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Ontario Markers
367 markers matched your search criteria. The first 250 markers are listed. Next 117
Ontario, Hamilton — "The Burlington Races" 1813
On the morning of September 28, 1813, a powerfully-armed United States fleet comprising ten ships under the command of Commodore Isaac Chauncey appeared off York (Toronto). The smaller British fleet of six vessels, commanded by Commodore Sir James L. Yeo, was in the harbour, but on the approach of the enemy set sail to attack. After a sharp engagement, the British squadron was forced to withdraw toward Burlington Bay where it could take refuge under the batteries on the adjacent heights. A . . . — Map (db m56759) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — Burlington Heights 1813 - 1814
[English Text]: Here in June, 1813, General John Vincent assembled troops that made the successful night attack on the invaders at Stoney Creek. From this point of vantage, in December, 1813, the force which retook Fort George and carried Fort Niagara by assault, began its march. On these heights stood the strong point of reserve and depot of arms for the defence of the Niagara Peninsula and support of the navy on Lake Ontario. [French Text]: Ici, en juin 1813, le . . . — Map (db m56725) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — Defensive Outwork
About this spot was an outwork of the first line of defense 1812 - 1815 Map (db m56758) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — Dundurn Castle
This villa was completed in 1835 for Allan Napier MacNab. Incorporating an existing farmhouse, it was designed by the local architect, Robert Wetherell, as a statement of its owner's place in Hamilton society. The house features an eclectic blend of classical and Italianate motifs, French windows, broad verandahs and a panoramic view of Burlington Bay. With its outbuildings and grounds, Dundurn Castle stands as an important example of the Picturesque Movement in Canada. After years in private . . . — Map (db m66126) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — Dundurn Castle— 1832 —
This mansion was built 1832-35 by Allan Napier MacNab (1798-1862) and named after the family ancestral seat in Scotland. Enlisting at fifteen, MacNab distinguished himself by his bravery in the War of 1812. He subsequently entered politics and was noted for his support of the Family Compact. During the Rebellion of 1837 he was one of the government's most active military supporters and was knighted for his services. Leader of the Tory-Conservatives, MacNab was speaker of the Legislative . . . — Map (db m66129) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — First Line of Defense
This Stone Marks The Line of Earthworks In First Line of Defense 1812 - 1815 Map (db m56740) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — Hamilton - Scourge ProjectWar of 1812 Naval Memorial Garden
We honour here fifty-three sailors who lost their lives when their ships, HAMILTON and SCOURGE, capsized during a storm in the early morning hours of Sunday, 8th August 1813. These two armed merchant schooners lie in 90 metres of water, 30 kilometres northeast of this site, intact and perfectly preserved with their guns and equipment still in place. A replica of the foremast of SCOURGE is flanked by fifty-three markers similar to those in Allied military cemeteries throughout the world. — Map (db m56928) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — HMCS Haida - NCSM HaidaTribal Class Destroyer — National Historic Site of Canada
HMCS Haida is the last of the Tribal class destroyers which saw heavy action with the Australian, British and Canadian navies during World War II. Built for the Royal Canadian Navy at Newcastle, England, , in 1942, this ship served on the frigid Murmansk run and in clearing the English Channel for the Normandy invasion. She helped sink 14 enemy vessels. Haida was re-commissioned in 1952 and served two tours of duty with the United Nations in Korea, taking part in shore bombardment, blockades . . . — Map (db m67343) WM
Ontario, Hamilton — March to Stoney Creek
These ramparts were erected by the British troops during the War of 1812-15. From this place on the night of June 5th 1813, 700 men under the command of Lieut. Colonel Harvey, marched to Stoney Creek where they surprised and routed an American force of 3750 men ridding the Niagara Peninsula of the invaders. — Map (db m56756) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — Sir Allan Napier MacNab1798 - 1862
Politician, businessman, land speculator and soldier, Allan MacNab enjoyed a very public life. He was a successful lawyer and was appointed Upper Canada's first Queen's Counsel. In 1838 he was knighted for his role in suppressing the rebellion in Upper Canada. The profits from his extensive land speculation were fed into a variety of projects, including construction of his monument, Dundurn. He was influential in establishing the Gore Bank and in promoting the Great Western Railway. During a . . . — Map (db m66130) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — Sir John Harvey 1778 - 1852
From these heights, Lieutenant-Colonel John Harvey set out with about 700 men on the night of June 5, 1813, to launch a surprise attack on an invading United States force of some 3,000 men camped at Stoney Creek. His rout of the troops commanded by Brigadier-General John Chandler under cover of darkness in the early hours of June 6, is generally credited with saving Upper Canada from being overrun by the enemy. Harvey was knighted in 1834, served as Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick 1834-41, . . . — Map (db m56743) HM
Ontario, Hamilton — United Empire Loyalists
In Lasting Memory of the United Empire Loyalists Who preferred to remain loyal British subjects and came to canada in large numbers immediately following the American Revolution of 1776 and the signing of the Treaty of Peace in 1783. —————— On this site in 1785 was erected one of the first log houses in this district by a loyalist pioneer Col. Richard Beasley who on June 11th and 12th 1796 here . . . — Map (db m66131) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Asbury College
was founded on this site in 1891 by G.P. Woollcombe This commemorative plaque was installed on 12th May 1991. ——————— fut fondé sur ce site en 1891 par G.P. Woollcombe Cette plaque commémorative fut posée le 12 mai 1991. — Map (db m75708) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — By Ward Market Heritage Conservation DistrictDistrict de Conservation du Patrimoine du Marché By
The dense cedar bog that became the site of the By Ward Market was drained and cleared in 1827 by Lieutenant-Colonel John By of the Royal Engineers to accommodate the workers building the Rideau Canal. The area rapidly became the commercial core of Bytown and later served the region's farming communities and the Ottawa Valley lumber industry, whose itinerant lumbermen gave the town its rowdy reputation. Over the next century the By Ward Market housed the businesses and institutions that . . . — Map (db m63692) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Grand Central Hotel / Hôtel Grand Central1877
Built as a grocery store by Thomas Coffey, Sr., this building was the Grand Central Hotel from 1889 to 1907, and a Salvation Army hostel from 1908 to 1949. Designated Heritage Property ————————— Construit au départ comme l'épicerie de Thomas Coffey, pére. L'immueble a abrite l'hôtel Grand Central de 1889 à 1907, puis d'auberge de l'Armee du Salut de 1908 à 1949. Classé Monument Historique . . . — Map (db m63693) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Lotta Hitschmanova, C.C.1909 • 1990
Founded USC Canada 10 June 1945 Unitarian Service Committee of Canada Harold Pfeiffer, Sculptor — Map (db m75710) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Nicholas Sparks
Irish Nicholas Sparks (b.1792) was from Darragh, County Wexford. He came "up river" 1816 to work for the founding Wrights of Hull. In 1826 he acquired Philemon Wright Jr.'s widow (Sarah Olmstead) and her nine children (he and she were to have one son and two daughters): crossed to the south shore, and for £ 95 bought the 200 acres, and log cabin thereon, from the first patentee, John Burrows Honey. His household thus became the first in the swale which Col. John By made his campsite for the . . . — Map (db m75711) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Parliament Clocktower Bell
This bell was taken from the ruins of the clock tower destroyed by fire February 3, 1916. "The fire raged fiercely for hours. The main tower was not touched until about 11 p.m., and one of the most pathetic incidents of the night, which moved the spectators, was the striking of the midnight hour by the old tower clock. There seemed almost a human touch as its familiar tones boomed out from the mass of flames." From the 1916 report of the deputy minister of public works. — Map (db m39748) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Silent Messengers of the ArcticInuksuk created by Kananginak Pootoogook, 1997
For generations, the Inuit have been creating impressive stone markers on the Arctic landscape. Inuksuk means "acting in the capacity of a human." They serve many functions, including guiding travellers, warning of danger, assisting hunters and marking places of reverence. — Map (db m39750) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Terry Fox 1958 -1981The Greatness of the Human Spirit — L'eminence du courage de l'homme
"I was lucky to do what I did. How many people ever get a chance to do something that they really believe in." Terry Fox On April 12, 1980, Terry Fox began his dream to run across Canada in support of cancer research by dipping his artificial leg into the Atlantic waters off St. John's, Newfoundland. Terry's run, which he called the 'Marathon of Hope', would do so much more by uniting Canadians in support of his heroic desire to better the lives of others. On September 1, near . . . — Map (db m63937) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Thomas D'Arcy McGee1825 - 1868
Journalist, poet, Irish patriot, Canadian statesman and Father of Confederation, McGee was born in Ireland, where he was involved in nationalist politics. Forced to flee to America in 1848, he worked for several years in the United States before settling in Montréal in 1857. In 1858 he was first elected to the legislature for Montréal West. An eloquent orator in support of Confederation, McGee attended the Charlottetown and Québec Conferences, and later represented Montréal West in the . . . — Map (db m75714) HM
Ontario, Ottawa — Women Are Persons!Les Femmes Sont Des Personnes!
The Persons' Case of 1929 is a celebrated landmark victory in the struggle of Canadian women for equality. For years, groups had repeatedly requested that a woman be appointed to the Senate, often naming Judge Emily Murphy as their candidate. However, five successive federal governments maintained that women were ineligible to serve in the Senate on the basis that they were not "qualified persons" according to Section 24 of the British North America Act of 1867.

In 1927, Judge Murphy . . . — Map (db m39749) HM

Ontario, Toronto — Canadian Airmen Monument
Panel 1: Per Arua Ad Astra In Memory of our Canadian Airmen who fought in the Skies to preserve freedom and order in the world. Panel 2: Canadian Airmen Awarded the Victoria Cross World War I: William Avery Bishop Alan Arnett McLeod William George Barker World War II: Andrew Charles Mynarski David Ernest Hornell Ian Willoughby Bazalgette Robert Hampton Gray Panel 3: This Monument was dedicated by Her Majesty Queen . . . — Map (db m57901) HM
Ontario, Toronto — Mary Ann Shadd Cary — 1823 – 1893
Mary Ann Shadd Cary was an anti-slavery activist, an advocate for the rights of women, and a pioneering woman newspaper editor and publisher. The daughter of a free African American shoemaker and abolitionist, Shadd began a life of teaching at age 16 by founding a school for African American children in the slave state of Delaware. Following the passing of the Fugitive Slave act (1850), many escaped and free African Americans (like Shadd) sought refuge in Canada. Shadd moved to Windsor, . . . — Map (db m57756) HM
Ontario, Toronto — South African War Memorial — ("2nd Boer War")
. . . — Map (db m57959) WM
Ontario, Toronto — Toronto's first professional stadium: Sunlight Park 1886 - 1896
"Sunlight Park" was constructed in 1886 as the Toronto Baseball Grounds. The smell of baked potatoes and cigars greeted fans filing in to the park through an avenue of workers' cottages called "Baseball Place". The stands, four storeys high and surrounded by a 4 m wooden fence, sat 2,250 paying customers. Admission was 25 cents. The grounds became known as Sunlight Park after William Hesketh Lever opened Sunlight Soap Works south of the park in 1893. Toronto won its first professional . . . — Map (db m64502) HM
Ontario (Brant County), Oakland — The Battle of Malcolm’s Mills1814
In October, 1814, an invading American force of about 700 men under Brigadier-General Duncan McArthur advanced rapidly up the Thames Valley. He intended to devastate the Grand River settlements and the region around the head of Lake Ontario which supplied British forces on the Niagara frontier. McArthur reached the Grand, and after an unsuccessful attempt to force a crossing, attacked a body of some 150 militia here at Malcolm’s Mills (Oakland) on November 6th. Canadian forces, comprising . . . — Map (db m78341) HM
Ontario (Brant County), Ossweken — Ahyouwaeghs - John Brant1794 - 1832
English John Brant was born in the Mohawk Village (Brantford), the youngest son of the renowned Joseph Brant. He was educated at Ancaster and Niagara, and fought with distinction during the War of 1812. Brant devoted his life to improving the welfare of his people. He initiated the establishment of schools ad from 1828 served as superintendent of the Six Nations, the first native person appointed to that post. Around 1830 his mother Catharine (Ohtowa? kéhson), clan mother of the Turtle . . . — Map (db m78340) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Chatham — British Army River Crossing to Dolsen's LandingFriday, October 1, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Upon sighting American war ships at the mouth of the Thames River on October 1, 1813, the British Army boarded scows and bateaux near this site. One by one, the boats and their cargo were pulled across the river to their next encampment site at Dolsen's Landing, a small but important commercial site in Dover Township established by Matthew and Hannah Dolsen. The settlement consisted of the Dolsen's log home, a store, a blacksmith shop, a distillery, and other outbuildings. Dolsen's Landing had . . . — Map (db m78346) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Chatham — British Encampment: Forks of the ThamesSunday, October 3, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
While British Army was encamped at Dolsen's, Procter travelled to Fairfield to investigate the site as a defensive position. At Tecumseh's urging, and learning that the Americans were closing rapidly, Colonel Warburton, Procter's second-in-command, ordered the army to break camp and move up-river. The British departure from Dolsen's caused a rift among the warriors because many of them wanted to engage the Americans at Dolsen's despite Tecumseh's desire to fight at the Forks. By militia officer . . . — Map (db m71360) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Chatham — Burning of British Ships / American EncampmentMonday, October 4, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
East of the Forks, the Thames River becomes shallower and not navigable for larger ships. With the American forces close behind, the British vessels were threatened with capture. One cargo ship, probably the Miamis, had already been set on fire closer to the Forks. Near this site, two other ships, the Mary and the Ellen, were moored perpendicular to the shore and much of their contents dumped into river. They were then set on fire to block the river to any American gunboats. The American . . . — Map (db m71398) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Chatham — Casualties of the SkirmishMonday, October 4, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
There were many casualties at the skirmish at the Forks. Although we do not presently know the identities of the warriors who were killed, we do know that two Kentucky men in Colonel Johnson's Mounted Infantry lost their lives at this site on that day: • Private Foster Bartlett of Captain William Rice's Company who enlisted on August 15, 1813. • Private William (or Wilham) Hardwick of Captain Samuel Combs' company who enlisted on May 20, 1813. — Map (db m71379) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Chatham — Chatham Armoury100th Anniversary — 1905-2005
chatham Armoury The Chatham Armoury was constructed in 1905 as a result of reform and expansion of the volunteer militia. The first unit to occupy the Armoury was the 24th Kent Regiment that was formed in 1901. It was the centre for local recruitment and training for the 186th Kent Overseas Battalion, CE.F. during the First World War, 1914-1918. In 1920 the Armoury became the home of the renamed Kent Regiment and, in 1936, the Kent Regiment, Machine Gun. During the Second . . . — Map (db m71382) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Chatham — Chatham Blockhouse— 1794 —
