|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Acadian Dykeland — Les terres endiguées des Acadiens|
When the French settled at Port-Royal in the early 1600s, the shores of the Annapolis River were bordered with tidal salt marsh. In the 1630s, the French at Port-Royal started reclaiming this fertile land by building dykes.
The settlement spread up the Bay of Fundy to the Minas Basin and the Isthmus of Chignecto. Over generations, the French settlers developed their own cultural identity; they became the Acadian people. They dyked and cultivated salt marshes throughout this . . . — Map (db m78488) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Annapolis Royal Historic District — L’arrondissement historique d’Annapolis Royal|
From its strategic setting, Annapolis Royal has witnessed pivotal events in the history of European settlement in Canada. Located on a former Mi’kmaq meeting place, the townsite and its environs were known as Port-Royal by the French, who occupied the area in 1605. The distinctive Acadian settlement and agricultural patterns later developed on the surrounding marshlands. As the capital of the French colony of Acadia, Port-Royal experienced a tumultuous first century. Its . . . — Map (db m78670) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Captures of Port Royal — 1654 (&) 1710|
|In commemoration of the captures of Port Royal by New England expeditions under Maj. Robert Sedgwick 1654 and Colonel Francis Nicholson 1710. In this second expedition Col. Samuel Vetch was Adjutant-General. There were 36 transports, 4 ships of 60 guns each, 2 of 40 guns, 1 of 36 guns and 2 bomb galleys. The land forces were 1 regiment of marines, Col. Robert Reading, 2 regt. from Massachusetts under Col. Sir Chas. Hobby and Col. William Taylor, Col. Shadrach Walton’s New Hampshire Regt., Col. . . . — Map (db m78439) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Cemeteries — Les Cimetières|
Two cemeteries are located in this burial ground: the earlier Acadian parish cemetery and the later Church of England cemetery. The wooden markers once placed on most of the graves have long since decayed. The gravestones that remain represent only a small portion of the burials here.
Starting in the middle 1600s, the Roman Catholic parish of St. Jean Baptiste located its cemetery in this area. Acadians from the Port-Royal area, French soldiers and administrators along with . . . — Map (db m78605) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Charles Fort / Le fort Charles — Charles de Menou d’Aulnay — (ca. 1604-1650) / (v.1604-1650)|
|Two markers are located on these monument. Charles Fort / Le fort Charles English
A group of about 70 Scottish settlers began a colony here in 1629, eight years after King James I granted ‘Nova Scotia’ to Sir William Alexander. Led by Alexander’s son, the Scots built a small fort, the remains of which lie beneath Fort Anne. Despite many deaths during the first winter, the surviving colonists thrived on agriculture, fishing, and trade with the Mi’kmaq. Most returned to . . . — Map (db m78486) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Daniel Auger de Subercase|
|In memory of
Daniel Auger de Subercase
Chevalier of the Military Order of St. Louis, last French commander of this fort and defender of Acadie.
Honour to unsuccessful valour — Map (db m78442) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Duvivier Attack — L’attaque de Duvivier|
In September 1744, French soldiers and Aboriginal warriors attacked this fort. The took advantage of the overcast and rainy weather to attack at night under cover of darkness, sometimes managing to slip onto the outer works of the fort. Night after night of harassment left the British fatigued, distracted and dispirited. The French commander, Captain Francois Du Pont Duvivier , would likely have taken the fort had his promised support arrived before the British reinforcements . . . — Map (db m78606) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Early Use of Site — L’utilisation de l’endroit à l’origine|
Before you, the Allain and Annapolis rivers meet, creating a stopping place used by travelers for many centuries. The Annapolis River makes access to the site easy, while the natural rise of land provides a good view downstream.
The Mi’kmaw (sic) people used this site for over 3,000 years. Men from the Port-Royal Habitation, located downriver, grew wheat here and built a gristmill on the Allain River in the early 1600s. In 1629, Sir William Alexander chose this site for a . . . — Map (db m78483) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Fort Anne, a Bastioned Fort — Le Fort Anne, fort à bastions|
Forts like this are called bastioned forts after one other principal pars - the bastion. The fort’s shape creates areas of crossfire which allow the land surrounding the fort to be moere easily defended. From the late 1600s to the 1800s, this type of fort was constructed at hundreds of locations throughout Europe and North America.
Les forts de ce type s’appellent des forts à bastions. Cet élément essentiel de leur conception, le bastion, permet de créer . . . — Map (db m78598) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Glebe Lands — Historic Lower Saint George Street|
|The modern-day market in Annapolis Royal sits on land that for much of the town’s history was church property. The earliest Roman Catholic Church, built of stone, was located next to the fort and destroyed following Sir William Phips’ capture of Port-Royal in 1690. Its cemetery and ruins were incorporated into the expanded fort after 1702. For more than a decade afterwards, church services were held in rented rooms in town.
In 1704 the French government purchased this site from Captain . . . — Map (db m78720) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Jean Paul Mascarene — c. 1694-1760|
A French Huguenot in the British army, Mascarene served here from 1710 to 1750. He was a member of the Council of Nova Scotia (1720-50), lieutenant-colonel of Philipps’ Regiment (1742-50), and administrator and commander in chief of the province (1740-49). Hampered by insufficient troops, a decaying fort and a lack of guidance from the authorities in England, he tried by persuasion and conciliation to ensure the neutrality of the Acadians. With the help of New England . . . — Map (db m78491) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Major Erasmus James Philipps|
|Major Erasmus James Philipps
Founder of the first masonic lodge in
Canada at Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia
June - 1738
First Provincial Grand Master
Erected by the Grand Lodge of
A.F. & A.M. of Nova Scotia, 1938 — Map (db m78700) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Masonic Stone of 1606|
| 1738 - 2013 This replica of the Masonic stone of 1606 was presented to the Masons of Nova Scotia as a gift from the Most Wor. Bro. Roy F. Lively past Grand Master of Nova Scotia 2008-2009 commemorating the 275th Anniversary of Masonry in Nova Scotia which is the birth place of Masonry in this great nation of Canada. May we on this 275th Anniversary dedicate ourselves to carrying forward the work which those of 275 years ago so nobly began. Let us firmly resolve to be worthy of the heritage . . . — Map (db m78668) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Port-Royal|
When the French first came to the Annapolis Basin, Samuel de Champlain called it “Port-Royal” in recognition of its great size.
Eventually, the area surrounding the basin and along the Annapolis River became known as Port-Royal.
Lorsque les Français arrivent pour le première fois dans le bassin de l’Annapolis, Champlain l’appelle «Port-Royal» pour souligner sa grand étendue. Par la suite, c’est la région entourant le bassin et le long de la . . . — Map (db m78449) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Queen’s Wharf — Le Quai de la Couronne|
Since the 1740s, three wharves have been built where the ruins of the Queen’s Wharf now lie. Everything the fort needed was landed on the wharf: troops, provisions, weapons and much more. It served the needs of the military until the garrison was withdrawn in 1854.
