|Oregon (Clackamas County), Estacada — Harold E. Babcock|
|In remembrance of
Harold E. Babcock
Eagle Scout, WW II Veteran,
Educator, and Master Mason
Mr. Babcock kept the flags
in Estacada flying for 20 years! — Map (db m8745) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), Oregon City — Dr. Forbes Barclay — 1812 - 1873|
|Dr. Forbes Barclay left Scotland in 1839 for Fort Vancouver (Washington) where he became chief physician for Hudson's Bay Company. He moved to Oregon City in 1850 where he practiced medicine for many years. He was one of Oregon City's early mayors, councilman for 9 years, coroner for 18 years, and superintendent of the first public school for 15 years. — Map (db m8692) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), Oregon City — Dr. John McLoughlin — "Father of Oregon"|
|Born in Riviere du Loup, Canada, October 19, 1784.
1824 Came to the Oregon Country as Chief Factor of the Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company.
1829 Located his claim to the present site of Oregon City.
1845 Resigned his position with the Hudson's Bay Company and moved to Oregon City
1846 Built his house in Oregon City, which is now a National Historic Site.
1850 Filed first plat of Oregon City.
1851 Became a citizen of the United States.
1857 September 3, . . . — Map (db m8699) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), Oregon City — Eva Emery Dye|
|In memory of Eva Emery Dye and others who saved the McLoughlin House from demolition in 1909. The house was moved down Main Street and up Singer Hill to open as a museum on this location in 1910. Mrs. Dye was the author of “McLoughlin and Old Oregon”, and inspired both the Chautauqua in Gladstone and the Oregon City Woman’s Club. — Map (db m8698) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), Oregon City — Joseph L. Meek — Born 1810 - Died 1875|
|Born in Washington Co. Va., Meek leaves home at age 18, arriving in St. Louis in the fall of 1828. Meek signs on as a trapper with the Rocky Mtn. Fur Co., remaining in the Rockies until 1839.
1839 - 1843: Meek travels to the Willamette Valley and eventually starts farming on the "Tualatin Plains".
1843: Early settlers recognize the need to form a governing body in the Oregon Country. They convene at Champoeg in May, 1843. Meek has a pivotal role in establishing an American type of . . . — Map (db m8673) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), Oregon City — Larry G. Dahl — Specialist 4, U. S. Army|
|Born in Oregon City
June 10, 1949
Killed in Action
February 23, 1971
Vice President Ford of the United States of America awarded posthumously in the name of Congress
The Medal of Honor
for conspicuous gallantry & intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above & beyond the call of duty in the Republic of Vietnam
Dedicated Nov. 5, 1988 — Map (db m8711) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), Oregon City — McCald Building — Circa 1925|
|On this site was an early firehall. Current structure was built as City Hall housing city offices, Police Dept., and the jail, all of which remained until the mid 40s. Oregon City Beauty School occupied main floor and basement for 22 years. Jail cells still remain in rear of building. — Map (db m8747) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), Oregon City — McLoughlin House — National Historic Site|
|In the city he founded, in this house he built, lived Dr. John McLoughlin, 1846-57.
He won enduring fame for his generous and humane aid to early American settlers in the Oregon Country, as Chief Factor and Superintendent of the Hudson’s Bay Company in this territory, 1824-45.
In 1850, Dr. McLoughlin presented this park to Oregon City.
In 1851 he became a citizen of the United States.
His house, which originally stood closer to the river, was removed to this location in 1909. — Map (db m8693) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), Oregon City — OK Barber Shop|
|Built by Ed Johnson as a full service barber shop with 4 chairs and bathing facilities. Basement still has massive brick boiler for hot water originally fired by sawdust from local mill. Converted to restaurant in 1986. — Map (db m8746) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), Oregon City — M11 — Oregon City — Oregon History|
|Oregon City - supply point for pioneer emigrants was first located as a claim by Dr. John McLoughlin in 1829. The first provisional legislature of the Oregon Country was held here in 1843 and land and tax laws formulated. Oregon City was the capital of the Oregon Territory from 1845-1852. The first Protestant church (Methodist) west of the Rocky Mountains was dedicated in 1844 and the first newspaper (Oregon Spectator) and the first Masonic Lodge were established in 1846. — Map (db m8700) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), Oregon City — M12 — Oregon City Falls — Oregon History|
|Oregon City - once known as Willamette Falls - was early the site of an Indian salmon fishing village. The falls furnished the power for a lumber mill which began operation in 1842. A flour mill in 1844. A woolen mill in 1864 and the first paper mill in the Pacific Northwest in 1867. The first long distance commercial electric power transmission in the United States was from Oregon City to Portland in 1889. — Map (db m8713) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), Oregon City — Peter Skene Ogden House|
|400 feet south of this marker stood the home of
Peter Skene Ogden
Chief Factor of Hudson's Bay Co. and rescuer of the survivors of the Whitman Massacre. — Map (db m8714) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), Oregon City — Veterans Memorial Building — Clackamas County|
|In memory of all who gave their lives for the preservation of American Freedom
Spanish American War
World War I
World War II
Harold L. Adams •
Harold D. Alt •
Alfred W. Anderson •
Harold A. Anderson •
Robert C. Baker •
Herman v. Barksdale •
Robert L. Bates •
Talbot S. Bennett •
Wesley O. Blevins •
Ralph W. D. Brown •
Robert R. Bunnell •
Michael R. Burke •
Vernon L. Burley •
Gordon L. Carney •
Robert J. Clarke Jr. •
William E. Collins •
Guy A. Combs Jr. •
Lauren G. . . . — Map (db m13264) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), Sandy — The Vietnam Monument — Never to be Forgotten|
|[Marker on Monument's front]:
In memory of veterans who served in all wars
"Never to be Forgotten"
Donated to the City of Sandy, Oregon
and dedicated on November 11, 1987 by members
of the Veterans of Foreign Wars of
the United States of America
Post 4273 and Auxiliary
[Marker on reverse of Monument]:
In loving memory
E. W. "Ernie" Eldridge
and all veterans of foreign wars
The Eldridge Family — Map (db m8573) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), Viola — Historic Viola School — Viola Pioneer Cemetery|
|District #14 Built - 1894 — Map (db m8744) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), Viola — Original Stash|
First Geocache placed here.
