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Ontario Markers
484 markers matched your search criteria. The first 250 markers are listed. Next 234
Ontario, Ottawa — Asbury College
was founded on this site in 1891 by G.P. Woollcombe This commemorative plaque was installed on 12th May 1991. ——————— fut fondé sur ce site en 1891 par G.P. Woollcombe Cette plaque commémorative fut posée le 12 mai 1991. — Map (db m75708) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — By Ward Market Heritage Conservation DistrictDistrict de Conservation du Patrimoine du Marché By
The dense cedar bog that became the site of the By Ward Market was drained and cleared in 1827 by Lieutenant-Colonel John By of the Royal Engineers to accommodate the workers building the Rideau Canal. The area rapidly became the commercial core of Bytown and later served the region's farming communities and the Ottawa Valley lumber industry, whose itinerant lumbermen gave the town its rowdy reputation. Over the next century the By Ward Market housed the businesses and institutions that . . . — Map (db m63692) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Grand Central Hotel / Hôtel Grand Central1877
Built as a grocery store by Thomas Coffey, Sr., this building was the Grand Central Hotel from 1889 to 1907, and a Salvation Army hostel from 1908 to 1949. Designated Heritage Property ————————— Construit au départ comme l'épicerie de Thomas Coffey, pére. L'immueble a abrite l'hôtel Grand Central de 1889 à 1907, puis d'auberge de l'Armee du Salut de 1908 à 1949. Classé Monument Historique . . . — Map (db m63693) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Lotta Hitschmanova, C.C.1909 • 1990
Founded USC Canada 10 June 1945 Unitarian Service Committee of Canada Harold Pfeiffer, Sculptor — Map (db m75710) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Nicholas Sparks
Irish Nicholas Sparks (b.1792) was from Darragh, County Wexford. He came "up river" 1816 to work for the founding Wrights of Hull. In 1826 he acquired Philemon Wright Jr.'s widow (Sarah Olmstead) and her nine children (he and she were to have one son and two daughters): crossed to the south shore, and for £ 95 bought the 200 acres, and log cabin thereon, from the first patentee, John Burrows Honey. His household thus became the first in the swale which Col. John By made his campsite for the . . . — Map (db m75711) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Parliament Clocktower Bell
This bell was taken from the ruins of the clock tower destroyed by fire February 3, 1916. "The fire raged fiercely for hours. The main tower was not touched until about 11 p.m., and one of the most pathetic incidents of the night, which moved the spectators, was the striking of the midnight hour by the old tower clock. There seemed almost a human touch as its familiar tones boomed out from the mass of flames." From the 1916 report of the deputy minister of public works. — Map (db m39748) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Silent Messengers of the ArcticInuksuk created by Kananginak Pootoogook, 1997
For generations, the Inuit have been creating impressive stone markers on the Arctic landscape. Inuksuk means "acting in the capacity of a human." They serve many functions, including guiding travellers, warning of danger, assisting hunters and marking places of reverence. — Map (db m39750) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Terry Fox 1958 -1981The Greatness of the Human Spirit — L'eminence du courage de l'homme
"I was lucky to do what I did. How many people ever get a chance to do something that they really believe in." Terry Fox On April 12, 1980, Terry Fox began his dream to run across Canada in support of cancer research by dipping his artificial leg into the Atlantic waters off St. John's, Newfoundland. Terry's run, which he called the 'Marathon of Hope', would do so much more by uniting Canadians in support of his heroic desire to better the lives of others. On September 1, near . . . — Map (db m63937) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Thomas D'Arcy McGee1825 - 1868
Journalist, poet, Irish patriot, Canadian statesman and Father of Confederation, McGee was born in Ireland, where he was involved in nationalist politics. Forced to flee to America in 1848, he worked for several years in the United States before settling in Montréal in 1857. In 1858 he was first elected to the legislature for Montréal West. An eloquent orator in support of Confederation, McGee attended the Charlottetown and Québec Conferences, and later represented Montréal West in the . . . — Map (db m75714) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Women Are Persons!Les Femmes Sont Des Personnes!
The Persons' Case of 1929 is a celebrated landmark victory in the struggle of Canadian women for equality. For years, groups had repeatedly requested that a woman be appointed to the Senate, often naming Judge Emily Murphy as their candidate. However, five successive federal governments maintained that women were ineligible to serve in the Senate on the basis that they were not "qualified persons" according to Section 24 of the British North America Act of 1867.

In 1927, Judge Murphy . . . — Map (db m39749) HM

Ontario, Toronto — Canadian Airmen Monument
Panel 1: Per Arua Ad Astra In Memory of our Canadian Airmen who fought in the Skies to preserve freedom and order in the world. Panel 2: Canadian Airmen Awarded the Victoria Cross World War I: William Avery Bishop Alan Arnett McLeod William George Barker World War II: Andrew Charles Mynarski David Ernest Hornell Ian Willoughby Bazalgette Robert Hampton Gray Panel 3: This Monument was dedicated by Her Majesty Queen . . . — Map (db m57901) HM
Ontario, Toronto — Mary Ann Shadd Cary — 1823 – 1893
Mary Ann Shadd Cary was an anti-slavery activist, an advocate for the rights of women, and a pioneering woman newspaper editor and publisher. The daughter of a free African American shoemaker and abolitionist, Shadd began a life of teaching at age 16 by founding a school for African American children in the slave state of Delaware. Following the passing of the Fugitive Slave act (1850), many escaped and free African Americans (like Shadd) sought refuge in Canada. Shadd moved to Windsor, . . . — Map (db m57756) HM
Ontario, Toronto — South African War Memorial — ("2nd Boer War")
. . . — Map (db m57959) WM
Ontario, Toronto — Toronto's first professional stadium: Sunlight Park 1886 - 1896
"Sunlight Park" was constructed in 1886 as the Toronto Baseball Grounds. The smell of baked potatoes and cigars greeted fans filing in to the park through an avenue of workers' cottages called "Baseball Place". The stands, four storeys high and surrounded by a 4 m wooden fence, sat 2,250 paying customers. Admission was 25 cents. The grounds became known as Sunlight Park after William Hesketh Lever opened Sunlight Soap Works south of the park in 1893. Toronto won its first professional . . . — Map (db m64502) HM
Ontario (Algoma County), Thessalon — Capture of "Tigress" and "Scorpion"
Some 25 miles southwest of here lies the Detour Passage between Drummond Island and Michigan's upper peninsula. In August, 1814, it was occupied by the armed U.S. schooners "Tigress" and "Scorpion", whose intention it was to prevent supplies reaching the British garrison at Michilimackinac. On September 1 a British force of seamen, soldiers and Indians under Lieutenants Miller Worsley, R.N., and Andrew Bulger left Michilimackinac in small boats to attack the enemy. The "Tigress" was boarded on . . . — Map (db m86040) HM
Ontario (Brant County), Brantford — Her Majesty’s Chapel of the MohawksLa Chapelle des Agniers de Sa Majesté — Ne Iakataneraientahtsere Ne Iekora Ne Kanienkehaka Rotoreonnaienhs
English: Originally called St. Paul's, this chapel was the first Protestant church in Upper Canada and is now the oldest surviving church in Ontario. Built by the Crown in 1785, it was given to those Mohawk Indians led by Joseph Brant who had supported the British during the American Revolution. Their choice cost them their lands in New York. To compensate for the loss the Mohawks were granted 760,000 acres on the Grand River complete with two mills, a school and chapel. Although the . . . — Map (db m83743) HM
Ontario (Brant County), Brantford — Mohawk VillageLe village des Mohawks
English: Allies of the British during the American War of Independence, the Six Nations Iroquois received extensive lands along the Grand River in 1784. Mohawks, led by Joseph Brant, established a village of some 400 individuals here by 1788. The community was situated at an important crossing point on the river ("Brant's Ford") and prospered as a resting place for travellers on the "Detroit path", a trail linking the Niagara and Detroit Rivers. Increasingly European settlers encroached . . . — Map (db m83697) HM
Ontario (Brant County), Brantford — St. Paul’s 1785H.M. Chapel of the Mohawks — Chapelle Royale des Mohawks
English: This chapel, the first Protestant church in Ontario, was built by the Crown for the Mohawks of the Six Nations Iroquois who settled here in 1794. It replaced the Queen Anne Chapel (1712) at Fort Hunter, New York, which the Mohawk lost, along with their lands, as a result of their alliance with the British during the American War of Independence. The church was dedicated to St. Paul in 1788 by the Reverend John Stuart. In 1904 it was given Royal designation by Edward VII. It . . . — Map (db m83694) HM
Ontario (Brant County), Brantford — Tomb of THAYENDANEGEA
Tomb Inscription This tomb is erected to the memory of THAYENDANEGEA , or Captain Joseph Brant, Principal Chief and Warrior of the Six Nations Indians, by his Fellow-Subjects, admirers of his fidelity and attachment to the British Crown. Born on the Banks of the Ohio River, 1742; died at Wellington Square, U.C., 1807. It also contains the Remains of his son, AHYOUWAIGHS, or Captain John Brant, who succeeded his Father as, TRKARIHOGEA, and distinguished himself in the War . . . — Map (db m83696) HM
Ontario (Brant County), Oakland — The Battle of Malcolm’s Mills1814
In October, 1814, an invading American force of about 700 men under Brigadier-General Duncan McArthur advanced rapidly up the Thames Valley. He intended to devastate the Grand River settlements and the region around the head of Lake Ontario which supplied British forces on the Niagara frontier. McArthur reached the Grand, and after an unsuccessful attempt to force a crossing, attacked a body of some 150 militia here at Malcolm’s Mills (Oakland) on November 6th. Canadian forces, comprising . . . — Map (db m78341) HM
Ontario (Brant County), Ohsweken — Cogwagee • Tom Longboat1886 - 1949
English: An Onondaga from the Six Nations of the Grand River, Tom Longboat was one of the world's great long-distance runners. He ran his first race in Caledonia in 1905 and two years later shot to international attention with a record-breaking win in the Boston Marathon. He represented Canada in the 1908 Olympics. Hailed as professional world champion the following year, Longboat went on to set world records for 24 and 32 km races. During the First World War he served as a despatch . . . — Map (db m83700) HM
Ontario (Brant County), Ohsweken — Thayendanega (Joseph Brant)1742-1807
English: This celebrated Mohawk chief of Canajoharie Castle and Johnson Hall grew up in the Mohawk Valley. He received his baptism of fire at the battle of Lake George in 1755. He served with Sir William Johnson in the Niagara expedition of 1759 and fought in Pontiac's uprising of 1763. He and his Mohawks actively supported the British during the American Revolution. His vision of a new social and economic order to protect the Indian way of life vanished at the Sandusky Council after . . . — Map (db m83714) HM
Ontario (Brant County), Ohsweken — The Six Nations
English: Commemorating the loyal services and unswerving fidelity of the Six Nations of Iroquois Indians to the British Empire in the Seven Years War, 1755 - 1763, the War of the American Revolution, 1775 - 1783, and in the defence of Upper Canada in 1812 - 1814 and in 1837- 38. French: Par leurs loyaux services et leur fidélité inébranlable durant la guerre de Sept ans, 1755-1763, la guerre de la Révolution américaine, 1775-1783 et dans la défense du Haut-Canada, . . . — Map (db m83712) HM
Ontario (Brant County), Ohsweken — The Six Nations War Memorial
Lest We Forget 1914 - 1918 Lt. Brant, Cameron D. • Lt. Moses, James D. • Arron, William • Claus, Issac • Curley, Lloyd • Fish, Reuben • Garlow, James • Goosey, David • Groat, Samuel B. • Hill, Hiram • Hill, Roy • Homer, Harrison • Isaac, Frank • Isaac, Jacob • Jamieson, Arthur • John, Paul • Johnson, James W. • Johnson, Percy • Lickers, Roy • Licker, Thomas • Lickers, William • Lottridge, Welby • Martin, Walter • Miller, Huron S. • Montour, William • Newhouse, Henry • Peters, . . . — Map (db m83744) WM
Ontario (Brant County), Ossweken — Ahyouwaeghs - John Brant1794 - 1832
English John Brant was born in the Mohawk Village (Brantford), the youngest son of the renowned Joseph Brant. He was educated at Ancaster and Niagara, and fought with distinction during the War of 1812. Brant devoted his life to improving the welfare of his people. He initiated the establishment of schools ad from 1828 served as superintendent of the Six Nations, the first native person appointed to that post. Around 1830 his mother Catharine (Ohtowa? kéhson), clan mother of the Turtle . . . — Map (db m78340) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — British Army River Crossing to Dolsen's LandingFriday, October 1, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Upon sighting American war ships at the mouth of the Thames River on October 1, 1813, the British Army boarded scows and bateaux near this site. One by one, the boats and their cargo were pulled across the river to their next encampment site at Dolsen's Landing, a small but important commercial site in Dover Township established by Matthew and Hannah Dolsen. The settlement consisted of the Dolsen's log home, a store, a blacksmith shop, a distillery, and other outbuildings. Dolsen's Landing had . . . — Map (db m78346) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — British Encampment: Forks of the ThamesSunday, October 3, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
While British Army was encamped at Dolsen's, Procter travelled to Fairfield to investigate the site as a defensive position. At Tecumseh's urging, and learning that the Americans were closing rapidly, Colonel Warburton, Procter's second-in-command, ordered the army to break camp and move up-river. The British departure from Dolsen's caused a rift among the warriors because many of them wanted to engage the Americans at Dolsen's despite Tecumseh's desire to fight at the Forks. By militia officer . . . — Map (db m71360) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — Burning of British Ships / American EncampmentMonday, October 4, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
East of the Forks, the Thames River becomes shallower and not navigable for larger ships. With the American forces close behind, the British vessels were threatened with capture. One cargo ship, probably the Miamis, had already been set on fire closer to the Forks. Near this site, two other ships, the Mary and the Ellen, were moored perpendicular to the shore and much of their contents dumped into river. They were then set on fire to block the river to any American gunboats. The American . . . — Map (db m71398) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — Casualties of the SkirmishMonday, October 4, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
There were many casualties at the skirmish at the Forks. Although we do not presently know the identities of the warriors who were killed, we do know that two Kentucky men in Colonel Johnson's Mounted Infantry lost their lives at this site on that day: • Private Foster Bartlett of Captain William Rice's Company who enlisted on August 15, 1813. • Private William (or Wilham) Hardwick of Captain Samuel Combs' company who enlisted on May 20, 1813. — Map (db m71379) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — Chatham Armoury100th Anniversary — 1905-2005
chatham Armoury The Chatham Armoury was constructed in 1905 as a result of reform and expansion of the volunteer militia. The first unit to occupy the Armoury was the 24th Kent Regiment that was formed in 1901. It was the centre for local recruitment and training for the 186th Kent Overseas Battalion, CE.F. during the First World War, 1914-1918. In 1920 the Armoury became the home of the renamed Kent Regiment and, in 1936, the Kent Regiment, Machine Gun. During the Second . . . — Map (db m71382) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — Chatham Blockhouse— 1794 —
On this site a blockhouse was constructed in 1794 by order of Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe. He planned to establish here a small naval arsenal which would form a link in the defences of Upper Canada's western frontier and also draw the Indian trade from Detroit. The post was garrisoned by a detachment of the Queen's Rangers, and two gunboats were built; but by 1797 it was abandoned. In 1798 the province's Administrator, Peter Russell, had the blockhouse moved to Sandwich to serve as the Western District's court-house and gaol. — Map (db m71313) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — First Nations Encampment: Thomas McCrae FarmFriday, October 1, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Thomas McCrae was an early settler, innkeeper, and political figure in Raleigh Township along the Thames River. He served as a captain and company commander in the Kent Militia and was present at the capture of Fort Detroit. Family tradition relates that McCrae used the prize money he received from the capture of the fort to complete his Georgian brick home in 1813. On October 1, with the British now encamped across the river and to the east at Dolsen's Landing, the First Nations . . . — Map (db m71308) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — John Brown's Convention 1858
English Text: On May 10, 1858, American abolitionist John Brown held the last in a series of clandestine meetings here at First Baptist Church. Brown planned to establish an independent republic within the United States and wage guerrilla war to liberate the South from slavery. He came to Upper Canada to recruit blacks who had fled here in the wake of the Fugitive Slave Law (1850). On October 16, 1859, Brown and 21 supporters seized the government arsenal at Harpers Ferry, . . . — Map (db m71386) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — Skirmish at McCrae's House
Following the defeat of the British at the Battle of the Thames on October 5, 1813, American forces controlled the Thames Valley west of Moraviantown. In early December a detachment of 3 officers and 36 men of the American 26th Regiment established a post near here at the house of Thomas McCrae. Before daybreak on December 15, 1813, they were surprised by Lieutenant Henry Medcalf and 32 members from the Norfolk and Middlesex Militia, the Kent Volunteers and the Provincial Dragoons. After a . . . — Map (db m71292) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — Skirmish at McCrae's HouseWednesday, December 15, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