Over the years, the wharf was redesigned and reconstructed as required and continued to be used by local residents into the 1900s. The ruins before you date to around 1906, when the wharf was last rebuilt. . . . — Map (db m78445) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Rose Fortune — Independent Businesswoman, Port Constable — femme d’affaires indépendante, Port Constable|
Rose Fortune is a uniquely intriguing figure in Nova Scotia history. An independent businesswoman of African descent, she demonstrated remarkable character and indomitable resolve in her varied enterprises.
Operating a one-person transport company in early-1800s Annapolis Royal while keeping order on the town’s wharf as self-appointed Port Constable, she greeted passengers coming ashore and transported their luggage. Judge Halliburton, a regular client, relied on Rose to . . . — Map (db m78671) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Samuel Vetch|
Adjutant-General of the force under Colonel Francis Nicholson which captured Port Royal, Capital of Acadia, in 1710.
First Governor and Commander-in-Chief. A notable figure in colonial history. An able soldier and administrator.
With imperial vision he strove to extend the realm of Britain beyond the seas.
Adjudant-Général des troupes qui, sous le commandement du Colonel Francis Nicholson, capturèrent Port-Royal, Capitale de l’Acadie, en 1710. . . . — Map (db m78482) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Sieur de Monts|
|To the illustrious memory of Lieut. Gen’l Timothé Pierre du Guast,
Sieur de Monts,
the pioneer of civilization in North America, who discovered and explored the adjacent river, A.D. 1604, and founded on its banks the first settlement of Europeans north of the Gulf of Mexico.
The government of Canada reverently dedicates this monument within sight of that settlement, A.D, 1904. — Map (db m78443) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Sinclair Inn — L’auberge Sinclair|
The Sinclair Inn is an important document in the history of building in Atlantic Canada. In the 1780s, tavern-keeper Frederick Sinclair created this inn by combining two existing structures. Both were frame, and the walls of one were filled with wattle and daub, an insulation used in Acadia and New England in the 17th and early 18th centuries. Sinclair attempted to give his inn certain Georgian features of symmetry and classical detail. Restored to its present state in 1982, . . . — Map (db m78701) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Sir William Fenwick Williams|
|This tablet marks the Site of the Brith-place of General
Sir William Fenwick Williams
1799 - 1883
“The Hero of Kars”
Pasha of Turkey. Grand Officier Legion of Honour, France.
Member of the British Parliament. Commander-in-Chief Forces British North America.
Governor of Gibraltar. Constable of the Tower.
Lt. Governor of his Native Province. — Map (db m78672) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Sir William Robert Wolseley Winniett.|
|On next lot south now merged in
the street was born March 2, 1793
Sir William Robert Wolseley Winniett.
Knight, Captain, R.N.
Governor General Cape Coast District,
Beneficent Administrator. — Map (db m78698) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — The Black Hole — Le cachot|
The French built this powder magazine into the earthworks of their new fort in 1702. Both the French and the British used it to store gunpowder. In the early 1800s, it was used briefly as a prison or “Black Hole.”
In the 1890s, local citizens who were concerned about the dilapidated state of Fort Anne won a grant from the Government of Canada to restore this magazine.
En 1702, les Français construisent cette poudrière dans les remblais du . . . — Map (db m78601) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — The Flag Bastion — Le bastion de l’étendard|
You are standing on the west bastion which, in the 1700s, was the principal bastion. This being the closest bastion to the river, a flag was flown here to show approaching vessels who controlled the stronghold.
Important ceremonies took place here. In 1726, the British Crown and chiefs of the Mi’kmaw, Maliseet and Abenaki nations ratified a treaty during a trilingual ceremony. Also in 1726, some Acadians of the Annapolis Royal area swore a conditional oath of allegiance to . . . — Map (db m78603) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — Wharf & Waterfront — Historic Lower Saint George Street|
|In the early hours of July 4, 1724, a combined force of Mi’kimaq and Maliseet warriors attacked Annapolis Royal, slipping into the town as its residents slept. They attacked the fort from the cover of the hollow near the east bastion. Although the assault was repulsed by artillery fire, two soldiers were killed, some wounded, and several people were captured before the attackers retreated. Two British buildings were burned in the raid.
In reprisal, and by order of the governing council, . . . — Map (db m78702) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Annapolis County), Annapolis Royal — William Wolseley — Philipps Cosby|
|Two plaques share a common stand.
William Wolseley was born at Annapolis Royal, the son of an officier of the garrison. He entered the Royal Navy in 1769, and served with distinction in the Indian Ocean and in the Mediterranean, where he led a landing party which captured the tower of Mortella in 1794. Promoted to rear-admiral in 1804, Wolseley retired the following year, although he continued to advance, by regular gradation, . . . — Map (db m78607) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Regional Municipality), Sydney — J.F.W. DesBarres — 1722 - 1824|
|Founder of Sydney, 1785
Lieutenant Governor of Cape Breton — Map (db m78743) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Dartmouth — 06 — A Changing Lake-scape|
|Lake Micmac was smaller
Lake Micmac was considerably smaller before the Canal was begun. Evidence for this can be found in the cove to the west where the remains of a forest and marsh area can be seen under the surface of the Lake. To the east is the entrance to the canal and a point of land once referred to as Indian Point. When the lake was lowered in the 1970s a Mi’kmaq camp site was discovered and the large number of artifacts which were found are now in the NS Museum. This lake is . . . — Map (db m78081) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Dartmouth — 08 — A Testament to Hard Work|
You are now walking on a man made bank which forms one side of the canal cut. This wall of earth and stone was necessary to contain the depth of water needed to float the barges. During the first phase of the canal construction there would have been a minimum of approx. 2.4 meters (8 feet) of water but this was reduced to approx. 1.2 meter (4 feet) when it was decided to construct a smaller waterway in the 1850s. It is a testament to the work of the Irish and Scottish . . . — Map (db m78100) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Dartmouth — 02 — A Village of the Most Primitive Description|
You are looking at a part of the remains of what was known as the “Canal Camp.” The row of stones in this area represent the largest feature found to day at Port Wallace. An archeological investigation was carried out in 1997 by Archaeology students from St. Mary’s University but unfortunately nothing was discovered to indicate the use made of this particular building. However, it is in the area known as the Canal Camp where the workers and their families lived . . . — Map (db m77987) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Dartmouth — 07 — Barges, Steamboats and Scows|
You are now looking at the upper sill of Lock 2. The chambers of the first five Locks on the Canal are approximately 21 meters long and 5.5 meters wide.