May 3, 2000
N 45° 17.460 W 122° 24.800 — Map (db m3121) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), West Linn — M15 — Dr. John McLoughlin 1784 - 1857 — Oregon History|
|Chief factor of the Hudson’s Bay Company at Fort Vancouver, philanthropist, and founder of Oregon City. The land on the east bank of the Willamette River at the falls was claimed by Dr. McLoughlin and the Hudson’s Bay Co. in 1828-29. First called Willamette Falls, the town was platted in 1842 and was named Oregon City by Dr. McLoughlin. Oregon City was the first incorporated U.S. city west of the Rocky Mountains, 1844. Provisional and Territorial Capital-1843-52, and the continuous Seat of . . . — Map (db m8669) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), West Linn — M16 — George Abernethy — Oregon History|
|From 1845 to 1849, George Abernethy was the first Provisional Governor of the Oregon Country, which extended from the Pacific Ocean to the Rocky Mountains and from California to Northern British Columbia. After arriving in Oregon in 1840 as part of the Methodist Mission at Champoeg, he was involved in a series of meetings that ended in the celebrated May 2, 1843, vote to organize a Provisional Government under the United States rather than Great Britain.
After Abernethy served two terms as . . . — Map (db m8670) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), West Linn — M14 — Willamette Falls — Oregon History|
|Was early the site of an Indian salmon fishing village. The falls furnished the power for a lumber mill which began operation in 1842, a flour mill in 1844, a woolen mill in 1864 and the first paper mill in the Pacific Northwest in 1867. The first long distance commercial electric power transmission in the United States was from this area to the City of Portland in 1889. — Map (db m8668) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), West Linn — M13 — Willamette Falls Locks — Oregon History|
|Still in use below this point-were opened on New Years Day, 1873, when the steamer Maria Wilkins became the first vessel to navigate up the west end of Willamette Falls. Farming and shipping interests had long sought to eliminate expensive portages around this age-old bar to navigation 26 miles above the mouth of the river. The initial project was completed by the Willamette Falls Canal and Locks Company with a partial State Subsidy at a cost of $450,000. Five locks-including a Canal Basin and . . . — Map (db m8667) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), Willamette National Cemetery — King 56 Aircrew Memorial|
|In memory of the 304th Rescue Squadron aircrew members, who lost their lives on board aircraft King 56, while performing a training mission on the night of November 22, 1996. These men were Citizen Soldiers committed to the preservation of the heritage of their nation. Because of this tragedy, we lost some of the soul of our country. You will not be forgotten.
Lt. Col John W. Keyes •
Capt Robert P. Schott •
Capt Kirk A. Wellnitz •
Capt Brant G. Ferrarini •
SMSgt Robert J. Roberts . . . — Map (db m11977) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), Wilsonville — Boone's Landing|
|Many of Oregon's early transportation routes resulted from the efforts of enterprising pioneers like the Boone family of Clackamas County. In 1846 Alphonso Boone, grandson of Daniel Boone, emigrated to Oregon via the Applegate Trail with his large family. By 1847, using local Tuality Indians as oarsmen, they established Boone's Ferry near this marker. The thriving community of Boone's Landing, genesis of Wilsonville, quickly sprang up on the river's north shore. The same year, eldest son Jesse . . . — Map (db m38396) HM|
|Oregon (Clackamas County), Wilsonville — Wilsonville Baseball|
|Baseball was a popular past time in Wilsonville during an era community baseball that ran around 1910 to 1930. The highlight was 1914, the year the Wilsonville Athletic Club won the state Championship.
Regular Sunday play on this site was against teams from Salem, Canby, Mt. Hangel, Woodburn, St. Paul, Sherwood, Stafford, Tualatin, the "Sweetbriars" from Pete's Mountain area and even a train car load of players from the Oregon Penitentiary. This marker is positioned in what would have been . . . — Map (db m76951) HM|
|Oregon (Columbia County), Deer Island — M1 — Deer Island — Oregon History|
|Deer Island in the Columbia was named by the Lewis and Clark Expedition which stopped to dine here November 5, 1805 on its way down river. Homeward bound the explorers camped on the island on March 28,1806. Captain Clark recorded "This morning we set out very early and at 9 a.m. arrived at an old Indian village on NE side of Deer Island where we found our hunters had halted and left one man with the canoes at their camp. They arrived last evening and six of them turned out very early to hunt, . . . — Map (db m7981) HM|
|Oregon (Coos County), Bandon — Judah Parker County Park — Established 1957|
|In the year 1874 on this and adjoining
property Captain Judah Parker and
partners built and operated the first
steam sawmill and steam tug on the
Coquille River. A year later Captain
Parker, with the assistance of the
settlers and farmers diverted the
entrance of the Coquille River, thus
performing the first harbor work
of the Pacific Coast. This opened
the Coquille River Valley to ocean
going traffic. His foresight was
such that the entrance essentially
remains today as originally conceived. — Map (db m73228) HM|
|Oregon (Coos County), Coos Bay — Camp Cast-A-Way — January 2, 1852|
January 2, 1852
First white settlement in what is now
On the beach west of here the U.S. Transport Captain Lincoln was beached at high tide during a storm. The soldiers and crew built a camp from the sails under the trees across the bay from this spot and made a flag pole from a mast from which Old Glory first flew in this locality. All lives, provisions and army supplies were saved. They camped here until midsummer. — Map (db m73227) HM|
|Oregon (Crook County), Prineville — Clues to a Volcanic Past|
|Stein's Pillar, 350 feet high and 120 feet wide, is a modern day clue to this area's ancient past.
Around forty-four million years ago, avalanches of hot ash, pumice and volcanic dust flowing from local volcanic centers filled this ancient valley. A long period of erosion followed.
These flows are still visible in the layers of Stein's Pillar. Finally, Mother Nature patiently sculpted the landscape you see today. Rain, wind and frost slowly chiseled along cracks in the rocks, forming . . . — Map (db m64448) HM|
|Oregon (Curry County), Gold Beach — Mary D. Hume|
|In 1876 Mr. R.D. Hume of Astoria, Oregon, decided to move his commercial salmon fishing, processing and shipping business to the mouth of the Rogue River. Mr. Hume anticipated huge profits due to the large run of "King" Salmon which entered the mouth of this river on their annual spawning migration.