During the American occupation of the lower Thames, this house was used as a base for U.S. troops. In mid-December 1813, the house was occupied by 39 officers and men of the 26th Regiment led by Lieutenant Larwill. At the same time, a group of 27 men of the Canadian militia from Norfolk and Middlesex Counties under the command of Lieutenant Henry Medcalf, had marched, through heavy snow, to Rondeau to collect cattle that were grazing in the area before they were found by the Americans. . . . — Map (db m71310) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — Skirmish at the ForksMonday, October 4, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
On October 2, 1813, Tecumseh moved his warriors up-river to the Forks where he had been led to believe that fortifications would be prepared for a full-scale confrontation with harrison's army. When Tecumseh arrived, he was enraged to find no fortifications and only three or four dismounted cannon and a log cabin containing small arms. Despite his dismay, Tecumseh convinced his warriors to stage a rearguard action at the Forks on October 4 to slow the American advance. That morning, the . . . — Map (db m71335) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — Skirmish at the ForksMonday, October 4, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Robert McAfee, a member of Colonel Johnson's Kentucky Mounted Regiment, described the skirmish in his journal. He wrote: Oct 4: …a woman … informed us that about six miles above the River forked, that there was a large bridge across the mouth of the Right hand fork and a mill and a bridge about about about a mile and a half up the fork where the Indians were encamped [sic] and she expected that they would make a stand and fight … about twelve o'clock the firing commenced on our left and . . . — Map (db m71378) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — Tecumseh
On this site, Tecumseh, a Shawnee Chief, who was an ally of the British during the War of 1812, fought against American forces on October 4, 1813. Tecumseh was born in 1768 and became an important organizer of native resistance to the spread of white settlement in North America. The day after the fighting here, he was killed in the Battle of the Thames near Moraviantown. Tecumseh Park was named to commemorate his strong will and determination. — Map (db m71322) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — The Abolition Movement in British North America
From 1783 until the 1860s, abolitionists in British North America took part in the fight to end slavery both at home and in the United States. Thanks to the determination of colonial officials, anti-slavery organizations, and the thousands of African Americans who took refuge in Upper and Lower Canada and the Maritimes during this period, the colonies became a centre of abolitionist activity, as evidenced by the convention held here at this church by John Brown in 1858. This struggle for human . . . — Map (db m71391) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — The Forks — Tecumseh Parkway
The Forks of the Thames are formed by the joining of the Thames River and McGregor Creek creating a peninsula that is present day Tecumseh Park in Chatham, Ontario. The strategic importance of the site was recognized by Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe when he visited the region in 1793. The first settlement at the Forks occurred in 1794 when Simcoe commissioned Captain William Baker to establish a shipyard. Baker constructed a log blockhouse, a 72 foot-long frame workshop, forges, . . . — Map (db m71331) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Chatham — The Legend of the Paw Paw — Tecumseh Parkway
The Paw Paw tree (Asimina triloba) is native to the southern, eastern, and mid-western United States and extends to Canada only in the extreme southern part of Ontario. It has the largest edible fruit native to North America. The fruit looks somewhat like a small banana and has a custard taste. Popular attributes relates the presence of several groves of this thicket-forming understory tree along this section of the Thames River to American soldiers who carried the fruit with them from . . . — Map (db m71405) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Dresden — Harris HouseMaison Harris
English This house belonged to James Harris and his family, who are believed to be descendants of Weldon Harris, an African American who came to Canada and in 1825 purchased 50 acres on Lot 3, Concession 3 in Camden Township. Weldon Harris made his living as a farmer and lived in a one-storey log house with his family before moving into a larger, two-storey house such as this. The Harris House, built circa 1890, is representative of the type of modest dwelling in which many Black . . . — Map (db m78404) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Dresden — Henson HouseMaison Henson
English Built in the mid-19th century, this house was the last residence of Josiah Henson and his second wife, Nancy Gambril, who lived in it until Henson’s death in 1883. Henson’s house was substantial in size compared to other residential buildings in the area at the time and stands as a symbol of his status in the community. After Henson’s death, the house underwent changes under several different owners before William Chapple purchased it in 1940. In 1948 he opened the house . . . — Map (db m78387) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Dresden — Josiah Henson(1789 - 1883)
English After escaping to Upper Canada from slavery in Kentucky, the Reverend Josiah Henson became a conductor of the Underground Railroad and a force in the abolition movement. The founder of the Black settlement of Dawn, he was also an entrepreneur and established a school, the British-American Institute. His fame grew after Harriet Beecher Stowe stated that his memoirs published in 1849 had provided “conceptions and incidents” for her extraordinarily popular novel, . . . — Map (db m78377) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Dresden — SawmillScierie
English This area was once covered in a thick, growth of trees including black walnut, maple, beech, elm and white oak. To make use of these natural resources, Josiah Henson and his sons used donations from benefactors in Boston to build a sawmill along the Sydenham River in Dawn for the British American Institute (B.A.I.). Trees were removed from the land as it was cleared for farming and other purposes and taken to the sawmill to be sawn into boards. The lumber was used for . . . — Map (db m78402) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Dresden — Spirituality and CommunitySpiritualité et Communauté
English Built around 1850, this modest rural church was moved from Mersea Township to this site in the 1960s and is representative of the churches in which Reverend Henson preached while living at Dawn. Reverend Josiah Henson was most closely associated with the Dawn settlement’s British Methodist Episcopal (B.M.E.) Church in which he preached many of his sermons. That church was demolished in the 1940s due to safety concerns, although the organ was saved and is displayed inside . . . — Map (db m78388) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Dresden — The Dawn SettlementLa Colonie de Dawn
English In the 1830s, the Reverend Josiah Henson and other abolitionists sought ways to provide refugees from slavery with the education and skills they needed to become self-sufficient in Upper Canada. They purchased 200 acres of land here in 1841 and established the British American Institute, one of the first schools in Canada to emphasize vocational training. The community of Dawn developed around the institute. Its residents farmed, attended the institute, and worked at sawmills, . . . — Map (db m78376) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Dresden — The Founding of Dresden
In 1846 Daniel van Allen, a Chatham merchant, laid out a town plot on land purchased from Jared Lindsley, the first settler (1825) on the site of Dresden. By 1849 the erection of a steam sawmill, and the operation a grist-mill in the neighbouring Dawn Institute Settlement founded by Josiah Henson, provided the basis for a thriving community in this area. A post office named “Dresden” was opened in 1854. The region’s timber resources and the navigation facilities afforded by the . . . — Map (db m78416) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Assault on Backmetack MarshTuesday, October 5, 1813, 4:00 p.m. — Tecumseh Parkway
As Lieutenant Colonel James Johnson's horsemen were charging the British front line, his brother, Colonel Richard Johnson led an attack against the First Nations warriors in Backmetack Marsh. The mounted infantry charged the Native left flank led by 20 riders, called "The Forlorn Hope," who were intended to draw the warriors' fire and empty their guns. Tecumseh's allies fired a devastating volley at close range that cut down 15 of the riders. The casualties included Colonel Johnson who was . . . — Map (db m72397) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Battle of Moraviantown, 1813Bataille de Moraviantown, 1813 — (Battle of the Thames) / (Bataille de la Thames)
English In September 1813, during the second year of the War of 1812, the United States won control of Lake Erie, cutting British supply lines with the east and forcing the British to withdraw from the Detroit River region. Then, on October 5, 1813, 3,000 Americans, including their Aboriginal allies, defeated 950 British, Canadians, and Natives at this site. Among those killed was the famous Shawnee leader, Tecumseh, who had worked to unite the First Nations in neighbouring American . . . — Map (db m78367) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Fairfield — Tecumseh Parkway
The Moravians or "Bohemian Brethren" were a protestant sect that originated in the 1400s in Moravia and Bohemia, the present day Czech Republic. They faced persecution in their homeland and in 1722 many moved to Saxony (now part of Germany) where they were given security and land on the estate of Nikolaus Ludwig Von Zinzendorf. There they built a community called Hernhut and subsequently sent missionaries to North America where they established settlements in Pennsylvania (Bethlehem and . . . — Map (db m72448) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the ThamesTuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Jacques (James) Baby 1763-1833: A member of the Legislative and Executive Council for Upper Canada, judge for the Western District, and in command of the 1st Kent Militia, Baby was captured by the Americans at the Battle of the Thames. Billy Caldwell 1780-1841: The son of William Caldwell and his Mohawk wife, Billy was a captain in the Indian Department and became a Potowatomi chief after the war. William Caldwell 1750-1822: Of Scots-Irish descent, Caldwell fought in Butler's Rangers . . . — Map (db m71415) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the ThamesTuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Makataimeshekiakiak, Black Hawk, 1767-1838: A Sauk war leader and experienced warrior, Blackhawk was a veteran of the Battles of Fort Meigs and Fort Stephenson. Although he left the war for a period of time, he rejoined the British, and scholars feel that he was probably at the Battle of the Thames. Following the war, Black Hawk continued to oppose American encroachment on native lands that culminated in "The Black Hawk War" in 1832. Naiwash: Ottawa chief Naw Kaw: Winnebago chief. . . . — Map (db m71418) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the ThamesTuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Shabbona 1775-1859: A Potawatomi chief, grand nephew of Pontiac, and veteran of Tippecanoe, Shabbona was an accomplished warrior and strong supporter of Tecumseh. He persuaded many natives to join the confederacy. Sou-veh-hoo-wah, Split Log, 1765-1825: Huron chief and veteran of the River Raisin and Fort Meigs, Split Log helped defeat Brigadier General McArthur's American force at the Grand River in October 1814. Tecumseh 1768-1813: Leader of the First Nations confederacy. . . . — Map (db m71419) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the ThamesTuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
John Adair 1757-1840: Pioneer, soldier, and statesman, Adair was a veteran of the American Revolution, was 8th governor of Kentucky, and represented that state in both the U.S. House of Representatives and the Senate. He fought at the Battle of the Thames and was subsequently rewarded for his service, being appointed adjutant general of Kentucky. Lewis Cass 1782-1866: A military officer and politician, Cass was governor of the Michigan Territory and, later, U.S. senator representing . . . — Map (db m72381) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the ThamesTuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
James Johnson 1774-1826: The brother of Richard Johnson, James was elected as a Kentucky State senator in 1808. He served as a lieutenant colonel in Johnson's Mounted Infantry and led the charge on the British lines at the Battle of the Thames along with his two sons. Following the war, he served in the U.S. House of representatives. Richard Mentor Johnson 1780-1850: From Kentucky, Johnson was elected to the House of Representatives in 1806. He served as a colonel in the American Army . . . — Map (db m72385) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the ThamesTuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Isaac Shelby 1750-1826: Shelby was the 1st and 5th governor of Kentucky and a veteran of the American Revolution. As governor and at 63years of age, Shelby personally led the Kentucky Militia at the Battle of the Thames. Tarhe 1742-1816: A Wyandot chief and loyal American, he marched with his warriors throughout General Harrison's campaign in Canada and fought at the Battle of the Thames despite being 72 years old. William Whitley 1749-1813: Veteran of the Indian Wars, militia leader, . . . — Map (db m72388) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Prelude to BattleTuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
By the early morning of October 5, 1813, the American Army had forded the Thames River and was advancing quickly. The British rearguard was able to destroy Cornwall's mill, west of Sherman's farm (present-day Thamesville, Ontario) but not the mill dam over which the road ran, which aided the American pursuit. In Procter's absence, Colonel Warburton decided to move the British troops as far as Fairfield. At 1:00 p.m., however, Procter, who had met them en route, ordered battle lines to be . . . — Map (db m71413) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Tecumseh1768-1813
Born in a Shawnee village in what is now Ohio, Tecumseh became in the 1770s co-leader with his brother, the Prophet, of a movement to restore and preserve traditional Indian values. He believed a union of all the western tribes to drive back white settlement to be the one hope for Indian survival and spread this idea the length of the frontier. Seeing the Americans as the immediate threat, he allied himself with the British in 1812, assisted in the capture of Detroit and was killed near here at . . . — Map (db m71410) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — The Bugles SoundTuesday, October 5, 1813, 4:00 p.m. — Tecumseh Parkway
Many of the men of the 41st Regiment had been stationed in Canada for 13 years. By October 5, 1813, they had not been paid for 6 to 9 months; they lacked tents and blankets; their uniforms were in rags; they were plagued by a variety of diseases; and they had not had proper food for days. British Ensign James Cochran observed, "The attack was silently awaited, each determined to do his duty, but few with any doubt as to the result." The British, numbering about 450, faced 3000 American . . . — Map (db m72393) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — The Burning of Fairfield — Tecumseh Parkway
Robert McAfee, a soldier in Colonel Johnson's Mounted Regiment, kept a journal of his experiences, and wrote on October 7, 1813: Spent the day in collecting in plunder ... Colonel Owings Regiment of Regulars came up and took charge of the plunder and the whole army marched off and we sett [sic] fire to the town, putting the first torch to the Moravian Church and consumed the whole to ashes and we continued our march down the river to the large plantation where the bake ovens were and . . . — Map (db m72414) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — The Death of TecumsehTuesday, October 5, 1813, Approximately 4:20 p.m. — Tecumseh Parkway
At some point during the attack on Backmetack Marsh, Tecumseh was fatally shot. As word spread of their leader's death, one American account tells of the warriors giving, "the loudest yells I ever heard from human beings and that ended the fight." Who killed Tecumseh is a matter of debate. Many accounts claim that the badly-wounded Colonel Richard Johnson shot Tecumseh just before he lost consciousness although, until much later in his political career, Johnson only claimed to have shot an . . . — Map (db m72405) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent County), Thamesville — Why Choose This Site? — Tecumseh Parkway
Some British officers involved reported that, due to the proximity of the enemy and the fact that the troops were exhausted and hungry, they were unable to outpace the American mounted units to Fairfield. Another theory is that Procter sought to avoid a military confrontation at Fairfield due to the number of civilian refugees and wounded still at the village. — Map (db m71414) HM
Ontario (County of Essex), Tecumseh — The Banwell Road Area Black Settlement
Beginning in the 1830s, at least 30 families fleeing enslavement and racial oppression in the United States settled in the Banwell Road area in Sandwich East. They had the opportunity to purchase land through two Black-organized land settlement programs – the Colored Industrial Society (a mission of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Sandwich East) and the Refugee Home Society (administered by Black abolitionist Henry and Mary Bibb of Maidstone). Freedom and land ownership meant . . . — Map (db m90183) HM
Ontario (Durham County), Whitby — Camp X1941 - 1946
Upper Plaque On this site British Security Co-Ordination operated Special Training School No. 103 and Hydra. S.T.S. 103 trained allied agents in the techniques of secret warfare for the Special Operations Executive (SOE) Branch of the British Intelligence Service. Hydra Network communicated vital messages between Canada, the United States and Great Britain. This commemoration is dedicated to the service of the men and women who took part in these operations. Lower Plaque In . . . — Map (db m61880) HM
Ontario (Elgin County), St. Thomas — Jumbo
On September 15, 1885, the giant African elephant, star of the Barnum and Bailey Circus, met a untimely death when struck in St. Thomas by a Grand Trunk locomotive. To commemorate the one hundredth anniversary of this tragic event, the citizens of St. Thomas and Elgin County erected this monument which was designed and constructed in Sussex, New Brunswick by Winston Bronnum. The city of St. Thomas provided the site. Listed on these plaques are the names of the Jumbo Centennial Committee members . . . — Map (db m78342) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Amherstburg Navy Yard
[West Historic Marker]:Amherstburg Navy Yard A Navy Yard was built here in 1796 to replace Detroit as the base and supply depot for the Provincial Marine on Lakes Erie and Huron. In 1812 the GENERAL HUNTER and QUEEN CHARLOTTE, built here, took part in the capture of Detroit. The next year, his supply lines cut, Robert Barclay's poorly equipped fleet, including the DETROIT, was defeated by Oliver Perry, U.S.N., in the battle of Lake Erie. This reverse led the British to burn the . . . — Map (db m37552) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Boblo Island