On this site a blockhouse was constructed in 1794 by order of Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe. He planned to establish here a small naval arsenal which would form a link in the defences of Upper Canada's western frontier and also draw the Indian trade from Detroit. The post was garrisoned by a detachment of the Queen's Rangers, and two gunboats were built; but by 1797 it was abandoned. In 1798 the province's Administrator, Peter Russell, had the blockhouse moved to Sandwich to serve as the Western District's court-house and gaol. — Map (db m71313) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Chatham — First Nations Encampment: Thomas McCrae FarmFriday, October 1, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Thomas McCrae was an early settler, innkeeper, and political figure in Raleigh Township along the Thames River. He served as a captain and company commander in the Kent Militia and was present at the capture of Fort Detroit. Family tradition relates that McCrae used the prize money he received from the capture of the fort to complete his Georgian brick home in 1813. On October 1, with the British now encamped across the river and to the east at Dolsen's Landing, the First Nations . . . — Map (db m71308) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Chatham — John Brown's Convention 1858
English Text: On May 10, 1858, American abolitionist John Brown held the last in a series of clandestine meetings here at First Baptist Church. Brown planned to establish an independent republic within the United States and wage guerrilla war to liberate the South from slavery. He came to Upper Canada to recruit blacks who had fled here in the wake of the Fugitive Slave Law (1850). On October 16, 1859, Brown and 21 supporters seized the government arsenal at Harpers Ferry, . . . — Map (db m71386) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Chatham — Skirmish at McCrae's House
Following the defeat of the British at the Battle of the Thames on October 5, 1813, American forces controlled the Thames Valley west of Moraviantown. In early December a detachment of 3 officers and 36 men of the American 26th Regiment established a post near here at the house of Thomas McCrae. Before daybreak on December 15, 1813, they were surprised by Lieutenant Henry Medcalf and 32 members from the Norfolk and Middlesex Militia, the Kent Volunteers and the Provincial Dragoons. After a . . . — Map (db m71292) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Chatham — Skirmish at McCrae's HouseWednesday, December 15, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
During the American occupation of the lower Thames, this house was used as a base for U.S. troops. In mid-December 1813, the house was occupied by 39 officers and men of the 26th Regiment led by Lieutenant Larwill. At the same time, a group of 27 men of the Canadian militia from Norfolk and Middlesex Counties under the command of Lieutenant Henry Medcalf, had marched, through heavy snow, to Rondeau to collect cattle that were grazing in the area before they were found by the Americans. . . . — Map (db m71310) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Chatham — Skirmish at the ForksMonday, October 4, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
On October 2, 1813, Tecumseh moved his warriors up-river to the Forks where he had been led to believe that fortifications would be prepared for a full-scale confrontation with harrison's army. When Tecumseh arrived, he was enraged to find no fortifications and only three or four dismounted cannon and a log cabin containing small arms. Despite his dismay, Tecumseh convinced his warriors to stage a rearguard action at the Forks on October 4 to slow the American advance. That morning, the . . . — Map (db m71335) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Chatham — Skirmish at the ForksMonday, October 4, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Robert McAfee, a member of Colonel Johnson's Kentucky Mounted Regiment, described the skirmish in his journal. He wrote: Oct 4: …a woman … informed us that about six miles above the River forked, that there was a large bridge across the mouth of the Right hand fork and a mill and a bridge about about about a mile and a half up the fork where the Indians were encamped [sic] and she expected that they would make a stand and fight … about twelve o'clock the firing commenced on our left and . . . — Map (db m71378) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Chatham — Tecumseh
On this site, Tecumseh, a Shawnee Chief, who was an ally of the British during the War of 1812, fought against American forces on October 4, 1813. Tecumseh was born in 1768 and became an important organizer of native resistance to the spread of white settlement in North America. The day after the fighting here, he was killed in the Battle of the Thames near Moraviantown. Tecumseh Park was named to commemorate his strong will and determination. — Map (db m71322) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Chatham — The Abolition Movement in British North America
From 1783 until the 1860s, abolitionists in British North America took part in the fight to end slavery both at home and in the United States. Thanks to the determination of colonial officials, anti-slavery organizations, and the thousands of African Americans who took refuge in Upper and Lower Canada and the Maritimes during this period, the colonies became a centre of abolitionist activity, as evidenced by the convention held here at this church by John Brown in 1858. This struggle for human . . . — Map (db m71391) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Chatham — The Forks — Tecumseh Parkway
The Forks of the Thames are formed by the joining of the Thames River and McGregor Creek creating a peninsula that is present day Tecumseh Park in Chatham, Ontario. The strategic importance of the site was recognized by Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe when he visited the region in 1793. The first settlement at the Forks occurred in 1794 when Simcoe commissioned Captain William Baker to establish a shipyard. Baker constructed a log blockhouse, a 72 foot-long frame workshop, forges, . . . — Map (db m71331) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Chatham — The Legend of the Paw Paw — Tecumseh Parkway
The Paw Paw tree (Asimina triloba) is native to the southern, eastern, and mid-western United States and extends to Canada only in the extreme southern part of Ontario. It has the largest edible fruit native to North America. The fruit looks somewhat like a small banana and has a custard taste. Popular attributes relates the presence of several groves of this thicket-forming understory tree along this section of the Thames River to American soldiers who carried the fruit with them from . . . — Map (db m71405) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Dresden — Harris HouseMaison Harris
English This house belonged to James Harris and his family, who are believed to be descendants of Weldon Harris, an African American who came to Canada and in 1825 purchased 50 acres on Lot 3, Concession 3 in Camden Township. Weldon Harris made his living as a farmer and lived in a one-storey log house with his family before moving into a larger, two-storey house such as this. The Harris House, built circa 1890, is representative of the type of modest dwelling in which many Black . . . — Map (db m78404) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Dresden — Henson HouseMaison Henson
English Built in the mid-19th century, this house was the last residence of Josiah Henson and his second wife, Nancy Gambril, who lived in it until Henson’s death in 1883. Henson’s house was substantial in size compared to other residential buildings in the area at the time and stands as a symbol of his status in the community. After Henson’s death, the house underwent changes under several different owners before William Chapple purchased it in 1940. In 1948 he opened the house . . . — Map (db m78387) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Dresden — Josiah Henson(1789 - 1883)
English After escaping to Upper Canada from slavery in Kentucky, the Reverend Josiah Henson became a conductor of the Underground Railroad and a force in the abolition movement. The founder of the Black settlement of Dawn, he was also an entrepreneur and established a school, the British-American Institute. His fame grew after Harriet Beecher Stowe stated that his memoirs published in 1849 had provided “conceptions and incidents” for her extraordinarily popular novel, . . . — Map (db m78377) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Dresden — SawmillScierie
English This area was once covered in a thick, growth of trees including black walnut, maple, beech, elm and white oak. To make use of these natural resources, Josiah Henson and his sons used donations from benefactors in Boston to build a sawmill along the Sydenham River in Dawn for the British American Institute (B.A.I.). Trees were removed from the land as it was cleared for farming and other purposes and taken to the sawmill to be sawn into boards. The lumber was used for . . . — Map (db m78402) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Dresden — Spirituality and CommunitySpiritualité et Communauté
English Built around 1850, this modest rural church was moved from Mersea Township to this site in the 1960s and is representative of the churches in which Reverend Henson preached while living at Dawn. Reverend Josiah Henson was most closely associated with the Dawn settlement’s British Methodist Episcopal (B.M.E.) Church in which he preached many of his sermons. That church was demolished in the 1940s due to safety concerns, although the organ was saved and is displayed inside . . . — Map (db m78388) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Dresden — The Dawn SettlementLa Colonie de Dawn
English In the 1830s, the Reverend Josiah Henson and other abolitionists sought ways to provide refugees from slavery with the education and skills they needed to become self-sufficient in Upper Canada. They purchased 200 acres of land here in 1841 and established the British American Institute, one of the first schools in Canada to emphasize vocational training. The community of Dawn developed around the institute. Its residents farmed, attended the institute, and worked at sawmills, . . . — Map (db m78376) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Dresden — The Founding of Dresden
In 1846 Daniel van Allen, a Chatham merchant, laid out a town plot on land purchased from Jared Lindsley, the first settler (1825) on the site of Dresden. By 1849 the erection of a steam sawmill, and the operation a grist-mill in the neighbouring Dawn Institute Settlement founded by Josiah Henson, provided the basis for a thriving community in this area. A post office named “Dresden” was opened in 1854. The region’s timber resources and the navigation facilities afforded by the . . . — Map (db m78416) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Assault on Backmetack MarshTuesday, October 5, 1813, 4:00 p.m. — Tecumseh Parkway
As Lieutenant Colonel James Johnson's horsemen were charging the British front line, his brother, Colonel Richard Johnson led an attack against the First Nations warriors in Backmetack Marsh. The mounted infantry charged the Native left flank led by 20 riders, called "The Forlorn Hope," who were intended to draw the warriors' fire and empty their guns. Tecumseh's allies fired a devastating volley at close range that cut down 15 of the riders. The casualties included Colonel Johnson who was . . . — Map (db m72397) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Battle of Moraviantown, 1813Bataille de Moraviantown, 1813 — (Battle of the Thames) / (Bataille de la Thames)
English In September 1813, during the second year of the War of 1812, the United States won control of Lake Erie, cutting British supply lines with the east and forcing the British to withdraw from the Detroit River region. Then, on October 5, 1813, 3,000 Americans, including their Aboriginal allies, defeated 950 British, Canadians, and Natives at this site. Among those killed was the famous Shawnee leader, Tecumseh, who had worked to unite the First Nations in neighbouring American . . . — Map (db m78367) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Fairfield — Tecumseh Parkway
The Moravians or "Bohemian Brethren" were a protestant sect that originated in the 1400s in Moravia and Bohemia, the present day Czech Republic. They faced persecution in their homeland and in 1722 many moved to Saxony (now part of Germany) where they were given security and land on the estate of Nikolaus Ludwig Von Zinzendorf. There they built a community called Hernhut and subsequently sent missionaries to North America where they established settlements in Pennsylvania (Bethlehem and . . . — Map (db m72448) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the ThamesTuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Jacques (James) Baby 1763-1833: A member of the Legislative and Executive Council for Upper Canada, judge for the Western District, and in command of the 1st Kent Militia, Baby was captured by the Americans at the Battle of the Thames. Billy Caldwell 1780-1841: The son of William Caldwell and his Mohawk wife, Billy was a captain in the Indian Department and became a Potowatomi chief after the war. William Caldwell 1750-1822: Of Scots-Irish descent, Caldwell fought in Butler's Rangers . . . — Map (db m71415) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the ThamesTuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Makataimeshekiakiak, Black Hawk, 1767-1838: A Sauk war leader and experienced warrior, Blackhawk was a veteran of the Battles of Fort Meigs and Fort Stephenson. Although he left the war for a period of time, he rejoined the British, and scholars feel that he was probably at the Battle of the Thames. Following the war, Black Hawk continued to oppose American encroachment on native lands that culminated in "The Black Hawk War" in 1832. Naiwash: Ottawa chief Naw Kaw: Winnebago chief. . . . — Map (db m71418) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the ThamesTuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Shabbona 1775-1859: A Potawatomi chief, grand nephew of Pontiac, and veteran of Tippecanoe, Shabbona was an accomplished warrior and strong supporter of Tecumseh. He persuaded many natives to join the confederacy. Sou-veh-hoo-wah, Split Log, 1765-1825: Huron chief and veteran of the River Raisin and Fort Meigs, Split Log helped defeat Brigadier General McArthur's American force at the Grand River in October 1814. Tecumseh 1768-1813: Leader of the First Nations confederacy. . . . — Map (db m71419) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the ThamesTuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
John Adair 1757-1840: Pioneer, soldier, and statesman, Adair was a veteran of the American Revolution, was 8th governor of Kentucky, and represented that state in both the U.S. House of Representatives and the Senate. He fought at the Battle of the Thames and was subsequently rewarded for his service, being appointed adjutant general of Kentucky. Lewis Cass 1782-1866: A military officer and politician, Cass was governor of the Michigan Territory and, later, U.S. senator representing . . . — Map (db m72381) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the ThamesTuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
James Johnson 1774-1826: The brother of Richard Johnson, James was elected as a Kentucky State senator in 1808. He served as a lieutenant colonel in Johnson's Mounted Infantry and led the charge on the British lines at the Battle of the Thames along with his two sons. Following the war, he served in the U.S. House of representatives. Richard Mentor Johnson 1780-1850: From Kentucky, Johnson was elected to the House of Representatives in 1806. He served as a colonel in the American Army . . . — Map (db m72385) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Participants in the Battle of the ThamesTuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
Isaac Shelby 1750-1826: Shelby was the 1st and 5th governor of Kentucky and a veteran of the American Revolution. As governor and at 63years of age, Shelby personally led the Kentucky Militia at the Battle of the Thames. Tarhe 1742-1816: A Wyandot chief and loyal American, he marched with his warriors throughout General Harrison's campaign in Canada and fought at the Battle of the Thames despite being 72 years old. William Whitley 1749-1813: Veteran of the Indian Wars, militia leader, . . . — Map (db m72388) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Prelude to BattleTuesday, October 5, 1813 — Tecumseh Parkway