The long and unique history of the Mary D. Hume started on a rough and windy day in Gold Beach when Mr. Hume's small steamer "VARUNA" sank on the Rogue River bar in 1880. Mr. Hume salvaged the . . . — Map (db m73202) HM|
|Oregon (Curry County), Port Orford — Wreck of the Cottoneva|
|On Feb. 10, 1937, winds over 74 M.P.H. caused the 190 foot steam schooner "Cottoneva" to run aground at Battle Rock. It was in port loading lumber. The captain and all 26 seamen were rescued by the Coast Guard crew using a breeches body. The Cottoneva was constructed in 1917, and originally christened the "Frank D. Stout." Only the propeller remains. — Map (db m73203) HM|
|Oregon (Deschutes County), Bend — "The Westward Movement" — Pilot Butte Park|
| Pilot Butte was a beacon for travelers.
On a day sometime in the year 1813, and Indian lookout, from one of several tribes summering in this vicinity, might have “hiked the butte” and from here observed an exploration party moving along the banks of the Deschutes River. The 1813 date, having been carved on a volcanic tuff boulder near the river, has been credited with indicating the presence of the first Euro-Americans in this vicinity.
From 1813 to 1835, fur trappers . . . — Map (db m63090) HM|
|Oregon (Deschutes County), Bend — Lava Butte|
|Geologists say the volcanic activity of this area occurred less than 6000 years ago. Lava which exuded from the south side of this butte flowed to the west and blocked the Deschutes River, deflecting it from its former channel. This formed the Benham, Dillon, and Lava Falls of the river.
This butte was first used as a Forest Service lookout station in 1928.
You are invited to visit the Lava Butte Viewpoint. — Map (db m68673) HM|
|Oregon (Deschutes County), Bend — Oregon's Fabled "High Desert" — Pilot Butte Park|
| This complex ecosystem nurtures a variety of plants and animals.
Vast, sage-covered plains begin at the eastern foot of the Pilot Butte and stretch dramatically to the east and south. This is Oregon’s fabled “High Desert”. The casual traveler is struck by the monotony of the landscape, but closer attention reveals it nurtures complex ecosystems that support a fascinating group of hardy plants and animals unique to the cold deserts of the Northern Great Basin. Western Juniper . . . — Map (db m63094) HM|
|Oregon (Deschutes County), Bend — The City of Bend — Pilot Butte Park|
| In the beginning...there were old growth trees.
The small community, first called Farewell Bend from the nearby big bend in the Deschutes River, could have been called “Pilot Butte” if the 1901 recommendation of Postmaster William Statts had been approved by the U.S. Postal Service. Incorporation in 1905 made the name Bend official.
Bend was first settled as a farming and ranching community around the end of the 19th century. Grass for summer forage and native meadows . . . — Map (db m63089) HM|
|Oregon (Deschutes County), La Pine — A Special Place on the Planet|
|Where people lived near obsidian, their lives and cultures were transformed. They used and celebrated the glassy gift of volcanoes to manufacture tools, weapons, jewelry, sculptures, and ceremonial objects. To ancient Central American people, the importance of obsidian for their economies was similar to that of steel for the economies of modern industrial nations.
Obsidian is rare and found in only a few places around the world.
Obsidian and mythology were powerfully linked. In . . . — Map (db m72437) HM|
|Oregon (Deschutes County), La Pine — Big Obsidian Flow|
|The furnaces of the earth brought spectacular change to this land 1300 years ago. A new, rough, glassy environment offered a harsh home for the heartiest plants and animals. Past cultures prized the shiny black rock for their survival. Today, the Big Obsidian Flow is marvelled at for its beauty and mystery.
Walk a few minutes on a paved trail for a “sparkling” panorama of the Big Obsidian Flow. Then, if you like, climb the stairs for a walk along the half-mile trail (0.8 km) on . . . — Map (db m72434)|
|Oregon (Deschutes County), La Pine — Glass Menagerie|
|The entire surface of this remarkable flow is glass, a liquid that cooled without crystallizing. The striking differences you see from rock to rock are due to the number and size of bubbles.
Why is everything glass?
Whether natural or synthetic, the primary ingredient in glass is silica (silicon dioxide). The obsidian and pumice of this lava flow contain about 73% silica, like most window glass does. In a hot, molten state, silica’s atoms tend to stick together and create webs of . . . — Map (db m72435)|
|Oregon (Deschutes County), La Pine — The Eruption|
|First came a violent eruption of pumice and ash. Then glassy lava oozed from the ground.
1 Magma Chamber
From deep hot regions, liquid rock called magma accumulated in a chamber 2 to 4 miles (3 to 6 km) below the surface. Temperature of the chamber was a roasting 1600 degrees F (900 degrees C). The overlying rock trapped water and gases in the magma.
Fingers of magma searched for hidden weak places in their underground prison. When one of . . . — Map (db m72436)|
|Oregon (Deschutes County), Sisters — The Life of a Lake|
|You are standing on the shore of a lake that may seem old but in geologic terms was formed yesterday. Fish Lake continues to change, seasonally and through the decades.
Around three thousand years ago an eruption of Nash Crater formed Fish Lake by damming Hackleman Creek. Seasonal rains and snow overwhelm this little valley's ability to drain the inflow so that each winter a lake is formed. In the summer, after the last snow melts off the ridges overlooking the valley, the lake quickly . . . — Map (db m70950)|
|Oregon (Deschutes County), Sisters — Time Traveler|
| Welcome to historic Fish Lake.
Now a quiet and peaceful place, it was once filled with the hustle and bustle of people working and traveling across the Cascades.
Nearby is the Fish Lake Remount Depot which has been in continuous use as a U.S. Forest Service station since 1910. The depot was originally developed as a way station and became the most popular stop on the Williamette Valley and Cascade Mountain Wagon Road, commonly called the Old Santiam Wagon Road.
This road was a . . . — Map (db m62025) HM|
|Oregon (Deschutes County), Terrebonne — Peter Skene Ogden Park|
|Peter Skene Ogden was born at Quebec in 1794. He explored Central Oregon for the Hudson's Bay Company in 1825 and in December of that year discovered Crooked River not far from this spot. He died at Oregon City in 1854.