Boblo Island For many centuries the island you see in front of you was used for hunting and fishing by First Nations people. Called Île aux Bois Blancs by the French, Boblo Island's key location made it a site for blockhouses during the War of 1812 and the Upper Canada Rebellion. In 1837 a lighthouse was erected on the southern end; about sixty years later the island became the site of a popular amusement park that lasted for nearly a century. The Detroit . . . — Map (db m71185) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Brick Officers' Guard Room
Brick Officers' Guard Room and Staff Sergeant's Quarters (1839) Poste de garde des officiers en briques et quartiers du sergent de l'etat-major (1839) — Map (db m71220) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Capture of the Anne, 1838
On January 9, 1838, a force of Canadians and Americans sympathizing with Mackenzie's rebellion, sailed from United States territory and landed on Bois Blane Island. The schooner "Anne," supporting the invasion, cruised along the Canadian mainland firing on structures near Fort Malden. Defending militia under Col. T. Radcliff returned the fire, disabling the helmsman and damaging the rigging. The "Anne" grounded on Elliott's Point and those aboard were captured. Their leader, Dr. E.A.Theller, an . . . — Map (db m37246) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Colonel Matthew Elliott1739 - 1814
Near this site stood the house erected in 1784 by Matthew Elliott. Born in Ireland, he emigrated to the American Colonies in 1761, and during the Revolution served with the British forces as a captain in the Indian Department. He was an Indian agent for the western tribes 1790-95 and deputy superintendent of the Indian Department 1795-98. Elliott represented Essex in the legislative assembly 1801-12. As colonel of the 1st Essex Militia he took part in the capture of Detroit , August 16, 1812, . . . — Map (db m37286) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Connection to Town
Connection to Town Fort Malden (originally called Fort Amherstburg) was the anchor of the town, which grew to the south. In this view, you are looking past the parade grounds of the fort (now a park) down Dalhousie Street towards the location of the naval dockyard. Over the years, much of the economic activity of the town of Amherstburg was generated by the need to feed, supply and amuse several hundred soldiers and their families. Entries from an 1810 account . . . — Map (db m71192) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Detroit River Heritage
Detroit River Heritage This river not only forms the border between two great nations, but is also a vital transportation artery into the upper Great Lakes. Imagine the vessels that have travelled on it … First National canoes, sailing vessels loaded with furs, British and American warships, steamers bringing holidayers to Boblo Island, and giant freighters filled with iron ore. British war vessels used the Detroit River during the War of 1812. After the war, an . . . — Map (db m71160) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Fort Amherstburg (Fort Malden)
The post was begun by the Royal Canadian Volunteers in 1796 to replace Detroit and to maintain British influence among the western Indians. As the principal defense of the Detroit frontier in 1812, it was here that Isaac Brock gathered his forces for the attack on Detroit. The next year with supply lines cut and control of Lake Erie lost to the Americans, the British could not hold the fort, which they evacuated and burned. Partially rebuilt by the invading Americans, it was returned on 1 July . . . — Map (db m34353) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Fort Defences
Fort Defences In front of you is a recreated piece of the fort's palisade, a vertical wall of sharpened logs. This wall surrounded the fort, linking the four diamond-shaped corner projections, called bastions. Around each bastion, the palisade ran in the bottom of a ditch that served as an additional defence against attacking soldiers. The diamond shape of the bastions allowed cannons to fire on soldiers approaching adjacent areas of the palisade. This . . . — Map (db m71173) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Fort Malden Points of Interest
Fort Malden Points of Interest • Fort Malden Points d'intérêt (1) Visitor Centre 1939 Centre d'accueil 1939 (2) Military Pensioner's Cottage circa 1851 (Restoration) Maison des pensionnés militaires vers 1851 (bâtiment restauré) (3)Earthworks 1813 & 1838-1840 (Remnants) Remblais 1813 et 1838-1840 (vestiges) (4) Brick Guardhouse circa 1821 . . . — Map (db m71278) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Indian Council House
Indian Council House Two hundred years ago a small building stood about 100 metres north of here, close to the water's edge. This was where meetings took place between the representatives of the British government and those of the First Nations. These meetings were a crucial factor in creating an alliance between the two groups during the War of 1812. No images survive of this important structure, except a small rectangle on this map. In this 20th-century . . . — Map (db m71170) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Lt. - Colonel William Caldwell
Born about 1750 in Fermanagh County, Ireland, Caldwell emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1773. During the American Revolution he served with the British forces as a captain in Butler's Rangers at Niagara and Detroit. In 1784 he obtained land near the mouth of the Detroit River and became one of this area's earliest settlers. Caldwell's exceptional influence with the local Indians enabled him to obtain control of some 11,000 additional acres on the north shore of Lake Erie where he encouraged former . . . — Map (db m37291) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Major John Richardson(1796 - 1852)
Born at Queenston in Upper Canada, John Richardson served as a volunteer at Fort Malden during the War of 1812 and was taken prisoner by the Americans at Moraviantown. He was released at war's end, retired on half-pay in 1818, and spent most of the next 20 years in Europe. There he won a certain literary reputation with works such as the poem Tecumseh and Wacousta, a historical novel. Returning to Canada as a journalist, he founded the New Era in Brockville where, in 1842, . . . — Map (db m76737) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Pensioner's Cottage
Pensioner's Cottage This cottage was built in the early 1850s for a retired soldier and his family. About 85 of these homes were constructed just east of the Fort, and leased at a modest rate to veteran soldiers in return for light military duties. This one, belonging to Charles O'Connor, was moved here from its original location about 500 metres away. For a growing family this cottage would have been very cramped, since it has only two rooms … a combined kitchen/sitting . . . — Map (db m71167) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Privy
Privy The foundations in front of you are from a communal privy (toilet) for enlisted men and their families that stood here in 1840. The women and children had a small room - the soldiers made do with an open structure offering no privacy (in contrast to the nearby officers' facility). In 1841 the British relocated the privy to another location, outside the fort's walls. In its place, they constructed a fenced urinal. In 1848, the sanitary facilities were improved, and the . . . — Map (db m71221) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Shoreline Breakwall
Shoreline Breakwall Over time, the force of water and ice has eroded the river bank, creating the need to stabilize the shore. Parks Canada, the Essex Region Conservation Authority (ERCA) and Environment Canada partnered to stabilize the shoreline using limestone mined in Amherstburg, and created small islands with submerged spawning reefs. These features provide habitat, and shelter fish and other aquatic life from the current and wake created by passing freighters. . . . — Map (db m71161) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Simon Girty U.E.1741 - 1818
Girty's life crossed cultural boundaries between native and white societies on the frontier of American settlement. In 1756 his family was captured by a French-led native war party in Pennsylvania. Simon was adopted by the Seneca, then repatriated in 1764. An interpreter at Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh), he became an intermediary with native nations. In 1778, dismayed over rebel policy on the natives, Girty fled to Detroit. During the Revolutionary War and subsequent conflicts in the Ohio Valley, he . . . — Map (db m34688) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Skirmishes at the Canard River
In the War of 1812, the first engagement in Canada involving British and American forces in significant numbers occurred here on the Canard River. On July 12, 1812, Brigadier-General William Hull invaded Canada and encamped near Sandwich. British commander, T.B. St. George, consolidated his forces consisting of regulars of the 41st Regiment, Indians, and Canadian militia at Fort Malden, south of the Canard and stationed at picquet at the bridge. This outpost was attacked on July 16th by Colonel . . . — Map (db m34336) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Strategic Location
Strategic Location A deepwater channel between here and Boblo Island brings ships close to shore, a fact dramatically illustrated when a north-bound lake freighter passes by. This was why Fort Amerstburg was originally located here - cannon on its walls would have no difficulty in hitting any ship sailing up or down the channel, allowing the fort to control this key waterway. Two hundred years ago, all shipping had to pass within cannon shot of this fort. Today, . . . — Map (db m71191) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The "Tecumseh Stone"
Tradition has it that the Indian leader Tecumseh stood upon this stone to deliver a final address to the British at Amherstburg after the Battle of Lake Erie. Donated in 1939, it originally stood near the corner of Dalhousie and Gore Streets. In his speech Tecumseh asserted, in part: Father, listen...You always told us to remain here and take care of our lands. It made our hearts glad to hear that was your wish; our great father the king is the head, you represent him. You always told . . . — Map (db m34412) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The Battle of Lake Erie
In September 1813 the British squadron under R. Barclay sailed from Amherstburg to collect desperately needed food supplies. They were met by the larger, more heavily armed American squadron commanded by O. Perry. The British had the initial advantage of the wind and used their long range guns to disable the American flag ship LAWRENCE. With his own ship crippled, Perry was rowed to the NIAGARA which had held back from the fighting. With the wind now to his advantage, Perry bore down on . . . — Map (db m37707) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The Commissariat Office
The office for the Commissariat Department was built in 1831 near the government wharf and storehouse. Commissary officials purchased from local contractors the flour, beef, straw and firewood used by troops. They also managed Fort Malden's finances, including the soldiers' pay which was issued daily from this office. — Map (db m37356) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The Great Sauk Trail
Part of an ancient network of Indian paths, the Great Sauk Trail, as it came to be known, extended from Rock Island in present-day Illinois to the Detroit River. It played a significant role in the communications between the native peoples in the upper Mississippi Valley and the British in this region, particularly during the period of Anglo-American rivalry following the American Revolution. For four decades pro-British tribes such as the Sauk and the Fox made annual pilgrimages along the . . . — Map (db m36976) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The Site Over Time
The Site Over Time Today the site looks very different than it would have 170 years ago, when Fort Malden was at its height. Almost all the buildings from that period have been lost, and most of the ditch and wall that encircled the fort is gone. The large building in front of you (the museum) was built after the fort ceased to be a military post, and private homes still occupy part of the site. If you had visited the site a hundred years ago, it would have . . . — Map (db m71174) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The WyandotLes Hurons de Detroit
This area was once the home of the Wyandot, remnants of the Huron, Neutrals, and Petuns who were dispersed by the Iroquois in the 1640's. Some eventually reunited and settled along the Detroit River, where they became known as the Hurons of Detroit, or Wyandot. After the fall of New France, the Wyandot became supporters of the British during the American Revolution although many remained neutral in the War of 1812. In the 1840's a number of the Wyandot were moved to a reserve in Kansas while others stayed to help develop this region. — Map (db m37340) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — 1748
The original cross Was erected in 1748 By the Jesuit Missionaries — • — Was re-enacted at the Old Boys re union Aug., 1909 Re-enacted and this permanent cross erected by the Border Cities Old Boys in Aug., 1922 — Map (db m37519) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — French Settlement on the South Shore
Front - In English Windsor is the oldest known site of continuous settlement in Ontario. The government of New France, anxious to increase its presence on the Detroit River, offered land agricultural settlement on the south shore in 1749. That summer families from the lower St. Lawrence River relocated to lots which began about 6.5 km downstream from here. Along with civilians and discharged soldiers from Fort Pontchartrain (Detroit), they formed the community of La Petite Cote. . . . — Map (db m37343) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — Hiram Walker1816 - 1899
Massachusetts born, Hiram Walker had by the 1850s become a successful general merchant, distiller and grain dealer in Detroit. After Michigan adopted prohibition in 1855 he acquired land across the river in Canada where he established a distillery and mill which became the nucleus of the company town of Walkerville. Soon the Walker enterprises had expanded to include cattle finishing (using distillery wastes), a river ferry, and a railway to transport the company's products. Although Walker . . . — Map (db m37377) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — Hull's Landing 1812
On July 4, 1812, Brigadier-General William Hull, commander of the North Western Army of the United States, landed with about 2,000 men near this site. He issued a proclamation stating that he came here to liberate Canada from oppression. The British garrison at Amherstburg was too weak to oppose the invasion, but it later fought several skirmishes at the River Canard. On July 26, British reinforcements under Colonel Henry Proctor arrived and, on August 7-8, Hull withdrew to Detroit, leaving a . . . — Map (db m34302) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — Jesuit Mission to the Hurons
In 1728 a mission to the Huron Indians was established near Fort Pontchartrain (Detroit) by Father Armand de la Richardie, S.J. The mission was moved to Bois Blane Island and the adjacent mainland in 1742. In 1747 it was destroyed by disaffected Hurons and a party of Iroquois, and the next year re-established in this vicinity. The Huron Mission became the Parish of Assumption in 1767 and was entrusted with the spiritual care of the French settlers on this side of the river as well as the . . . — Map (db m37386) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — Montreal Point in 1782The Huron First Nation's gift to the Roman Catholic Church
In the year 1782 the Huron First Nation gave Montreal Point to the Diocese. The Jesuit Fathers constructed the Assumption Parish in 1787, the first Roman Catholic Parish west of Montreal, Quebec. Today the park, named Assumption, is owned and managed by the City of Windsor for its citizens. The City has some 8 kilometers, (5 miles), of riverfront parks for your enjoyment. The Department of Parks and Recreation invites you to explore the city's network of riverfront and neighborhood parks. — Map (db m37389) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — Original Home of Major F.A. Tilston V.C. Armoury
This armoury was named after Major Fred Tilston, a true military hero of this community. Maj. Tilston, a member of the Essex Scottish, was awarded the Victoria Cross, the highest award for bravery, for his exploits at the Battle of Hochwald Forest in 1945. Replacing wooden barracks that earlier stood in what is now City Hall Square, this building was constructed in 1901 from plans drawn up by David Ewart, architect for the federal Department of Public Works. it is typical of a large number . . . — Map (db m42292) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Battle of Windsor - 1838
Early on December 4, 1838 a force of about 140 American and Canadian supporters of William Lyon MacKenzie crossed the river from Detroit and landed about one mile east of here. After capturing and burning a nearby militia barracks, they took possession of Windsor. In this vicinity they were met and routed by a force of some 130 militiamen commanded by Colonel John Prince. Five of the invaders taken prisoner were executed summarily by order of Colonel Prince. This action caused violent . . . — Map (db m37172) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Capture of Detroit
Confident of victory, General Hull had invaded Canada in July 1812, but failed to take advantage of his early success and the demoralization of the defenders. Fear of the Indians then rallying to the British cause and an inability to maintain supply lines dictated Hull's withdrawal to Detroit. In a daring move on 16 August General Brock embarked his troops at McKee's Point, crossed the river and forced the surrender of the Americans. This important victory raised the spirits of the Canadians . . . — Map (db m34321) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Detroit River
The Detroit River is unique in Canada, the United States and indeed, the world. Its shores embrace the largest metropolitan area on any international border - but rather than separating communities, the river connects them culturally and economically. Archaeological finds date First Nations communities at the river as early as 400 A.D. while French settlers reached the area by the mid-1600's. The river and its watersheds represent the history of North America in a way that is not . . . — Map (db m37378) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Francois Baby House
This house and adjacent farmland were the property of François Baby (1763-1856), first member for Kent in the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada (1792-96), militia officer and Assistant Quarter Master General during the War of 1812. When the Americans invaded Canada in July 1812, Brigadier General William Hull set up his headquarters in François Baby's house and camped his troops on the farm. After Hull's withdrawal, British guns mounted here covered Isaac Brock's advance across the river to capture Detroit on 16 August 1812. — Map (db m34303) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Rt. Hon. Herb Gray, PC., C.C., Q.C.