Therefore the boats and barges used on the system had to be able to fit within these chambers. The watercraft used on the Canal included three steamboats, twelve scows and an 80 ton barge. These craft were used to transport freight and passengers to and from Dartmouth and the interior of the Province. Bricks, pottery and . . . — Map (db m78083) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Dartmouth — 01 — Before the Canal|
|Cutting the Canal
You are now standing about one third of the way between Lake Micmac to the South (left) and Lake Charles to the North (right). Before canal construction began in 1826 there was no flow of water between these two lakes. The Mi’kmaq and early settlers wishing to go from one lake to the other had to portage or carry their boats through the 1.5 kilometres of forested area. The man made canal cut with its two locks took three years to construct and was the most difficult . . . — Map (db m77986) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Dartmouth — 16 — Benching - An early construction technique|
As you look down the Cut you will see, on the left or East bank, stone walls separated by narrow, flat terraces. This construction technique was used by the canal workers to prevent the earth from sliding down the bank. It was obviously an efficient construction method as the sides of the canal cut remain almost intact two centuries later.
If you look below and on either side of the channel you will see large cut stones which are the remains of a mitred . . . — Map (db m78117) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Dartmouth — Canal Shubenacadie Canal — National Historic Civil Engineering Site / Site Historique National de Génie Civil|
Charles William Fairbanks
Engineers / Ingénieurs — Map (db m77984) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Dartmouth — 13 — Deep Cut|
From this location you can begin to appreciate the enormous task which faced the canal workers. Prior to 1826 this canal cut or trench did not exist and all of the earth and rock had to be removed. Unlike the lower part of the canal - where you saw the banks which had to be built up - in this area the channel had to be dug out.
Simple hand tools, gun powder and raw strength were all that was available for this back breaking task. As you walk along the trails you will see . . . — Map (db m78105) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Dartmouth — Historic Shubenacadie Canal System — Lock 3 — 1824-31 ——— 1856-70|
|At the point you are approximately 26 meters above sea level, almost at the height of Lake Charles from which the water flows in two directions - south to the Harbour and north to the Bay of Fundy. To get to this point vessels would have traveled from the Harbour to Sullivan’s Pond (lift of 15m) via the inclined plain which no longer exists and passed through Locks 1, 2 and 3.
This area of the canal provides an excellent opportunity to view all the components of a lock system - lock, dam and . . . — Map (db m78147) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Dartmouth — Historic Shubenacadie Canal System — Lock 2 — 1824-31 ——— 1856-70|
|Vessels entering Lock two, traveling northward, were approximately 19 meters above the level of the Harbour. This lock would raise them another three or four meters enabling them the make their way along the canal to Lock three. This present lock was completed in 1857. However the first lock at this site was constructed by Irish and Scottish canal workers in the late 1820’s. It was built totally of granite and was much larger than the present one - six meters longer and over a meter wider. The . . . — Map (db m78148) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Dartmouth — 03 — Lightning Strikes at Canal Camp|
The most concentrated number of features belonging to the Canal Camp are located in this area beneath the trees and along the roadway. You can still make out the remains of several stone foundations. A plan of this area prepared in 1826 shows a line of small cottages or huts. Approximately three hundred navvies (from the word “navigator” or canal labourer) worked and lived here with their families from 1826 to 1831. A newspaper article of the time reports that on one . . . — Map (db m77988) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Dartmouth — 12 — Navvies Dwelling|
|A Dwelling for Two Families
Imagine this structure on top of the stone foundation in front of you. This home would be similar to the one at Site No. 9. However this structure is larger and contains two small stone hearths. When excavated in 1985 by Dr. Stephen Davis of Saint Mary’s University, a knife was found beneath the hearth stones - this is believed to be an Irish tradition. — Map (db m78104) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Dartmouth — 09 — Of Bough and Bark|
This feature represents an example of cultural transfer by emigrants to Canada from their homeland. This dwelling cabin strongly resembles the description of the cabins of the working poor in Northern Scotland and Ireland, as recorded there in the 1830s. The common elements of this and the cabins in Europe are small dimensions, set into an embankment or hillside, earth floors, no flue or chimney, the fire built on the floor. Here at Port Wallace, the roof was of boughs and . . . — Map (db m78101) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Dartmouth — 05 — Official Groundbreaking 1829|
|Location of prominent historical characters at the ground breaking ceremony
General location of the official ground breaking ceremony, July 25th, 1826. Looking south from the walking bridge you are viewing the general location of the official ground breaking ceremony. In a very formal manner, Lord Dalhouse, Governor General of British North America and Sir James Kempt, Lt. Governor of Nova Scotia, broke the first ground for the Shubenacadie Canal.
The ceremony was attended by the . . . — Map (db m78078) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Dartmouth — 14 — One of the mysteries yet to be solved…|
|Possibly a Storage Building for Powder
This is the only example of this style of structure found anywhere along the canal. While the Archaeologists are uncertain about its use, it may have been a storage area for black powder used to blast the bedrock found in the Deep Cut. However, an analysis of the surrounding soil did not reveal any evidence of this. It is likely this round stone base would have had a roof of logs and bark. — Map (db m78106) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Dartmouth — Shubenacadie Canal, Port Wallace|
|From 1826 to 1831, canal labourers constructed two locks and the “deep cut” between Lake Charles and Lake Micmac. During these years, upwards of 250 workers and their families lived here. The locks were rebuilt and operated between 1858 and 1870. — Map (db m77956) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Dartmouth — 15 — Summit of the Canal|
|Highest point of the Canal
Ahead you will see Lake Charles which is the highest body of water in the Canal system. From this lake, water flows south to the Halifax Harbour and north to the Bay of Fundy. You are now approx. 29 meters (95 feet) above the level of the harbour and vessels reaching this point have been lifted up this distance by an incline railway and three locks. In the distance you have walked from Lake Micmac, you have climbed approx. 9 meters (30 feet) in elevation. — Map (db m78115) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Dartmouth — 10 — The Fairbanks Solution|
When first built this lock was made entirely of granite blocks, as represented by the end walls. Like the other structures of the Canal, this lock fell into disrepair between 1831 and 1854. It was completely rebuilt by Charles Fairbanks using the less expensive North American method.
When operating the inner walls of the Lock would have had wooden plank surfaces. The lock raised and lowered vessels 3.7 meters (12 feet). — Map (db m77985) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Dartmouth — 17 — The Forge|
|The Blacksmith’s Shop
Excavated by Dr. Davis in 1985, this forge operated during both the first construction period (1820s) and the second (1850s). It was here that workers and masons would have their tools repaired and stone picks sharpened. On June 10th, 1862 Henry Findlay, Superintendent of the canal wrote in his log book: “found the fastening on the forge door had been forced off. I then started for the workshop and when half way up to it saw a man at the end of it. I gave . . . — Map (db m77982) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Dartmouth — 04 — Unique Construction|
Looking north from the walking bridge you see Lock 2. This lock was the first to be constructed on the Canal. Initially the lock was built totally of granite blocks (British construction method), as seen on the east wall. After the first Canal Company ceased operating in 1831 the workings of the Canal fell into disrepair. When the Canal was redesigned in 1854 by Charles William Fairbanks, a Dartmouth native, he introduced a composite stone and brace method (North American . . . — Map (db m78077) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Dartmouth — 11 — Waste Weir and Holding Pond|
|A water control structure
The man-made holding pond in front of you helped to maintain the level of the canal when the lock was in operation. The water in this holding pond had two purposes. It helped maintain the water level in the dry summer months and minimized the drop in water level when the lock was being filled. Each time Lock 3 was used, roughly 400,000 litres of water were sent down to the next level of the canal system. Beneath the boardwalk you are standing on is what is . . . — Map (db m78102) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Black-Binney House — Résidence Black-Binney|
Built about 1819 by John Black, successful merchant and Executive Councillor (1813-23), this house is a notable example of the finest Halifax residences of its day - the first important era of stone construction in the town. James Boyle Eniacke, Premier of Nova Scotia (1848-54), lived here for some years until about 1855. From then until 1887 the house was occupied by the Anglican Bishop of Nova Scotia, the Rt. Rev. Hibbert Binney.