Land for this park was given to the State of Oregon by the Oregon Trunk Railway. — Map (db m80487) HM|
|Oregon (Grant County), Dayville — Picture Gorge Basalts — John Day Fossil Beds National Monument|
|The dark layers of Picture Gorge were formed from seventeen distinct floods of lava flowing from nearby cracks in the earth. These basalt flows joined with others covering much of eastern Washington and Oregon, and northern Idaho, beginning about 16 million years ago. Powerful forces have since broken and tilted the land. Erosion has shaped it, the river cutting this gorge.
The bottom two layers of the gorge are the same two that cap Sheep Rock peak, behind you. In recent centuries, . . . — Map (db m71521)|
|Oregon (Harney County), Burns — Fort Harney — Oregon History|
|Fort Harney, on the former Malheur Indian Reservation, was named for Gen. Wm. S. Harney, who took command of the Military Department of Oregon, Sept. 13, 1858. The fort was established Aug. 10, 1867, and became a permanent Military Post. By order of the President, the Fort Harney Military Reserve of 640 acres was created on Jan. 28, 1876. On Sept. 13, 1882 the President restored to the public domain all of the Malheur Indian Reservation except 320 acres of the Fort Harney Military Reserve. And . . . — Map (db m63026) HM|
|Oregon (Harney County), Burns — The Terrible Trail — Oregon History|
|Weary Oregon Trail emigrants, eager to ease travel or gain mileage, often attempted cutoffs and shortcuts. While many of these alternate routes proved successful, others did not--they became roads to ruin for some and the end of the trail for others.
In 1853, Elijah Elliott, a Willamette Valley settler, convinced over 1,000 people to attempt a shortcut over the Cascade Range. Following Meek’s route to Harney Valley, Elliott’s party diverged around the south shores of Harney and Malheur . . . — Map (db m63032) HM|
|Oregon (Jackson County), Jacksonville — Rich Gulch — Gold First Found Here 1851|
|Gold found here
in 1851 by
John R. Poole — Map (db m12617) HM|
|Oregon (Jackson County), Pinehurst — Crossing the Siskiyous|
|Applegate Trail emigrants required up to four days to travel from the Klamath River over the Cascades and Siskiyous to the Rouge River valley. The journey may have challenged those with healthy oxen, but it was a devastating trail for those whose livestock died - some discarded their possessions to make a final dash for the Willamette Vally on foot or horseback.
As Jesse Quinn Thronton and his wife trekked west in 1846, several of their oxen died in the Siskiyous forcing the Thorntons to . . . — Map (db m88403) HM|
|Oregon (Jackson County), Pinehurst — Historic Applegate Trail — Tub Springs|
| In July 1846 Jesse Applegate, Levi Scott and thirteen others known as "The South Road Party" located this pioneer trail. It was used by the emigrants traveling from Fort Hall on the Oregon Trail to the Rogue River and Willamette Valleys between 1846 and 1860. Tub Springs was named by the emigrants. The trail passed up the swale through the Tub Springs Park near this point. Jackson County settlers constructed a new wagon road in 1868. This road can be viewed on the hillside N.E. of this marker. . . . — Map (db m88005) HM|
|Oregon (Jackson County), Pinehurst — The Applegate Trail — Tub Springs|
| Southern Route to Oregon
In 1846, Jesse Applegate and fourteen others from near Dallas, Oregon, established a trail south from the Willamette Valley and east to Fort Hall. This route offered emigrants an alternative to the perilous "last leg" over the Oregon Trail down the treacherous Colombia River.
The first emigrants to trek the new "Southern Route" left with trailblazers from Fort Hall in early August 1846. With Levi Scott acting as guide, while Jesse Applegate traveled . . . — Map (db m88017) HM|
|Oregon (Jefferson County), Terrebonne — A Bridge for the New Millenium|
| Throughout the 20th century, traffic increased dramatically on US Highway 97 - from a few vihicles per day in the 1920's to over 8,000 by the 1990's! After 70 years, the Crooked River (High) Bridge (1926) though still structurally sound was unable to accommodate the needs of the new millennium.
The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) began planning a new crossing of the Crooked River Gorge in the late 1990's. To honor the tradition of bridge crossings over the Crooked River . . . — Map (db m80488) HM|
|Oregon (Jefferson County), Terrebonne — Peter Skene Ogden — Oregon History|
|This park is named for Peter Skene Ogden, 1793-1854. In the fall of 1825, Ogden led a Hudston's Bay Company trapping party on the first recorded journey into central Oregon, crossing the country to the north and east into the Crooked River Valley not far above here. He was in the vicinity again in 1826 bound for the Harney Basin and the Klamath region where he discovered Mount Shasta. Ogden was an important figure in the early fur trade and ranged over all the west. He rescued the survivors of . . . — Map (db m67889) HM|
|Oregon (Jefferson County), Terrebonne — The Crooked River (High) Bridge|
|Central Oregon's roads were primitive at best during the early 1900s. Until the 1920s, US Highway 97 was a collection of unpaved roads. Prior to construction of the Crooked River (High) Bridge in 1926, the only nearby crossing was a small, one-lane wood structure, called the Trail Crossing, located about a mile upstream.
The Crooked River (High) Bridge is 464 feet long, and at 295 feet above the river it was the nation's highest single arch span when constructed. Oregon's famous bridge . . . — Map (db m67888) HM|
|Oregon (Jefferson County), Terrebonne — The Oregon Trunk Railroad Bridge|
| The Oregon Trunk Railway Bridge, constructed in 1911, was the first structure to cross this spectacular gorge. Prior to construction the only crossing of the Crooked River in this region was located about a mile upstream, where the canyon's sheer basalt walls begin tapering gradually into the surrounding landscape.
In the early 1900's, railroad tycoons James J. Hill of the Spokane, Portland & Seattle Railway (SP&S) and Edward Harriman of the Union Pacific began a fierce battle to open . . . — Map (db m80490) HM|
|Oregon (Jefferson County), Warm Springs — Indian Trails — Oregon History|
|An ancient trail passed through here as part of an extensive Indian trade network linking peoples of the Northern Great Basin and Columbia Plateau to those living west of the Cascades. Obsidian, bear grass, and slaves were transported over these trails to major trading locations along the Columbia River in exchange for dried salmon, smelt, sturgeon and decorative sea shells. The long established route was later used by Peter Skene Ogden's fur trapping expeditions in 1825 and 1826. Fur trader . . . — Map (db m36498) HM|
|Oregon (Josephine County), Cave Junction — Oregon Caves National Monument|
Set aside by
July 12, 1909
Lower plaque: Department of the Interior
National Park Service
Regulations require that all persons entering
caves be accompanied by an authorized guide. — Map (db m63167) HM|
|Oregon (Josephine County), Sunny Valley — Grave Creek Ranch — 1851 - 1918 — Grave Creek Covered Bridge Historical Site|
|This covered bridge is the one remaining covered bridge in Josephine County. It was constructed by Elmer J. Nelson in 1920 as part of the new Pacific Highway project at a cost of $21,128.65. It was built on Josephine County’s first donation land claim.