By the early morning of October 5, 1813, the American Army had forded the Thames River and was advancing quickly. The British rearguard was able to destroy Cornwall's mill, west of Sherman's farm (present-day Thamesville, Ontario) but not the mill dam over which the road ran, which aided the American pursuit. In Procter's absence, Colonel Warburton decided to move the British troops as far as Fairfield. At 1:00 p.m., however, Procter, who had met them en route, ordered battle lines to be . . . — Map (db m71413) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Tecumseh1768-1813
Born in a Shawnee village in what is now Ohio, Tecumseh became in the 1770s co-leader with his brother, the Prophet, of a movement to restore and preserve traditional Indian values. He believed a union of all the western tribes to drive back white settlement to be the one hope for Indian survival and spread this idea the length of the frontier. Seeing the Americans as the immediate threat, he allied himself with the British in 1812, assisted in the capture of Detroit and was killed near here at . . . — Map (db m71410) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — The Bugles SoundTuesday, October 5, 1813, 4:00 p.m. — Tecumseh Parkway
Many of the men of the 41st Regiment had been stationed in Canada for 13 years. By October 5, 1813, they had not been paid for 6 to 9 months; they lacked tents and blankets; their uniforms were in rags; they were plagued by a variety of diseases; and they had not had proper food for days. British Ensign James Cochran observed, "The attack was silently awaited, each determined to do his duty, but few with any doubt as to the result." The British, numbering about 450, faced 3000 American . . . — Map (db m72393) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — The Burning of Fairfield — Tecumseh Parkway
Robert McAfee, a soldier in Colonel Johnson's Mounted Regiment, kept a journal of his experiences, and wrote on October 7, 1813: Spent the day in collecting in plunder ... Colonel Owings Regiment of Regulars came up and took charge of the plunder and the whole army marched off and we sett [sic] fire to the town, putting the first torch to the Moravian Church and consumed the whole to ashes and we continued our march down the river to the large plantation where the bake ovens were and . . . — Map (db m72414) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — The Death of TecumsehTuesday, October 5, 1813, Approximately 4:20 p.m. — Tecumseh Parkway
At some point during the attack on Backmetack Marsh, Tecumseh was fatally shot. As word spread of their leader's death, one American account tells of the warriors giving, "the loudest yells I ever heard from human beings and that ended the fight." Who killed Tecumseh is a matter of debate. Many accounts claim that the badly-wounded Colonel Richard Johnson shot Tecumseh just before he lost consciousness although, until much later in his political career, Johnson only claimed to have shot an . . . — Map (db m72405) HM
Ontario (Chatham-Kent), Thamesville — Why Choose This Site? — Tecumseh Parkway
Some British officers involved reported that, due to the proximity of the enemy and the fact that the troops were exhausted and hungry, they were unable to outpace the American mounted units to Fairfield. Another theory is that Procter sought to avoid a military confrontation at Fairfield due to the number of civilian refugees and wounded still at the village. — Map (db m71414) HM
Ontario (Durham Region), Whitby — Camp X1941 - 1946
Upper Plaque On this site British Security Co-Ordination operated Special Training School No. 103 and Hydra. S.T.S. 103 trained allied agents in the techniques of secret warfare for the Special Operations Executive (SOE) Branch of the British Intelligence Service. Hydra Network communicated vital messages between Canada, the United States and Great Britain. This commemoration is dedicated to the service of the men and women who took part in these operations. Lower Plaque In . . . — Map (db m61880) HM
Ontario (Elgin County), St. Thomas — Jumbo
On September 15, 1885, the giant African elephant, star of the Barnum and Bailey Circus, met a untimely death when struck in St. Thomas by a Grand Trunk locomotive. To commemorate the one hundredth anniversary of this tragic event, the citizens of St. Thomas and Elgin County erected this monument which was designed and constructed in Sussex, New Brunswick by Winston Bronnum. The city of St. Thomas provided the site. Listed on these plaques are the names of the Jumbo Centennial Committee members . . . — Map (db m78342) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Amherstburg Navy Yard
[West Historic Marker]:Amherstburg Navy Yard A Navy Yard was built here in 1796 to replace Detroit as the base and supply depot for the Provincial Marine on Lakes Erie and Huron. In 1812 the GENERAL HUNTER and QUEEN CHARLOTTE, built here, took part in the capture of Detroit. The next year, his supply lines cut, Robert Barclay's poorly equipped fleet, including the DETROIT, was defeated by Oliver Perry, U.S.N., in the battle of Lake Erie. This reverse led the British to burn the . . . — Map (db m37552) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Boblo Island
Boblo Island For many centuries the island you see in front of you was used for hunting and fishing by First Nations people. Called Île aux Bois Blancs by the French, Boblo Island's key location made it a site for blockhouses during the War of 1812 and the Upper Canada Rebellion. In 1837 a lighthouse was erected on the southern end; about sixty years later the island became the site of a popular amusement park that lasted for nearly a century. The Detroit . . . — Map (db m71185) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Brick Officers' Guard Room
Brick Officers' Guard Room and Staff Sergeant's Quarters (1839) Poste de garde des officiers en briques et quartiers du sergent de l'etat-major (1839) — Map (db m71220) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Capture of the Anne, 1838
On January 9, 1838, a force of Canadians and Americans sympathizing with Mackenzie's rebellion, sailed from United States territory and landed on Bois Blane Island. The schooner "Anne," supporting the invasion, cruised along the Canadian mainland firing on structures near Fort Malden. Defending militia under Col. T. Radcliff returned the fire, disabling the helmsman and damaging the rigging. The "Anne" grounded on Elliott's Point and those aboard were captured. Their leader, Dr. E.A.Theller, an . . . — Map (db m37246) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Colonel Matthew Elliott1739 - 1814
Near this site stood the house erected in 1784 by Matthew Elliott. Born in Ireland, he emigrated to the American Colonies in 1761, and during the Revolution served with the British forces as a captain in the Indian Department. He was an Indian agent for the western tribes 1790-95 and deputy superintendent of the Indian Department 1795-98. Elliott represented Essex in the legislative assembly 1801-12. As colonel of the 1st Essex Militia he took part in the capture of Detroit , August 16, 1812, . . . — Map (db m37286) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Connection to Town
Connection to Town Fort Malden (originally called Fort Amherstburg) was the anchor of the town, which grew to the south. In this view, you are looking past the parade grounds of the fort (now a park) down Dalhousie Street towards the location of the naval dockyard. Over the years, much of the economic activity of the town of Amherstburg was generated by the need to feed, supply and amuse several hundred soldiers and their families. Entries from an 1810 account . . . — Map (db m71192) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Detroit River Heritage
Detroit River Heritage This river not only forms the border between two great nations, but is also a vital transportation artery into the upper Great Lakes. Imagine the vessels that have travelled on it … First National canoes, sailing vessels loaded with furs, British and American warships, steamers bringing holidayers to Boblo Island, and giant freighters filled with iron ore. British war vessels used the Detroit River during the War of 1812. After the war, an . . . — Map (db m71160) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Fort Amherstburg (Fort Malden)
The post was begun by the Royal Canadian Volunteers in 1796 to replace Detroit and to maintain British influence among the western Indians. As the principal defense of the Detroit frontier in 1812, it was here that Isaac Brock gathered his forces for the attack on Detroit. The next year with supply lines cut and control of Lake Erie lost to the Americans, the British could not hold the fort, which they evacuated and burned. Partially rebuilt by the invading Americans, it was returned on 1 July . . . — Map (db m34353) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Fort Defences
Fort Defences In front of you is a recreated piece of the fort's palisade, a vertical wall of sharpened logs. This wall surrounded the fort, linking the four diamond-shaped corner projections, called bastions. Around each bastion, the palisade ran in the bottom of a ditch that served as an additional defence against attacking soldiers. The diamond shape of the bastions allowed cannons to fire on soldiers approaching adjacent areas of the palisade. This . . . — Map (db m71173) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Fort Malden Points of Interest
Fort Malden Points of Interest • Fort Malden Points d'intérêt (1) Visitor Centre 1939 Centre d'accueil 1939 (2) Military Pensioner's Cottage circa 1851 (Restoration) Maison des pensionnés militaires vers 1851 (bâtiment restauré) (3)Earthworks 1813 & 1838-1840 (Remnants) Remblais 1813 et 1838-1840 (vestiges) (4) Brick Guardhouse circa 1821 . . . — Map (db m71278) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Indian Council House
Indian Council House Two hundred years ago a small building stood about 100 metres north of here, close to the water's edge. This was where meetings took place between the representatives of the British government and those of the First Nations. These meetings were a crucial factor in creating an alliance between the two groups during the War of 1812. No images survive of this important structure, except a small rectangle on this map. In this 20th-century . . . — Map (db m71170) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Lt. - Colonel William Caldwell
Born about 1750 in Fermanagh County, Ireland, Caldwell emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1773. During the American Revolution he served with the British forces as a captain in Butler's Rangers at Niagara and Detroit. In 1784 he obtained land near the mouth of the Detroit River and became one of this area's earliest settlers. Caldwell's exceptional influence with the local Indians enabled him to obtain control of some 11,000 additional acres on the north shore of Lake Erie where he encouraged former . . . — Map (db m37291) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Major John Richardson(1796 - 1852)
Born at Queenston in Upper Canada, John Richardson served as a volunteer at Fort Malden during the War of 1812 and was taken prisoner by the Americans at Moraviantown. He was released at war's end, retired on half-pay in 1818, and spent most of the next 20 years in Europe. There he won a certain literary reputation with works such as the poem Tecumseh and Wacousta, a historical novel. Returning to Canada as a journalist, he founded the New Era in Brockville where, in 1842, . . . — Map (db m76737) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Pensioner's Cottage
Pensioner's Cottage This cottage was built in the early 1850s for a retired soldier and his family. About 85 of these homes were constructed just east of the Fort, and leased at a modest rate to veteran soldiers in return for light military duties. This one, belonging to Charles O'Connor, was moved here from its original location about 500 metres away. For a growing family this cottage would have been very cramped, since it has only two rooms … a combined kitchen/sitting . . . — Map (db m71167) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Privy
Privy The foundations in front of you are from a communal privy (toilet) for enlisted men and their families that stood here in 1840. The women and children had a small room - the soldiers made do with an open structure offering no privacy (in contrast to the nearby officers' facility). In 1841 the British relocated the privy to another location, outside the fort's walls. In its place, they constructed a fenced urinal. In 1848, the sanitary facilities were improved, and the . . . — Map (db m71221) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Shoreline Breakwall
Shoreline Breakwall Over time, the force of water and ice has eroded the river bank, creating the need to stabilize the shore. Parks Canada, the Essex Region Conservation Authority (ERCA) and Environment Canada partnered to stabilize the shoreline using limestone mined in Amherstburg, and created small islands with submerged spawning reefs. These features provide habitat, and shelter fish and other aquatic life from the current and wake created by passing freighters. . . . — Map (db m71161) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Simon Girty U.E.1741 - 1818
Girty's life crossed cultural boundaries between native and white societies on the frontier of American settlement. In 1756 his family was captured by a French-led native war party in Pennsylvania. Simon was adopted by the Seneca, then repatriated in 1764. An interpreter at Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh), he became an intermediary with native nations. In 1778, dismayed over rebel policy on the natives, Girty fled to Detroit. During the Revolutionary War and subsequent conflicts in the Ohio Valley, he . . . — Map (db m34688) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Skirmishes at the Canard River
In the War of 1812, the first engagement in Canada involving British and American forces in significant numbers occurred here on the Canard River. On July 12, 1812, Brigadier-General William Hull invaded Canada and encamped near Sandwich. British commander, T.B. St. George, consolidated his forces consisting of regulars of the 41st Regiment, Indians, and Canadian militia at Fort Malden, south of the Canard and stationed at picquet at the bridge. This outpost was attacked on July 16th by Colonel . . . — Map (db m34336) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — Strategic Location
Strategic Location A deepwater channel between here and Boblo Island brings ships close to shore, a fact dramatically illustrated when a north-bound lake freighter passes by. This was why Fort Amerstburg was originally located here - cannon on its walls would have no difficulty in hitting any ship sailing up or down the channel, allowing the fort to control this key waterway. Two hundred years ago, all shipping had to pass within cannon shot of this fort. Today, . . . — Map (db m71191) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The "Tecumseh Stone"
Tradition has it that the Indian leader Tecumseh stood upon this stone to deliver a final address to the British at Amherstburg after the Battle of Lake Erie. Donated in 1939, it originally stood near the corner of Dalhousie and Gore Streets. In his speech Tecumseh asserted, in part: Father, listen...You always told us to remain here and take care of our lands. It made our hearts glad to hear that was your wish; our great father the king is the head, you represent him. You always told . . . — Map (db m34412) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The Battle of Lake Erie
In September 1813 the British squadron under R. Barclay sailed from Amherstburg to collect desperately needed food supplies. They were met by the larger, more heavily armed American squadron commanded by O. Perry. The British had the initial advantage of the wind and used their long range guns to disable the American flag ship LAWRENCE. With his own ship crippled, Perry was rowed to the NIAGARA which had held back from the fighting. With the wind now to his advantage, Perry bore down on . . . — Map (db m37707) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The Commissariat Office
The office for the Commissariat Department was built in 1831 near the government wharf and storehouse. Commissary officials purchased from local contractors the flour, beef, straw and firewood used by troops. They also managed Fort Malden's finances, including the soldiers' pay which was issued daily from this office. — Map (db m37356) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The Great Sauk Trail
Part of an ancient network of Indian paths, the Great Sauk Trail, as it came to be known, extended from Rock Island in present-day Illinois to the Detroit River. It played a significant role in the communications between the native peoples in the upper Mississippi Valley and the British in this region, particularly during the period of Anglo-American rivalry following the American Revolution. For four decades pro-British tribes such as the Sauk and the Fox made annual pilgrimages along the . . . — Map (db m36976) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The Site Over Time