Construite vers 1819 par . . . — Map (db m77657) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Canadian Corps of Commissionaires|
|The corps was formed in Nova Scotia and elsewhere across Canada in 1937, on the instigation of the Canadian Government, to find employment for worthy older veterans.
Its organization was patterned along military lines of the British Corps of Commissionaires, founded in 1859.
The Black-Binney House was acquired by the Board of Governors in 1965, and was restored as an historic building, for use as Divisional Headquarters.
It is dedicated to the service of veterans as a Centennial project . . . — Map (db m77805) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Canadian Sailor's Monument|
|The sailor statue represents those valiant young Canadians who served in both war and peace is symbolic of the thousands of sailors who were instrumental in the victory at sea and a fitting acknowledgement to those who continue to maintain the peace. — Map (db m77597) WM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Captain / Capitaine James Cook — (1728-1779)|
Before the voyages that brought him world fame as Captain Cook, this British Royal Navy officier complied navigational charts for the coasts of Quebec and Nova Scotia. While based in Halifax from 1758 to 1762, he learned triangulation and other valuable skills, which later enabled him to produce the first scientific, large-scale hydrographic survey of the dangerous coast of Newfoundland. His charts were to remain standard for a century. Cook’s masterful work prompted the . . . — Map (db m77953) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Carved in Stone — Pierres gravées|
These gravestones were all carved by hand, using chisels and wooden mallets. Many of the old slate stones were quarried and carved around Massachusetts Bay, and shipped to Halifax before the American Revolution. By the 1770s local stone carvers were making gravestones from a poorer quality local slate (or “ironstone”). Most gravestones carved after 1820 are plain, massive sandstone.
The images or symbols can be a clue to age. Older stones show symbols of . . . — Map (db m77782) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Charles Morris — 1711 (Boston, MA) - 1781 (Windsor, NS)|
|Charles Morris was Nova Scotia’s Chief Surveyor and one of he first residents of Halifax.
In 1750, on order from the founder of Halifax, Edward Cornwallis, Morris began surveying the entire peninsula, laying out new suburbs and 240 acres of “common land” to be used for firewood and pasturage. A 1762 plan by Morris defined the original Halifax Common, which was officially granted by King George III to the town’s inhabitants in 1763.
Morris’s role in the establishment of Halifax . . . — Map (db m77647) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Deadman's Island|
|These men died in captivity while serving the United States of America on land and sea during the War of 1812. They lie in unmarked graves here on Deadman's Island.|
Followed by a list of 188 men identified by Name, Rank, Ship/Unit, and Date of Death. — Map (db m44062) HM
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Duke of York's Martello Tower — York Redoubt|
|[English Text only shown] The Duke of York's Martello Tower was one of many small towers built for coastal defence throughout the British Empire. They were usually round, with stone walls too thick to be penetrated by cannon balls. This tower protected the seaward battery from attack by land. The tower was built in 1798 by Prince Edward, fourth son of King George III, while he was the military commander at Halifax. It was named for Edward's brother, the Duke of York. What happened to . . . — Map (db m44629) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Edmund Burke|
|This plaque is dedicated to the memory of
distinguished scholar, missionary pastor, and prelate, having served for sixteen years, he was elected as Bishop of Sion and first Vicar Apostolic of Nova Scotia on July 4, 1817. He opened the first Catholic school in Halifax. He drew the plans and, on June 9, 1820, laid the cornerstone of this basilica. He died on November 19, 1820 and lies buried in Holy Cross Cemetery. In memory of the Reverend John Enslow Burns — Map (db m77747) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Fairview Lawn Cemetery — Titanic|
|Established in 1893, this non-denominational burial ground was originally known as the Green Lawn Cemetery. In 1894, the Fairview Lawn Cemetery Ltd. took over management of the cemetery which it operated for 50 years. Unable to fulfill its commitments with regard to the care and upkeep, the company handed over the cemetery responsibilities to the City of Halifax. On January 13, 1944, it was incorporated into the City of Halifax as the Fairview Lawn Cemetery. A number of famous Canadians are . . . — Map (db m77857) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Fort Needham Memorial Park — and the Halifax Explosion|
|This marker is composted exclusively pictures and their captions. There is a left side and a right side to the marker. Captions are presented left to right, then top to bottom. Click on the marker image to enlarge it.
• This view from Fort Needham was drawn and engraved by Lieutenant Colonel Edward Hick, a British officier stationed in Halifax with the 70th Regiment of Foot from 1778 to 1782. The fort consisted of wooden buildings, for the defence of the . . . — Map (db m77955) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — France and Canada — La France et le Canada — Theirs is a story of enduring friendship./ C’est l’histoire d’une longe amitié.|
|France and Canada share a long history. Theirs is a story of enduring friendship.
It began 400 years ago, in Nova Scotia, the birthplace of Acadie, with the arrival of the first French settlers and of Samuel de Champlain at Port-Royal in 1605.
Halifax had its first contact with France at the beginning of the 18th century. In 1711, the French engineer Delabat drew fortification plans for Chebucto Bay (present day Halifax harbour).
In autumn of 1746, the Duc D’Anville led an ill-fated . . . — Map (db m77622) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Georges Island — L’Île-Georges|
The Island was first fortified when the British founded Halifax in 1749. During the period of the Acadian Deportation, 1755 to 1762, the island was sometimes a detention camp for Acadians prior to being shipped to other British colonies. During the 19th century Halifax became a major British naval base and Georges Island one of an inter-connected system of harbour defences. As military technology changed, the defences of Georges Island were updated.
The island remained an . . . — Map (db m77619) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Glebe House Campus — Saint Mary’s University|
|On this site in 1802 was erected the school building which became the forerunner of Saint Mary’s University.