The Rt. Hon. Gray represented the west side of Windsor in the House of Commons from June 1962 to January 2002. He was elected thirteen consecutive times - a record - and set another record for continuous days of service in the House of Commons - 39 years, six months and 26 days. He served as Deputy Prime Minister, from 1997.06.11 - 2002.01.14 and in 10 other Cabinet positions. Herb Gray was born in Windsor, on May 25th, 1931 and grew up in Windsor. — Map (db m37496) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Siege of Detroit 1763
Shortly after the founding of Detroit in 1970 a village of Ottawa Indians was established on the south shore of the river in this vicinity and its inhabitants lived on friendly terms with the French garrison and settlers. However after the British took control of Detroit and other western posts in 1760, relations with the Indians deteriorated. In 1763 the great Ottawa chief, Pontiac, raised a strong confederacy of Indian tribes and attacked several British posts. Detroit was besieged from May . . . — Map (db m36944) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Underground Railroad in Canada
From the early 19th century until the American Civil War, settlements along the Detroit and Niagara rivers were important terminals of the Underground Railroad. White and black abolitionists formed a heroic network dedicated to helping free and enslaved African Americans find freedom from oppression. By 1861, some 30,000 freedom-seekers resided in what is now Ontario, after secretly traveling north from slave states like Kentucky and Virginia. Some returned south after the outbreak of the Civil . . . — Map (db m37379) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Commodore’s Residence, 1815La Résidence du Commodore, 1815
English: On 19 March 1813 Sir James Yeo, a brave and audacious commander earlier in the Napoleonic War, was appointed Commodore and senior officier on the Lakes of Canada. Having never commanded a Squadron before, he was instructed by the Admiralty not to undertake operations without “the full concurrence and approbation” of Sir George Prevost, the Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief of British North America. Moreover, Yeo speedily discovered that his instinct for . . . — Map (db m83570) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Fort Frederick
English: With the outbreak of the War of 1812, a blockhouse was quickly constructed on Point Frederick complementary to and earlier one built on Point Henry. Both provided protection for the Kingston dockyard which was the pivotal point of the Provincial Marine on Lake Ontario. Defences were strengthened throughout the war, with signifiant log-and-earth fortifications added on both sides. Guns within the original Point Frederick earthwork installation were used on 10 November, 1812, . . . — Map (db m83613) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Fort Henry
In English: An earlier fort was built here on Point Henry during the War of 1812 primarily to defend the nearby naval dockyard. When the Rideau Canal was built as part of a military route connecting Kingston with Montreal, the strategic importance of this site increased. The old fort was therefore replaced by the present structure of stronger and more advanced design which was completed in 1836 at a cost of over £70,000. Garrisoned by units of the British and then the Canadian Army . . . — Map (db m39363) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Fort Henry
The first Fort Henry was built during the War of 1812 to protect the British dockyards in Navy Bay. The present limestone citadel, constructed between 1832 and 1837, replaced the old fort as part of a larger plan for the defence of the recently completed Rideau Canal. Commissariat stores were built to join the advanced battery with the main fort in 1841-42. Fort Henry was garrisoned by British troops until 1871, when Canadian Gunnery Schools (forerunner of the Royal Canadian Artillery) took . . . — Map (db m39364) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Kingston Navy Yard
English: The Navy Yard established in 1789 as a trans-shipment point for the Great Lakes and as the Provincial Marine's Lake Ontario base was administered by the Admiralty after 1813. During the War of 1812 Commodore James Yeo, R. N., commanded a considerable squadron built in these yards, including the 112-gun ST. LAWRENCE. This base posed a constant threat to the Americans, who never felt strong enough to risk a direct attack. The Rush-Bagot agreement of 1817, which limited armaments . . . — Map (db m83568) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Louis de Buade Comte de Frontenac et de Palluau1622-1698
One of the most influential and controversial figures in Canadian history, Frontenac was born at St-Germain-en-Laye, France. As a member of the noblesse d'epee he was able in 1672 to secure the appointment as Governor-General of New France. Devoted largely because of self-interest to promoting the colony's territorial expansion, Frontenac established a series of fortified fur-trading posts extending into the interior of North America, the first of which, Fort Frontenac, was constructed near . . . — Map (db m39978) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Point Frederick
English: A strategic location for the defence of the Loyalist settlement at Cataraqui (Kingston), this point was reserved in 1788 and named after Sir Frederick Haldimand, Governor of Quebec (1778-86). In 1790-91 a guardhouse and storehouse were built. By 1792 a dockyard was in operation and during the War of 1812 this vital naval base was fortified. On November 10, 1812, the Fort Frederick battery took part in repulsing an American naval squadron under Commodore Isaac Chauncey. This . . . — Map (db m83571) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Point Frederick Artillery BatteryBatterie d’artillerie de la Pointe Frederick
In November 1812, guns of the original fort here were fired against American ships attacking Kingston. Perhaps this attack came as retaliation for the earlier Canadian one on Sackets (sic) Harbor, but more likely American commander Chauncey felt his squadron sufficiently strong to destroy Anglo-Canadian power on the lake and centered at Kingston. But that failed, giving the British Army the opportunity to build here a new, more powerful battery of 6 and 9 pounder guns with a 45-foot square . . . — Map (db m83615) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Point Frederick Buildings
English: This peninsula, headquarters of the Provincial Marine (c. 1790-1813), and of the Royal Navy (1813-1853), was the major British naval base on Lake Ontario during the War of 1812. Buildings surviving from this period include the Naval Hospital, the Guard House complex, and the Stone Frigate. On the southern part of the peninsula stands Fort Frederick, erected in 1812-13 but completely rebuilt in 1846. In 1875 the Point was chosen as the site of the Royal Military College of . . . — Map (db m83618) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Pro Patria 1812-1814
English: In memory of the officers and seamen of the Royal Navy and Provincial Marine, and the officers and soldiers on the Royal Marines, Royal Newfoundland, King’s (8th) and 100th Regiments, who served on Lake Ontario in defence of Canada in 1812-1814. French: À la mémoire des officiers et de matelots de la Royal Navy et de la Marine provinciale, des fusiliers des Royal Marines, des officiers et des soldats du Royal Newfoundland Regiment, du . . . — Map (db m83620) WM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Sir James Lucas Yeo1782-1818
English: Born at Southampton, England, Yeo entered the British Navy, served throughout the Napoleonic Wars and won rapid promotion by his ability. In 1813, already a Commodore, he came to Canada to command British forces on the Great Lakes. Yeo successfully blockaded the American fleet in Sackett's Harbour for some months and subsequently commanded the naval forces at the capture of Oswego in 1814. Returning to England after the war he was posted to the West African Coast and died at . . . — Map (db m83616) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Sir John A. Macdonald(1815-1891)
John A. Macdonald, a father of Confederation and Canada's first prime minister, dominated the life of the new nation for a quarter century. Macdonald was a visionary statesman, a determined Conservative partisan, and a much-loved leader. His policies of westward expansion and of railways to the Atlantic and Pacific laid the basis of a successful transcontinental nation. Still prime minister, Macdonald died in Ottawa on June 6, 1891. A simple stone cross marks his grave, as he wished. — Map (db m90008) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Strategic Importance / Importance Stratégique
English: During the entire War of 1812, Canadian, British, and American land and naval forces campaigned across a vast territory from the Mississippi Valley, through the region south of Montreal, and well into the territories of the Atlantic coast. But the conflict’s outcome would be determined, in particular, by events on and around the Great Lakes. For the Anglo-Canadian forces, the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario was the strategic linkage for manpower and vital supplies for all . . . — Map (db m83534) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — The King's Royal Regiment of New York
The largest Loyalist Corps in the Northern Department during the American Revolution, the King's Royal Regiment of New York was raised on June 19, 1776 under the command of Sir John Johnson. Originally composed of one battalion with ten companies, it was authorized to add a second battalion in 1780. The regiment, known as the "Royal Yorkers," participated in the bitter war fought on the colonial frontier. It conducted raids against settlements in New York and was also employed in garrison duty. . . . — Map (db m39977) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — The Market Battery
Stood on this site from 1848 to 1875. With Shoal Tower opposite it defended Kingston Harbour and the Rideau Canal. From 1875 this was a public park. In 1885 the Kingston and Pembroke railway station was built. — Map (db m39979) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — The Stone Frigate
English: Once part of a large and active naval dockyard, this substantial stone building was erected as a warehouse for naval stores. Although initially planned in 1816, it was not completed until four years later when the need for storage facilities to hold gear and rigging from British warships dismantled in compliance with the Rush-Bagot Agreement had become acute. After the Rebellion of 1837 the building briefly functioned as a barracks for the naval detachment charged with . . . — Map (db m83567) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — "The Burlington Races" 1813
On the morning of September 28, 1813, a powerfully-armed United States fleet comprising ten ships under the command of Commodore Isaac Chauncey appeared off York (Toronto). The smaller British fleet of six vessels, commanded by Commodore Sir James L. Yeo, was in the harbour, but on the approach of the enemy set sail to attack. After a sharp engagement, the British squadron was forced to withdraw toward Burlington Bay where it could take refuge under the batteries on the adjacent heights. A . . . — Map (db m56759) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — Burlington Heights 1813 - 1814
[English Text]: Here in June, 1813, General John Vincent assembled troops that made the successful night attack on the invaders at Stoney Creek. From this point of vantage, in December, 1813, the force which retook Fort George and carried Fort Niagara by assault, began its march. On these heights stood the strong point of reserve and depot of arms for the defence of the Niagara Peninsula and support of the navy on Lake Ontario. [French Text]: Ici, en juin 1813, le . . . — Map (db m56725) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — Defensive Outwork
About this spot was an outwork of the first line of defense 1812 - 1815 Map (db m56758) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — Dundurn Castle
This villa was completed in 1835 for Allan Napier MacNab. Incorporating an existing farmhouse, it was designed by the local architect, Robert Wetherell, as a statement of its owner's place in Hamilton society. The house features an eclectic blend of classical and Italianate motifs, French windows, broad verandahs and a panoramic view of Burlington Bay. With its outbuildings and grounds, Dundurn Castle stands as an important example of the Picturesque Movement in Canada. After years in private . . . — Map (db m66126) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — Dundurn Castle— 1832 —
This mansion was built 1832-35 by Allan Napier MacNab (1798-1862) and named after the family ancestral seat in Scotland. Enlisting at fifteen, MacNab distinguished himself by his bravery in the War of 1812. He subsequently entered politics and was noted for his support of the Family Compact. During the Rebellion of 1837 he was one of the government's most active military supporters and was knighted for his services. Leader of the Tory-Conservatives, MacNab was speaker of the Legislative . . . — Map (db m66129) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — First Line of Defense
This Stone Marks The Line of Earthworks In First Line of Defense 1812 - 1815 Map (db m56740) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — Hamilton - Scourge ProjectWar of 1812 Naval Memorial Garden
We honour here fifty-three sailors who lost their lives when their ships, HAMILTON and SCOURGE, capsized during a storm in the early morning hours of Sunday, 8th August 1813. These two armed merchant schooners lie in 90 metres of water, 30 kilometres northeast of this site, intact and perfectly preserved with their guns and equipment still in place. A replica of the foremast of SCOURGE is flanked by fifty-three markers similar to those in Allied military cemeteries throughout the world. — Map (db m56928) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — HMCS Haida - NCSM HaidaTribal Class Destroyer — National Historic Site of Canada
HMCS Haida is the last of the Tribal class destroyers which saw heavy action with the Australian, British and Canadian navies during World War II. Built for the Royal Canadian Navy at Newcastle, England, , in 1942, this ship served on the frigid Murmansk run and in clearing the English Channel for the Normandy invasion. She helped sink 14 enemy vessels. Haida was re-commissioned in 1952 and served two tours of duty with the United Nations in Korea, taking part in shore bombardment, blockades . . . — Map (db m67343) WM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — March to Stoney Creek
These ramparts were erected by the British troops during the War of 1812-15. From this place on the night of June 5th 1813, 700 men under the command of Lieut. Colonel Harvey, marched to Stoney Creek where they surprised and routed an American force of 3750 men ridding the Niagara Peninsula of the invaders. — Map (db m56756) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — Sir Allan Napier MacNab1798 - 1862
Politician, businessman, land speculator and soldier, Allan MacNab enjoyed a very public life. He was a successful lawyer and was appointed Upper Canada's first Queen's Counsel. In 1838 he was knighted for his role in suppressing the rebellion in Upper Canada. The profits from his extensive land speculation were fed into a variety of projects, including construction of his monument, Dundurn. He was influential in establishing the Gore Bank and in promoting the Great Western Railway. During a . . . — Map (db m66130) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — Sir John Harvey1778 - 1852
From these heights, Lieutenant-Colonel John Harvey set out with about 700 men on the night of June 5, 1813, to launch a surprise attack on an invading United States force of some 3,000 men camped at Stoney Creek. His rout of the troops commanded by Brigadier-General John Chandler under cover of darkness in the early hours of June 6, is generally credited with saving Upper Canada from being overrun by the enemy. Harvey was knighted in 1834, served as Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick 1834-41, . . . — Map (db m56743) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Hamilton — United Empire Loyalists
In Lasting Memory of the United Empire Loyalists Who preferred to remain loyal British subjects and came to canada in large numbers immediately following the American Revolution of 1776 and the signing of the Treaty of Peace in 1783. —————— On this site in 1785 was erected one of the first log houses in this district by a loyalist pioneer Col. Richard Beasley who on June 11th and 12th 1796 here . . . — Map (db m66131) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Stoney Creek — Battle of Stoney Creek1813
On June 5, 1813, an invading United States army of about 3,000 men, commanded by Brigadier - General John Chandler, camped in this vicinity. That evening some 700 British regulars of the 8th and 49th Regiments, under the command of Lieutenant - Colonel John Harvey, left their encampment on Burlington Heights to attack the enemy. The assault was launched early the following morning under cover of darkness. In the fierce fighting which followed, heavy losses were suffered on both sides, but the . . . — Map (db m56720) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Stoney Creek — Battle of Stoney Creek
[English Text]: Battle of Stoney Creek During 1813 the Americans planned to invade Upper Canada from Detroit and the Niagara Peninsula. In late May, an American force crossed the Niagara River, seized Fort George, and with about 3500 troops moved inland in pursuit of the British who retreated to Burlington Heights. At Stoney Creek, a surprise night attack by about 700 regulars of the 8th and 49th Regiments of Foot under Lt.-Col. John Harvey halted the American advance and . . . — Map (db m56762) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Stoney Creek — Battlefield House