In the fall of 1846, the first emigrant train from Fort Hall, Idaho, to travel the southern route to the Williamette Valley camped on the north side of this creek, the Woodpile creek. Martha Leland Crowley, 16 years old died of Typhoid fever . . . — Map (db m63153) HM|
|Oregon (Josephine County), Wolf Creek — The Applegate Trail — Southern Route to Oregon|
|In 1846, Jesse Applegate and fourteen others from near Dallas, Oregon, established a trail south from the Williamette Valley and east to Fort Hall. This route offered emigrants an alternative to the perilous “last leg” of the Oregon Trail down the treacherous Columbia River.
The first emigrants to trek the new “Southern Road” left with the trailblazers from Fort Hall in early August 1846. With Levi Scott acting as a guide, while Jesse Applegate traveled ahead to . . . — Map (db m63155) HM|
|Oregon (Josephine County), Wolf Creek — Wolf Creek Tavern — Wolf Creek Inn|
|Wolf Creek Tavern was built c. 1883 by Henry Smith, a highly successful and influential local entrepreneur. The establishment of the hotel, mercantile and post office occurred at the time the Oregon and California Railroad was being completed in Wolf Creek. It is thought to be the oldest continuously operating hotel in the Pacific Northwest. The building is a superb example of Classical Revival architecture style of early inns of the American West.
When the Pacific Highway reached Wolf . . . — Map (db m47204) HM|
|Oregon (Klamath County), Crater Lake — After the Collapse — Mount Mazama — Crater Lake National Park|
|About 6,800 years ago, at the climax of a series of dramatic eruptions, the top of Mt. Mazama collapsed. Left behind was the huge crater, or caldera, you see today. But before the caldera filled with water, there were more eruptions.
The most striking evidence of post collapse volcanic activity is Wizard Island, the small volcano in front of you. Its symmetrical cone was formed by a fountain of cinders which erupted from the caldera floor. On the left side of the caldera, a similar . . . — Map (db m63122) HM|
|Oregon (Klamath County), Crater Lake — Before the Collapse — Mount Mazama — Crater Lake National Park|
|When Mt. Mazama collapsed about 6,800 years ago, it left behind evidences of its former self. Like X-ray photos the steep caldera walls reveal the interior of Mt. Mazama before its fall. From this point several pre-collapse volcanic features can be identified.
The massive gray monolith on the rim ahead is Llao Rock. It formed when a large outpouring of lava filled an explosion crater on the north slope of Mt. Mazama. When Mt. Mazama collapsed, part of the hardened lava flow broke off . . . — Map (db m63119) HM|
|Oregon (Klamath County), Crater Lake — Glacial Valleys — Crater Lake National Park|
|The collapsed volcano that now holds Crater Lake once stood more than a mile (1.6 km) above the present lake level. Called Mt. Mazama, this massive mountain of overlapping cones was high enough to support a cap of snow all year. During the Ice Age, snow often blanked the entire mountain—more snow than the summer sun could melt. The accumulated snow compacted to form glaciers, sluggish rivers of ice that carved out broad valleys as they inched down the slopes.
Eventually, the ice in . . . — Map (db m62081) HM|
|Oregon (Klamath County), Cresent — Pumice Desert|
|The pumice deposits you are now standing on are the product of Mt. Mazama, an explosive volcano that collapsed to form the Crater Lake caldera. Mazama stood about 6 miles (9.7 km) south of here (to your left).
About 7,700 years ago Mt. Mazama erupted torrents of seething, red-hot pumice and other volcanic rocks. These glowing avalanches raced down the slopes and flooded the valley that lay here with deposits over 100 feet (30 m) deep.
Even after thousands of years, few trees have . . . — Map (db m63116) HM|
|Oregon (Klamath County), Keno — Applegate Trail|
|The first emigrant train over the "Southern Route," including more than fifty wagons under the leadership of Captain Levi Scott and David Goff, left the Oregon Trail at Fall Creek or Raft River, on the Snake River, August 10, 1846. The Klamath River was crossed eight miles up stream from this sign on October 4, 1846. This trail, roughly 680 miles, took fifty-six day of travel. Captain Scott, leading the second emigrant train, found a new Klamath River crossing one-half mile north of this sign . . . — Map (db m88002) HM|
|Oregon (Klamath County), Klamath Falls — Stephen Tyng Mather — July 4, 1867 - Jan. 22, 1930|
He laid the foundation of the National Park Service, defining and establishing the policies under which its areas shall be developed and conserved unimpaired for future generations. There will never come an end to the good that he has done. — Map (db m79277) HM|
|Oregon (Klamath County), Worden — Applegate Trail — Klamath County|
| Southern Route to Oregon
In 1846, Jesse Applegate and fourteen others from near Dallas, Oregon, established a trail south from the Willamette Valley and east to Fort Hall. This route offered emigrants an alternative to the perilous "last leg" over the Oregon Trail down the treacherous Colombia River. The trail also offered a potential escape route, free from Hudson's Bay Company control, should Britain and the United States begin warning over control of Oregon.
The first . . . — Map (db m87946) HM|
|Oregon (Klamath County), Worden — Resolving the Oregon Question|
|Four years after the end of the War of 1812, Great Britain and the United States agreed their citizens could trade in Oregon country without prejudice to either nation's claim. Both countries strived for that extra influence which could blossom into sovereignty. The "Oregon Question" became an issue of greater concern, accelerating to a salient dispute by the early 1840s. Polk's 1844 residential campaign was based entirely on the quotation printed to the right. Polk was not a volatile . . . — Map (db m87953) HM|
|Oregon (Klamath County), Worden — The 42nd Parallel|
| Five panels, one each for Spain, Great Britain, Russia, the United States and Mexico, outline each country's claim to the Oregon territory.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa first saw the Pacific Ocean in Sept. 1513. Until the Nootka Treaties of 1790, '93, and '94, Spain controlled the entire Pacific coast. Spain and the United States agreed to a 42nd parallel boundary in 1819. That is where you are standing. Oregon probably got its name from the Spanish "ARAGON". This . . . — Map (db m87958) HM|
|Oregon (Klamath County), Worden — Western International History — Applegate Trail|
|A party of 15 men, styled the South Road Expedition, as led by Capt. Levi Scott, Jesse Applegate, and David Goff, crossed the 42nd parallel on late July 4, 1846. It was blazing a road on which to lead Americans from harm, free of the impending war with Great Britain.
