HM
North Dakota (Sioux County), Fort Yates — Sitting BullTatanka Iyontanke
A member of the Hunkpapa band of the Teton Sioux Indians, Sitting Bull became a warrior of much renown and was eventually acknowledged as a leader of all the Teton Sioux. A noble and just leader but misunderstood by the white man. He was influential in the destruction of Custer’s forces at the Little Big Horn. His insistence that his people be allowed to participate in the ghost dances of the late 1880’s eventually led to his being murdered by Indian police in an attempted arrest at Standing . . . — Map (db m82316) HM WM
North Dakota (Stark County), Belfield — Dude on the Frontier
Theodore Roosevelt, 24 years old, came to the North Dakota badlands from New York City to hunt his first buffalo. For a week there was nothing but rain – at last some fresh tracks. And after hard riding, and a lot of missed shots, Roosevelt finally downed a large bull. < Left Sidebar : > He was looking for a taste of Wild West adventure. But something about the badlands made a deeper impression. Swift rides in the early morning, the songs of unfamiliar birds, the rock . . . — Map (db m87203) HM
North Dakota (Stark County), Belfield — Invader on the BadlandsTheodore Roosevelt National Park
In 1909 an aggressive newcomer showed up on the Dakota grasslands. Originally, from Europe, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) prefers the prime real estate of the badlands – streambeds, wooded draws, and drainages – and has earned its reputation as the most invasive of the over sixty alien plants now found in this national park. When native North Dakota flora are crowded out by leafy spurge, the animals that depend on them for food and cover – bison, elk, and cattle . . . — Map (db m88606) HM
North Dakota (Stark County), Belfield — Invasion ConfrontedTheodore Roosevelt National Park
The National Park Service and its neighbors wage a costly campaign to contain the spread of noxious weeds by fighting back on several fronts. Mowing, prescribed fires, spraying chemicals, and new insect allies – all contribute to restore the balance of nature closer to what Theodore Roosevelt would have known a century ago. “As a nation we have tended to live with an eye single to the present, and have permitted the reckless waste and destruction of much of our natural . . . — Map (db m88607) HM
North Dakota (Stark County), Belfield — The Badlands
The stillness of the land is a disguise. Hard infrequent rain attack the loosely cemented clays and sandstones, gouging new gullies and carrying off as much as two to four inches of surface a year from steep, unprotected slopes. At night the buttes and outcroppings take on eerie shapes. A dawning sun pours back the shifting colors. In the future this jagged land will be smooth and rounded. The river, cutting through soft rock – the burning lignite – the sudden downpours – . . . — Map (db m87222) HM
North Dakota (Stark County), Belfield — The Soldiers and the Sioux
Cultural Conflicts Set the Stage During the late 1880s, miners, traders, and homesteaders rushed to the West, pushing Northern Plains tribes into ever smaller remnants of their homelands. Treaties between the U.S. government and the tribes were made and broken; tensions rose between Native Americans and newcomers. Tribes responded to the wave of Euro-American immigrants with increasingly militant attempts to defend their homes and cultures. For the Santee Sioux, tensions peaked in August . . . — Map (db m87215) HM
North Dakota (Stark County), Belfield — Time Travel on the Custer Trail
Between 1864 and 1876, five military expeditions crossed this windswept country. Though only a couple of skirmishes occurred in the badlands, their stories hold a significant place in the history of the Great Sioux War. Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer accompanied two of these expeditions. Although Custer was not the highest ranking officer with either expedition, his controversial exploits and death at the Little Bighorn gave him a more enduring place in history than many officers . . . — Map (db m87216) HM
North Dakota (Stark County), Belfield — Ukrainian Immigrants
      From the populated villages of Ukraine to the unsettled regions of North Dakota, the Ukrainian immigrants came here at the end of the 19th century. They emigrated from the “Bread Basket of Europe” to the virgin sodland yet untouched by man – from a region of warm climate to an area where long winters lay life dormant. Yet within a span of a lifetime, they developed here in Dakota a farming empire undreamed of by man. The Ukrainian Pioneer Cross is dedicated to these . . . — Map (db m85915) HM
North Dakota (Stark County), Belfield — Welcome to Painted Canyon – A View into Theodore Roosevelt National Park
Painted Canyon . . . the name itself evokes an image of color and light playing across the face of a wild and broken land. Of the countless individuals who have stood transfixed at the canyon rim – Native Americans, fur traders, a cavalry general, a man who would become the 26th President, naturalists, travelers, and writers – all have tried to express the feeling of the moment. After you have enjoyed the scenic view, we invite you to visit the other areas of Theodore Roosevelt . . . — Map (db m87204) HM
North Dakota (Stutsman County), Jamestown — Jamestown Dam
Jamestown Dam 1953 Missouri River Basin project Built by and for the people of the United States for the conservation, control, and use of water resources. Height of Dam 110 Feet Length of Crest 1418 Feet Reservoir Capacity 230,000 Acre Feet United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation — Map (db m90547) HM
North Dakota (Williams County), Williston — Outpost on the MissouriFort Union Trading Post National Historic Site — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior
Early explorers reported that America’s western mountains were rich in furs. As a part of a plan to extend trading into the Upper Missouri country, John Jacob Astor’s American Fur Company built Fort Union here, near the junction of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers, in 1829. This post soon became the headquarters for trading beaver furs and buffalo robes with the Assiniboin Indians to the north, the Crow Indians on the upper Yellowstone, and the Blackfeet who lived farther up the . . . — Map (db m62068) HM
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