The Site Over Time Today the site looks very different than it would have 170 years ago, when Fort Malden was at its height. Almost all the buildings from that period have been lost, and most of the ditch and wall that encircled the fort is gone. The large building in front of you (the museum) was built after the fort ceased to be a military post, and private homes still occupy part of the site. If you had visited the site a hundred years ago, it would have . . . — Map (db m71174) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Amherstburg — The WyandotLes Hurons de Detroit
This area was once the home of the Wyandot, remnants of the Huron, Neutrals, and Petuns who were dispersed by the Iroquois in the 1640's. Some eventually reunited and settled along the Detroit River, where they became known as the Hurons of Detroit, or Wyandot. After the fall of New France, the Wyandot became supporters of the British during the American Revolution although many remained neutral in the War of 1812. In the 1840's a number of the Wyandot were moved to a reserve in Kansas while others stayed to help develop this region. — Map (db m37340) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — 1748
The original cross Was erected in 1748 By the Jesuit Missionaries — • — Was re-enacted at the Old Boys re union Aug., 1909 Re-enacted and this permanent cross erected by the Border Cities Old Boys in Aug., 1922 — Map (db m37519) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — French Settlement on the South Shore
Front - In English Windsor is the oldest known site of continuous settlement in Ontario. The government of New France, anxious to increase its presence on the Detroit River, offered land agricultural settlement on the south shore in 1749. That summer families from the lower St. Lawrence River relocated to lots which began about 6.5 km downstream from here. Along with civilians and discharged soldiers from Fort Pontchartrain (Detroit), they formed the community of La Petite Cote. . . . — Map (db m37343) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — Hiram Walker1816 - 1899
Massachusetts born, Hiram Walker had by the 1850s become a successful general merchant, distiller and grain dealer in Detroit. After Michigan adopted prohibition in 1855 he acquired land across the river in Canada where he established a distillery and mill which became the nucleus of the company town of Walkerville. Soon the Walker enterprises had expanded to include cattle finishing (using distillery wastes), a river ferry, and a railway to transport the company's products. Although Walker . . . — Map (db m37377) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — Hull's Landing 1812
On July 4, 1812, Brigadier-General William Hull, commander of the North Western Army of the United States, landed with about 2,000 men near this site. He issued a proclamation stating that he came here to liberate Canada from oppression. The British garrison at Amherstburg was too weak to oppose the invasion, but it later fought several skirmishes at the River Canard. On July 26, British reinforcements under Colonel Henry Proctor arrived and, on August 7-8, Hull withdrew to Detroit, leaving a . . . — Map (db m34302) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — Jesuit Mission to the Hurons
In 1728 a mission to the Huron Indians was established near Fort Pontchartrain (Detroit) by Father Armand de la Richardie, S.J. The mission was moved to Bois Blane Island and the adjacent mainland in 1742. In 1747 it was destroyed by disaffected Hurons and a party of Iroquois, and the next year re-established in this vicinity. The Huron Mission became the Parish of Assumption in 1767 and was entrusted with the spiritual care of the French settlers on this side of the river as well as the . . . — Map (db m37386) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — Montreal Point in 1782The Huron First Nation's gift to the Roman Catholic Church
In the year 1782 the Huron First Nation gave Montreal Point to the Diocese. The Jesuit Fathers constructed the Assumption Parish in 1787, the first Roman Catholic Parish west of Montreal, Quebec. Today the park, named Assumption, is owned and managed by the City of Windsor for its citizens. The City has some 8 kilometers, (5 miles), of riverfront parks for your enjoyment. The Department of Parks and Recreation invites you to explore the city's network of riverfront and neighborhood parks. — Map (db m37389) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — Original Home of Major F.A. Tilston V.C. Armoury
This armoury was named after Major Fred Tilston, a true military hero of this community. Maj. Tilston, a member of the Essex Scottish, was awarded the Victoria Cross, the highest award for bravery, for his exploits at the Battle of Hochwald Forest in 1945. Replacing wooden barracks that earlier stood in what is now City Hall Square, this building was constructed in 1901 from plans drawn up by David Ewart, architect for the federal Department of Public Works. it is typical of a large number . . . — Map (db m42292) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Battle of Windsor - 1838
Early on December 4, 1838 a force of about 140 American and Canadian supporters of William Lyon MacKenzie crossed the river from Detroit and landed about one mile east of here. After capturing and burning a nearby militia barracks, they took possession of Windsor. In this vicinity they were met and routed by a force of some 130 militiamen commanded by Colonel John Prince. Five of the invaders taken prisoner were executed summarily by order of Colonel Prince. This action caused violent . . . — Map (db m37172) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Capture of Detroit
Confident of victory, General Hull had invaded Canada in July 1812, but failed to take advantage of his early success and the demoralization of the defenders. Fear of the Indians then rallying to the British cause and an inability to maintain supply lines dictated Hull's withdrawal to Detroit. In a daring move on 16 August General Brock embarked his troops at McKee's Point, crossed the river and forced the surrender of the Americans. This important victory raised the spirits of the Canadians . . . — Map (db m34321) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Detroit River
The Detroit River is unique in Canada, the United States and indeed, the world. Its shores embrace the largest metropolitan area on any international border - but rather than separating communities, the river connects them culturally and economically. Archaeological finds date First Nations communities at the river as early as 400 A.D. while French settlers reached the area by the mid-1600's. The river and its watersheds represent the history of North America in a way that is not . . . — Map (db m37378) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Francois Baby House
This house and adjacent farmland were the property of François Baby (1763-1856), first member for Kent in the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada (1792-96), militia officer and Assistant Quarter Master General during the War of 1812. When the Americans invaded Canada in July 1812, Brigadier General William Hull set up his headquarters in François Baby's house and camped his troops on the farm. After Hull's withdrawal, British guns mounted here covered Isaac Brock's advance across the river to capture Detroit on 16 August 1812. — Map (db m34303) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Rt. Hon. Herb Gray, PC., C.C., Q.C.
The Rt. Hon. Gray represented the west side of Windsor in the House of Commons from June 1962 to January 2002. He was elected thirteen consecutive times - a record - and set another record for continuous days of service in the House of Commons - 39 years, six months and 26 days. He served as Deputy Prime Minister, from 1997.06.11 - 2002.01.14 and in 10 other Cabinet positions. Herb Gray was born in Windsor, on May 25th, 1931 and grew up in Windsor. — Map (db m37496) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Siege of Detroit 1763
Shortly after the founding of Detroit in 1970 a village of Ottawa Indians was established on the south shore of the river in this vicinity and its inhabitants lived on friendly terms with the French garrison and settlers. However after the British took control of Detroit and other western posts in 1760, relations with the Indians deteriorated. In 1763 the great Ottawa chief, Pontiac, raised a strong confederacy of Indian tribes and attacked several British posts. Detroit was besieged from May . . . — Map (db m36944) HM
Ontario (Essex County), Windsor — The Underground Railroad in Canada
From the early 19th century until the American Civil War, settlements along the Detroit and Niagara rivers were important terminals of the Underground Railroad. White and black abolitionists formed a heroic network dedicated to helping free and enslaved African Americans find freedom from oppression. By 1861, some 30,000 freedom-seekers resided in what is now Ontario, after secretly traveling north from slave states like Kentucky and Virginia. Some returned south after the outbreak of the Civil . . . — Map (db m37379) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Fort Henry
In English: An earlier fort was built here on Point Henry during the War of 1812 primarily to defend the nearby naval dockyard. When the Rideau Canal was built as part of a military route connecting Kingston with Montreal, the strategic importance of this site increased. The old fort was therefore replaced by the present structure of stronger and more advanced design which was completed in 1836 at a cost of over £70,000. Garrisoned by units of the British and then the Canadian Army . . . — Map (db m39363) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Fort Henry
The first Fort Henry was built during the War of 1812 to protect the British dockyards in Navy Bay. The present limestone citadel, constructed between 1832 and 1837, replaced the old fort as part of a larger plan for the defence of the recently completed Rideau Canal. Commissariat stores were built to join the advanced battery with the main fort in 1841-42. Fort Henry was garrisoned by British troops until 1871, when Canadian Gunnery Schools (forerunner of the Royal Canadian Artillery) took . . . — Map (db m39364) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — Louis de Buade Comte de Frontenac et de Palluau1622-1698
One of the most influential and controversial figures in Canadian history, Frontenac was born at St-Germain-en-Laye, France. As a member of the noblesse d'epee he was able in 1672 to secure the appointment as Governor-General of New France. Devoted largely because of self-interest to promoting the colony's territorial expansion, Frontenac established a series of fortified fur-trading posts extending into the interior of North America, the first of which, Fort Frontenac, was constructed near . . . — Map (db m39978) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — The King's Royal Regiment of New York
The largest Loyalist Corps in the Northern Department during the American Revolution, the King's Royal Regiment of New York was raised on June 19, 1776 under the command of Sir John Johnson. Originally composed of one battalion with ten companies, it was authorized to add a second battalion in 1780. The regiment, known as the "Royal Yorkers," participated in the bitter war fought on the colonial frontier. It conducted raids against settlements in New York and was also employed in garrison duty. . . . — Map (db m39977) HM
Ontario (Frontenac County), Kingston — The Market Battery
Stood on this site from 1848 to 1875. With Shoal Tower opposite it defended Kingston Harbour and the Rideau Canal. From 1875 this was a public park. In 1885 the Kingston and Pembroke railway station was built. — Map (db m39979) HM
Ontario (Hamilton), Stoney Creek — Battle of Stoney Creek
[English Text]: Battle of Stoney Creek During 1813 the Americans planned to invade Upper Canada from Detroit and the Niagara Peninsula. In late May, an American force crossed the Niagara River, seized Fort George, and with about 3500 troops moved inland in pursuit of the British who retreated to Burlington Heights. At Stoney Creek, a surprise night attack by about 700 regulars of the 8th and 49th Regiments of Foot under Lt.-Col. John Harvey halted the American advance and . . . — Map (db m56762) HM
Ontario (Hamilton), Stoney Creek — Battle of Stoney Creek 1813
On June 5, 1813, an invading United States army of about 3,000 men, commanded by Brigadier - General John Chandler, camped in this vicinity. That evening some 700 British regulars of the 8th and 49th Regiments, under the command of Lieutenant - Colonel John Harvey, left their encampment on Burlington Heights to attack the enemy. The assault was launched early the following morning under cover of darkness. In the fierce fighting which followed, heavy losses were suffered on both sides, but the . . . — Map (db m56720) HM
Ontario (Hamilton), Stoney Creek — Battlefield House
[Text on First Historic Marker]: Battlefield House and Fifteen and one-half acres of Parkland Property of The women's Wentworth Historical Society 1899-1962 Given by this society to the Niagara Parks Commission as a National Historic Site January 19, 1962 [Text on Second Historic Marker]: Battlefield Park Battlefield House (circa 1796) Battlefield Monument (1913) Designated under the Ontario Heritage Act City of Stoney Creek Council . . . — Map (db m56805) HM
Ontario (Hamilton), Stoney Creek — Billy Green Monument
[Text on West Side of Monument]: In Memory Of Billy Green "The Scout" Who led British troops in surprise night attack winning decisive Battle of Stoney Creek. Born Feb. 4, 1794 Died Mar. 15, 1877 [Text on North Side of Monument]: In Memory Of Isaac Corman Who gave the password to Billy Green who in turn gave it to Gen. Harvey camped at Burlington Heights . . . — Map (db m56822) HM
Ontario (Hamilton), Stoney Creek — The Battlefield of Stoney Creek
The Battlefield of Stoney Creek 6th June 1813 In memory of 20 good and true King's Men who, in fighting in defence of their country, died and were buried on this knoll. This revised inscription and stone re-dedicated June 6th 1956 By Her Majesty's Army & Navy Veteran's Society of Hamilton — Map (db m56798) HM
Ontario (Hamilton), Stoney Creek — The Nash-Jackson House
Originally located at the north-east corner of king Street East and Nash Road in the city of Hamilton, the house known as the Nash=Jackson House was built in 1818. The property on which the house stood, part of William Gage's original land grant, was deeded to his eldest daughter, Susannah (Gage) Nash, in 1815. William Gage was uncle to James Gage, original owner of what is now Battlefield House Museum. The Nash-Jackson House, once named Grandview, with its Loyalist Neo-Classic style of . . . — Map (db m56859) HM
Ontario (Hamilton), Stoney Creek — Their Fame Liveth
Canada Remembers Lieutenant Samuel Hooker, Sergeant Joseph Hunt, Pri- vates James Daig, Thomas Fearnsides, Richard Hugill, George Longley, Laurence Meade, John Pegler, John Smith, and John Wale of the First Battalion of the Eighth (King's) Regiment of Foot; and Sergeant Charles Page, Pri- vates James Adams, Alexander Brown, Michael Burke, Henry Carroll, Nathaniel Catlin, Martin Curley, Martin Don- nolly, Peter Henley, John Hostler, Edward . . . — Map (db m56819) HM
Ontario (Hastings County), Shannonville — Nelson International Raceway
This was the original name of SMP when the track was first built in 1975. After coming to Canada from Ireland in 1954, John Nelson followed his passion for motorcycles and racing. He owned several bike shops in Toronto and became quite an accomplished rider in his own right. In October 1976 the first motorcycle race was held here on a chilly Thanksgiving weekend. Known for his burly laugh, racing stories and legendary repair jobs, John was admired and well liked by everyone in the racing . . . — Map (db m77758) HM
Ontario (Hastings County), Tweed — The Hungerford Smallpox Epidemic of 1884
The viral disease of smallpox - widespread in 19th century Ontario - flared up in a severe epidemic in Hungerford Township in 1884. The outbreak claimed at least 45 lives in 202 reported cases and disrupted economic activity and family life for many more. Local efforts by municipal authorities and private physicians were initially unable to halt the disease, and its wider spread throughout the province seemed likely. The newly established Provincial Board of Health and its hired officers . . . — Map (db m74023) HM
Ontario (Lambton County), Oil Springs — First Oil Wells in CanadaLes Premiers Puits de Pétrole au Canada
English The presence of oil in this locality was observed by early travelers and by the pioneer farmers who used it for medical purposes. In 1858, near Oil Springs, James M. Williams dug the first oil well in Canada and later established a refinery at Hamilton. In 1861, John Shaw, by drilling into rock, opened the first flowing well, its situation being Lot 18, Concession 2, Enniskillen Township. From these beginnings developed one of Canada’s most important industries. . . . — Map (db m78424) HM
