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South Dakota Markers
South Dakota (Bon Homme County), Scotland — The History Of Scotland Academy
In 1880 Reverend-Doctor Harlan P. Carson, Synodical Missionary for Dakota Territory, arrived from Illinois. In 1886 he established Scotland Academy for pioneering settlers in Bon Homme and surrounding counties to support the two Christian crusades of the Presbyterian Church. The Academy occupied the entire 200 block fronting Fourth Street and consisted of the Academy School, dormitory and boarding hall, coalhouse, and out-house. The houses at 211 and 221 housed ministers and staff. The staff of . . . — Map (db m556) HM
South Dakota (Brookings County), Brookings — Brookings/Hillcrest Park
Brookings: The county seat of Brookings County was platted October 3-4, 1879, when the Northwestern Railroad reached here. Some of the early store buildings were moved overland from Fountain and Medary, which soon became ghost towns. In November 1879, after a stiff election contest with Aurora and Volga, Brookings became the county seat, replacing Medary, the seat since May 9, 1873. Residents of Brookings voted on May 2, 1881 to incorporate the village. A city charter was approved on May 9, . . . — Map (db m63968) HM
South Dakota (Brown County), Aberdeen — Andrew Melgaard
This statue erected in memory of Andrew Melgaard Pioneer Who Presented this park to The City of Aberdeen — Map (db m90518) HM
South Dakota (Brown County), Aberdeen — F.W. Sallet and the Dakota Freie Presse
Two German language newspapers, Dakota Freie Press (DFP) and Neue Deutsche Presse (NDP), were located a short distance from here at 324 South Main St. Owner and editor, Friedrich Wilheim Sallet, emigrated from East Prussia and published DFP for Germans from Russia with NDP for Reich Germans. Aberdeen was a hub for both groups. Begun in 1874 in Yankton, the DFP was purchased by Sallet in 1905 and moved to Aberdeen in 1909.

The DFP was "the oldest and most widely distributed newspaper for . . . — Map (db m90571) HM

South Dakota (Brown County), Aberdeen — GROW! Aberdeen, SD - Absolutely! Aberdeen
This sculpture was commissioned by Absolutely! Aberdeen for the GROW! Campaign. It symbolizes Absolutely! Aberdeen's commitment to promote growth in and around the Aberdeen area. Each piece of the sculpture represents a specific element that we believe is vital to ensure the ongoing growth in the Aberdeen area. Rocky Base The relationship between the people of our community and the land we live in Hands Absolutely! Aberdeen's partnership with the community Dakota . . . — Map (db m90799)
South Dakota (Brown County), Aberdeen — The Great Northern Railroad Depot
Has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places By the United States Department of the Interior Built 1906 — Map (db m91243) HM
South Dakota (Brown County), Bath — Bath, South Dakota
At this site on June 22, 1989, The State Centennial Wagon Train with 44 wagons made their noon stop. Over 700 people welcomed the wagon train with an old fashioned BBQ and entertainment. — Map (db m90516) HM
South Dakota (Brown County), Frederick — Colon Campbell Fur Post
On this spot stood Colon Campbell Fur Post 1822 - 28 The very important Sioux, Waneta was born near this place 1794 - 1848 — Map (db m90546) HM
South Dakota (Brown County), Frederick — South DakotaYou Are Entering
Front of Marker Created with its twin, North Dakota, 2 November 1889, its 77,047 square miles ranks 15th in size. Those square miles include; exceptional corn land in the SE, grass land in the W, wheat land in the N and Productive land all over. Its lowest point, Big Stone, is 979 feet above sea level. Its highest, Harney Peak , at 7,247 feet is the highest point in the U.S.A. east of the Rockies. The Black Hills "The American Alps" are scenically unsurpassed and are the richest "100 . . . — Map (db m91959) HM
South Dakota (Brown County), Mansfield — John Mansfield
John Mansfield Founder Mansfield Dak Territory 1882 — Map (db m90531) HM
South Dakota (Brown County), Stratford — Stratford Veterans Memorial
"Lest We Forget" Dedicated to all the Veterans of the United States of America and to those who will come after us for their Service to God and Country — Map (db m90796) WM
South Dakota (Butte County), Belle Fourche — Lasting Legacy
Dedicated July 3, 1989 to Celebrate a Century State of South Dakota Belle Fourche area 1889-1989 — Map (db m4612) HM
South Dakota (Butte County), Belle Fourche — Minnesela, So. Dak.
Original Site of the U.S. Post Office and Store Minnesela So. Dak. 1882 - 1901 — Map (db m90569) HM
South Dakota (Butte County), Belle Fourche — Sheepherder's Monuments
Sheepherder's Monuments or stone Johnnies survive the day of the open range. These stone columns were probably built to indicate distance and direction to waterholes and provided the sheepherder with a pastime while tending his flock. — Map (db m4564) HM
South Dakota (Butte County), Belle Fourche — Welcome to Belle FourcheThe Geo Center of the U.S.
In 1959 following the admission of Alaska and Hawaii to the Union, the U.S. Coast and Geodetic survey officially designated a point 20 miles north of Belle Fourche, South Dakota as the Geographic Center of the Nation. Entry of Alaska and Hawaii as states moved the site from its old position in Smith Center Kansas to Butte County, South Dakota. The U.S. Coast and Geodetic survey announced that the location of the new center is at Latitude 44 degrees, 58 minutes North, and Longitude 103 degrees, 46 minutes West. — Map (db m4867) HM
South Dakota (Campbell County), Herreid — You are about to enter South Dakota / You are now leaving South Dakota
You are about to enter South Dakota