Edmund Burke, newly appointed as Roman Catholic Vicar General in Nova Scotia, had the two-storey structure built in the hope of extending educational opportunities for Catholic young people and training candidates for the clergy. Burke’s initiative encountered repeated delays caused by opposition from the political establishment of the day and by the scarcity of qualified teachers, . . . — Map (db m77719) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Halifax and RMS Titanic — Halifax et le RMS Titanic|
|English Here, in Halifax, lie the remains of 150 victims of one of history’s most tragic maritime disasters. Just before midnight on 14 April 1912, the White Star liner RMS Titanic struck an iceberg in the North Atlantic. The majestic ship sank in less than three hours with the loss of close to 1,500 lives. In the aftermath of the sinking, White Star chartered three ships from Halifax and one from St. John’s to search for the dead. Of the 328 recovered, many were buried at sea. . . . — Map (db m77852) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Halifax Citadel — La Citadelle d’Halifax|
Built to defend against a land-based attack, the Halifax Citadel was the fourth in a series of forts to occupy this hill, The star-shaped fortress, completed in 1856, was the centerpiece of the extensive system of fortifications constructed by the British military from 1749 to protect this strategic port, which by the mid-19th century had become one of four principal naval stations in the British Empire. Garrisoned by the British until the Canadian military assumed control of . . . — Map (db m78258) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Halifax Waterfront Buildings|
|English From the founding of Halifax in 1749 until the early twentieth century, this portion of the waterfront was associated with men and events in the civic and commercial life of the city. These seven typical warehouses and offices, erected between 1815 and 1905, housed individual merchants as well as international trading and shipping companies. This ironstone building housed the office of the shipping firm, Pickford & Black (1876-1968). The building opposite was the head quarters . . . — Map (db m77826) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Halifax’s Cable Wharf|
|The Cable Wharf was purpose built in 1913 by the Western Union Telegraph Company and measures 108 x 17 metres (355 x 54 feet). It is where the company’s cable ships, Minia, Lord Kelvin and Cyrus Field docked and underwent minor repairs. Also serving as a supply and maintenance depot for the vessels and their equipment, The Cable Wharf was a prominent feature of the city’s waterfront and a thriving enterprise for over 50 years.
The bottom floor of the 91 x 9 . . . — Map (db m77595) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Major General / Major-Général Robert Ross 1766-1814|
Major General Ross sailed to North America in the summer of 1814 from the Peninsular War against France to command the British army on the east coast of the United States, opening a second front to relieve the pressure on the Niagara Peninsula. He personally lead the British troops ashore and marched through Maryland to attack the Americans at Bladensberg on August 24, 1814. From Bladensberg Ross captured Washington D.C. and burned the public buildings of the city, . . . — Map (db m77877) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Mr. John Samwell — Mr. William Stevens|
|On your left near this spot lie the remains of … / À votre gauche, près d’ici se trouvent les restes de ….
Mr. / M. John Samwell
Midshipman / Aspirant de marine • 1797-1813
Mr. / M. William Stevens
Boatswain / Maître de manoeuvre • 1757-1813
Sacred to the Memory
Of Mr John Samwell Midshipman of HMS Shannon who red at the nav(e)l hospital on the 13 of June 1813 aged 18 years Also Mr William Stevens boatswain of . . . — Map (db m77897) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Norway|
|In memory of members of
the Norwegian Merchant Navy,
Royal Norwegian Navy
and Royal Norwegian Army
who were lost at sea or were buried
in Nova Scotia during the Second World War
We will remember them — Map (db m77596) WM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Old Burying Ground — 1749 - 1844|
|This land was set aside as a common burial ground outside the stockade of the new fortified town of Halifax
First grave dug June 21, 1749
Granted to St. Paul’s Church June 17, 1793
Closed to burials August 18, 1844
Welsford-Parker Monument dedicated July 17, 1860 — Map (db m77743) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Old Burying Ground — Le Vieux Cimetière|
The Old Burying Ground, which contains more than 1,200 head and footstones, constitutes a unique concentration of gravestone art. A rich variety of styles, poignant images and carving skill is reflected in these old stones. The winged skulls and the winged heads, or soul effigies, are exceptional. Used by all denominations, the Old Burying Ground served the city of Halifax from 1749 until its closure in 1844. Fenced and landscaped in the 1860s, it was restored as a park and . . . — Map (db m77784) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Passage to a New Beginning • Passage à un nouveau monde|
Celebrating Canada’s Immigrants
In the 1940s and 1950s, Canada opened its doors wide to European immigrants. With haunting wartime memories still fresh in their minds, men, women and children from diverse countries and cultures arrived at Halifax, Saint John and Quebec City.
After a voyage of a week or more across the North Atlantic many disembarked confused and exhausted, clutching their worldly possessions. Some were eager to explore their new country, while others . . . — Map (db m77876) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Philippe Aubert de Gaspé (fils) — 1814 - 1841|
Author of the first Canadian novel of French expression, L’influence du’ livre (1837), written in Saint-Jean-Port-Joli, Philippe-Ignace-Françoise Aubert de Gaspé was born in Quebec City on April 8th, 1814. He worked from 1840 until his death on March 7th, 1841 in Halifax where he was interred. It is believed he was buried in the Poor House cemetery.
Auteur du premier roman canadien d’expression française, L’influence d’un livre (1837), rédige . . . — Map (db m77825) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Pier 21 — Canada’s National Immigration Museum — Musée national de l’immigration au Canada|
When the Canadian immigration complex known as Pier 21 closed its doors in March of 1971, it marked the end of a more than forty-year saga of human hope, vision, courage and resilience. From its opening on the Halifax waterfront in 1928 to its final months of operation, Pier 21 served as a bridge to new beginnings. More than a million immigrants, refugees, displaced persons and war brides passed through its transit shed on their way to becoming Canadian citizens. During the . . . — Map (db m77616) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Pier 21 / Le Quai 21 — Postwar Immigration / L’immigration de L’aprés-guerre — War Brides / Les Epouses de Guerre|
|There are three plaques on this monument.
Pier 21 / Le Quai 21 English
This site witnessed the arrival of approximately one million immigrants, who have enriched the cultural mosaic of Canada. Opened in 1928, Pier 21 served as one of Canada’s principal reception centres for immigrants until it closed in 1971. It typifies the large, self-contained immigrant facilities that the Government of Canada had begun to establish at major ports near the turn of the 20th century. . . . — Map (db m77718) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Pierre Maillard|
|This plaque is dedicated to the memory of
who served as missionary to the Micmac Indians in this country for over thirty years, who succeeded in reconciling the Micmac to British rule, who celebrated the first mass and opened the first Catholic Church in Halifax in 1759, who died on the twelfth day of August, 1762, and lies buried near this place. In memory of the Reverend John Enslow Burns — Map (db m77723) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Province House|
Province House is an architectural monument and the setting for signifiant events in Canadian political life. Begun in 1811 and opened in 1819 as the seat of government for Nova Scotia, it is one of the finest Palladian-style buildings in Canada. Its symmetrical composition, harmonious proportions and refined interior detailing are distinguishing features of the classical architecture of Georgian England. Before Confederation, epic orations within these walls contributed to . . . — Map (db m77858) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Samuel Cunard — 1787-1865|
|A native son and a great Nova Scotian, he received his early training in this city and became a highly regarded merchant, humanitarian and ship owner. All this was a prelude to his most successful venture, the founding of the British and North American Royal Mail Steam-packet Company and its successor the Cunard Steam-ship Company.