Ontario (Lambton County), Petrolia — Robert M. Nicol Library
The original Grand Trunk Railway Station was built in 1903. It was later bought by CN and the station closed in 1927. The Town of Petrolia opened its first official library here in 1937. A commitment to maintain this designated heritage building is shared by the Town of Petrolia and through a generous trust fund granted by Robert M. Nicol in memory of his mother, Helen Kavanagh Nicol. — Map (db m78422) HM
Ontario (Lambton County), Petrolia — The Founding of Petrolia
Following the discovery of oil at Oil Springs in 1857 prospectors extended their search to the entire township of Enniskillen. At the site of Petrolia, which contained two small settlements with post offices named Durance and Ennis, a well was brought into production in 1860. The following year a small refinery was opened and the Durance post office renamed “Petrolea.” At first, eclipsed by Oil Springs, the community developed slowly. But in 1865-66 a series of discoveries . . . — Map (db m78417) HM
Ontario (Lambton County), Petrolia — Victoria Hall
English When Victoria Hall was built in 1889, Petrolia, in the midst of an oil boom, was one of the wealthiest towns in Canada. The opulent town hall reflects this stage in the town’s growth. While its first floor housed municipal offices, court rooms, fire department and armory, the entire second floor was an opera house capable of seating 1,000 people. The design, by London (Ontario) architect George Durand, uses a diverse combination of forms and a variety of decorative motifs to . . . — Map (db m78421) HM
Ontario (Leeds and Grenville Counties), Prescott — Grand Trunk RailwayPrescott
The Grand Trunk was incorporated in 1853 to run from Sarnia to Portland, Maine. Although it took over existing lines, new ones had to be built, including sections of the key Toronto to Montréal line completed by the noted English engineering firm of Peto, Brassey, Jackson and Betts in 1856. The Prescott station, built about 1855, is a typical example of the smaller stations erected by this firm for the Grand Trunk Railway. Influenced by English designs, the station is an enduring monument to early Canadian railway enterprise. — Map (db m45781) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), Glencoe — Battle Hill
English Here was fought the Battle of Longwoods, 4th March, 1814. United States troops were entrenched on this hill. The British losses were Captain D. Johnson and Lieutenant P. Graeme and twelve men of the Royal Scots Light Company and the 89th Light Company, fifty-two officiers and men of these companies of these companies and of the Loyal Kent Volunteers, wounded. French Ici se déroula la bataille de Longwoods, le 4 mars 1814. Des troupes des États-Unis s’étaient . . . — Map (db m78370) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), Glencoe — Battle of LongwoodsMarch 4, 1814
The view from the British side (left side) Commanded by Captain James Basden Royal Scots Light • Western (Caldwell) Rangers • 89th Foot Light • Kent and Middlesex Militia • British Indian Department On March 3, 1814, the Western (Caldwell) Rangers observed an American military camp on the western edge of Twenty Mile Camp (20 miles west of Delaware), straddling the Longwood’s Road. Captain William Caldwell sent word to the British detachment in Delaware. The next . . . — Map (db m78369) HM WM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — "Holy Roller"
Presented to the City of London by 1st Hussars, 4th June 1950 in memory of the First Hussars who fell in two World Wars The only tank of 6th Canadian Armoured Regiment (1st Hussars) to complete campaign in North-West Europe D-Day 6th June 1944 VE-Day 8th May 1945 — Map (db m18922) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — 50th Anniversary of the Allied Invasion of Normandy1944 - 1994 — "Hodie Non Cras"
This plaque is placed here to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Allied Invasion of Normandy on D Day, 6th June 1944. It is dedicated to the soldiers of the First Hussars, to those who took part in the assault, to those who fought in the European Campaign, and to those who gave their lives to liberate France, Belgium, and Holland. — Map (db m18923) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — Banting House
Here, in the early morning hours of October 31, 1920, Dr. Frederick Banting conceived an idea for research that led to the discovery of insulin. He believed that diabetes, then a fatal disease, could be treated by a substance extracted from a dog's atrophied pancreas. Banting was the pivotal member of the Toronto team that isolated and refined this extract, now known as insulin. In January 1922, insulin showed spectacular test results and became a lifesaving therapy worldwide. Banting House, . . . — Map (db m18975) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — Birthplace of Insulin
In 1920, while living and practicing medicine here, Dr. F. G. Banting conceived the idea which eventually led to the discovery of insulin and the saving of millions of lives worldwide. This statue, created by sculptor John Miecznikowski, depicts Dr. Banting at the age of 29. It was unveiled on July 7, 1989 by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother as a lasting tribute to the great Canadian medical scientist and Nobel laureate. — Map (db m18994) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — Birthplace of the Flame of Hope
The Flame of Hope was conceived by His Honour Judge John M. Seneshen, and stands as a symbol for all persons suffering from diabetes around the world. This flame will burn continuously and only be extinguished when it can be declared that a cure for diabetes has been found. Just as Banting's House is the “Birthplace of Insulin,” Sir Frederick G. Banting Square is the “Birthplace of the Flame of Hope.” Dedicated to diabetics throughout the world on the occasion of the . . . — Map (db m18996) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — Crimean War Cannons
These cannon were used at the seige of Sebastopol, and were brought to this country after the capture of that city by the British in 1855. Sir John Carling was instrumental in procuring these three pieces for this city. This gun is a British piece. The other two are Russian. This tablet was erected by the London and Middlesex Historical Society, 1907 Restored 1987 — Map (db m18928) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — Eldon House
Built in 1834 by Capt. John Harris, R.N., treasurer of the London District, this is London's oldest remaining house. With his wife Amelia, daughter of Samuel Ryerse, Harris came to London after the District offices were moved here from Vittoria. For many years Eldon House was a centre of London's cultural and social life, and four generations of the Harris family dwelt in it during more than 125 years. In 1960 the family gave the house with most of its furnishings and eleven acres of land, to the City of London for a museum and park. — Map (db m18970) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — Engine 86
Built in 1910 for the Grand Trunk Railway by the Canadian Locomotive Company of Kingston, Ontario, and weighing 135 tons, Engine 86 is one of the last remaining 2-6-0 Mogul engines in Canada. This class of engine was designed specifically for branch line work. Retired by the C.N.R., it was donated to the City of London and moved to Queen's Park in 1958. For more than a century, railways provided the links that fueled London's economy. The first train arrived in the city in 1853, when the . . . — Map (db m75960) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — Harold A. Rogers, O.C., O.B.E.1899 - 1994
The founder of Kinsmen & Kinette Clubs of Canada was born and raised at 324 Dundas Street, directly across from the armouries. Seeking the camaraderie he had experienced in the army during the First World War, “Hal” Rogers began the first Kinsmen Club in Hamilton in 1920. Under his guidance other clubs soon formed, each dedicated to “serving the community's greatest need.” Ongoing contributions from women prompted the formation of the Kinettes in 1942. During the Second . . . — Map (db m18933) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — London Armouries
Completed in 1905, the London Armouries is attributed to Department of Public Works architect, T. E. Fuller. It was the home of the militia units of the Royal Canadian Regiment, the First Hussars, the Royal Canadian Artillery, Royal Canadian Army Service Corps, the Royal Canadian Engineers and the Army Medical Corps. Erected by the Historic Sites Committee of the London Public Library Board, April, 1997 — Map (db m18929) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — London South African War Memorial1899 - 1902
“In Honour of the Men from the London District who Fought for the Empire in South Africa, and in Memory of Those Who Fell.” 1899 - 1902 [First Panel] Pte. D. L. Moore, R.C.R.- Feb 14th, 1900 Pte. J. A. Donegan, 26th M.Lt.I.- Feb 18th, 1900 Pte. R. Smith, 26th M.Lt.I.- Feb 18th, 1900 Pte. W. G. Adams, 7th Regt. Fus.- April 16th, 1900 Pte. F.G.W. Floyd, 7th Regt. Fus.- May 10th, 1900 Pte. E. Mullins, R.C.R.I.- June 11th, 1900 [Second Panel] Royal . . . — Map (db m18927) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — London War Cenotaph
East facade: MCM XIV The Glorious Dead West facade:MCM XXXIX 1950 - 1953 Bronze plaque on West facade: In honour of those who died in war and conflict Erected 1934 by the Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire (IODE) Rededicated 1999 by the London Municipal Chapter IODE North facade: United Nations Peacekeepers We Will Remember Them Nearby usage informational sign: Memorial Services This Cenotaph is reserved for . . . — Map (db m18966) WM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — London Women's Monument
The London Women's Monument was dedicated on December 6, 1994. The 5th anniversary of the Montreal Massacre. It is a place to remember and reflect on violence, particularly violence against women, and all women and men who work to end it. — Map (db m18932) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — Middlesex Court HouseLe Palais de Justice de Middlesex
[English Translation] Erected in 1830, this building was modelled after Malahide Castle, near Dublin, Ireland, the ancestral home of Colonel Thomas Talbot, founder of the Talbot Settlement. The site was a part of the town plot set aside by Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe after his visit to The Forks in February, 1793. Here he proposed to locate the provincial capital. [French Translation] En 1830, le colonel Talbot, fondateur de la colonie Talbot, fit erige cet . . . — Map (db m18962) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — The 1st Hussars
To the everlasting memory of the members of THE 1ST HUSSARS both the living and the dead, who together with other Canadian and Allied servicemen participated in the glorious campaign of 1944-1945 that led to the liberation of the Netherlands. Presented by: The Grateful Dutch Canadians of London May 1970 Re-dedicated June 6, 1998 by: The Dutch Canadians Remember Committee of 1995 — Map (db m18921) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — The British Garrison in London
In one of several concentrations of British troops in Upper Canada various infantry and artillery units were stationed on a military reserve here during the mid-19th century. The garrison, which contributed significantly to the economic growth of London, was first established in 1839 to guard against border raids following the Rebellion of 1837. Although its troops were withdrawn in 1853 to serve in the Crimean War and military duties were assumed by pensioners, it was re-occupied by British . . . — Map (db m18918) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — The East London Town Hall
Completed in 1884, restored in 1969 as Aeolian Town Hall, served as a centre for political and social life in London East until 1947. — Map (db m18963) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — The Founding of London
In 1793, here on the River Thames, Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe selected a site for the capital of Upper Canada. York, however, became the seat of government and the townsite of London lay undeveloped until its selection in 1826 as the judicial and administrative centre of the London District. A court-house and gaol (1829) and homes for the government officials were built, stores and hotels were opened, and by 1834 the community contained over 1100 inhabitants. A British garrison . . . — Map (db m18971) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — The Gaol and Courthouse, London, c.1843Painting by George Russell Dartnell
“More change has been caused to the views around London by the cutting down of hills and the building of gullies.”           --Harriet Priddis, in her “Reminiscences” (1902) In the 1840s George Russell Dartnell depicted the London District Courthouse sitting on a rise, with the ground dropping toward a ravine to the south and toward a bog near the site of Robinson Hall, on the east side of Ridout Street. Robinson hall is shown at the far right of Dartnell's . . . — Map (db m18973) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — The Petition of John Ewart
The Petition of John Ewart of the Town of York: Humbly Shewith: That while your Petitioner was performing his contract for building the Court House and Gaol in the town of London, in the London District, he was located by Colonel Talbot upon two lots in the said Town of London liable to settlement Duties and upon which he has made the following...improvements -- that is to say, a framed House, 50 feet long by 30 feet wide, and 23 feet high, with a wing, 30 by 16 feet, and a back Kitchen . . . — Map (db m18974) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — The Ridout Street Complex
This streetscape includes several of London's earliest buildings and provides a capsule view of the appearance of mid-19th century Ontario cities. These buildings, the earliest of which was begun in 1835, include residential, industrial and commercial premises all intermingled on one of the city's main streets. The group of structures soon became known as “Bankers' Row” because of the presence of five branch offices here. After years of neglect and deterioration, they were . . . — Map (db m18972) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — Veterans' Garden2005 - Year of the Veteran
Dedicated November 4, 2005 to remember, honour, and celebrate our Canadian Veterans. May the memory of their achievements and sacrifices be kept alive. This garden was made possible thanks to the generous donation by Angus and Mabe McLennan - for the love and enjoyment of Victoria Park. — Map (db m18969) HM
Ontario (Middlesex County), London — Veterans' Memorial Carillon2005 - Year of the Veteran — "We Will Never Forget"
With deepest gratitude to those who so generously contributed to this visible and resonant remembrance of our Canadian Veterans Separate Stone marker nearby: Thank You Canada Thank You Veterans 1940 - 1945 This musical tribute is a gift to all Canadians from the Dutch community and friends out of gratitude for the Liberation of the Netherlands during 1944 - 1945 Dedicated Sept. 22, 2006 A map on the stone marker depicts the following Canadian War . . . — Map (db m18968) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Allanburg — The Old Welland Canal
Originally conceived in 1818 by its promoter, William Hamilton Merritt, to divert trade from the Erie Canal and New York and built under private auspices, the canal was opened to traffic in 1829. After additional work in 1833, the canal with its 40 wooden locks linked Port Colborne on Lake Erie and Port Dalhousie on Lake Ontario and brought prosperity to its environs by permitting the export of Upper Canadian staples through New York. In 1841 reconstruction was begun by the Canadian government . . . — Map (db m75850) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Battle of Chippawa
[Text on the West Side]: Battle of Chippawa 5 July 1814 In memory of all those who fought on this ground, many of whom are buried nearby, and to commemorate the peace that has prevailed between Canada and the United States since that time. This monument was erected and dedicated by The Niagara Parks Commission. October 2001. Brian E. Merrett, Chairman The Niagara Parks Commission [Text on the South Side]: . . . — Map (db m49393) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Chippawa Battlefield Panel 1Background to a Battle
On these fields and the surrounding woods 4,000 American, British, Canadian and Native forces fought the first major battle of the Niagara campaign of 1814. When the last shots died away on Samuel Street's farm, more than 800 lay dead and wounded. Since 18 June 1812, when the United States declared war on Great Britain, a small force of British Regulars, Canadian Militia and Native Warriors had turned back seven American invasions of Canada. On 3 July 1814, Major General Jacob Brown, . . . — Map (db m49398) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Chippawa Battlefield Panel 2Opening Strikes — July 5, 1814 3:00 p.m.