Created with its twin, North Dakota, 2 November 1889, its 77,047 square miles ranks 15th in size. Those square miles include exceptional corn land in the SE, grass land in the W, wheat land in the N. and Productive land all over. Its lowest point, Big Stone is 979 feet above sea level; its highest, Harney Peak, at 7,247 feet is the highest point in the U.S.A. east of the Rockies. The Black Hills "The American Alps are scenically unsurpassed and are the . . . — Map (db m44710) HM

South Dakota (Clark County), Clark — Samuel Harrison ElrodFifth Governor of South Dakota
Samuel H. Elrod was born near Coatesville, Indiana, May 1, 1856. Having worked his way through Asbury College, now Depauw University, graduating in 1882, he passed the Indiana Bar Examinations and headed for Dakota Territory. Arriving in Watertown July 2, he was met by Arthur C. Mellette, later governor. On July 4 he gave an address at Clark, substituting for Mr. Mellette. Impressed by the spirit of the community he established a law office here. He was delegate to the first Constitutional . . . — Map (db m91937) HM
South Dakota (Clark County), Elrod — Birthplace of South Dakota Amateur BaseballGarden City - - - - - Six Miles North
In 1931 an economic depression spread across South Dakota and the nation. A drouth ravished crops and unemployment was widespread. In an effort to raise the morale of the people and to give amateur baseball players an opportunity to compete, two Garden City businessman organized the South Dakota Amateur Baseball Association. One of these men, Howard Lyke, was the first president while F.N. ‘Denny’ Cosgrove became the first secretary-treasurer. Teams and leagues were organized . . . — Map (db m91936) HM
South Dakota (Clay County), Vermillion — Bruyer Church
August Bruyer, his wife, Josephine (Simon) and their sons, John and Julius, were born in France, coming to America about the middle of the nineteenth century. By 1858, they had settled in Fairview Township, 4 miles east of what was to be Vermillion. They were Catholic and in 1859, August donated ten acres for a church site and cemetery. In 1860, a small log dirt floor church was built thereon sited on the SW of the SE of the NE of Section 15, Township 92 North, Range 51 West. This was the first . . . — Map (db m39686) HM
South Dakota (Clay County), Vermillion — First Rural Electric Cooperative
On November 25, 1935, 17 farmers from Clay and Union counties held an historic meeting at the Manning/O'Connor store in Burbank, three miles south of this spot. Their purpose was to form a consumer-owned corporation which would allow the rural residents of this portion of southeastern South Dakota to provide themselves with central station electric service. At this meeting Clay-Union Electric, the first rural electric cooperative in South Dakota, was formed.

The establishment of . . . — Map (db m39687) HM

South Dakota (Clay County), Vermillion — From Lewis and Clark to the Future
Change came slowly to Spirit Mound after 1804. For 55 years the area remained the land of the Yankton Sioux, with fur traders conducting business from posts on the Missouri. The tallgrass prairie continued to thrive as it had for thousands of years before. In 1859 the Yankton moved to a reservation 70 miles upriver, and Congress created Dakota Territory in 1861.