South was Mexico - at war with the United States since May 13, 1846. Great Britain and the U.S. signed a treaty on June 15, 1846, setting Oregon's north line at lat. 49 N. Scott's party left Rickreal Creek on June 20. They . . . — Map (db m87945) HM|
|Oregon (Lincoln County), Newport — Devil's Punchbowl|
|Devil's Punchbowl is a hole in the sandstone terrace. It was formed by the collapse of the roof where two sea caves met, one from the north and the other from the west. Water enters the bowl at high tide, and during storms its churning and foaming resembles a boiling pot. — Map (db m52157) HM|
|Oregon (Malheur County), Juntura — Peter Skene Ogden — Oregon History|
|Peter Skene Ogden, leading a party of Hudson’s Bay Company trappers, camped near here on October 10, 1828. On this Ogden’s fifth and final expedition into the "Snake Country," he started on September 22, from Fort Nez Perce (Walla Walla). From here, passing Alvord Lake, he went south to the Humboldt River and thence last to Great Salt Lake, first reached by him on his initial expedition of 1824. Retracing the route on its return journey, the party followed the Humboldt, turned north to the . . . — Map (db m63024) HM|
|Oregon (Marion County), Salem — Salem|
Founded in 1840 by Methodist missionaries,
Became territorial capital in 1852,
An incorporated city in 1857,
Permanent capital of Oregon in 1864.
W. D. Pugh designed this city hall. Under construction in 1893.Marion County Centennial Marker
Engraved under the marker:
Cornerstone Plaque from old city hall located on this site 1893 - 1972 — Map (db m63966) HM|
|Oregon (Marion County), Turner — Turner|
|Platted March 8, 1871 by H. L. Turner with the building of the railroad to California. Site of Turner Flouring Mills. First rural free delivery in Oregon made from the Turner Post Office, October 16, 1897, under George F. Robertson, Postmaster. — Map (db m63938) HM|
|Oregon (Multnomah County), Cascade Locks — Beacon Rock|
|The prominent monolith across the river was named Beacon Rock by Lewis and Clark, November 2, 1805. It marked the beginning of tidewater for early river explorers who used it for a landmark in their journeys. The Indians say that when the Chinook winds blow softly up the river one can hear the wailings of unhappy, beautiful Wahatpolitan, the Indian maid who climbed the rock and perished with her child, when given to a chief other than the one she loved. — Map (db m34643) HM|
|Oregon (Multnomah County), Corbett — Broughton’s Expedition|
|Captain George Vancouver in a voyage of exploration to the Northwest coast of America ordered by the British Admiralty Office assigned Lieutenant William Robert Broughton, Commander of H.M.S. Chatham, to explore the navigable waters of the Columbia River with boat crews from his ship. This point marks the farthest inland reached by Broughton who camped overnight on an island within sight of this point on October 30, 1792. By appropriate ceremonies he took possession of the territory in the name . . . — Map (db m34495) HM|
|Oregon (Multnomah County), Corbett — Samuel C. Lancaster — 1864 – 1941|
| Chief Engineer, Scenic Columbia River Highway, 1913–1915.
Pioneer Builder of hard-surface roads. His genius overcame tremendous obstacles, extending and replacing the early trail through the Columbia River gorge with a highway of poetry and drama so that millions could enjoy God’s spectacular creations. — Map (db m86445) HM|
|Oregon (Multnomah County), Corbett — Vista House — JEWEL on the Crown|
|Classic symbol of the Columbia River Gorge, Vista House beckons travelers to Crown Point to revel in an extravaganza of water, cliff, and sky. Samuel C. Lancaster, design engineer of the Historic Columbia River Highway, envisioned this outcropping as the ideal site for a rest stop and observatory where the Gorge “could be viewed in silent communion with the infinite.”
Portland architect Edgar Lazarus designed Vista House to “recall the ancient and mystic Thor’s . . . — Map (db m86662) HM|
|Oregon (Multnomah County), Portland — Dekum Building|
|German immigrant Frank Dekum amassed a fortune during Portland’s explosive early history with his confectionery business. The massive Dekum Building, completed in 1892 at a cost exceeding $300,000, used exclusively Oregon materials in its construction. The brick masons drank beer instead of coffee on their job, according to one old timer whose duties as a boy had been to haul the large pails of beer up to them.
The architects of the Dekum Building, McCaw and Martin, made an audacious . . . — Map (db m1155) HM|
|Oregon (Multnomah County), Portland — The Telegram Building, 1922|
|This property has been placed on the
National Register of Historic Places
by the Untied States Department of the Interior
National Parks Service
and is subject to the provisions of the
Oregon Special Assessment Program
ORS 358.475-.565 — Map (db m56542) HM|
|Oregon (Multnomah County), Portland — The Willamette Stone|
|This short trail leads to the Willamette Stone, the surveyor's monument that is the point of origin for all public land surveys in Oregon and Washington. The landmark was established on June 4, 1851 by John B. Preston, Oregon's first Surveyor General.|
With increasing settlement and passage of the Donation Land Claim Act, the Oregon Territory desperately needed to extend the Public Land Survey System of 1785 that divided public lands into square miles parcels of 640 acres. Preston, . . . — Map (db m38400) HM
|Oregon (Multnomah County), Portland — Vanport|
|Within a year of the US entering World War II, more than 160,000 people moved to Portland — a city of only 360,000 — to work in Home Front industries. Industrialist Henry Kaiser's three shipyards employed the most workers. To house his employees and their families, Kaiser persuaded the US Maritime Commission in 1942 to fund the nation's largest public housing project. Within 10 months, Kaiser had built an entire community on 640 acres of low-lying farmland — . . . — Map (db m38410) HM|
|Oregon (Multnomah County), Troutdale — Sandy River Bridge|
|On October 30, 1792 off the point in the Columbia River where the Sandy empties its waters, the boat crew from the H.M.S. Chatham (Vancouver's Voyages) were the first white men to sight the snowclad peak which Lt. Wm. R. Broughton named Mt. Hood in honor of Vice Admiral Samuel Lord Hood of the British Navy. He called the stream Barings River. Later in November 1805 Lewis and Clark called it the Quicksand River. Still later by common use it became known as Sandy River. — Map (db m38388) HM|
|Oregon (Multnomah County), Willamette National Cemetery — Oregon Korean War Veterans Memorial|
|June 25, 1950 Korea July 27, 1953
Dedicated to the memory of these men and women from Oregon so their sacrifice will never be forgotten
Oh, could our fallen brothers
know the honor they helped bring
to God, and to our country,
to their memory now we sing.