At dawn 5 July 1814, parties of Canadian-Militia and British allied Native Warriors scouted the American camp. They began sniping from the bushes on the north side of Street's Creek and this continued throughout the morning. Around noon, General Brown ordered General Porter to take some of his men and end this harassing fire. At about 2pm, Porter led his New York and Pennsylvania Militia and allied Warriors into the woods to the west, crossed the creek and drove the scouting parties . . . — Map (db m49399) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Chippawa Battlefield Panel 3Advance to Contact — July 5, 1814 3:30 p.m.
Major General Phineas Riall, the British commander, had repaired the bridge over the Chippawa and ordered his own Regular light infantry, the local Canadians of the 2nd Lincoln Militia and a force of Native Warriors, to clear out the now scattered American skirmishers. The remainder of Riall's brigade 1st, 8th and 100th Regiments of Foot (1,400 men) marched south along the river road toward General Brown and his outpost. Brown could not see the British troops through the strip of trees just . . . — Map (db m49400) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Chippawa Battlefield Panel 4Battle on the Plain — July 5, 1814 4:30 p.m.
British General Riall was convinced that the greater part of Brown's army was still surrounding Fort Erie. He did not know the Fort had surrendered and he was facing the entire U.S. division. Still, the number of men deployed on both sides was virtually the same: 6 British guns verses 7 U.S., with each side mustering about 1400 regulars, 200 militia and 300 warriors. Confident in the abilities of his regulars, Riall advanced towards the waiting grey-coated line. The Redcoats pushed to . . . — Map (db m49402) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Chippawa Battlefield Panel 5Final Stages — July 5, 1814 5:30 p.m.
As the battle raged, more American artillery deployed to the middle of the plain between the 11th U.S. and the lone 25th U.S. company, less than 100 meters (109 yards) from the British line. General Brown then led Ripley's brigade across Street's Creek to the west in an effort to envelop the entire British Force. However, the creek was chest deep, the undergrowth thick and Ripley's men never did join the fight on the plain. Meanwhile, with point blank canister raking his line, the enemy's . . . — Map (db m49403) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Chippawa Battlefield Panel 6The Aftermath
The Aftermath. In the days following the battle, General Brown's victorious troops advanced another 25 kilometers (18 miles) north to Fort George before retiring back to Niagara Falls when more British troops arrived in the area. They met the British forces again on 25 July along another farmer's lane where 1,800 more men were killed and wounded. Following the bloody Battle of Lundy's Lane the American forces passed the field and graves of the Battle of Chippawa as they withdrew to Fort Erie. . . . — Map (db m49404) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Church of the Holy Trinity
A frame church was built here following the arrival in 1820 of an Anglican missionary, the Reverend William Leeming. It was burned on the night of September 12-13, 1839, by supporters of William Lyon Mackenzie who crossed the Niagara River from New York State. The present church was designed by John Howard and built with the aid of private subscriptions and government assistance. The corner-stone was laid in 1841 by Bishop John Stachan. Among the well known persons who worshiped here were: . . . — Map (db m78869) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Fort Chippawa 1791
The fortifications which stood on this site were built in 1791 to protect the southern terminus of the Niagara portage road, and serve as a forwarding depot for government supplies. Known also as Fort Welland, the main structure consisted of a log blockhouse surrounded by a stockade. During the War of 1812 several bloody engagements were fought in this vicinity including the bitterly contested Battle of Chippawa, July 5, 1814, and possession of the fort frequently changed hands. A barracks, . . . — Map (db m49164) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Navy IslandIle Navy
The British used Navy Island from 1761 to 1764 as a shipyard in which to build the first British decked vessels to sail the upper lakes. These were essential in maintaining the supply lines westward during Pontiac's uprising, 1763-4. Thereafter the island remained undisturbed until 14 December 1837 when William Lyon Mackenzie, after being defeated at Toronto, led a "Patriot" army from Buffalo to occupy it. Swift reaction by local militia and British regulars prevented his moving to the mainland . . . — Map (db m49052) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — Niagara River Remedial Action Plan
Niagara's beauty has been an inspiration for today's environmental movement. Early conservationists such as George Catlin and Frederick Olmstead, who invented the concept of national parks, came to view its wonders. Nurtured by such visions and encouraged by the leadership of Colonel Casimir Gzowski, The Niagara Parks Commission established the first provincial park in Ontario in 1885. The Remedial Action Plan (RAP) today unites concerned citizens committed to restoring Niagara's ecosystem . . . — Map (db m64652) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — The Battle of ChippawaLa Bataille de Chippawa
Here, on 5 July 1814, an American army under Major-General Jacob Brown launched the last major invasion of Canada during the War of 1812. The Americans defeated a British and Canadian force commanded by Major-General Phineas Riall consisting of regulars, militia and Aboriginal warriors. During the engagement, about 200 men were killed and over 500 hundred wounded. After four months of heavy fighting, with major action at Lundy's Lane, Fort Erie and Cook's Mills, the invaders were forced back to . . . — Map (db m49050) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — The Battle of Chippawa
On this site was fought The Battle of Chippawa July 5, 1814. Preservation of the Battleground was made possible by The Niagara Parks Commission with the cooperation of Frank and Mildred Branscombe, River Realty Development (1976) inc. and Group 2 Development Limited of Niagara Falls, Ontario — Map (db m49460) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — The Destruction of The Caroline, 1837
On the night of December 29-30, 1837, some 60 volunteers acting on the orders of Col. Allen Napier MacNab, and commanded by Capt. Andrew Drew, R.N., set out from Chippawa in small boats to capture the American steamer "Caroline". That vessel, which had been supplying William Lyon Mackenzie's rebel forces on Navy Island, was moored at Fort Schlosser, N.Y. There she was boarded by Drew's men, her crew killed or driven ashore, and after an unsuccessful attempt to start the engines, her captors set . . . — Map (db m64651) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippawa — The Founding of Chippawa
In 1792-94 a village grew up near Fort Chippawa on Chippawa Creek at the end of the new portage road from Queenston. In 1793 the creek was renamed the Welland River, but the village, where a post-office was opened before 1801, remained "Chippawa". It was largely destroyed 1813-14 when British and American forces fought for control of the Welland River. Portage traffic revived after the war and continued until Chippawa became an outlet for the original Welland Canal from 1829 to 1833. A . . . — Map (db m54124) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Chippiwa — Raid on Fort Schlosser 1813
At daybreak on July 5, 1813, a British and Canadian force, consisting of some 35 militia and a small detachment of the 49th Regiment, embarked in this vicinity to attack Fort Schlosser. This American depot (now within Niagara Falls, New York) was situated at the southern terminus of the Lewiston Portage, and was an important military trans-shipment point. The attacking force, commanded by Lieut.-Col. Thomas Clark of the 2nd Regiment, Lincoln Militia, surprised the U.S. garrison and encountered . . . — Map (db m49163) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Crystal Beach — Capture of the "Somers" and "Ohio"
On the night of August 12, 1814 seventy seamen and marines, led by Captain Alexander T. Dobbs, R.N.,embarked in this vicinity to attempt the capture of three armed U.S. schooners lying off American-held Fort Erie. One of the six boats used had been carried some 25 miles from Queenston, while the others were brought overland from Frenchman's Creek. Masquerading as supply craft, the force boarded and seized the "Somers" and "Ohio," the "Porcupine" alone escaping. Two of the attackers, including . . . — Map (db m53441) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Fort Erie — Bertie Street Ferry Landingc. 1796 - 1950
Over the centuries there have been many ferry landings along the Niagara River. Some were built by local merchants and some as government licenced landing points. The longest operating ferry dock was here, near the foot of present-day Bertie Street. It was licenced to Henry Windecker c. 1796. This hub of activity was not only a crossing point to and from the United States, but was also the location of customs, immigration, vehicle registration, and a railroad terminus. During the . . . — Map (db m75876) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Fort Erie — Capture of the "Ohio" and "Somers"Prise des Goelettes "Ohio" et "Somers"
On the night of 12 August 1814, as a prelude to a British attack on Fort Erie, an expedition was mounted against three armed American schooners anchored off the fort. Captain Alexander Dobbs, R.N., embarked with 70 seamen and marines in six batteaux which had been portaged from Frenchman's Creek, and by a ruse got close enough to cut the hawsers and board and capture the OHIO and SOMERS. The third vessel, PORCUPINE, escaped. Dobb's victory was the last naval action fought on the Great Lakes in . . . — Map (db m48913) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Fort Erie — Conestoga Wagon Trek
The border between Canada and the United States of America has witnessed many migrations of people. At two times, however, the migration was primarily from south to north. That was in the troubled days just prior to the American Revolutionary War and during the uneasy decades when the new republic was being formed. During the last two decades of the eighteenth century, many people, motivated by loyalty to the British Crown and fearing some aspects of the course being set by the new United . . . — Map (db m75851) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Fort Erie — Fort Erie
Three fortifications occupied this site. The first (1764-1779) and second (c. 1783-1803), located at lower levels, were abandoned when ice and water inundated the works. The third Fort Erie, built between 1805 and 1808, was repaired in January 1814 but was captured by an invading American army in July of that same year. The Americans used it as a base for subsequent operations, retreated here after their defeat at Lundy's Lane, survived a siege by the British in August and September, and . . . — Map (db m48912) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Fort Erie — Fort Erie Ferry Landings
Throughout the 1800s there were many ferry landings competing for business along the Niagara River. The map below is a compilation of some of these locations. Ferry leases were granted to: Col. John Warren Sr., John Warren Jr., Nelson Forsyth, Kenneth Mackenzie and Col. James Kerby. Colonel James Kerby was also Collector of Customs during the mid 1800s and reported his frustration to the government that “ferry boats landed her and there and everywhere as might best suit them.” — Map (db m75877) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Fort Erie — Fort Erie, Pro Patria Mori Cairn
[Text on the base of the Cairn]; Here are buried 150 British Officers and Men Who fell in the attack on Fort Erie On the 26th day of August, 1814, and three of the defenders, men of the United States Infantry, whose remains were discovered during the restoration of Fort Erie, 1938 & 1939 [Text on first of 2 plaques mounted on the Cairn]: In Memory of the Officers and Seamen of the Royal Navy, The Off- icers, Non commissioned Officers and . . . — Map (db m54139) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Fort Erie — Freedom Park
From around 1830 to 1860, thousands of freedom seekers used the Underground Railroad to reach sanctuary in Canada - the “promised land”. Many crossed the Niagara River from the United State to Fort Erie, including Josiah Henson and his family, who arrived on the 28th of October 1830. The book Uncle Tom’s Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe, was patterned after his life. This park has been created to celebrate their lives and to remind present and future generations of their . . . — Map (db m75878) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Fort Erie — Frenchman's Creek
In an effort to regain the initiative lost at Queenston, the Americans planned a general invasion for 28 November 1812. Before dawn advance parties crossed the Niagara River to cut communications between Fort Erie and Chippawa and to silence the British shore guns. The attackers failed to destroy the bridge over Frenchman's Creek and the batteries they had overrun were soon retaken by British reinforcements. After confused fighting the advance parties returned to the American shore. The main . . . — Map (db m49049) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Grimsby — Engagement at the Forty
[English Text]: Engagement at the Forty Here at the Forty Mile Creek, on 8th June, 1813, American forces, retreating after the Battle of Stoney Creek, were bombarded by a British flotilla under Sir James Lucas Yeo. Indians and groups of the 4th and 5th Regiments Lincoln Militia joined in the attack and created such confusion in the enemy ranks that they abandoned this position and retreated to Fort George. [French Text]: L'Engagement de Forty Mile Creek . . . — Map (db m56704) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Grimsby — Grimsby 1812 Bicentennial Flagpole
We dedicate this flagpole to the Grimsby 1812 Bicentennial peace garden in honour of the "Encounter at the Forty" at this site on June 8, 1813, a turning point in the War of 1812 by the United States and the British. Also, to celebrate 200 years of peace and prosperity that has existed between Canada and the United States. — Map (db m56993) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Grimsby — Grimsby 1812 Bicentennial Gazebo
We dedicate this gazebo to the Grimsby 1812 Bicentennial Peace Garden and to the residents of Grimsby, In commemoration of 200 years of peace between Canada and the United States. The design of the gazebo was inspired by elements of Fort George in Niagara. The north "Bastion" of the gazebo points towards Lake Ontario and the location of the British fleet during the "Engagement at the Forty". The American cannon ball mounted on the Bastion wall was found near this site by Erwin Phelps, . . . — Map (db m57034) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — 3. The Capture of the Redan and the Death of Brock
On the river banks below here, the Americans were trapped. To the right the Americans scaled the river cliff and seized the Heights above. To the left the British held the Village of Queenston. A British 18-pounder cannon situated here within an earthwork called a "redan". On October 13, 1812, this cannon hindered the reinforcement of the American troops trapped below. Arriving from Fort George, Major-General Brock came here to direct the defence of Queenston and await reinforcements, however . . . — Map (db m75875) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — About the year 1600 B.C. ...