[Text on First Historic Marker]: Battlefield House and Fifteen and one-half acres of Parkland Property of The women's Wentworth Historical Society 1899-1962 Given by this society to the Niagara Parks Commission as a National Historic Site January 19, 1962 [Text on Second Historic Marker]: Battlefield Park Battlefield House (circa 1796) Battlefield Monument (1913) Designated under the Ontario Heritage Act City of Stoney Creek Council . . . — Map (db m56805) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Stoney Creek — Billy Green Monument
[Text on West Side of Monument]: In Memory Of Billy Green "The Scout" Who led British troops in surprise night attack winning decisive Battle of Stoney Creek. Born Feb. 4, 1794 Died Mar. 15, 1877 [Text on North Side of Monument]: In Memory Of Isaac Corman Who gave the password to Billy Green who in turn gave it to Gen. Harvey camped at Burlington Heights . . . — Map (db m56822) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Stoney Creek — The Battlefield of Stoney Creek
The Battlefield of Stoney Creek 6th June 1813 In memory of 20 good and true King's Men who, in fighting in defence of their country, died and were buried on this knoll. This revised inscription and stone re-dedicated June 6th 1956 By Her Majesty's Army & Navy Veteran's Society of Hamilton — Map (db m56798) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Stoney Creek — The Nash-Jackson House
Originally located at the north-east corner of king Street East and Nash Road in the city of Hamilton, the house known as the Nash=Jackson House was built in 1818. The property on which the house stood, part of William Gage's original land grant, was deeded to his eldest daughter, Susannah (Gage) Nash, in 1815. William Gage was uncle to James Gage, original owner of what is now Battlefield House Museum. The Nash-Jackson House, once named Grandview, with its Loyalist Neo-Classic style of . . . — Map (db m56859) HM
Ontario (Hamilton County), Stoney Creek — Their Fame Liveth
Canada Remembers Lieutenant Samuel Hooker, Sergeant Joseph Hunt, Pri- vates James Daig, Thomas Fearnsides, Richard Hugill, George Longley, Laurence Meade, John Pegler, John Smith, and John Wale of the First Battalion of the Eighth (King's) Regiment of Foot; and Sergeant Charles Page, Pri- vates James Adams, Alexander Brown, Michael Burke, Henry Carroll, Nathaniel Catlin, Martin Curley, Martin Don- nolly, Peter Henley, John Hostler, Edward . . . — Map (db m56819) HM
Ontario (Hastings County), Shannonville — Nelson International Raceway
This was the original name of SMP when the track was first built in 1975. After coming to Canada from Ireland in 1954, John Nelson followed his passion for motorcycles and racing. He owned several bike shops in Toronto and became quite an accomplished rider in his own right. In October 1976 the first motorcycle race was held here on a chilly Thanksgiving weekend. Known for his burly laugh, racing stories and legendary repair jobs, John was admired and well liked by everyone in the racing . . . — Map (db m77758) HM
Ontario (Hastings County), Tweed — The Hungerford Smallpox Epidemic of 1884
The viral disease of smallpox - widespread in 19th century Ontario - flared up in a severe epidemic in Hungerford Township in 1884. The outbreak claimed at least 45 lives in 202 reported cases and disrupted economic activity and family life for many more. Local efforts by municipal authorities and private physicians were initially unable to halt the disease, and its wider spread throughout the province seemed likely. The newly established Provincial Board of Health and its hired officers . . . — Map (db m74023) HM
Ontario (Lambton County), Oil Springs — First Oil Wells in CanadaLes Premiers Puits de Pétrole au Canada
English The presence of oil in this locality was observed by early travelers and by the pioneer farmers who used it for medical purposes. In 1858, near Oil Springs, James M. Williams dug the first oil well in Canada and later established a refinery at Hamilton. In 1861, John Shaw, by drilling into rock, opened the first flowing well, its situation being Lot 18, Concession 2, Enniskillen Township. From these beginnings developed one of Canada’s most important industries. . . . — Map (db m78424) HM
Ontario (Lambton County), Petrolia — Robert M. Nicol Library
The original Grand Trunk Railway Station was built in 1903. It was later bought by CN and the station closed in 1927. The Town of Petrolia opened its first official library here in 1937. A commitment to maintain this designated heritage building is shared by the Town of Petrolia and through a generous trust fund granted by Robert M. Nicol in memory of his mother, Helen Kavanagh Nicol. — Map (db m78422) HM
Ontario (Lambton County), Petrolia — The Founding of Petrolia
Following the discovery of oil at Oil Springs in 1857 prospectors extended their search to the entire township of Enniskillen. At the site of Petrolia, which contained two small settlements with post offices named Durance and Ennis, a well was brought into production in 1860. The following year a small refinery was opened and the Durance post office renamed “Petrolea.” At first, eclipsed by Oil Springs, the community developed slowly. But in 1865-66 a series of discoveries . . . — Map (db m78417) HM
Ontario (Lambton County), Petrolia — Victoria Hall
English When Victoria Hall was built in 1889, Petrolia, in the midst of an oil boom, was one of the wealthiest towns in Canada. The opulent town hall reflects this stage in the town’s growth. While its first floor housed municipal offices, court rooms, fire department and armory, the entire second floor was an opera house capable of seating 1,000 people. The design, by London (Ontario) architect George Durand, uses a diverse combination of forms and a variety of decorative motifs to . . . — Map (db m78421) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — Blockhouse Island
On this island, formerly known as Hospital Island, stood the sheds erected to house emigrants who were victims of cholera in the great epidemic of 1832. Many persons died here, including Doctor Robert Gilmour, a native of Scotland and president of the first Board of Health in Upper Canada, who was stricken while attending the sick. During the Rebellion of 1837–38, a Blockhouse was erected here for the defense of Brockville. It was destroyed by fire in 1860. — Map (db m87065) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — Former Brockville Post Office
Completed in 1886 this structure was designed under the direction of Thomas Fuller, Chief Architect of the Department of Public Works from 1881 to 1896. The Brockville Post Office shows the sensitivity often displayed by Fuller and his staff. The basic design with the double entrance and steep roof was adapted to many small post offices across Canada, but varied here by the presence of superb stonework and a central pedimented gable with flanking gables. Each post office was unique but . . . — Map (db m87064) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — Forsyth’s Raid 1813
On the night of February 6-7, 1813, Major Benjamin Forsyth of the United States Army, with a detachment of regulars and militia numbering about 200 men, crossed the frozen St. Lawrence River from Morristown, N.Y., and attacked Brockville. The village garrisoned by a company of Leeds Militia who, taken by surprise, could offer no resistance. The invaders released prisoners from the jail, took a quantity of arms, horses and cattle, and carried off an number of residents. The resentment aroused by . . . — Map (db m83482) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — Fulford Place
Built in 1899 – 1900, this eclectic mansion evokes the opulent lifestyle of Canada's industrial elite at the turn of the century. Designed by American architect A. W. Fuller, it was the spacious residence of Senator George T. Fulford (1852–1905), who made his fortune in patent medicines. The remarkably fine period interior includes most of the original furniture, fixtures, dinnerware, linens, and objets d'art. The grounds, of which significant elements survive, were landscaped by the prestigious Olmsted Brothers' firm. — Map (db m87017) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — Gen. Sir Isaac Brock. K.C.B.(1769-1812)
Brockville was named after the Provisional Civi Administrator of Upper Canada and the Commanding Officier of the British forces in Upper Canada during the War of 1812-1814. The government of Upper Canada first named this community “Elizabethtown” after moving the site of district administration here in 1809. The building of the first Court House and Gaol in the village was completed in 1810. The surrounding township was also named Elizbethtown, so the local citizens were . . . — Map (db m83527) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — George Chaffey1848 - 1932
Born at Brockville, Canada West, Chaffey became a shipbuilder on the Great Lakes and the inventor of a new type of propeller. Subsequently he went to California where, in partnership with his brother, he built a model irrigation project and founded the city of Ontario. At the request of Alfred Deakin, later Prime Minister of Australia, Chaffey went to that continent in 1886 where he began irrigated fruit production in the Murray Valley. By proving that irrigation was practical, Chaffey was . . . — Map (db m87019) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — James Morris1798 - 1865
A prominent Canadian politician, Morris was born in Paisley, Scotland. His family immigrated to Canada in 1801 and later settled in Elizabethtown (Brockville). He joined his brothers, Alexander and William, in business there about 1820 and by 1836 had gained prominence in commercial and banking circles. Morris represented Leeds in the provincial legislature from 1837 until his appointment to the Legislative Council in 1844. Named first Canadian postmaster-general in 1851, when responsibility . . . — Map (db m87063) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — Johnstown District Court House and Gaol
In 1808 the provincial government authorized the erection of a court house and gaol in Elizabethtown (Brockville) to serve the District of Johnstown created ten years earlier. By 1811 a brick structure had been built here on land donated by William Buell, the founder of Brockville. It was replaced in 1824 by a larger building which remained the judicial and administrative centre of the region until the present court house was completed in 1843. Prominently situated at the head of the public . . . — Map (db m83480) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — Leeds-Grenville County Court House
Symbols of law and authority to a new and changing society, the district court houses of Upper Canada were architecturally prominent buildings in the colony. Of these, one of the most grandiose is the former Johnstown District court house which was erected in the early 1840s and at present houses the county courts for Leeds-Grenville. Planned by the noted Toronto architect, John Howard, the building easily incorporates the diverse facilities of a court room, offices and jail while presenting . . . — Map (db m87027) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — Ogle Robert Gowan, 1803-1876
A prominent provincial politician, Gowan was born in County Wexford, Ireland. He came to Upper Canada in 1829 and immediately immersed himself in political affairs. Drawing upon his experience in the Irish Orange Order, Gowan established the Grand Orange Lodge of British North America in 1830 and , as the first Canadian grand master, ably guided the organization during its formative years. In 1836 he was elected to the Legislative Assembly, representing this area intermittently until 1861. A . . . — Map (db m83479) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — Sally Grant
"Sally Grant" is the familiar name of the Statue of Justice which was conceived in 1841 by John G. Howard, the architect of this Court House, and carved by William Holmes, a Brockville carpenter and builder. The eleven foot high figure, made of cedar, stood on the roof of this Court House from 1845 to 1956, at which time it was taken down for safety reasons. The statue was not immediately repaired nor re-erected on the building but remained in storage until 1962 when it was taken to Westport, . . . — Map (db m87957) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — Senator George T. Fulford1852 - 1905
Born and raised in Brockville, George Taylor Fulford apprenticed at his brother's drugstore and took charge of it himself at age 22. Five years later, he was elected to the first of 12 terms as alderman. Fulford entered the patent-medicine trade in 1886, and in 1890 acquired the rights to his most famous product, "Dr. Williams' Pink Pills for Pale People." His use of large-scale newspaper testimonial advertising helped expand his business internationally. His headquarters remained in . . . — Map (db m87015) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — Sir William Buell Richards1815 - 1889
Born at Brockville and called to the bar of Upper Canada in 1837, Richards represented Leeds in the Legislative Assembly (1848–53) and served as Attorney General for Canada West in the Hincks-Morin administration (1851–3). Appointed puisne judge of the Court of Common Pleas in 1853, he became Chief Justice of that Court in 1863 and Chief Justice of the Ontario Queen's Bench in 1868. When the Supreme Court of Canada was formed in 1875, Richards became its first Chief Justice and . . . — Map (db m87029) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — The Brockville "Van" or CabooseBuilt 1954 - Donated, restored and placed here, 1987
This steel caboose was built in 1954 for the Canadian Pacific Railway (C.P.R.) at their Angus Shops in Montréal. It served the Eastern Division of the railway for many years. Cabooses, or "vans" to trainmen, were usually used at the end of freight trains. The Brockville caboose (serial no. 437464) probably began his life as an "assigned" caboose, but later functioned as a "pooled" or "run-through" caboose. Early cabooses were "assigned" to only one conductor. A "pooled" caboose remained hooked . . . — Map (db m87959) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — The Brockville Tunnel1860
Construction of Canada's first railway tunnel, which runs from this point for 1,730 feet in a northerly direction, began in September, 1854. Designed to give the Brockville and Ottawa Railway access to the riverfront, it was opened on December 31, 1860. This railway, incorporated in 1853, ran from Brockville to Sand Point, near Arnprior, with a branch line from Smith's Falls to Perth. Its first train left Brockville's Grand Trunk station on January 25, 1859, almost two years before finances . . . — Map (db m87075) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — William Buell, Sr.1751 - 1832
Renowned as the founder of Brockville, Buell was born in Hebron, Connecticut. Shortly after the outbreak of the American Revolution he moved to Québec where he joined the British forces and eventually served as a commissioned officer in the King's Rangers. In 1784, after his unit had been disbanded, he settled on a Crown grant here in the center of present-day Brockville. One of the area's first permanent residents, Buell became an influential local citizen. He represented Leeds in the Upper . . . — Map (db m87079) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Brockville — William Buell’s 1816 Map of Brockville
This is one of the earliest maps of the Village of Brockville and shows many of the early details upon which the later Town, and then City of Brockville have been superimposed. The war of 1812-15 has just been over for a short time. The area around the first Court House shows the wartime accommodations for soldiers, with barracks, cook house, and hospital still in place. The waterfront shows the original shoreline characterized by “Oak Point” on the left, a natural landmark . . . — Map (db m83484) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Cardinal — St. Paul's Church
In 1828 Richard Duncan Fraser, the son of an early Loyalist settler, Captain Thomas Fraser, donated land here for the building of a church to serve the Anglicans in this area. Their minister, the Reverend J.G. Weagandt, the missionary stationed at Williamsburg, was the former Lutheran who had become embroiled in a bitter local controversy when, in 1812, he persuaded his congregations in Williamsburg and Osnabruck to adopt the Anglican faith. Under his guidance, a stone church was erected here . . . — Map (db m86849) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Cardinal — The Founding of Cardinal
The grist-mill built at Point Cardinal by Hugh Munro about 1796 fostered the development here of a small settlement. A sawmill and store were later erected, and in 1837 a post-office, "Edwardsburgh", was established. In 1858, attracted by abundant water-power and the operation of the Galops shipping canal (1846) and the Grand Trunk Railway (1855), William T. Benson and Thomas Aspden founded the Canada Starch Works. Its prosperity stimulated the growth of Elgin, as Edwardsburgh was also known, . . . — Map (db m86852) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Gananoque — Gananoque
English: A vulnerable point on the vital line of supply from Lower Canada in the War of 1812-14. Raided on the 21st September, 1812, when the bridge was broken up. Fortified by the Leeds Militia and garrisoned in turn by the 104th, 41st, 89th, Canadian Voltigeurs, Royal Newfoundland, 57th and 70th Regiments, with Royal Artillery, it became the base for a division of gunboats cruising among the Thousand Islands for the protection of transport. French: Point vulnérable . . . — Map (db m83528) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Gananoque — Gananoque Town Hall