You gave your lives for Freedom,
for your families, and for friends,
and for that you have our special love
and a thanks that never ends.
If God . . . — Map (db m11979) HM|
|Oregon (Multnomah County), Willamette National Cemetery — Willamette National Cemetery Carillon Bells|
These Carillon Bells
in honor and loving memory of
were donated by the Oregon State
Federation of Garden Clubs, Inc.
June [The Oregon Federation of Garden Clubs Logo] 1989
In honor of
whose dedication and untiring
endeavors resulted in these
Carillon Bells and beautification
of Willamette National Cemetery — Map (db m11973) HM|
|Oregon (Sherman County), Wasco — Deschutes River Crossing|
|The Oregon Trail crossed the hazardous Deschutes River at this point by floating the prairie schooners and swimming the livestock. An island at the river mouth was often utilized when the water was high and the ford dangerous. Pioneer women and children were frequently ferried across the stream by native canoe men who made the passage in exchange for bright colored shirts and other trade goods. — Map (db m34575) HM|
|Oregon (Wallowa County), Enterprise — Nez Perce — Oregon History|
|Wallowa Valley, summer homeland of the Joseph Band Nez Perce, was part of the expansive Nez Perce Reservation established by the treaty of 1855. Upon discovery of gold in the region, the U.S. eliminated the reservation in the Wallowas in 1863. The Joseph Band held on until 1877 when, under pressure from increasing white settlement, they were ordered to abandon their ancestral homeland. Violent conflict ensued as the Joseph Band joined other Nez Perce and Palouse bands on a historic 1,170 mile . . . — Map (db m71746) HM|
|Oregon (Wallowa County), Imnaha — A Monumental Landscape — Hells Canyon National Recreation Area|
|Across Horse Creek from you is “Monument Ridge” named for its mysterious stone monuments that are visible with binoculars. It is not known exactly who made them or why. Perhaps they were built to mark grazing areas or piled up by a Basque sheepherder feeling small and lonely in this vast and rugged landscape.
”My father understood what it was to be ‘sheeped’ – to go insane from lonliness...He’d herded in the alpine...In his time, he’d endlessly carved family . . . — Map (db m71728) HM|
|Oregon (Wallowa County), Imnaha — Horse Creek Overlook — Elevation 5920 Feet|
|MONUMENT RIDGE, the table-like mountain on the horizon, derived its name from rock monuments–like the one here–built years ago by sheepherders to mark boundaries of their grazing lands. Two can be seen on the slopes of the far ridge.
In its rush to join the Imnaha River, HORSE CREEK drops nearly 5000 feet in the 22 mile-long canyon below.
Tributary streams of the (illegible) Snake River have caused this high tableland to be cut by deep canyons. — Map (db m71727) HM|
|Oregon (Wallowa County), Imnaha — The Imnaha Canyon ... shelter and sanctuary — Hells Canyon National Recreation Area|
|We all need shelter: plants, animals and people. For countless ages many have found what they need here in the Imnaha. The canyon walls protect against harsh weather and the river provides its life-giving waters to the dry landscape. The Imnaha supports lush native vegetation and irrigated gardens, orchards and ranch lands. People have known for thousands of years that this canyon is a sheltering, nourishing place.
Nez Perce have lived here since time beyond memory. Thousands of years ago . . . — Map (db m71744) HM|
|Oregon (Wallowa County), Imnaha — The Nez Perce War of 1877|
|In May, 1877, Chief Joseph gathered his band of Nez Perce Indians from their winter villages along the Imnaha. Instead of heading for their customary summering country in the Wallowa Valley, they began their famous fighting retreat from General O.O. Howard. They could not accept his ultimatum to abandon their homes and migrate to the Lapwa Indian reservation in Idaho. Chief Joseph’s running fight toward sanctuary in Canada was nearly successful. After 3 months of outsmarting and outfighting his . . . — Map (db m71743) HM|
|Oregon (Wallowa County), Joseph — A Story Written in Stone|
|Plunging to a depth of a mile and a half and averaging 10 miles in width, Hells Canyon is the deepest gorge in North America. Its walls are an open book, revealing four significant chapters in the geologic history of the Pacific Northwest.
Today’s landscape is just the most recent chapter. For over 6 million years, tremendous forces within the earth have been gradually uplifting the Wallowa and Seven Devils Mountains. Hells Canyon was carved during the last 2 million years, by a Snake . . . — Map (db m71729)|
|Oregon (Wallowa County), Joseph — Hells Canyon National Recreation Area|
|In 1975, Congress created the 652,488 - acre Hells Canyon National Recreation Area. It is managed by the USDA Forest Service under the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest.
Hells Canyon National Recreation Area offers a variety of exceptional recreational opportunities. In addition, it is managed to conserve the scenic, wilderness, cultural and scientific values of the area. This includes protecting its free-flowing rivers, outstanding plant and wildlife habitats, and rich archeological and . . . — Map (db m71732)|
|Oregon (Wallowa County), Joseph — Land Of Fire And Water — The Dynamic Terrain|
|The geologic story of Hells Canyon National Recreation Area is a tale of fire and water...of molten lava erupted from volcanoes and oozed through cracks in the earth...of rushing water, erosion and sedimentation...of building up and wearing down...of folding and faulting and tremendous pressures under the earth’s crust. The results of millions of years of geologic activity are visible from Hells Canyon Overlook.