The first homestead was filed on Spirit Mound in 1868. A pioneer recalled that looking north from the top of the mound, he . . . — Map (db m39702) HM

South Dakota (Clay County), Vermillion — Lewis and Clark Visit Spirit MoundAugust 25, 1804
On the hot day of August 25, 1804, captains Lewis and Clark and several of their men walked from the river to explore Spirit Mound. They had heard that little people with deadly arrows inhabited the mound. Although they did not find little people, they saw their big herds of buffalo as well as elk, burrows of either badgers or "Prairie Wolves" (coyotes), meadowlarks, swallows, and the first bat they had seen on the expedition. Suffering from heat and thirst, they walked back to the . . . — Map (db m39698) HM
South Dakota (Clay County), Vermillion — Lewis and Clark Were Here...and Here...
The Missouri National Recreational River preserves two splendid segments of the free-flowing, once unpredictable "Big Muddy." These natural-appearing reaches are reminiscent of the river as reported in the journal pages of captains Lewis and Clark and four other members of the Corps of Discovery.

Change is a constant. And much has changed along the Corps of Discovery's route since "Mr. Lewis' Tour" first traveled through the middle Missouri region two centuries ago. Both human and natural . . . — Map (db m39701) HM

South Dakota (Clay County), Vermillion — Spirit Mound
This trail leads to the summit of Spirit Mound, a sacred site for several Plains Indian tribes. Some tribal members make pilgrimages to Spirit Mound, say prayers on top, and leave offerings. As you approach and walk to the top, please do so respectfully.

On clear days, the summit offers views as far away as the Big Sioux River to the southeast, the James River to the west, and the Nebraska Bluffs to the south. Before starting out on this 0.8-mile trail to the summit, be aware that there . . . — Map (db m39700) HM

South Dakota (Codington County), Watertown — Codington County Courthouse
An example of Neo-classical architecture with Renaissance exterior elements, the Codington County Courthouse was built by Gray Construction under the direction of architects Freed and Perkins & McWayne. It cost $375,000.00 and was dedicated in June 1929 by County Commissioners Vern G. Wolheter, James E. Kiley, R. S. Lockhart, Thomas M. Spartz, Col. Lee Stover, Ivar Tvinde, and Patrick Walsh. Richly finished in marble and gold leaf, the interior is one of the most ornate of any courthouse in . . . — Map (db m23930) HM
South Dakota (Codington County), Watertown — Old M. & ST. L. Depot Museum
This depot, originally the Rock Island Lines New Passenger Station and Division Office Building. Was erected as a joint venture of the Rock Island, and the Minneapolis and St. Louis Railroads in 1912 for $50,000.00.

Over the years, it has been owned by the M. & St. L. and by the Chicago and North Western Transportation Company. It was closed in 1984 and was sold to the Codington County Historical Society, Inc. for use as a museum in 1985.

Although Watertown's first depot was a box . . . — Map (db m90413) HM

South Dakota (Codington County), Watertown — Watertownand Vicinity
1835 Joseph LaFramboise had trade post at Two Woods Lake (Chanopa. 1838 Nicollet & Fremont , explorers, visited SE Codington County. 1840 Rev. Stephen Return Riggs enroute, Lac Qui Parle to Ft. Pierre, traversed the area. 1856 Capt. Alfred Sully surveyed the road site. 1858 Kintzing Prichette, Special Indian Agent, counciled with Yankton Indians at Lake Kampeska (Shining Shell). 1860 Capt. W.M. Gardner, 2nd U.S. Inf. passed Kampeska enroute Ft. Randall to Ft. Abercrombie. . . . — Map (db m91935) HM
South Dakota (Custer County), Buffalo Gap — 469 — Jedediah Strong Smith’s Route - - 1823
First white man in the Black Hills, this courageous and brawny beaver trapper in 1823 led a dozen Mountain Men from Fort Kiowa to the Yellowstone. His party entered the Black Hills via the old bison trail through Buffalo Gap near here. Born in New York State in 1799, Jed Smith came West from Ohio in 1822 to join Ashley expedition from St. Louis up the Missouri River. Later, he found the South Pass and was the first white man to reach California by the overland route. He is also credited . . . — Map (db m89396) HM
South Dakota (Custer County), Custer — Campsite of General Custer's ExpeditionAugust 1 - 6, 1874
This picturesque valley was the site of the permanent camp of the Black Hills Expedition of 1874 under the command of General George A. Custer of the 7th Cavalry. Their 5 day stay was the longest stop made during the entire expedition and General Custer used this campsite as a base for reconnaissance trips to other points in the Black Hills.