Built about 1831-32, and designed in the late phase of the Neo-Classic style, this structure is among the best of its type remaining in Ontario. Constructed as a dwelling for John McDonald, a local landowner, merchant, postmaster and later a member of the Legislative Council of Canada, it remained in the family until 1911. The earliest settlement at the site of Gananoque took place in the late 1790's, and the first major survey of a village site was carried out in 1842. First incorporated in . . . — Map (db m83532) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Gananoque — Raid on Gananoque1812
On September 21, 1812, a United States force of some 200 regulars and militia under Capt. Benjamin Forsyth attacked Gananoque. The village was an important forwarding point for supplies moving up the St. Lawrence from Montreal to Kingston and was garrisoned by a detachment of the 2nd Leeds Militia under Col. Joel Stone. After a spirited resistance, Stone withdrew his force comprising two subalterns and about forty soldiers, and the Americans seized the stores and burned the government depot. . . . — Map (db m83531) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Johnstown — Eastern Ontario's First Court House and Gaol
Eastern Ontario's first Court House and Gaol was constructed on the waterfront south of this site between 1795 and 1797. The complex included a chamber for the District Court on the upper floor as well as cells and a room for the jailer on the lower level. Later a pillory and stocks were erected next to the Court House. The entire area was enclosed with a picket fence constructed with cedar posts eight feet high. In 1810 the Court and Gaol were moved to new facilities in Brockville, despite . . . — Map (db m86949) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Johnstown — Johnstown 1789
In 1789-90 a town plot of one mile square was laid out in this vicinity. Many Loyalists, including Sir John Johnson, obtained lots in the settlement. A sawmill and grist-mill were constructed, and in 1793 it was made the administrative centre of the Eastern District. A courthouse and gaol were erected and the court of quarter sessions, which administered the district's local government, met alternately here and in Cornwall. Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe stayed in Johnstown in 1792 and 1795. In . . . — Map (db m86853) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Lansdowne — Elizabeth Rabb Beatty1856 - 1939
One of the earliest Canadian female medical missionaries, Elizabeth Rabb Beatty was born near Caintown and moved to Lansdowne where she attended local schools. She taught in Leeds County before entering Queen's University, Kingston, to study medicine. Graduating in 1884, she was sent by the Presbyterian Women's Foreign Missionary Society to Indore, Central India. Two years later she was joined by another medical missionary, Dr. Marion Oliver, with whom she co-operated in the opening of a . . . — Map (db m87198) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Maitland — Pointe Au Baril
English text: The barques "Iroquoise" and "Outaouaise", the last French ships of war that navigated Lake Ontario, were built on this point, then called Pointe Au Baril. On 17th August, 1760, the Outaouaise, commanded by Captain La Broquerie, was taken after a gallant fight, by five British Row-Galleys, under Colonel George Williamson. French text: Les Barques "Iroquoise" et "Outaouaise", derniers vaisseaux de guerre Français qui aient navigué sur le lac Ontario, furent . . . — Map (db m87011) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Mallorytown — Chimney Island (Bridge Island)
During the War of 1812 the St. Lawrence was the life-line of Upper Canada along which virtually all military and civilian supplies were transported from Montréal to Kingston. Fear that the Americans might attempt to block the passage of materiel prompted the fortification of Bridge Island as a shelter for the supply batteaux and a base for British gunboats. A blockhouse was completed early in 1814 and a circular battery with an 18-pounder constructed. These defence works were maintained by a . . . — Map (db m87163) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Prescott — Bytown and Prescott Railway Company 1850
This company, incorporated in 1850, built a railway from Prescott to Bytown (Ottawa) for the shipment of lumber and farm products to markets of the north-eastern United States and Montreal. Substantial funds were raised at Bytown, Prescott and other municipalities along the line. In 1851 Walter Shanly, Chief Engineer, started construction, and a train first ran from Prescott to Bytown on Christmas Day, 1854. The railway, renamed the Ottawa and Prescott in 1855, was the first to serve the . . . — Map (db m83430) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Prescott — Capture of Ogdensburg1813
On the morning of February 22, 1813, Lieutenant-Colonel "Red George" Macdonell of the Glengarry Light Infantry set out from Prescott with a force of some 480 regulars and militia to capture the strong United States military post at Ogdensburg. The attack was made in retaliation for the recent American raid on Brockville and was contrary to the orders of the commander-in-chief, Sir George Prevost. Advancing across the ice, Macdonell's force presented an easy target for the enemy artillery, but . . . — Map (db m86971) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Prescott — Col. Edward Jessup1735-1816
Born in Stamford, Connecticut, he forfeited 500,000 acres near Albany, New York, by taking up arms for the King on the outbreak of the American Revolution. He raised the Loyal (Jessup’s) Rangers and served under Burgoyne. This corps was disbanded at the end of the war, its members settling in the present Leeds and Grenville Counties, and on the Bay of Quinte. In return for his services, Jessup received extensive lands from the Crown. In 1810 a townsite was surveyed on this grant which he named . . . — Map (db m83429) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Prescott — Fort Wellington
English: The first Fort Wellington was erected on this site during the War of 1812 to shelter British regular troops and Canadian militia defending the vital St. Lawrence River transportation route. In February 1813 those soldiers crossed the ice to capture Ogdensburg, N. Y. When rebellion threatened Upper Canada in 1838 the fort was in ruins. Construction had scarcely begun on the present fort in November 1838 when a band of Canadian rebels and American sympathizers attacked, they were . . . — Map (db m83365) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Prescott — Grand Trunk RailwayPrescott
The Grand Trunk was incorporated in 1853 to run from Sarnia to Portland, Maine. Although it took over existing lines, new ones had to be built, including sections of the key Toronto to Montréal line completed by the noted English engineering firm of Peto, Brassey, Jackson and Betts in 1856. The Prescott station, built about 1855, is a typical example of the smaller stations erected by this firm for the Grand Trunk Railway. Influenced by English designs, the station is an enduring monument to early Canadian railway enterprise. — Map (db m45781) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Prescott — Justus Sherwood1747 - 1798
Born in Connecticut, Sherwood settled in Vermont in 1774. On the outbreak of the American Revolution he was arrested as a Loyalist, but escaped to join the British at Crown Point. He was taken prisoner at Saratoga in 1777, and after being exchanged was commissioned as a captain in the intelligence service. From 1780 to 1783 he had charge of secret negotiations which, it was hoped, would result in Vermont's rejoining the British Empire. Sherwood, who took up land in this township in 1784, . . . — Map (db m86972) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Prescott — Major James Morrow Walsh1840-1905
Born and educated in Prescott, Walsh was trained at military schools at Kingston and by 1873 had attained the rank of Major in the militia. In that year he was commissioned in the newly formed North-West Mounted Police. While in charge at Fort Walsh, in present-day Saskatchewan, he became known for his influence and friendship with Sitting Bull, chief of the approximately 5,000 Sioux who sought refuge in Canada 1876-77, and for his role in the negotiations for their return to the United . . . — Map (db m86953) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Prescott — Prescott Barracks and Hospital
The front portion of this structure one of the earliest surviving military buildings in Ontario, was constructed as a residence about 1810 by Colonel Edward Jessup, the founder of Prescott. Following the outbreak of the War of 1812, the stone house was appropriated for use as a barracks by local militia and, later, British regulars. It was soon enclosed within a stockade with other buildings, including a log schoolhouse also converted for barracks. Although a fort was completed nearby in 1814, . . . — Map (db m86950) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Prescott — Prescott War Memorial
World War I 1914-1918 Arthur E. Baker • Howard Baker • Philip V. Blacklock • Cecil Bovaird • Ward W. Burke • John H. Davy • Jacob S. Doyle • G. Harvey Ewart • Ira H. Glasgow • Albert Hurlbert • Royal W. Kingston • Roy Lindsay • John A. MacDonald • Harold P. MacGregor • Charles H. O’Leary • Guy C. O’Shea • George Patterson • Edward Patterson • James Peterson • William Robinson • William F. Sharpe • Harry J. Smith • John R.W. Tyner • Stanley W. Ward • Wilfred L. White World War . . . — Map (db m83466) WM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Prescott — Sir Richard William Scott1825-1913
English: Born at Prescott, Scott was admitted to the bar in 1848 and practiced law in Ottawa. As a member of the legislature of United Canada (1857-63) he sponsored the Separate School Act of 1863. Subsequently, he represented Ottawa in the Ontario legislature (1867-73) and was Commissioner of Crown Lands (1871-73). Appointed to the Senate in 1874, he served as Secretary of State in the Mackenzie Cabinet (1874-8) and was responsible for the Canada Temperance Act of 1878. He held the . . . — Map (db m83364) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Prescott — The Battle of the WindmillLa Bataille du Moulin à Vent
English: After the 1837 Rebellions many rebels fled to the United States where a few joined American sympathizers in a new attempt to overthrow British rule in Canada. On 12 November 1838 they landed 190 men here and seized this windmill and nearby buildings. The local people remained loyal, reporting to their militia units; in a few days 2,000 militia and regulars, supported by naval vessels, besieged the mill. Although British guns did little damage to the mill, the insurgents, seeing . . . — Map (db m83433) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Prescott — The Battle of the WindmillLa Bataille du Moulin à Vent
English: Prelude to the Battle In 1837 the British army and loyal militia crushed the first armed revolt in Upper and Lowr Canada. Many rebels fled to the United States. The exiles joined with American sympathisers to form a secret paramilitary organization, the Hunter’s Lodge. In November 1838, a group of Hunters planned an invasion of Canada at Prescott. It was expected that the local population would join in “liberating” the country from British control. . . . — Map (db m83476) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville counties), Prescott — The Blue Church
On January 1, 1790, inhabitants of Augusta and Elizabethtown townships agreed to build a church here in the burying yard of the proposed town of "New Oswegatchie". Subscriptions were inadequate and nothing was built by 1804 when Barbara Heck, the founder of Methodism in Upper Canada, was buried here. In 1809 Anglicans of Augusta and Elizabethtown built a frame chapel, later called the "Blue Church", which served the parish until St. James, Maitland, was opened in 1826. The "Blue Church", . . . — Map (db m87008) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Prescott — The Forwarding Trade at Prescott
Before the completion of the canals between here and Montreal in 1847, Prescott was the eastern terminus of Great Lakes navigation. Established at the head of Galops Rapids in 1810, it soon became a centre for the forwarding, or shipping, trade and an important centre in Montreal's commercial system. One of the earliest forwarders at Prescott was Captain William Gilkison, who began operations on this property about 1811. As the population of Upper Canada increased rapidly after 1820, the trade . . . — Map (db m86956) HM
Ontario (Leeds & Grenville Counties), Prescott — Welcome to the Site of The Battle of the Windmill
[ On the Right - In English ]: You are standing on a battlefield where men fought and died. This battle took place in November 1838, during the Canadian rebellions. One side fought to "liberate" Canada from British rule. The other side rallied to protect their homes or the established political order. The lighthouse in front of you is a converted windmill around which the battle was fought. Fort Wellington, a few kilometres to the west in Prescott, was a gathering . . . — Map (db m83497) HM
Ontario (Leeds and Grenville Counties), Gananoque — Colonel Joel Stone1749-1833
Born in Connecticut, Stone forfeited his home and property there when he fled to New York to serve with the Loyalist militia during the American Revolution. He came to Canada in 1786, settled with his family in New Johnstown (now Cornwall) and was eventually granted 700 acres of land on the west bank of the Gananoque River. Here, he established mercantile operations, including a sawmill and a ferry service to cross the river. Stone was appointed Justice of the Peace for Leeds County in 1796, . . . — Map (db m90006) HM
Ontario (Leeds and Grenville Counties), Gananoque — Private John Henry (Harry) BrownVictoria Cross — Born Gananoque 9 May 1898 Died of wounds 17 August 1917, age 19
John Henry Brown enlisted in the Canadian Expeditionary Force on 18 August 1916 and reported to the 10th battalion in France in late June 1917. On 15 August his unit captured Hill 70, just east of Vimy Ridge. But on 16 August it was counter-attacked repeatedly. Private Brown delivered a vital message through an intense enemy artillery barrage despite having an arm almost torn off. The message saved the lives of many comrades. But Private Brown died of his wounds the next day. He was . . . — Map (db m90007) HM
Ontario (Leeds and Grenville Counties), Gananoque — War of 1812-1814
During the war of 1812, Gananoque was a strategic point along the St. Lawrence River corridor. All supplies heading west to support British and Canadian forces had to pass through this channel. On September 21, 1812, a company of U.S. army rifleman under the command of Captain Benjamin Forsyth, attacked Gananoque. Their objectives were to take prisoners, including Colonel Joel Stone, commander of the 2nd Regiment of Leeds Militia, capture military stores and interrupt the British supply route. . . . — Map (db m90003) HM
Ontario (Leeds and Grenville Counties), Maitland — Dorothy Martha Dumbrille1897-1981
Described as a writer "having a mission", this novelist, poet and historian authored ten books. Born in Crysler, she was the daughter of an Anglican priest, The Venerable Archdeacon Rupert J. Dumbrille and his wife. She lived in many Eastern Ontario communities, including Alexandria, where her husband James T. Smith was high school principal. During World War II she wrote and published several patriotic poems followed by a novel 'All This Difference' which addressed the tensions between the . . . — Map (db m89998) HM
Ontario (Leeds and Grenville Counties), Maitland — Dumbrille's Store
Built as a house in the 1850s, this sturdy stone building was altered in 1877 by John Dumbrille, when he relocated his general store from across the street in front of his residence "Sprucelawn". In 1879 he was appointed Maitland's postmaster and that office was moved here as well. Four generations of the Dumbrille family remained as shopkeepers and postmasters in this building until 1969 when a new post office was built elsewhere. — Map (db m89979) HM
Ontario (Leeds and Grenville Counties), Maitland — Homewood
Construction of Homewood was begun in 1800 by Dr. Solomon Jones, a prominent Loyalist, local officeholder and early resident of this region. With its balanced five-bay façade, centre hallway plan and classical detailing, it reflects the influence of British Palladianism, while its fieldstone construction and deeply pitched roof echo the Québec traditions of its builder, the Montréal Mason Louis Brillière. In spite of several additions, Homewood retains much of its original character and . . . — Map (db m89978) HM
Ontario (Leeds and Grenville Counties), Maitland — Lieut.-Col. Thain Wendell MacDowell, V.C., D.S.O.1890-1960
Born in Lachute, Québec, MacDowell moved to Maitland in 1897. He attended local schools and graduated from the University of Toronto in 1915. During World War I, he enlisted, on January 9, 1915, in the 38th Battalion, C.E.F. On April 9, 1917, during the battle of Vimy Ridge, assisted by two runners, he captured two machine guns, two officers and seventy-five men. With the vision of the enemy obscured by a turn in a passage in their dug-out, he was able to convince them that he commanded a . . . — Map (db m89999) HM
Ontario (Leeds and Grenville Counties), Maitland — St. James Church 1826
Among Augusta Township's earliest settlers were a number of Anglican Loyalists who, by 1785, we're holding services in private houses. The first resident missionary, the Reverend John Bethune, was appointed to this area in 1814. Reverend Robert Blakey served the parish from 1821 until his death in 1858, and during his incumbency construction of St. James Church was begun in 1826. A pleasing example of early Gothic Revival architecture, this structure was built by John Shephard, a local mason, . . . — Map (db m90002) HM
Ontario (Leeds and Grenville Counties), Maitland — St. James's Masonic Lodge No. 74A.F. & A.M.