Aware of the need for a regular Transatlantic passenger and mail service, Cunard established a fortnightly sailing from Liverpool to Halifax, Boston and return, . . . — Map (db m77879) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Ships and Men of the Royal Canadian Navy|
|This memorial was erected
Atlantic Chief and Petty Officies Association
to commemorate the
Ships and Men of the Royal Canadian Navy
who failed to return through enemy action,
stress of weather and accidents during
The Battle of the Atlantic
to remind future generations of
The Price of Victory
They are one with the tides of the sea
They are one with the tides of our hearts
Dedicated in the fifty seventh year
of the reign of Queen Elizabeth II and
the . . . — Map (db m77646) WM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — South African War Monument|
by the people of
of those who served
and in memory of
those who fell in the
South African Campaign
1898 - 1902 — Map (db m77859) WM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — St. Mary’s Basilica — La Basilique St. Mary|
St. Mary’s holds a central position in the history of Roman Catholicism in Nova Scotia. Begun in 1820, the church demonstrated the enhanced ecclesiastical status of the province, which acquired its own Bishop in 1818, and witnessed enormous gains in the legal and social standing of Catholics. A major expansion and redecoration of the church between 1860 and 1874 reflected the growing confidence and importance of the Diocese. St. Mary’s, named a Basilica in 1950, is one of the . . . — Map (db m77721) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — The Grand Dérangement — Georges Island - Halifax / Île Georges - Halifax|
|This monument/marker is made up of four panels, two in English and two in French. Each language has a panel dealing with The Grand Dérangement and Georges Island. On top is a large, round medallion featuring a map showing Acadian deportation routes.
The Grand Dérangement
L’Acadie, established by France in 1604, was a strategically located and highly coveted colony. In 1713, it was handed over to England and renamed Nova Scotia. The foundation of Halifax, in . . . — Map (db m77625) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — The Old Burying Ground — Le Vieux cimetière communal|
In this common burial ground lie many of the first citizens of Halifax, their descendants and men of the British Army and the Royal Navy who were stationed here. First opened in 1749, the year Halifax was founded, it was used until 1844. During that period, over 12,000 men, women, and children were buried here; fewer than 10% of their graves are marked.
The graveyard was granted to St. Paul’s in 1793 and the church has maintained it ever since. Unfortunately, natural . . . — Map (db m77783) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — The Tall Ships Parade 2000 — Les Grands Voiliers 2000|
For five days beginning on July 20, 2000, Halifax harbour and waterfront was like no other place - wet or dry - on earth. The city was the sole Canadian host of the largest gathering ever of the world’s Tall Ships - majestic world-class symbols of a bygone Age of Sail. The visit marked the the North American terminus of an international, four-month transatlantic race that began in Southhampton (sic), England on April 19th and concluded in Amsterdam on August 24th. Vessels from . . . — Map (db m77741) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — The View from the Citadel / Le panorama vu de la citadelle — The Halifax Explosion / L’explosion d’Halifax — The Convoys / Les Convois|
|This marker is composed of five plaques on the same mounting. The marker stands on north wall of the Citadel overlooking Halifax Harbor. The markers are presented left to right.
The Halifax Explosion / L’explosion d’Halifax
From where you are standing, you can see Ground Zero for the Halifax Explosion, the largest man-made explosion prior to the first atomic bomb. On December 6, 1917, as the First World War raged around the globe, the Norwegian relief . . . — Map (db m78257) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — The Welsford Parker Monument — Le Monument Welsford-Parker|
|English This monument was erected in 1860 in memory of Major A.F. Welsford and Captain W.B.C.A. Parker. These two Halifax men both perished during the Crimean War. In September of 1855 they participated in the assault on the Great Redan, part of the eastern defenses of Sebastopol.
George Laing is credited with contracting this rare pre-Confederation war memorial. Laing also built the Federal Building in Halifax (now restored as the Art Gallery of Nova Scotia). Funds for the . . . — Map (db m77744) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — There Was Once a Very Special Ship|
|The ex-Admiralty ocean salvage tug FOUNDATION FRANKLIN sailed from the Foundation Maritime piers from the early 1930’s to 1948 on rescue and salvage missions in all kinds of weather, in peace and war to assist ships in distress on the great Western Ocean.
This plaque is placed here by the Atlantic Chief and Petty Officiers Association to honor the memory of the vessel, her colourful Masters and crew an with respect to our brethren of Canada’s Merchant Navy.
“Ah, me son” as on . . . — Map (db m77598) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — Why Aren’t We Americans? • Pourquoi ne sommes-nous pas des Américains? — The Old Burying Ground Remembers The War of 1812-1814 • Le vieux cimetière souvient de la guerre de|
| This marker may be conveniently divided into three section; left, center and right. The center sections is presented first.
We are not Americans because of the service men like the sailors and soldiers, casualties of the War of 1812, buried in this historic burying ground. They fought and died at sea and ashore to prevent the United States’ invasion and annexation of our country.
Grâce aux hommes comme les marins et . . . — Map (db m78073) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Halifax — York Redoubt|
York Redoubt was the heart of the defences protecting the outer harbour approaches to Halifax. Begun in 1793, it was enlarged by the Duke of Kent who constructed a Martello tower here in 1798. The redoubt became an essential link in the communications system protecting the city against surprise attack. Its strategic importance was such that it was rebuilt in the 1860s and 1880s to mount more powerful guns. In the twentieth century York Redoubt became the tactical command . . . — Map (db m44479) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Peggys Cove — Swissair Flight 111 Memorial — Whalesback|
|English text only shown
The communities of Peggys Cove and Blandford were central to the recovery operation following the crash of Swissair Flight 111. The Whalesback and Bayswater Beach sites were chosen for their proximity to those communities because they have view lines to the crash site and each other. The three sites combined - Whalesback, Bayswater, and the actual crash site - make a triangular shape, which is reflected in the design of the memorials. Whalesback is at the . . . — Map (db m45717) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Peggy's Cove — Peggy's Cove|
|This picturesque village and lighthouse are among the most photographed places in Canada. A romantic folk tale is told about how the Cove got its name. Young Peggy was traveling to Halifax to meet her fiance when the ship she was in foundered on the rocks. She was rescued by local folk, and when visitors went to see her they would say they were going to see “Peggy of the Cove.”