The expedition party totaled about 1000 men, 1900 horses and mules, 300 beef cattle and 110 wagons. In addition to the cavalry, the personnel included . . . — Map (db m45353) HM

South Dakota (Custer County), Custer — Civilian Conservation Corps Camp
Camp F-14 Lightning Creek: located 0.7 mile NW on road 288. Companies: 1783V--10/17/33-Spring 34 791--4/30/34-Fall 41 The Civilian Conservation Corps was a federal relief program during 1933-1942 that gave jobless men work renovating abused lands. The Army built 48 200-man camps in South Dakota and provided food, clothing, medical care, pay and programs of education, recreation and religion for 23,709 enrollees (single men aged 17-25 who sent $25 of their $30 wage to their families) and . . . — Map (db m34296) HM
South Dakota (Custer County), Custer — Jasper Fire
Breaking the Records On August 24, 2000, a carelessly dropped match started what would become the largest fire in the recorded history of South Dakota. By the time the inferno finished its race through the forest, it had consumed 83,508 acres, in a swath 8 miles wide and 10 miles long. At its peak, more than 1,000 fire fighters battled the blaze, and more than 100 homes were evacuated. Black Hills residents were lucky. No lives were lost, and only 4 structures burned. Had the . . . — Map (db m37093) HM
South Dakota (Custer County), Custer — Jasper vs. JewelSeeking Answers to Questions About Caves and Wildfires
The Jasper Fire started on August 24, 2000. It burned over 83,000 acres. This includes the entire surface above known parts of Jewel Cave. Will such a large, intense wildfire affect this unique national treasure? Now is our chance to find out. While the Fire Burned Wildfire does not threaten Jewel Cave. Its passages and the life within are well insulated by thick rock. But could smoke harm cave animals, like bats? Jewel Cave "breathes". A large amount of air flows in or out of the . . . — Map (db m37095) HM
South Dakota (Custer County), Custer — Life in a Prairie Dog TownWind Cave National Park
Whether they know it or not, black-tailed prairie dogs are wildlife managers. These ground squirrels are intricately connected to numerous plant and animal species and play a key role in the health and stability of the prairie. The eating habits alter vegetation, attracting bison, elk, pronghorn antelope, and deer to their towns to graze on tender new shoots. Their burrows provide shelter for insects, amphibians, reptiles, small mammals, and even burrowing owls. Their towns attract . . . — Map (db m71076) HM
South Dakota (Custer County), Custer — Prescribed FireAn Important Tool to Tame Wildfire
Did you notice that this forest burned? Some areas show no signs of fire. Blackened tree skeletons tell of crown fire in other areas. This is a typical burn mosaic of a western wildfire. How did the visitor center and nearby trees survive? Fire tells a story at Jewel Cave National Monument. Serving the Forest Prescribed fires revived the forest around you. How? Without natural fires the forest stagnated. Prescribed fires released locked up nutrients by turning plants into ash. Now . . . — Map (db m37096) HM
South Dakota (Custer County), Custer — The Hearst HighwayDedicated to the memory of
George Hearst (1820-1891) United States Senator, mining engineer, sportsman, speculator. Starting with nothing, he developed three of the fabled mines in the American West -- The Ophir, the Anaconda, and the Homestake -- and founded one of the great American Fortunes. His vision and organizing genius built a small mining claim into the mightiest gold mine in the world -- the Homestake -- and laid the foundations for the continuing prosperity of the Black Hills and the State of South Dakota. . . . — Map (db m34580) HM
South Dakota (Custer County), Custer — The Needles EyeOne Rock Formation Offers Millions of Stories
Geology provides the foundation of scenery in the Black Hills. From rocky outcroppings to towering spires, the northern portion of Custer State Park highlights the essence of the central core. The central core is a region of rocks mainly composed of granite. This area is also home to some of the oldest rocks in North America, dating over two billion years in age. Formed underground and now exposed at the surface, the Black Hills region features a dome-like mass of resistant rocks. The . . . — Map (db m34626) HM