Small earthquakes in the region during the past few decades remind us that the . . . — Map (db m71730)|
|Oregon (Wallowa County), Joseph — Look Over Hells Canyon ...|
|Where many exciting adventures await you! Explore the rugged canyons, climb the spectacular mountains or ride the Snake River’s rapids in Hells Canyon National Recreation Area.
In Oregon, forested draws and grassy benches plunge 7,000 feet above sea level down to the Snake River at 1,200 feet. Across the river, sheer cliffs soar to 9,393 feet in Idaho’s Seven Devils Mountains.
A trip from rim to rim takes you through many different “life zones” - ranging from alpine tundra . . . — Map (db m71731)|
|Oregon (Wasco County), The Dalles — Ancient Indian Fishing Grounds — Wyam Falls|
|Before a network of dams controlled the Columbia River it was a raging torrent. Here at Wyam Falls, known today as Celilo Falls, a vertical drop of more than 20 feet and sheer basalt bluffs on either shore forced the river into seething, boiling rapids.|
From time immemorial this region comprised the fishing grounds of al Indian tribes of the middle Columbia River area. Early Indians speared huge salmon while on the rocks and their descendants built platforms over the rushing waters from . . . — Map (db m34581) HM
|Oregon (Wasco County), The Dalles — Loren R. Kaufman Memorial — Medal of Honor|
|The President of the United States, in the name of Congress, has awarded the Medal of Honor
Loren R. Kaufman
Sergeant First Class, US Army
Born: July 27, 1923 at The Dalles, Oregon * Entered Service: The Dalles, Oregon * Rank and Organization: Sergeant First Class, US Army, Company G, 9th Infantry Regiment, Second Infantry Division. * Date and Place of Action: September 4 & 5, 1950. * Yongsan, Korea. Presentation: Presented to his father at the Pentagon by General . . . — Map (db m63293) WM|
|Oregon (Washington County), Beaverton — The Medal of Honor — Courage • Patriotism • Duty|
|Oregon Medal of Honor Recipients
Allworth, Edward C. CPT, U.S. Army • Dahl, Larry G. SP4, U.S. Army • High, Frank C. PVT, U.S. Army • Holcomb, John Noble SGT, U.S. Army • Jackson, Arthur J. PFC U.S. Marine Corp • Kaufman, Loren R. SFC, U.S. Army • Kilbourne, Charles E. 1LT, U.S. Army • Kingsley, David R. 2LT, U.S. Army Corp • Martini, Gary W. PFC, U.S. Marine Corp • Phife, Lewis SGT, U.S. Army • Robertson, Marcus W. PVT, U.S. Army • Stryker, Stuart S. PFC, U.S. Army • Yabes, Maxino 1SGT, . . . — Map (db m81197) WM|
|Oregon (Wheeler County), Mitchell — A Matter of Survival|
|Straining to scent a water source, searching for a tender leaf, sensing immediate danger – to live in this near-desert today, mule deer, coyotes, quail, and humans must possess special skills and abilities. Without them they cross the threshold from survival to extinction. This holds true in any environment on the planet – now, and in the past.
Here, about 30 million years ago, major shifts in temperature and humidity occurred. Great changes in the plant life inevitably . . . — Map (db m71701)|
|Oregon (Wheeler County), Mitchell — Deciphering the Forest|
|Volcanic ash can be gentle and fine enough to preserve a leaf’s structure in great detail. Nearby 34 million-year-old “Bridge Creek Flora” fossils reveal many species of an ancient, hardwood forest. This forest had a blend of trees found today only in parts of the Appalachians, Chine, and spots along the Pacific Coast.
Fossils indicate that some type of trees changed little during the Age of Mammals. From that evidence and comparisons to modern trees and their settings, we have . . . — Map (db m71700)|
|Oregon (Wheeler County), Mitchell — Fossils on the Frontier|
|Northern Paiute Indians and a few mountain men were the only residents of the John Day Country before 1860. Cavalry troops passed through the John Day River drainage looking for the best route from the Columbia River to Fort Boise. One company, under the command of Captain John M. Drake, explored along Bridge Creek in 1861. Near this spot, the troopers found the first fossilized bones and leaf-prints to come from the John Day Valley.
(Map of The Dalles—Canyon City Military . . . — Map (db m71675) HM|
|Oregon (Wheeler County), Mitchell — Look Below the Surface|
|Clues exposed at the surface help the nearby hills tell their story. Most were formed from abundant volcanic ash-falls and floods of lava over many millions of years. About five million years ago the land-building slowed and erosion cut down into the previous layers resulting in the landscape we see today.
Now only hilly remnants to the west, the ancestral Cascade Range of volcanoes once erupted cloud after cloud of ash that landed here. These beds of ash-fall make up the John Day . . . — Map (db m71673)|
|Oregon (Wheeler County), Mitchell — Painted Hills Overlook — John Day Fossil Beds National Monument|
|Through this dry land in 1865 rode a pioneer minister and amateur scientist named Thomas Condon. It was the first of his many visits. Imagine his reaction when he discovered the imprints of countless fossilized leaves near these Painted Hills, leaves of plants that could not possibly survive this modern, near-desert environment. These fossils opened a window onto vast changes in climate, plants and animals.
The colorful Painted Hills are part of the lower John Day formations, with layers . . . — Map (db m71698) HM|
|Oregon (Wheeler County), Mitchell — Pieces of the Puzzle|
|The ground before you is like a puzzle. A long streak of color breaks off, then seems to continue in the next hill, but at a different level. To connect the pieces, look for similar color, thickness, and sequence in a series of layers.
Ash and pumice from the ancestral Cascades and local volcanoes buried this area layer by layer. The colorful layers before you were deposited 33 million years ago. Soil formation processes affected each layer differently. Clays were formed and deeply buried, . . . — Map (db m71699)|
|Oregon (Yamhill County), McMinnville — Glacial Erratics — Oregon Geology|
|The 90-ton glacial erratic rock at the top of this 1/4-mile-long trail is a stranger from a distant location—it was transported here thousands of years ago on an iceberg in the wake of a cataclysmic flood.
During the last Ice Age, 13,000-15,500 years ago, a giant glacier dammed the Clark Fork River in what is today southwest Montana and created a huge lake—Glacial Lake Missoula. At 3,000 square miles, the lake held nearly 500 cubic miles of water.
Rising waters collapsed . . . — Map (db m68913)|