In a building on property contiguous to this site, St. James Lodge No. 74 (originally No. 40) was founded 9 February 1857. The Christian Order of Masonry, then known as the Sovereign Grand Conclave of England and Wales was instituted here 6 March 1872. Formation of the Royal Arch Masons of Upper Canada was initiated here 4 August 1875. The first recorded minutes of the St. Lawrence District Past Masters, Masters and Wardens Association were written here 20 July 1893. From its founding until it . . . — Map (db m90000) HM
Ontario (Leeds and Grenville Counties), Maitland — The Founding of Maitland
In this vicinity, the site of a shipyard used during both the late French and early British periods, a village plot was laid out in 1824 for Jehiel and Ziba Phillips. Adjacent to it George Longley, a recent English emigrant, acquired an estate on which St. James Anglican Church was built in 1826. Longley constructed the nearby stone windmill, opened a store and in 1828 became Maitland's first postmaster. The community, named after Sir Peregrine Maitland, Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada . . . — Map (db m89996) HM
Ontario (Leeds and Grenville Counties), Roebuck — Roebuck Indian Village Site
Approximately 500 years ago an Iroquoian agricultural community of about 1600 persons occupied this site. Archaeological excavations suggested approximately 40 communal longhouses, averaging nearly 100 feet in length, stood in this village, palisaded with a stout double stockade. The farmers on the site grew corn, beans, squash, sunflowers and tobacco. A similar village, Hochelaga, on the present site of Montréal, was visited by Jacques Cartier in 1535. After this first contact with Europeans, . . . — Map (db m89977) HM
Ontario (Leeds and Grenville Counties), Spencerville — The Founding of Spencerville
By 1821 Peleg Spencer was operating a grist-mill and sawmill on the South Nation River on a Clergy Lot he had leased in 1817, having previously owned a sawmill on the site from 1811 till 1814. David Spencer, son of Peleg, took over the mills in 1822 and patented the mill lot in 1831. By 1828 an inn was located near "Spencer's Mills" and a settlement developed. David Spencer had a village plot surveyed in the 1840's and a post-office, called "Spencerville", had been opened by October, 1846. In . . . — Map (db m89974) HM
Ontario (Lennox & Addington Counties), Bath — Early Latter-day Saints in Upper Canada
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was organized in 1830 in Fayette, New York. Its unique message was that the original gospel of Jesus Christ had been restored through a modern prophet, Joseph Smith. The Church became known as the Mormon Church because of its belief in the Book of Mormon, a book of scripture which was translated from gold plates by Joseph Smith. The Book of Mormon provides another testimony of Jesus Christ and is used by Church members as a companion to the Bible. . . . — Map (db m83646) HM
Ontario (Lennox & Addington Counties), Bath — The First Steamship on Lake OntarioLe Premier Vapeur du Lac Ontario
English: In the early 1800's Kingston was a shipbuilding centre of note. The FRONTENAC, the first steamship to navigate Lake Ontario, was built here at Finkle's Point, Ernestown (now Bath), and launched September 7, 1816. Designed to carry freight and passengers, it was a boon to travellers, greatly reducing the difficulties and the cost of travel between Kingston and York (now Toronto). More sophisticated ships soon rendered the FRONTENAC obsolete and it was sold in 1825. Two years . . . — Map (db m83645) HM
Ontario (Lennox & Addington Counties), Greater Napanee — Bay of Quinte Loyalist SettlementL’Etablissement des Loyalistes dans la Baie d Quinte
English: This region was among the first in present day Ontario to receive loyalist settlers following the American Revolution. Surveying began in 1783, and by the following year five townships had been laid out between the Cataraqui River and the east end of the Isle of Quinte (Kingstown, Ernestown, Fredericksburgh, Adolphustown, and Marysburgh). Loyalist refugees and discharged soldiers arrived to take up land grants in these five Cataraqui townships in 1784. That same year, Iroquois . . . — Map (db m83649) HM
Ontario (Lennox & Addington Counties), Greater Napanee — Escape of the Royal George 1812
Opposite here is the gap between Amherst Island and the eastern tip of Prince Edward County. On November 9, 1812, the British Corvette "Royal George" (22 guns), commanded by Commodore Hugh Earl(e), was intercepted off False Duck Islands by an American fleet, comprising seven ships under Commodore Isaac Chauncey. Pursued by the enemy, "Royal George" escaped through this gap into the Bay of Quinte's North Channel. The chase resumed in light winds the following day when she arrived safely in . . . — Map (db m83643) HM
Ontario (Lennox & Addington Counties), Greater Napanee — The Royal Union Flag1707-1801
Originally designed in 1606, this flag was officially adopted in 1707 by England and Scotland as their royal standard at the time of the union of the thrones and parliaments of both countries. It consists of the blue background and white diagonal cross of St. Andrew, Patron Saint of Scotland, with superimposed the red cross of St. George, Patron Saint of England. The white piping is a heraldic device used to separate the blue and red portions. When the American Revolution began in 1775, many . . . — Map (db m83647) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), Glencoe — Battle Hill
English Here was fought the Battle of Longwoods, 4th March, 1814. United States troops were entrenched on this hill. The British losses were Captain D. Johnson and Lieutenant P. Graeme and twelve men of the Royal Scots Light Company and the 89th Light Company, fifty-two officiers and men of these companies of these companies and of the Loyal Kent Volunteers, wounded. French Ici se déroula la bataille de Longwoods, le 4 mars 1814. Des troupes des États-Unis s’étaient . . . — Map (db m78370) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), Glencoe — Battle of LongwoodsMarch 4, 1814
The view from the British side (left side) Commanded by Captain James Basden Royal Scots Light • Western (Caldwell) Rangers • 89th Foot Light • Kent and Middlesex Militia • British Indian Department On March 3, 1814, the Western (Caldwell) Rangers observed an American military camp on the western edge of Twenty Mile Camp (20 miles west of Delaware), straddling the Longwood’s Road. Captain William Caldwell sent word to the British detachment in Delaware. The next . . . — Map (db m78369) HM WM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — "Holy Roller"
Presented to the City of London by 1st Hussars, 4th June 1950 in memory of the First Hussars who fell in two World Wars The only tank of 6th Canadian Armoured Regiment (1st Hussars) to complete campaign in North-West Europe D-Day 6th June 1944 VE-Day 8th May 1945 — Map (db m18922) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — 50th Anniversary of the Allied Invasion of Normandy1944 - 1994 — "Hodie Non Cras"
This plaque is placed here to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Allied Invasion of Normandy on D Day, 6th June 1944. It is dedicated to the soldiers of the First Hussars, to those who took part in the assault, to those who fought in the European Campaign, and to those who gave their lives to liberate France, Belgium, and Holland. — Map (db m18923) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — Banting House
Here, in the early morning hours of October 31, 1920, Dr. Frederick Banting conceived an idea for research that led to the discovery of insulin. He believed that diabetes, then a fatal disease, could be treated by a substance extracted from a dog's atrophied pancreas. Banting was the pivotal member of the Toronto team that isolated and refined this extract, now known as insulin. In January 1922, insulin showed spectacular test results and became a lifesaving therapy worldwide. Banting House, . . . — Map (db m18975) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — Birthplace of Insulin
In 1920, while living and practicing medicine here, Dr. F. G. Banting conceived the idea which eventually led to the discovery of insulin and the saving of millions of lives worldwide. This statue, created by sculptor John Miecznikowski, depicts Dr. Banting at the age of 29. It was unveiled on July 7, 1989 by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother as a lasting tribute to the great Canadian medical scientist and Nobel laureate. — Map (db m18994) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — Birthplace of the Flame of Hope
The Flame of Hope was conceived by His Honour Judge John M. Seneshen, and stands as a symbol for all persons suffering from diabetes around the world. This flame will burn continuously and only be extinguished when it can be declared that a cure for diabetes has been found. Just as Banting's House is the “Birthplace of Insulin,” Sir Frederick G. Banting Square is the “Birthplace of the Flame of Hope.” Dedicated to diabetics throughout the world on the occasion of the . . . — Map (db m18996) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — Crimean War Cannons
These cannon were used at the seige of Sebastopol, and were brought to this country after the capture of that city by the British in 1855. Sir John Carling was instrumental in procuring these three pieces for this city. This gun is a British piece. The other two are Russian. This tablet was erected by the London and Middlesex Historical Society, 1907 Restored 1987 — Map (db m18928) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — Eldon House
Built in 1834 by Capt. John Harris, R.N., treasurer of the London District, this is London's oldest remaining house. With his wife Amelia, daughter of Samuel Ryerse, Harris came to London after the District offices were moved here from Vittoria. For many years Eldon House was a centre of London's cultural and social life, and four generations of the Harris family dwelt in it during more than 125 years. In 1960 the family gave the house with most of its furnishings and eleven acres of land, to the City of London for a museum and park. — Map (db m18970) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — Engine 86
Built in 1910 for the Grand Trunk Railway by the Canadian Locomotive Company of Kingston, Ontario, and weighing 135 tons, Engine 86 is one of the last remaining 2-6-0 Mogul engines in Canada. This class of engine was designed specifically for branch line work. Retired by the C.N.R., it was donated to the City of London and moved to Queen's Park in 1958. For more than a century, railways provided the links that fueled London's economy. The first train arrived in the city in 1853, when the . . . — Map (db m75960) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — Harold A. Rogers, O.C., O.B.E.1899 - 1994
The founder of Kinsmen & Kinette Clubs of Canada was born and raised at 324 Dundas Street, directly across from the armouries. Seeking the camaraderie he had experienced in the army during the First World War, “Hal” Rogers began the first Kinsmen Club in Hamilton in 1920. Under his guidance other clubs soon formed, each dedicated to “serving the community's greatest need.” Ongoing contributions from women prompted the formation of the Kinettes in 1942. During the Second . . . — Map (db m18933) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — London Armouries
Completed in 1905, the London Armouries is attributed to Department of Public Works architect, T. E. Fuller. It was the home of the militia units of the Royal Canadian Regiment, the First Hussars, the Royal Canadian Artillery, Royal Canadian Army Service Corps, the Royal Canadian Engineers and the Army Medical Corps. Erected by the Historic Sites Committee of the London Public Library Board, April, 1997 — Map (db m18929) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — London South African War Memorial1899 - 1902
“In Honour of the Men from the London District who Fought for the Empire in South Africa, and in Memory of Those Who Fell.” 1899 - 1902 [First Panel] Pte. D. L. Moore, R.C.R.- Feb 14th, 1900 Pte. J. A. Donegan, 26th M.Lt.I.- Feb 18th, 1900 Pte. R. Smith, 26th M.Lt.I.- Feb 18th, 1900 Pte. W. G. Adams, 7th Regt. Fus.- April 16th, 1900 Pte. F.G.W. Floyd, 7th Regt. Fus.- May 10th, 1900 Pte. E. Mullins, R.C.R.I.- June 11th, 1900 [Second Panel] Royal . . . — Map (db m18927) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — London War Cenotaph
East facade: MCM XIV The Glorious Dead West facade:MCM XXXIX 1950 - 1953 Bronze plaque on West facade: In honour of those who died in war and conflict Erected 1934 by the Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire (IODE) Rededicated 1999 by the London Municipal Chapter IODE North facade: United Nations Peacekeepers We Will Remember Them Nearby usage informational sign: Memorial Services This Cenotaph is reserved for . . . — Map (db m18966) WM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — London Women's Monument
The London Women's Monument was dedicated on December 6, 1994. The 5th anniversary of the Montreal Massacre. It is a place to remember and reflect on violence, particularly violence against women, and all women and men who work to end it. — Map (db m18932) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — Middlesex Court HouseLe Palais de Justice de Middlesex
[English Translation] Erected in 1830, this building was modelled after Malahide Castle, near Dublin, Ireland, the ancestral home of Colonel Thomas Talbot, founder of the Talbot Settlement. The site was a part of the town plot set aside by Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe after his visit to The Forks in February, 1793. Here he proposed to locate the provincial capital. [French Translation] En 1830, le colonel Talbot, fondateur de la colonie Talbot, fit erige cet . . . — Map (db m18962) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — The 1st Hussars
To the everlasting memory of the members of THE 1ST HUSSARS both the living and the dead, who together with other Canadian and Allied servicemen participated in the glorious campaign of 1944-1945 that led to the liberation of the Netherlands. Presented by: The Grateful Dutch Canadians of London May 1970 Re-dedicated June 6, 1998 by: The Dutch Canadians Remember Committee of 1995 — Map (db m18921) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — The British Garrison in London
In one of several concentrations of British troops in Upper Canada various infantry and artillery units were stationed on a military reserve here during the mid-19th century. The garrison, which contributed significantly to the economic growth of London, was first established in 1839 to guard against border raids following the Rebellion of 1837. Although its troops were withdrawn in 1853 to serve in the Crimean War and military duties were assumed by pensioners, it was re-occupied by British . . . — Map (db m18918) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — The East London Town Hall
Completed in 1884, restored in 1969 as Aeolian Town Hall, served as a centre for political and social life in London East until 1947. — Map (db m18963) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — The Founding of London