South Dakota (Custer County), Fairburn — The Buffalo Corrals
Commonly called "buffalo", bison (Bison bison) are North America's largest land mammal, and one of Custer State Park's most valuable resources. Sometimes called "Lord of the Plains" the buffalo is a unique animal. A mature bull can stand up to six feet high at the shoulder and weigh nearly a ton. Looking very docile as they graze on the open prairie, buffalo can outrun a horse and turn with amazing agility. Stay in or near your vehicle when viewing buffalo. The Custer State Park herd averages . . . — Map (db m45354) HM
South Dakota (Custer County), Keystone — 536 — The Pigtail Bridges
In 1932, Cecil Clyde Gideon, forged ahead with the design of the Pigtail Bridges when many felt it couldn’t be done. C.C., as he was called, was a pioneer in the Black Hills, making his mark as a master builder, architect, craftsman, lawman, highway designer, and personal guide to visitors. Riding horseback from his home at the Game lodge, Gideon and Senator Norbeck spent long hours laying out the Iron Mountain Road, the tunnels that frame Mount Rushmore and the bridges. Norbeck wanted . . . — Map (db m89460) HM
South Dakota (Day County), Pierpont — Charles H. SheldonSecond Governor of South Dakota — 1893 - 1897
Born at Johnson, Vermont, Sept. 12, 1840. His father died when he was 4 and at 6 he was bound out to work on a farm. He had 3 months schooling per year until 14 when, to get better educational opportunity, he got a store job for room and board and $20.00 per year. First rejected, he enlisted Sept. 23, 1861 in Co. ‘E’ 7th Vermont Infantry and was mustered out in 1865 as a captain. Resourceful, capable he made his mark in the Army. He became a storekeeper in Illinois. Married in 1875 to Martha . . . — Map (db m91621) HM
South Dakota (Day County), Webster — Edgar S. McFadden
The farmers and farm organizations of Day County herewith seek to perpetuate the memory of and appreciation for one of Day County's farmers, agronomist and plant pathologist: Edgar S. McFadden The son of humble Christian parents was born February 3, 1891 in Webster Township Day County South Dakota. Here through his intelligent and untiring effort under providential guidance without regard for personal gain, he produced a parent wheat stock now used by plant breeders the world over, which . . . — Map (db m91410) HM
South Dakota (Day County), Webster — Sigurd Anderson19th Governor of South Dakota, 1951-1955 — Resident of Webster and Day County Since 1932
Born at Arendal, Norway, January 22, 1904, and came to the United States when three years old, settling in Lincoln County near Canton. Taught history and speech at Webster High School, 1932 to 1935. Completed law course at University of South Dakota in 1937 and returned to Webster to practice law. Elected State’s Attorney of Day County in 1938 and re-elected in 1940. Appointed Assistant Attorney General of South Dakota in 1941. Enlisted in U.S. Navy and served as Commissioned Officer from 1943 . . . — Map (db m91387) HM
South Dakota (Day County), Webster — The Fight at Webster
Following the 1862 Minnesota Indian Uprising where nearly 600 men, women, and children were killed, the United States Army at Fort Wadsworth recruited friendly Indians as scouts to restrict the hostile Indians from white settlements. A half-breed, Jack Campbell, led a group to the Mankato area and massacred the Jewett family. Campbell was caught and hung but his companions escaped and fled West. Near the present site of Webster this murderous group were met and recognized by Solomon Two Stars, . . . — Map (db m91405) HM
South Dakota (Day County), Webster — WebsterCounty Seat of Day County
Founded in 1881 and named for J.P. Webster who homesteaded the townsite. Railroad supply point for Fort Sisseton (Fort Wadsworth) frontier outpost established 20 miles north in 1864. Gateway to Northeastern South Dakota Lake Region whose abundance of game led the Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux to settle here and attracted hunters and fur traders from afar in the pre-settlement era.