Collision of crustal plates beneath the ocean floor forced molten material to the surface, which . . . — Map (db m77937) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality), Peggy's Cove — Peggy's Cove|
|Peggy’s Cove Lighthouse
Built in 1868, the first lighthouse at Peggy’s Cove consisted of a wooden house topped by a beacon, Each evening, the lighthouse keeper lit a kerosene oil lamp magnified by a catoptric reflector (a silver-plated mirror) creating the red light, which marked the eastern entrance to St. Margaret’s Bay. In 1914, an octagon-shaped lighthouse built of concrete and reinforced steel, standing nearly 15 m (50 ft.) high, replaced the old structure and is the very lighthouse . . . — Map (db m77939) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Kings County), Grand Pré — Grand-Pré Rural Historic District — Arrondissement Historique Rurual de Grand-Pré|
The villages of Grand-Pré and Hortonville, and the fertile farmlands which surround them, comprise one of the oldest settlement and land use patterns of European origin in Canada. Acadians began settling near Grand-Pré in the 1680s, attracted by the vast stretches of tidal marshes. Employing ingenious dyke-building techniques developed at Port-Royal, Acadian farmers enclosed over one thousand acres of marshlands which, when desalinated, created superior cropland. The houses of . . . — Map (db m78721) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Kings County), Grand Pré — 01 — Statue of Evangeline — La statue d’Évangéline — Longfellow’s Heroine / Héroïne de Longfellow|
This statue of Evangeline, heroine of Longfellow’s epic poem, Evangeline: A Tale of Acadie, is a powerful emotive symbol of the Deportation. It connects the story of Evangeline to the history of Grand Prê.
Two famous sculptors from Quebec were associated with this statue. The Dominion Atlantic Railway (DAR) commissioned Henri Hébert to create the statue. Henri said his composition was inspired from a statuette, entitled L’Acadie, produced by his father, . . . — Map (db m78723) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Kings County), Grand Pré — The Expulsion of the Acadians — La déportation des Acadiens — (1755-1762)|
The expulsion of the Acadians began in 1755, on the eve of the Seven Years’ War. Frustrated with the neutrality of the Acadians who refused to swear an unconditional oath of allegiance to the Crown, British forces began the “grand dérangement.” Over the next eight years, more than 10,000 Acadians were dispersed throughout the American colonies, England and France. After the end of the war in 1763, many returned. They joined the small number of Acadians who had . . . — Map (db m78722) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Lunenburg County), Bayswater — Swissair Flight 111 Memorial — Bayswater|
|English text only shown
The communities of Peggys Cove and Blandford were central to the recovery operation following the crash of Swissair Flight 111. The Whalesback and Bayswater Beach sites were chosen for their proximity to those communities and because they have view lines to the crash site and each other.
The three sites combined — Whalesback, Bayswater and the actual crash site — make a triangular shape, which is reflected in the design of the memorials. . . . — Map (db m47255) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Lunenburg County), Lunenburg — “…for those in peril on the sea.”|
Seafaring of all kinds, and fishing especially, is one of most dangerous occupations. Lunenburgers have lived with the dangers associated with making a living from the sea. Fishermen in dories would get lost in the fog, unable to make their way back to their schooner, in the face of a sudden squall or storm. The power of the sea would often overwhelm an older, less seaworthy schooner or a vessel laden low with a hold full of fish. A rogue wave or a swinging boom could wash a . . . — Map (db m78204) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Lunenburg County), Lunenburg — Defence of Lunenburg — La défense de Lunenburg|
When the British settlement at Lunenburg was established in 1753, the Town plot was enclosed by pickets surrounding the east, north and west ends of the Town. The west end was fortified by four blockhouses placed at strategic intervals between the Front Harbour and the Back Harbour, and another on the east end on Blockhouse Hill. Each of these blockhouses formed a central “keep” of small heavily stockaded fortifications which were built to protect the new community . . . — Map (db m78328) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Lunenburg County), Lunenburg — First Peoples — Les Premières nations — Amskwesewaq Mimajuinu’k|
The earliest inhabitants of these lands were the Mi’kmaq. Their nation included most of the territory that later became Acadia and possibly parts of Newfoundland. This area was called Mi’kma’ki. It consisted of seven regions, each with its own Chief and Council, with the Grand Chief residing in Cape Breton. The Lunenburg area, “Merligueche”, was part of the Sikepne’ktik district, which included south and southwestern Nova Scotia.
The Mi’kmaq practiced a hunting . . . — Map (db m78297) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Lunenburg County), Lunenburg — Foreign Protestant Settlement in Lunenburg — L’arrivée des protestants étrangers à Lunenburg|
In 1750, British authorities, mistrustful of the colony’s large Acadian population, began encouraging immigration by settlers of more obvious loyalties. These settlers became known as the “Foreign Protestants.” They came from the German Palatinate, Switzerland and the French principality of Montbéliard drawn by the promis of free land, tools and rations and a wish to escape the religious persecution, taxation and over population of their homeland.
In the early . . . — Map (db m78296) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Lunenburg County), Lunenburg — Foreign Protestants & the Settlement of Lunenburg — La colonisation de Lunenburg par les protestants étrangers.|
On June 8, 1753, a small flotilla of ships carried 1453 settlers protected by 150 troops and militia, arrived at the harbour which the Mi’kmaq called Merligueche after the whitecaps that topped the waves in the harbour. This group was drawn from 2000 “Foreign Protestants” who had arrived in Nova Scotia over the previous three years from farming districts along Germany’s Upper Rhine river. They had come mostly from the German Palatinate, the adjoining Swiss cantons, . . . — Map (db m78318) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Lunenburg County), Lunenburg — Lunenburg - Home of the Bluenose & Bluenose II — Lunenburg - Port d’attache du Bluenose et du Bluenose II|
On March 26, 1921, Smith & Rhuland’s launched hull number 121, the fishing schooner Bluenose. Built from a design by William J. Roué, Bluenose at 258 tons, was the largest schooner ever launched at Lunenburg. Although built primarily to challenge the Americans who had won the first series for the International Fishermen’s Trophy, she also has to pay her own way as a working fishing vessel. In 1921, under the command of Captain Angus Walters of Lunenburg, she . . . — Map (db m78158) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Lunenburg County), Lunenburg — Lunenburg’s Fishing Industry 1870’s - 1940’s — L’industrie de la pêche à Lunenburg de 1870 aux années 1940|
By 1870, Lunenburg schooners abandoned the Labrador fishery and concentrated on the fishing banks off of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. Instead of handlining from the schooner’s deck, fishermen set out in dories - double-ended, flat bottomed boats - which could be easily stackers on deck when not in use. Handlining soon gave way to the use of trawls or long lines. This consisted of a length of line almost a mile long with smaller lines and baited hooks every six feet. Trawls . . . — Map (db m78207) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Lunenburg County), Lunenburg — Lunenburg’s Fishing Industry Since 1940’s — L’industrie des pêches de Lunenburg depuis les années 1940|
Although efforts were made to use large vessels known as otter trawls in the offshore fishery in the 1920’s, they were not used extensively until after the Second World War. Unlike the long line which used baited hooks to attract the fish, otter trawls were dragged along the ocean floor taking everything in their wake. The auxiliary schooners which tended to be privately owned, were soon replaced by side trawlers and draggers owned by large fishing companies like Lunenburg’s . . . — Map (db m78206) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Lunenburg County), Lunenburg — Lunenburg’s Fishing Industry to the 1870’s — L’industrie de la pêche à Lunenburg avant les années 1870|
Lunenburg’s early settlers, the “Foreign Protestants,” came from a rich agricultural area in Europe and it was planned that they should establish farms which could supply both their own needs and those of the colony’s capital at Halifax. The land could not sustain them and although they lacked experience in fishing, Lunenburgers soon became accomplished fishermen. At first they pursued the shore fishery and later began exploiting the rich fishing grounds along the . . . — Map (db m78259) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Lunenburg County), Lunenburg — Lunenburg’s Shipbuilding Tradition — La tradition de la construction navale à Lunenburg|
Lunenburg’s success in the fishery stimulated the construction of many fishing vessels. Almost all of the schooners fishing out of Lunenburg during the Town’s first 200 years were built in the Town or in other Lunenburg County ports. Local shipbuilders also built vessels which were involved in the carrying trade along the eastern seaboard of North America and south to the West Indies and South America.