About the year 1600 B.C., the Falls of Niagara was located at this point in the Niagara River. During the 12,000 year history of the Falls, it has receded from its initial breach of the escarpment at Queenston Height to is present location 3.66 km. south of this location. — Map (db m79652) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Battle of Lundy's LaneBataille de Lundy's Lane
This was the site of the bloodiest battle of the War of 1812. On the afternoon of 25th July, 1814, Lieutenant-General Gordon Drummond with about 2800 men engaged the invading American army which had recently been victorious at Chippawa. The armies were evenly matched and the six-hour battle lasted until darkness and heavy losses put an end to the fighting. Each force had lost over 800 men. Although each claimed victory, the Americans had failed to dislodge Drummond from his position. They . . . — Map (db m49053) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Bridgewater Mills
In the late 1790's the river flowed swiftly around these islands. The Bridgewater Mills, a water powered saw and grist mill and an iron foundry, where the first bar iron was made in Canada, were located here. The Mills were burned by the retreating American Army after the Battle of Lundy's Lane on July 26, 1814, and were not rebuilt. — Map (db m53402) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Burch’s Mill
In 1786 John Burch, a United Empire loyalist, constructed a water-powered grist and sawmill on this site. He was the first to use the waters on the west bank of the Niagara River for industrial purposes. The mills were burned by the retreating American Army on July 26, 1814, after the Battle of Lundy’s Lane. — Map (db m79766) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Buried Railway Trestle and Buried Gorge
The cut stone markers are the ends of a buried steel trestle that carried the tracks of the Niagara Falls Park and River Railway. It spanned the ravine created by Bowman’s Creek which eroded the soft glacial debris of the buried gorge of a pre-glacial river. This buried gorge extends west 3.2 km (2 miles) to the Niagara Escarpment at St. Davids. — Map (db m79563) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Charles Green1740 - 1827 — United Empire Loyalist
“If the captain wants me, he may come himself and if he does I will shoot him.” With these words, Charles Green refused induction into the N. Jersey rebel militia. Imprisoned, he escaped and joined the “King’s Rangers” a loyalist unit. He “suffered very considerably both in person and property”. At war’s end he walked from N. Jersey leading his wife and two children on horseback. His wife Rebekah, buried next to him, gave birth eight days later to a . . . — Map (db m75879) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Ebenezer Community
In 1852 this was the site of the Ebenezer religious community of 800 people. It had log houses, a wharf, store, blacksmith shop, sawmill, woolen mill, flour mill, cannery, cabinet shop and a communal dining hall. Their best known product was high quality cotton denim dyed Ebenezer Blue. In 1859 the community moved to Amana, Iowa. — Map (db m64653) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Edgeworth Ussher, Esq.
Edgeworth Ussher, Esq. November 16, 1838 Here rests, in the hope of a joyful resurrection, the mortal remains of Edgeworth Ussher, Esq., whose devotion to his sovereign and exertions in the cause of his country at a critical period of the history of Canada, marked him out as an object for the vengeance of the enemies of peace and good order by whom he was cruelly assassinated in the night of 16th November, 1838, in his own house near Chippawa at the early age . . . — Map (db m75852) HM WM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Floral ClockHistory
The Floral Clock at Queenston was built by Ontario Hydro in 1950. The idea to build the attraction came from Dr. Richard Lankaster Heam, Hydro’s General Manager and Chief Engineer at the time. While preparing for a business trip to England, Mr. Hearn was encouraged by Hugh Duncan — a Scotsman who was maintenance electrician foreman at the Queenston Generating Station — to visit the floral clock in the Princes’ Street Gardens in Edinburgh. Dr. Heam did as Duncan suggested and he was . . . — Map (db m79106) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Holding the High Ground
Early on the morning of July 26th, 1814, Lieutenant-General Sir Gordon Drummond awaited another attack on the Lundy's Lane hill near Niagara Falls. Throughout the previous night, this hill had been taken and retaken in the bloodiest, most hard fought battle of the War of 1812-14. The expected attack did not occur. The Americans, exhausted, withdrew to Fort Erie. In November, they abandoned Fort Erie and retired across the Niagara River. Drummond and his troop's had successfully . . . — Map (db m49693) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Indian Ossuary
200 yards north west of the highest point was situated the largest Indian Ossuary yet discovered in the Province. First discovered in 1828. Bones and sand removed in 1908. — Map (db m75853) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — José María Heredia(1803–1839) — Niágara
Cuban poet and patriot who sang to Niagara and, as José Martí said, awakened “an ever-burning passion for freedom” in the hearts of all Cubans.                               Niagara                            (fragments) Thou flowest, on in quiet, til thy waves grow broken midst the rocks; thy current then shoots onward like the irresistible course of destiny. Ah, terrible the rage,— the hoarse and rapid whirlpools there! My brain grows wild, my senses . . . — Map (db m78068) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Laura Secord
[Front Side of the Monument]: To perpetuate the name and fame of Laura Secord who walked alone nearly 20 miles by a circuitous difficult and perilous route, through woods and swamps and over miry roads to warn a British outpost at DeCew’s Falls of an intended attack and thereby enabled Lt. FitzGibbon on the 24th June 1813, with less than 50 men of H.M. 49th Regt., about 15 militiamen and a small force of Six Nations and other . . . — Map (db m49694) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Louis Hennepin 1626 - c. 1705
{The west/city marker side, in English:} Born and educated in Belgium, Hennepin was ordained a Recollet (Franciscan) friar in France. He was an adventurer at heart and undertook priestly duties in several European countries before being sent to New France as a missionary in 1675. In 1679-80 he accompanied Cavelier de La Salle on his exploration of the Mississippi River. Back in France, Hennepin published a lively account of his travels, Description de la Louisiane (1683), . . . — Map (db m35487) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Lundy's Lane Battlefield Commemorative WallCelebrating 100 Years — July 25, 2004
In celebration of the City of Niagara Falls Centennial, and the 190th Anniversary of the Battle of Lundy's Lane, fought on July 25, 1814. These limestone panels were created to pay tribute to those who lost their lives in the battle. Let us remember and honour those that have come before us and celebrate the peace that now exists between the two nations. — Map (db m49739) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Niagara Falls Park and River Railway
The Niagara River Recreation Trail at this point is laid along the former double-track roadbed of the Niagara Falls Park and River Railway. From 1892 to 1932, before there was an auto route along the gorge, this electric railway carried millions of passengers from the boat docks at Queenston to Queen Victoria Park. — Map (db m79520) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Niagara Falls Park and River Railway Powerhouse
The Niagara Falls Park and River Railway Powerhouse, built on this site in 1892, was the first hydraulic powerhouse to use water from the Canadian side of the Niagara River. It generated 2100 hp of direct current electricity for the electric railway. Power generation ceased in 1932 and the building was demolished in 1985. — Map (db m66409) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Niagara Glen
The Falls of Niagara were here about 7000 to 8000 years ago, three separate cataracts, about .8 kilometres (.5 miles) apart, fed by drainage from Lake Erie. Then suddenly, other lakes began to pour into Lake Erie, thereby increasing the outflow to the river. This resulted in one cataract which eroded a wider gorge. — Map (db m34806) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Niagara Park Greenhouses
These greenhouses were erected in the year 1946 as a part of the design of the Niagara Parks Commission to develop the natural magnificence of this historic district and to display its charms for the benefit not only of those who are residents of the province of ontario but of those to whom, as our welcome guests, we extend our warmest hospitality. The Niagara Parks Commission Chairman: The Honourable Charles Daily Vice-Chairman: Fred M. Cairns Commissioners Wm. B. Rollason • Cecil . . . — Map (db m66411) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Niagara Portage Road
Following the cession of the east bank of the Niagara River to the United States in 1783, the British authorities felt compelled to transfer the portage road around Niagara Falls to the west bank of the river. Opened in 1789 by a group of private traders led by Robert Hamilton, the road between Queenston and Chippawa, which passed to the east of this monument, became the official government route in 1791. Until the completion of the Welland Canal in 1829 and the building of railways in the . . . — Map (db m75854) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Niagara River Recreation Trail
This trail is provided and maintained through the earnings of The Niagara Parks Commission. The Commission is a self-funding agency of the Ontario Government dedicated to preserving and enhancing the beauty of the lands adjacent to the Niagara River for the enjoyment of its visitors. —Pamela Verrill Walker, Chairman, The Niagara Parks Commission, 1988. — Map (db m79579) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Niagara Spanish Aero Car
Leonardo Torres Quevedo (1852–1936) was an ingenious Spanish engineer. Among his creations were algebraic machines, remote control devices, dirigibles and the world’s first computer. The Niagara Spanish Aero Car was designed by Leonardo Tores Quevedo and represented a new type of aerial cable way that he called “transbordador.” Officially opened on August 8, 1916, it is the only one of its kind in existence. — Map (db m79427) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Nikola TeslaInventor — 1856-1943
The St. George Serbian Orthodox Church, Niagara Falls, in partnership with the Niagara Parks Commission, have erected this monument to Nikola Tesla. Physicist, inventor, electrical engineer. Tesla developed the world's first hydroelectric system used here at Niagara Falls. — Map (db m40101) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — One Hundredth Anniversary of the Battle of Lundy's Lane
This Memorial – is – Erected to Commemorate the celebration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Battle of Lundy's Lane Held here July 25th 1914 Under the Auspices – of – The Lundy's Lane Historical Society — Map (db m54045) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Rainbow Bridge
The Rainbow Bridge, owned and operated by the Niagara Falls Bridge Commission, was built in 1940-41 to replace the Upper Steel Arch Bridge. Its abutments are 15.1m (50 ft.) above the level of river ice jams. When it was built its 286m (950 ft.) arch was the longest hingeless arch in the world. — Map (db m64661) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Ruth Redmond1903 - 1999
Ruth Redmond was a teacher at nearby Stamford Collegiate from 1926 to 1967. In 1954, Miss Redmond began purchasing properties that were adjacent to her home here on the north side of Lundy's Lane. This valuable land was part of the Lundy's Lane Battleground from the War of 1812. Her sole objective was to protect this historic ground from commercial development. Miss Redmond beautified much of her property with lovely flower gardens in memory of "her boys" - those who had perished in the . . . — Map (db m57035) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Sir Casimir S. Gzowski 1813-1898
First chairman of the Niagara Parks Commission (1885-93) Gzowski was born in Russia of Polish parents. Forced to emigrate, following participation in the Polish Rising of 1830, he came to Canada in 1841. An exceptionally able engineer, he first served as a government construction superintendent. He later organized a company which built the Grand Trunk Railway from Toronto to Sarnia, 1853-7, and the International Bridge across the Niagara River at Fort Erie in 1873. He was a founder of the . . . — Map (db m37119) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Site of Redan Battery
Near this spot Lieut-Col. John MacDonnell Attorney General of Upper Canada was mortally wounded 13th October 1812. — Map (db m75855) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Soldier's MonumentLundy's Lane
[Front Side of Monument]: Erected by the Canadian Parliament in honour of the victory gained by the British & Canadian Forces on this field on the 25th day of July, 1814 and in grateful remembrance of the brave men who died on that day fighting for the unity of the Empire. ———— 1895 ———— [Left Side of Monument]: In enduring memory of . . . — Map (db m49790) WM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Stamford Cottage
200 yards north east of this point stood "Stamford Cottage" later known as "Stamford Park" the home of Sir Peregrine Maitland, Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada from 1818 to 1828. The property was purchased in 1822 and consisted of a 'cottage' and gate house, The 22 room 'cottage' was destroyed by fire in 1828. — Map (db m75856) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Stranded Scow
On August 6, 1918, this dumping scow broke loose from its towing tug about 1.6 kilometres (1 mile) upriver, with Gustav F. Lofberg and James N. Harris aboard. The men opened the bottom dumping doors and the scow grounded in the shallow rapids. They were rescued the next day by breeches buoy, on a line shot out from the roof of the adjacent powerhouse. — Map (db m79781) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Table Rock
This is the site of the historic landmark, Table Rock, a shelf of bare rock 61 metres (200 feet) long, 18.3 metres (60 feet) wide. Once part of the crest of the Horseshoe Falls it was left isolated when the Falls receded. Rock falls in 1818, 1828, 1829, 1850 and 1934 reduced its size. The remaining overhang was blasted off for safety reasons in 1935. — Map (db m64668) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Table Rock HouseErected 1853. — Demolished 1926.
The first Table Rock House stood 150 yards north of here. Erected in the year 1853, it occupied a site opposite the historical landmark of Table Rock, an overhanging limestone ledge which fell into the Niagara Gorge in the year 1850. — Map (db m78088) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — The Boundary Waters Treaty
"It is further agreed that the waters herein defined as boundary waters and waters flowing across the boundary shall not be polluted on either side to the injury of health or property of the other." Widely regarded as the first environmental agreement, the 1909 Boundary Waters Treaty was the first international treaty to articulate principles of boundary water resource development, to address cross-boundary pollution and to prohibit the diversion of boundary waters. Further, in . . . — Map (db m64648) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — The Inukshuk

The inukshuk (pronounced IN-OOK-SHOOK) means “in the image of man.” These magnificent lifelike figures of stone erected by the Inuit people are unique to the Canadian Arctic.

The traditional purpose of an Inukshuk was to act as a guide for a safe journey through the wilderness. An Inukshuk on land with two arms and legs means there is a valley, and at the end of the valley you will be able to go in two directions.