Once nicknamed "The Buffalo Republic", a thriving community today occupies the site where vast herds of shaggy bison . . . — Map (db m91379) HM

South Dakota (Day County), Webster — WWII Plane Crash Holds Memories
On October 25th, 1944 at 3:50 P.M. an A26-B two engine medium bomber from the Watertown Army Airbase crashed and burned in a field on the northwest quarter of section 12 of Butler township, which is two miles south and one mile west of this site. The crash resulted in the death of the pilot, 1st Lt. Raymond Devere Schott of Youngstown, Ohio and severe burn injuries to the crew chief SSGT. Donald R. Aspers of Pontiac, Michigan. May this monument always be a reminder of their . . . — Map (db m91404) HM
South Dakota (Deuel County), Clear Lake — Hidewood CreekRest Area
Due east of these rest areas, the valley land looks much as it did before the pioneers came to this country. This area is part of the drainage of Hidewood Creek, located one-and one-half miles south of here. Hidewood's name comes from the prairie past of this territory. Following the War of the Outbreak (also called the Great Sioux Uprising) in Minnesota in 1862, many Sioux fled into this area, where they took refuge in clumps of timber along this creek. Thus, the name Hidewood. This area . . . — Map (db m92068) HM
South Dakota (Edmunds County), Ipswich — Ipswich Memorial Arch
Plaque South Post East Side. This pillar of the Memorial Arch of Ipswich is erected in honor of the valiant men of the Community of Ipswich who answered our country's call to arms in the World War 1917-1918 and as an everlasting monument to those who so nobly made the supreme sacrifice. William C. Dickerson Clarence W. Elstad Clifford Evans Einer Jorgenson William Keppler Adolph Forkel Carl Neis Benjamin J. Picton Walter L. Stanard Harry A. Stroup Andrew Schaurer Matt . . . — Map (db m90784) HM WM
South Dakota (Edmunds County), Ipswich — Medicine or Prayer Rock
Found near Mobridge, the impression was tediously incised by some old Indian intent on building himself up as a medicine man. Once formed it was a symbol of great power and was venerated by the Indians who believed it the work of the "Wakan" or Great Spirit. ———————— Plaque on Prayer Rock This Library was presented to the City of Ipswich in memory of Marcus P. Beebe 1931 — Map (db m90792) HM
South Dakota (Fall River County), Edgemont — Teddy Roosevelts's Visit to Edgemont
(Side 1) President Theodore Roosevelt (T. R.) stopped in Edgemont on April 25, 1903 as part of a western states tour. Hundreds were on hand to welcome him. An old friend, Seth Bullock of Deadwood, arrived with him. They were then taken by carriage to City Park to the bandstand draped in red, white, and blue bunting. T. R. spoke to the crowd and paid tribute to those pioneers who had tamed “the shaggy wilderness” of the Black Hills area. Town society matrons had . . . — Map (db m94134) HM
South Dakota (Fall River County), Fall River — Fall River Falls
The eight mile long Fall River, winding through Fall River Canyon after the joining of Cold and Hot Brook streams above the city of Hot Springs, tumbles below over an outcropping of sandstone falling about 50 feet to form Fall River Falls, as viewed from the gazebo. In 1907 the city of Hot Springs built a low dam above the falls directing the 89ºF water through a flume of native wood staves banded with iron rods and wire wrapped. Older residents remember as children walking the 4,00 foot . . . — Map (db m89352) HM
South Dakota (Fall River County), Fall River — Leslie Jensen Scenic Drive
This highway along Fall River is dedicated to Leslie Jensen, 15th Governor of South Dakota 1937-1939, a native of Hot Springs, and a son of Chris Jensen, Black Hills Pioneer and Lille May Haxby Jensen. Educated in Hot Springs, Culver Military Academy and the University of South Dakota, he took an early interest in the Military and was a lieutenant in the 4th South Dakota Infantry on the Mexican Border in 1916-17 and when that organization became the 147th Field Artillery in World War I, he went . . . — Map (db m89374) HM
South Dakota (Fall River County), Hot Springs — 663 — Hot Springs, SD
Tribal tradition states that as long ago as the 16th century the Fall River Valley and canyon area were seldom without groups of tipis belonging to North American Plains Tribes. They knew the curative value of the warm springs located there and used them for bathing their sick and lame. Exploration of the area by white men in 1874-75 led to settlement and the discovery of 75 geothermal springs. The crystal clear water issues from clefts in rocks or bubbles up out of the ground. Bathhouses, . . . — Map (db m89375) HM
South Dakota (Fall River County), Hot Springs — Paha Sapa LimestoneWind Cave National Park — Natinal Park Service
All Black Hills caves have formed in this layer 300 to 600 feet thick. Originally it was laid down on a shallow seabottom about 300 million years ago. Its name derives from the Lakota word meaning "Black Hills". — Map (db m70978) HM
South Dakota (Fall River County), Hot Springs — The CCC's Enduring LegacyWind Cave National Park
The Civilian Conservation Corps established a camp here during the Great Depression of the 1930s to make improvements to the park. This camp employed 200 men at a time and provided much needed jobs and training. Over an eight-year period, the young men helped build this visitor center, built concrete stairs in the cave, and helped sink the 212-foot elevator shaft. They also graded roadsides, planted trees, built trails, and served as fire lookouts. Besides room, board, and clothing, they . . . — Map (db m70977) HM
South Dakota (Fall River County), Hot Springs — 680 — The Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, SD
Gigantic mammoths, ancestors of the majestic elephants of today, once roamed freely on the High Plains of North America. A repository of their remains, along with other kinds of animals, lay undisturbed until their discovery over 26,000 years later, in June 1974. Limestone deposits beneath the earth’s surface dissolved in water from underground springs. The land then collapsed and the resulting sinkhole filled with 95 degree water that lured mammoths to drink or feed on vegetation. Once in . . . — Map (db m89376) HM
South Dakota (Fall River County), Oelrichs — OelrichsA South Dakota Centennial Project
The Town of Oelrichs, Dakota Territory, began in 1885. Harry Oelrichs (1856-1902) of New York came in 1882 and bought out several large cattle ranches, totaling 35,000 head of cattle, for the Anglo-American Cattle Company. At this time, thousands of Texas Longhorn cattle roamed freely throughout the area. In 1885 the Fremont, Elkhorn and Missouri Valley Railroad was completed through town. In the same year Harry Oelrichs established his headquarters east of the railroad tracks, which . . . — Map (db m89461) HM
South Dakota (Haakon County), Philip — Civilian Conservation Corps Camps
Camps NP-2: 8 miles S of Wall on SD 240. 13 miles W (1 mile W of Sage Creek); and NP-3: 3/4 mile S. of Cedar Pass Visitor Center. Company: 2754 (NP-2) -- 11/1/39 - 10/24/41; (NP-3) -- 10/24.41 - 3/25/42.