In 1793, here on the River Thames, Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe selected a site for the capital of Upper Canada. York, however, became the seat of government and the townsite of London lay undeveloped until its selection in 1826 as the judicial and administrative centre of the London District. A court-house and gaol (1829) and homes for the government officials were built, stores and hotels were opened, and by 1834 the community contained over 1100 inhabitants. A British garrison . . . — Map (db m18971) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — The Gaol and Courthouse, London, c.1843Painting by George Russell Dartnell
“More change has been caused to the views around London by the cutting down of hills and the building of gullies.”           --Harriet Priddis, in her “Reminiscences” (1902) In the 1840s George Russell Dartnell depicted the London District Courthouse sitting on a rise, with the ground dropping toward a ravine to the south and toward a bog near the site of Robinson Hall, on the east side of Ridout Street. Robinson hall is shown at the far right of Dartnell's . . . — Map (db m18973) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — The Petition of John Ewart
The Petition of John Ewart of the Town of York: Humbly Shewith: That while your Petitioner was performing his contract for building the Court House and Gaol in the town of London, in the London District, he was located by Colonel Talbot upon two lots in the said Town of London liable to settlement Duties and upon which he has made the following...improvements -- that is to say, a framed House, 50 feet long by 30 feet wide, and 23 feet high, with a wing, 30 by 16 feet, and a back Kitchen . . . — Map (db m18974) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — The Ridout Street Complex
This streetscape includes several of London's earliest buildings and provides a capsule view of the appearance of mid-19th century Ontario cities. These buildings, the earliest of which was begun in 1835, include residential, industrial and commercial premises all intermingled on one of the city's main streets. The group of structures soon became known as “Bankers' Row” because of the presence of five branch offices here. After years of neglect and deterioration, they were . . . — Map (db m18972) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — Veterans' Garden2005 - Year of the Veteran
Dedicated November 4, 2005 to remember, honour, and celebrate our Canadian Veterans. May the memory of their achievements and sacrifices be kept alive. This garden was made possible thanks to the generous donation by Angus and Mabe McLennan - for the love and enjoyment of Victoria Park. — Map (db m18969) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — Veterans' Memorial Carillon2005 - Year of the Veteran — "We Will Never Forget"
With deepest gratitude to those who so generously contributed to this visible and resonant remembrance of our Canadian Veterans Separate Stone marker nearby: Thank You Canada Thank You Veterans 1940 - 1945 This musical tribute is a gift to all Canadians from the Dutch community and friends out of gratitude for the Liberation of the Netherlands during 1944 - 1945 Dedicated Sept. 22, 2006 A map on the stone marker depicts the following Canadian War . . . — Map (db m18968) HM
Ontario (National Capital Region), Ottawa — Animals in WarLes animaux en temps de guerre
This memorial includes three plaques. plaque 1: English: For centuries, animals have demonstrated an enduring partnership with humans during times of war. They have served as means of transportation, beast of burden, messengers, protectors and mascots. Still today, dogs use their unique, sharply tuned instincts to detect mine clusters, and conduct search and rescue operations. We remember the contribution and sacrifice of all animals. French: Pendant des . . . — Map (db m82254) WM
Ontario (National Capital Region), Ottawa — Canada’s CapitalLa capitale du Canada.
English: After the union of the two Canadas in 1841 Kingston, Montréal, Toronto and Québec were in succession the seat of government. During the 1850's these cities contended for designation as the permanent capital of Canada. When called upon, in 1857, Queen Victoria resolved the issue by choosing Ottawa. In 1867 the Fathers of Confederation reaffirmed the choice and Ottawa became the capital of the new Dominion of Canada. French: Après l'union des deux Canadas en 1841, . . . — Map (db m83312) HM
Ontario (National Capital Region), Ottawa — Canadian Airmen Lost Over Poland
“To live in the hearts we leave behind is not to die” “Survivre dans les coeurs de ceux qu’on aura quittes ce n’est pas mourir” (Thomas Campbell) This is to express the gratitude and admiration which lives in the hearts of former soldiers of the Polish Home Army for the valiant Canadian Airmen: En temoignage de gratitude et d’admiration, du fond du coeur anciens soldats de l’Armee de la Resistance polonaise aux vaillants aviateurs canadiens: F/L . . . — Map (db m82249) WM
Ontario (National Capital Region), Ottawa — Lieutenant Colonel Charles-Michel d’Irumberry de Salaberry, CBLe lieutenant-colonel Charles-Michel d’Irumberry de Salaberry, C.B. — (1778-1829)
English: A skillful professional soldier, Salaberry formed the celebrated Voltigeurs canadiens. In 1813, he outwitted and defeated a vastly superior American force at the Battle of Châteauguay, helping to save Lower Canada from invasion. War of 1812 French: Militaire de carrière exceptional, Salaberry met sur pied les célèbres Voltigeurs canadiens. En 1813, il use de stratégie et défait de troupes américaines largement supérieures en nombre à la bataille de . . . — Map (db m83313) HM
Ontario (National Capital Region), Ottawa — Oscar Peterson1925 - 2007
English: Oscar Peterson emerged from the Montréal working class neighbourhood known as Little Burgundy to become one of the world’s greatest piano virtuosos. His place in the international jazz pantheon is universally recognized. With this sculpture by Ruth Abernethy, Canada’s National Arts Centre proudly commemorates the masterful contribution Oscar Petersen made during his 65-year career as a musician, recording artist, composer and mentor. Commissioned by the Oscar . . . — Map (db m83311) HM
Ontario (National Capital Region), Ottawa — Rideau Canal National Historic Site of CanadaLieu historique national du Canada du Canal-Rideau
English: The Rideau Canal, a great military engineering achievement of the 19th century, opened central Canada to settlement and trade. The canal construction also brought thousands of people to the area, helping to shape the community of Bytown, known today as Ottawa, Canada’s Capital. The entrance locks mark the beginning of a 202-kilometre route linking the Ottawa River and Lake Ontario through a system of lakes and rivers, connected and made navigable by the channels, locks . . . — Map (db m83421) HM
Ontario (National Capital Region), Ottawa — Sappers’ BridgePont des Sapeurs
English: These foundations of “Sappers’ Bridge,” built by Lieutenant-Colonel John By and this Royal Engineers in 1827, represent the contributions of military engineers in Canada. This plaque was erected April 29, 2004, in honour of a century of continuing service by Canadian military engineers. French: Ces fondations du pont des Sapeurs, constituer par le lieutenant-colonel John By et ses «Royal Engineers» en 1827, représentent les contributions de génie . . . — Map (db m83366) HM
Ontario (National Capital Region), Ottawa — South African (Boer) War Memorial

English: Erected by 30,000 children of Ottawa and adjoining counties in memory of Trtr. G. Bradley • Dvr. R. Bradley • Cpl. W.S. Bradly • Pte. O.T. Burns • Pte. H. Cotton • Pte, E. DesLaurters • Pte. W.A, Hull • Pte. Z.R.E. Lewis • Pte. W.J. Leslie • Pte. F. H. Living • Tpr. G.O. Mann • Pte. E. McIntosh • Gnr. E. Picot • Sgt. W.H. Rea • Pte. W.H.J. Ross • Cpl. G. Thomas who lost their lives in the South African War 1899-1902 French: Ce monument a . . . — Map (db m82252) WM

Ontario (National Capital Region), Ottawa — Thayendanegea (Joseph Brant)(1742-1807)
English: A notable Mohawk warrior and statesman, and principal war chief of the Six Nations, he led his people in support of the British. After the war, he brought his people to Canada to settle near where Brantford now stands. American Revolution French: Illustre guerrier, home d’Etat mohawk et principal chef de guerre des Six Nations, il est, avec les siens, un fidèle allié des Anglais. Après la guerre, il conduit son peuple au Canada pour s’établir près de ce qui est . . . — Map (db m83315) HM
Ontario (National Capital Region), Ottawa — The CommissariatL’Intendance
English: “Plenty of spirits, and provisions of all sorts, with beds, blankets, mits, caps, shoes, etc. shall always be at hand, in the Government store, to answer whatever demands may come for such articles by the people on the work, so that everyone may be kept strong, healthy and cheerful.” - John Mac Taggart, Overseer of Works for Colonel By. Built in 1827 under the supervision of Thomas MacKay, the Commissariat is the oldest existing stone building in . . . — Map (db m83363) HM
Ontario (National Capital Region), Ottawa — The Rideau CanalLe canal Rideau
English: Built between 1826 and 1832, the Rideau Canal is the best preserved, fully operational example of North America’s great canal building era. Lieutenant-Colonel John By’s innovative deign was based on a “slackwater” system that linked lakes and rivers on a scale unprecedented in North America. The result was one of the first canals in the world engineered for steam-powered vessels. Its construction through more than 200 kilometres of bush, swamps, and lakes was a . . . — Map (db m83361) HM
Ontario (National Capital Region), Ottawa — The Rideau WaterwayVoie navigable du canal Rideau
English: The Rideau Waterway stretches 202 kilometres through a chain of lakes, rivers and canals, linking Canada’s capital, Ottawa, to the historic city of Kingston on Lake Ontario. To follow the Rideau Waterway is not only a trip through some of the most picturesque countryside in eastern Ontario, but also a voyage through history. The Rideau Canal National Historic Site, the cour of the Rideau Waterway, was built between 1826 and 1832. It is the oldest continuously operated canal . . . — Map (db m83362) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Allanburg — The Old Welland Canal
Originally conceived in 1818 by its promoter, William Hamilton Merritt, to divert trade from the Erie Canal and New York and built under private auspices, the canal was opened to traffic in 1829. After additional work in 1833, the canal with its 40 wooden locks linked Port Colborne on Lake Erie and Port Dalhousie on Lake Ontario and brought prosperity to its environs by permitting the export of Upper Canadian staples through New York. In 1841 reconstruction was begun by the Canadian government . . . — Map (db m75850) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Battle of Chippawa
[Text on the West Side]: Battle of Chippawa 5 July 1814 In memory of all those who fought on this ground, many of whom are buried nearby, and to commemorate the peace that has prevailed between Canada and the United States since that time. This monument was erected and dedicated by The Niagara Parks Commission. October 2001. Brian E. Merrett, Chairman The Niagara Parks Commission [Text on the South Side]: . . . — Map (db m49393) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Chippawa Battlefield Panel 1Background to a Battle
On these fields and the surrounding woods 4,000 American, British, Canadian and Native forces fought the first major battle of the Niagara campaign of 1814. When the last shots died away on Samuel Street's farm, more than 800 lay dead and wounded. Since 18 June 1812, when the United States declared war on Great Britain, a small force of British Regulars, Canadian Militia and Native Warriors had turned back seven American invasions of Canada. On 3 July 1814, Major General Jacob Brown, . . . — Map (db m49398) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Chippawa Battlefield Panel 2Opening Strikes — July 5, 1814 3:00 p.m.
At dawn 5 July 1814, parties of Canadian-Militia and British allied Native Warriors scouted the American camp. They began sniping from the bushes on the north side of Street's Creek and this continued throughout the morning. Around noon, General Brown ordered General Porter to take some of his men and end this harassing fire. At about 2pm, Porter led his New York and Pennsylvania Militia and allied Warriors into the woods to the west, crossed the creek and drove the scouting parties . . . — Map (db m49399) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Chippawa Battlefield Panel 3Advance to Contact — July 5, 1814 3:30 p.m.
Major General Phineas Riall, the British commander, had repaired the bridge over the Chippawa and ordered his own Regular light infantry, the local Canadians of the 2nd Lincoln Militia and a force of Native Warriors, to clear out the now scattered American skirmishers. The remainder of Riall's brigade 1st, 8th and 100th Regiments of Foot (1,400 men) marched south along the river road toward General Brown and his outpost. Brown could not see the British troops through the strip of trees just . . . — Map (db m49400) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Chippawa Battlefield Panel 4Battle on the Plain — July 5, 1814 4:30 p.m.
British General Riall was convinced that the greater part of Brown's army was still surrounding Fort Erie. He did not know the Fort had surrendered and he was facing the entire U.S. division. Still, the number of men deployed on both sides was virtually the same: 6 British guns verses 7 U.S., with each side mustering about 1400 regulars, 200 militia and 300 warriors. Confident in the abilities of his regulars, Riall advanced towards the waiting grey-coated line. The Redcoats pushed to . . . — Map (db m49402) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Chippawa Battlefield Panel 5Final Stages — July 5, 1814 5:30 p.m.
As the battle raged, more American artillery deployed to the middle of the plain between the 11th U.S. and the lone 25th U.S. company, less than 100 meters (109 yards) from the British line. General Brown then led Ripley's brigade across Street's Creek to the west in an effort to envelop the entire British Force. However, the creek was chest deep, the undergrowth thick and Ripley's men never did join the fight on the plain. Meanwhile, with point blank canister raking his line, the enemy's . . . — Map (db m49403) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Chippawa Battlefield Panel 6The Aftermath
The Aftermath. In the days following the battle, General Brown's victorious troops advanced another 25 kilometers (18 miles) north to Fort George before retiring back to Niagara Falls when more British troops arrived in the area. They met the British forces again on 25 July along another farmer's lane where 1,800 more men were killed and wounded. Following the bloody Battle of Lundy's Lane the American forces passed the field and graves of the Battle of Chippawa as they withdrew to Fort Erie. . . . — Map (db m49404) HM
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