What is true about the Inukshuk . . . — Map (db m79021) HM

Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Thomas Baker McQuestenK.C., M.L.A. — 1882 – 1945
Thomas Baker McQuesten was born in Hespeler, Ontario June 30, 1882. In 1934 he was appointed Minister of Highways and Public Works for the Province of Ontario and Chairman of the Niagara Parks Commission. He served in both positions for ten years. During his term as chairman of the Niagara Parks Commission, he was instrumental in the building of Oakes Garden Theatre; The construction of the Niagara Parkway from Clifton Hill to the whirlpool; the Niagara Parks School of Horticulture; Mather . . . — Map (db m78489) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Thompson Point
This depression was the site in the early 1800’s where John Thompson quarried the exposed limestone ridge at the edge of the gorge, and processed it into agricultural lime. There were two lime kilns and a water-powered sawmill on the site which extended as far back as the ridge on which the Whirlpool Restaurant now stands. — Map (db m79421) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Tightrope Walker Nik WallendaOn June 15, 2012 — Niagara Parks
On June 15, 2012, the world watched as professional tightrope walker Nik Wallenda crossed the Niagara Gorge on a wire. Table Rock complex marked the Canadian end point for this high wire walk, which began at Terrapin Point, directly across the Gorge at the Niagara Falls State Park, in New York. The Niagara Parks Commission granted one-time permission for this event in order to recognize the role that daredevil performances and stunting have played in the rich history and promotion of . . . — Map (db m64660) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — To the Memory of Burrell Hecock
To the memory of Burrell Hecock of Cleveland Ohio Aged 17 Years Who lost his life in an heroic attempt to rescue Mr and Mrs Eldridge Stanton of Toronto Ontario when the ice bridge in the gorge immediately below was swept down the Niagara River and into the Whirlpool Rapids February 4th 1912 — Map (db m35065) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — To the Memory of the Pioneersand the Red Meeting House — 1817-1869
Genesee Methodist Conference met here July 1820. — Map (db m75880) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Toronto Power Generating StationLa centrale Électrique de la Toronto Power
Opened in 1906 to supply the Toronto market, this generating station was the first wholly Canadian-owned hydro-electric facility at Niagara Falls. Engineers adapted advanced European and American technologies to a difficult site in a bold and enterprising way. The station’s palatial powerhouse was designed by the eminent Toronto architect E. J. Lennox to complement the scenic setting. Symmetrical, colonnaded and faced in limestone, it is an early and unusual application of Beaux-Arts design to . . . — Map (db m79737) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — U.S. Infantry TrenchJuly 23, 1814
This Monument erected July 25, 1991 by the American Legion, Niagara County Committee & Dept. of New York In memory of the U.S. Officers & Soldiers who died at the Battle of Lundy's Lane Connecticut 25th; New York 23rd; Massachusetts 9th & 21st; Pennsylvania 22nd & Vermont 11th. — Map (db m49695) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Upper Steel Arch Bridge
An abutment of the Upper Steel Arch Bridge built on this site 1897-98, is visible on the U.S. shore of the river. Also known as the Falls View Bridge and the Honeymoon Bridge, it stood until January 27, 1938, when an ice jam pushed the bridge off its abutments and it collapsed onto the ice in the river. — Map (db m79521) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Upper Suspension Bridge
This plaque marks the entrance to the Upper Suspension Bridge, opened in July 1869, then the longest suspension bridge in the world. The iron cables were hung from timber towers. In 1884-87, this wooden bridge was changed to steel. In 1898, this steel bridge was replaced by the Upper Steel Arch Bridge. — Map (db m64670) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Whirlpool Rapids Gorge
An ancient river pre-dating the Wisconsin Glacier flowed through the channel of the Whirlpool Rapids and the Whirlpool draining glacial Lake Erie. After the retreat of the glacier when the present river broke through the rock barriers at Thompson Point it re-excavated the Whirlpool and the Whirlpool Rapids Gorge. — Map (db m79581) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara Falls — Zimmerman Fountain Pond
This beautiful fountain takes its name from Samuel Zimmerman who came to Canada from Pennsylvania in 1842. He amassed a fortune through a series of lucrative contracts involving the building of the second Welland Canal and various Railway Lines, allowing him to begin construction of a large estate in what is now Queen Victoria Park. The estate was unfinished when he was killed in a railway accident in March of 1857. This fountain pond, which dates back to 1856, is the last remaining remnant of his estate. — Map (db m75881) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara on the Lake — Niagara on the Lake Historical District
(Left side is in English) In 1778, Loyalist refugees began crossing from Fort Niagara to settle the west bank of the Niagara River. A town was laid out in a grid pattern of four-acre blocks and grew quickly, gaining prominence as the first capital of Upper Canada from 1792 to 1796. Following Niagara’s destruction during the war of 1812, the citizens rebuilt, mainly in the British Classical architectural tradition, creating a group of structures closely related in design, materials, and . . . — Map (db m24585) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — A Fort EvolvesFort Mississauga
The Tower By 1813, the British were planning to build "a tower in small redoubt to command the entrance of the Mississauga Point." Begun in the Spring of 1814, this tower rests on the remains of the first Capital of Upper Canada (today's Ontario). After the Americans burned the town of Newark in 1813, the British tore down the remaining brick walls and chimneys to provide a foundation. The tower was only two feet high in July when an American force under General . . . — Map (db m52200) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — A Strategic Location
A Strategic Location You are standing at Mississauga Point where the Niagara River flows into Lake Ontario. Long ago the lakes and rivers were military supply and transportation routes and forts were built to protect them. The large stone fort across the river is Fort Niagara. The French built a fort here in 1687, and the present one was begun in 1720. In August 1759 the British captured the fort after a lengthy seige. Prideaux and Johnston streets in Niagara-on-the-Lake . . . — Map (db m52610) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — A Strategic Site
Fort Niagara was only 1200 metres from Fort George, well within artillery range. In May, 1813, combined artillery fire from Fort Niagara, its detached batteries, and American warships at the river's mouth completely destroyed Fort George and forced the British to abandon it to the invading Americans. Only the powder magazine survived. By the end of the war, the British had re- occupied Fort George and captured Fort Niagara. — Map (db m53604) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Action at Butler's FarmEngagement a Butler's Farm
On the 8th of July, 1813, an outpost of the invading force, encamped near Fort George, was defeated by a band of Six Nations and Western Indians led by Chiefs John Norton and Blackbird and interpreters Michel Brisebois, Louis Langlade and Barnet Lyons. Lieutenant Samuel Eldridge and 22 soldiers of the 13th United States Infantry were killed and 12 taken prisoners. Le 8 juillet 1813, une bande d'Indiens des Six-Nations et d'Indiens de l'Ouest, conduite par les chefs John Norton et Blackbird . . . — Map (db m48747) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Brown's Point
Brown's Inn was located here. Both the Canadian York Militia and the American Army bivouacked near here on separate occasions during the War of 1812. Adam Brown later added a store to his inn, and built a wharf on the river shore below, where sailing ships loaded settlers' produce, potash and lime destined for Montreal and overseas. — Map (db m49166) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Brown's Point
Brown's Point Here Gen. Sir Isaac Brock called out on his way to Queenston Heights 13th October 1812 "Push On York Volunteers." — Map (db m49482) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Butler's Rangers
In 1777 John Butler of New York raised a force of Rangers who, with their Iroquois allies, raided the frontiers of New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey throughout the American Revolutionary War. From their base at Fort Niagara they successfully maintained British military power on the frontiers and seriously threatened rebel food supplies. When Fort Niagara became overcrowded in the autumn of 1778, Butler built near here a group of barracks to house his Rangers and their families. Disbanded in . . . — Map (db m75857) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Capture of Fort Niagara1813
In the early morning of December 19th, 1813, a force under Colonel John Murray, consisting of detachments of the 100th and 41st Regiments. Royal Scots, Royal Artillery and Canadian Militia embarked in bateaux at the foot of this ravine. Crossing silently to a point above Youngstown, New York, they attacked Fort Niagara killing or capturing its American garrison. — Map (db m49158) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Chloe Cooley and the 1793 Act to Limit Slavery in Upper Canada
On March 14, 1793 Chloe Cooley, an enslaved Black woman in Queenston, was bound, thrown in a boat and sold across the river to a new owner in the United States. Her screams and violent resistance were brought to the attention of Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe by Peter Martin, a free Black and former soldier in Butler's Rangers, and William Grisley, a neighbour who witnessed the event. Simcoe immediately moved to abolish slavery in the new province. He was met with opposition in the . . . — Map (db m75858) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort GeorgeIe Fort George
Constructed by order of Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe 1796-99, Fort George served as the headquarters for Major-General Brock in 1812. In May, 1813, it was bombarded and captured by the Americans who constructed fortifications of their own on the site. These in turn were retaken by the British in December 1813. In 1815 Fort George was described as "tumbling into ruins" and ordered abandoned. The present works are a reconstruction done in 1937-40, and represents the fort as it was in 1799-1813. . . . — Map (db m48743) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort MississaugaLe Fort Mississauga
This tower and earthwork are all that survive of the barracks, guardroom, and cells of Fort Mississauga. Built between 1814 and 1816 to replace Fort George as the counterpoise to the American Fort Niagara immediately opposite, it was garrisoned until 1826. Repaired and rearmed following the Rebellion of 1837, it continued to be maintained until 1854 in response to border disputes with the United States. It was manned during the tense years of the American Civil War and the Fenian scare of 1866, . . . — Map (db m48745) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort Mississauga is a National Historic Sitean impotant part of Canada's story!
• Mississauga Point was the location of a Neutral First Nation fishing settlement by the 15th century. • The area was under the control of the Seneca Nation during the late 17th century, and it became home to the Mississauga Nation by the 18th century. • Fort Mississauga was begun during the War of 1812, and helped the British and Canadians defend the Niagara frontier against a powerful invading American army in 1814. • It was completed after the War, and was a part of a defense . . . — Map (db m52236) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort Mississauga TrailSentier du fort Mississauga
Explore a part of our heritage - visit a fort almost 200 years old and discover part of the Lake Ontario shoreline. Explorez un volet de notre patrimoine - visitez un fort qui a presque 200 ans d'histoire et decouvrez une partie du rivage du lac Ontario. — Map (db m48632) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Fort Niagara
Across the Niagara River is the imposing American stronghold, Fort Niagara. Originally built by the French, then occupied by the British, and finally by the Americans, this fort for nearly 150 years stood guard over the traditional supply route to the Upper Great Lakes. — Map (db m53630) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Guns Gins and Devil Carts
Garrison guns were heavy and awkward to move. To be transported, the barrel had to be taken off the carriage with the help of a tripod hoist or gun gin. The gin was equipped with a pulley system that made it possible for two men to lift the barrel. The barrel was then attached to a horse-drawn carriage known as a sling or devil cart. The gun gin was also used to hoist a barrel when the carriage had to be replaced. — Map (db m54006) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Janet Carnochan 1839 - 1926
For more than thirty years Janet Carnochan, a native of Stamford, Ontario, taught elementary and secondary school at Niagara-on-the Lake, but she made her greatest contribution to the community as a historian rather than as an educator. A distinguished historical preservationist, Carnochan founded and was first president of the Niagara Historical Society, 1895-1925, and laboured tirelessly to safeguard and promote the rich heritage of Niagara. She wrote and edited numerous historical works . . . — Map (db m75859) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — John Graves SimcoeFirst Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada 1791-1796
Here at Niagara on September 17, 1792 he presided over the first representative assembly of this province. His genius foresaw the greatness of this country and he threw himself into its building with ardour and enthusiasm. By his exalted aims, his conspicuous integrity, his tireless industry and unflagging fortitude he brought courage to the hearts of the early settlers and led them to carve a civilization out of a wilderness. In all this he was . . . — Map (db m49475) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — John Graves Simcoe1752-1806
Simcoe was born in Northamptonshire and educated at Oxford. He joined the British army in 1771, and from 1777-81 commanded the Queen's Rangers, a Loyalist corps in America. After the Loyalist influx had led to the creation of a separate province of Upper Canada in 1791, Simcoe was named its first lieutenant-governor. During his five years of office the province's basically British and monarchical character and institutions took shape. After he left Canada in 1796 he held a succession of . . . — Map (db m75860) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Joseph-Geneviere, Comte de Puisaye
Soldier, politician, diplomatist and colonizer, de Puisaye was born at Mortagne-en-Perche, France, about 1755 and enlisted in the French Army at 18. Elected to the States General in 1789, he supported reform but, alarmed by the course of the Revolution, later organized resistance on behalf of the Royalists. Outlawed, he sought refuge in England and in 1795, as Lieutenant-General, led an ill-fated expedition to Quiberon, Brittany. Three years later, with some fourty other emigres, he arrived in . . . — Map (db m49159) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Later YearsInoculation at Old Navy Hall, Niagara Camp
[Text on Marker]: Immediately after the War of 1812, a new wooden storehouse was built on this site. It was converted into barracks for British troops during the border troubles of 1838. The building remained in use until the 20th century serving as a medical commissary for Canadian troops during World War I. During the 1930s it was moved to the location in front of you by the Niagara Parks Commission and encased in stone. [Caption for Background Picture]: Canadian . . . — Map (db m49478) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Lieutenant-Colonel John Butler 1725-1796
Born in New London, Connecticut, Butler settled in the Mohawk Valley, New York, in 1742. Commissioned in the British Indian Department in 1755, he served in the Seven Years War. At the outbreak of the American Revolution , he was compelled to leave his estates and was ordered to Fort Niagara. In 1777 he organized the Loyalist Corps known as Butler's Rangers. By the end of war, this Unit with British Regulars and Indian Allies, had effectively contributed to the establishment of British control . . . — Map (db m49165) HM
Ontario (Niagara Region), Niagara-on-the-Lake — Locomotive Turntable
For 103 years, beginning in 1854, a train powered by a steam locomotive pulled into the Niagara Dock. At first it only came from Chippawa via Niagara Falls and Queenston but by 1863 the line had been extended as far as Fort Erie and Buffalo. The train met the steamers which arrived from Toronto carrying tourists going to the Falls and soldiers bound for Camp Niagara. In late summer these ships returned to Toronto filled with baskets of peaches brought to the dock by the train. Riverbeach Drive . . . — Map (db m54079) HM
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