The Civilian Conservation Corps was a Federal work-relief program during the Great Depression. From 1933 to 1942, the CCC provided work for 31,097 jobless men in South Dakota -- about 22,000 enrollees (single men aged 17-25), about 1,700 veterans, 4,554 American Indians and 2,834 supervisors. . . . — Map (db m45287) HM

South Dakota (Haakon County), Philip — Typical Sod House Homesteader
Edgar I. Brown, born in 1854, came here with wife, Alice, and son, Charles, to homestead in the Badlands when he was 55. Their first and only home was a side hill, sod wall, dirt roofed house. About it they built up a humble homestead. Intact today, it is a classic example of the frugal but satisfactory life of the men who built the West. It should interest every American. — Map (db m45288) HM
South Dakota (Hughes County), Pierre — Combat Wounded Veterans
Top Dedicated to all men and women wounded in all our wars.

Front My stone is red for the blood they shed. The medal I bear is my country;s way to show they care if I could be seen by all mankind. Maybe peace will come in my lifetime. — Map (db m45285) HM

South Dakota (Hughes County), Pierre — Dedicated to You, A Free Citizen in a Free Land
This reproduction of the Liberty Bell was presented to the people of South Dakota by direction of The Honorable John W. Snyder Secretary of the Treasury As the inspirational symbol of the United States Savings Bonds Independence Drive from May 16 to July 4,1950, it was displayed in every part of this state The dimensions and tone are identical with those of the original Liberty bell when it rang out our independence in 1776. In standing before this symbol, you have the opportunity . . . — Map (db m45286) HM
South Dakota (Hughes County), Pierre — Soldiers' & Sailors' World War Memorial
Dedicated to the brave sons of South Dakota who gave their lives to preserve liberty. Anno Domini MCMXXX Map (db m45284) HM
South Dakota (Hughes County), Pierre — South Dakota State Capitol
Choosing South Dakota's capital did not come easily. Elections in 1889, 1890, and 1904 put the capital location to a vote of the people. Pierre won all three elections. Once the site was established, a grand capitol went up. The capitol symbolized prosperity and stability for the young state.

South Dakota's capitol is a fine example of Renaissance Revival architecture. Exterior features include a copper dome and graceful Corinthian columns. A grand marble staircase, faux marble columns, . . . — Map (db m44715) HM

South Dakota (Jackson County), Interior — The Badlands Wall
The Badlands Wall constantly retreats north as it erodes and washes into the White River Valley below. The Wall, an intricately carved cliff, divides the upper from the lower prairie.