Many builders specialized in smaller boats such as whalers, dories, . . . — Map (db m78154) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Lunenburg County), Lunenburg — Merligueche|
This site known as the Old French Cemetery, is one of the few links to the Town’s Mi’kmaq and Acadian past. Known by the Mi’kmaq as Merligueche meaning whitecaps which topped the waves in the harbour, the name continued to be used by the French in the 17th and 18th centuries. Before the arrival of the French, the Mi’kmaq likely hunted food, fished and harvested wild berries in the area. The 1604 explorations of the south coast of what is now Nova Scotia by French explorers . . . — Map (db m78260) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Lunenburg County), Lunenburg — Old Town Lunenburg Historic District — L’arrondissement Historique du Vieux Lunenburg|
A remarkable historical community is found in the streets, public spaces, buildings and daily life of Old Town Lunenburg. Set on a hill overlooking the harbour, Lunenburg was founded in 1753. Its gridiron layout, with a parade square half-way up the hill, is one of the earliest and most intact British model plans in Canada. On this compact site, pioneer German, French and English speaking settlers constructed a variety of wood-frame buildings that set the tone for a colorful . . . — Map (db m78209) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Lunenburg County), Lunenburg — Rum Running — La contrebande de l’alcool|
From 1920 until 1933, the sale of alcohol was prohibited due to the strong “Temperance Movement” in the United States. This prompted a demand for smuggled liquor which proved to be a lucrative business for organized chrome in the United States and for Nova Scotian fishing vessels an their crews. They would load barrels of liquor at the French port of Saint Pierre off the south coast of Newfoundland or from larger ships off shore and transport their valuable cargo . . . — Map (db m78303) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Lunenburg County), Lunenburg — The Early Acadian History of Lunenburg — L’histoire des premiers Acadiens de Lunenburg|
More than a century before the founding of Lunenburg, these lands were inhabited by French-speaking settlers, known as Acadians. Their settlements, including one at Lunenburg, then known by its Mi’kimaq name, Merligueche, began in the 1630’s after French explorer Isaac de Razilly established a fort in nearby LaHave, as the capital of New France.
At Merligueche, Acadian families, notably Claude and Marguerite (Petitpas) Guédry and their children, along with Claude Petitpas . . . — Map (db m78294) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Lunenburg County), Lunenburg — The Labrador Whaler Anderson Bros.|
|The Labrador whaler Anderson Bros. is the type of boat that was used extensively in the Labrador fishery of the 19th century. Lunenburg County had a large fleet of 40 to 60 ton schooners known as “Labradormen” that went to the bays of the Labrador coast to fish in the summer months. Each schooner carried four to six of these two-man whalers on deck. The whalers set out each morning to handling for cod and returned throughout the day with their catch which was cleaned and . . . — Map (db m78205) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Lunenburg County), Lunenburg — The Sack of Lunenburg — Le Pillage de Lunenburg|
During the American Revolution many coastal settlements were harassed by enemy privateers. On the morning of 1 July 1782 approximately 100 raiders surprised and overpowered Lunenburg’s small defence force, captured the blockhouses and burned the house of the local militia colonel. The privateers then looted the settlement and held the hastily-gathered militia at bay with the threat of total destruction of the town. They escaped that evening with the plunder, prisoners and a . . . — Map (db m78317) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Richmond County), St. Peter's — One Place, Four Names — Quatre noms pour un même endroit|
St. Peter’s is one of Nova Scotia’s oldest settlements. The Portuguese were likely here in the 1500s, calling it San Pedro.
In 1650, the French established a post nearby under the name of Saint-Pierre, where they traded with the Mi’kmaq and fished for nearly twenty years.
The French returned to this harbor during the Louisbourg era (1713-1758), renaming the area Port Toulouse. Throughout most of that period there was a small garrison of soldiers and modest fortifications. . . . — Map (db m78728) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Richmond County), St. Peter's — St, Peter’s and Its Canal — St. Peter’s et son canal|
The community of St. Peter’s is situated on the neck of land that separates the Bras d’Or Lake from the Atlantic Ocean. Up until the introduction of road and rail travel, the lake was the highway of the interior of Cape Breton and the ocean link with the rest of the world.
The first survey for a canal was done in 1825. Construction started in 1854 and finished in 1869. Further improvements occurred in 1875-81, 1912-17, and 1984-85. >br>
Today the St. Peter’s Canal and the . . . — Map (db m78729) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Richmond County), St. Peter's — St. Peter’s Canal / Le Canal Saint-Pierre — St. Peters / Saint-Pierre|
|There are two plaques on this monument
St. Peter’s Canal / Le Canal Saint-Pierre
Connecting St. Peter’s Bay on the Atlantic Ocean with the Bras d’Or Lakes, St. Peter’s Canal follows substantially the portage of the old French trading days. The route was first surveyed in 1825 but construction did not commence until 1854, was suspended in 1856, renewed in 1865, and not completed until 1869. Since that time the canal has been twice enlarged and can now accommodate . . . — Map (db m78726) HM|
|Nova Scotia (Richmond County), St. Peter's — The French Settlement of Saint-Pierre — L’établissement français de Saint-Pierre|
Nicolas Denys, a merchant from Tours, France, arrived here in 1650 to restore an abandoned Portuguese fort called San Pedro. He renamed it Saint-Pierre, and set out to pursue fishing and trading - primarily in furs. Fort Saint-Pierre, his 17th century fortified trading post was located here, adjacent the late 19th century Lockmaster’s House which is now standing on the site.
This was a busy place at the time, having served for thousands of years as a portage and a meeting . . . — Map (db m78727) HM|