The wall is more than sixty miles long. It is the geologic feature around which park boundaries were drawn. The Loop Road follows the Wall, sometimes dipping to the lower prairie, then climbing back to the rim.

Anywhere a wagon could be worked up and down the Wall was called a pass by homesteaders. Getting a . . . — Map (db m45289) HM

South Dakota (Jackson County), Kadoka — Closer than You Imagined
...for years, countless travellers had driven across Interstate 90 in western South Dakota, en route to Mt. Rushmore National Memorial, or Yellowstone National Park,...within sight of nearly a dozen nuclear missile sites.... Tim Pavek, Ellsworth Air Force Base, Minuteman Program Deactivation Manager & Missile Engineer Are you on your way to or from the Black Hills or Yellowstone? You may be surprised to learn that during the Cold War parts of South Dakota, Wyoming, . . . — Map (db m34295) HM
South Dakota (Kingsbury County), Arlington — Arlington Veterans Memorial
In honor and remembrance of the men and women who served their country In time of war and peace. — Map (db m93565) WM
South Dakota (Kingsbury County), Arlington — Brookings County South DakotaYou are about to enter
Home of roving Indians until 1862. The exploring party of Nicollet, scientist, and Fremont, ‘Pathfinder of the West,’ visited Oakwood Lakes July 1838, leaving the first reliable record. The region East of the Big Sioux was ceded by the Santee Sioux in 1851 that to the west by the Yankton Sioux in 1858. A breastwork was made at Oakwood Lakes in 1859 and occupied again in 1862-63. In 1857 Nobles Wagon Road was built through the county, crossing the Big Sioux over an improved ford. A . . . — Map (db m93520) HM
South Dakota (Kingsbury County), Arlington — Kingsbury County South DakotaYou are about to enter
A region of buffaloes and Indians until 1870s. Indian mounds are found at Spirit Lake. In 1838 the Nicollett-Fremont party skirted the NE corner. In 1857 Inkapaduta’s renegade Indians passed through with two white women captives, victims of the Spirit Lake massacre in Iowa. In a skirmish several of the renegades were killed by Agency Indians near Lake Thompson. In 1857 Nobles Trail was built west passing south of this lake. The Yankton Sioux ceded the region to the government in 1859. It . . . — Map (db m93519) HM
South Dakota (Lake County), Madison — Old Madison – First County Seat3/4 Mile East
Lake County was started October, 1873 when Herman N. Luce and John T. Hare, the first qualified County Commissioners, met at the cabin of William Lee near the site of old Madison, to organize. William Van Eps platted the old town of Madison June 1874 and in the fall of 1874 the County Seat was located there by election. Old Madison was County Seat until the railroad came to the present site of Madison in 1880. The safe and county records were secretly moved at night, changing the County Seat to . . . — Map (db m93581) HM
South Dakota (Lake County), Ramona — Badus – Pioneer Swiss Colony1/2 Mile West – ¼ Mile South
In 1877 a group of Swiss chose a point on the shore of Lake Badus for a colony. In 1878 Joseph Burkler, his family and some single men, arrived. In 1879 the colony was augmented by 11 other families who came by rail to Luverne, Minnesota and thence overland. That fall they built a school, with Theresa Schnell as the first teacher. A colony house was built. Joseph Muggli was the first storekeeper and appointed the first Postmaster of Badus in May 1879. The colony continued as such until 1886. . . . — Map (db m93580) HM
South Dakota (Lake County), Ramona — Lake County South DakotaYou are about to enter
So named because of its beautiful lakes. It had been the realm of the Dacotah (Sioux) Indians with few white intruders until ceded by the Yankton tribe in 1858. In 1857 the Nobles Trail was built across its NE corner and that year Mrs. Wm. Marble, a captive of Inkepaduta’s renegade Indian band was rescued at Lake Herman by two Christian Indians. It was created in 1873 for parts of Brookings, Minnehaha and Hanson Counties and organized October 6th with Herman N. Luce and John T. Hare as . . . — Map (db m93576) HM
South Dakota (Lake County), Ramona — St. Ann's Catholic Church of Badus
Has been entered in the National Register of Historic Places By the Heritage Service of the United States Department of the Interior Built 1884 — Map (db m93578) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — 4 — Bonanza in the Hills
The placer gold in the creeks had been eroded from the surrounding hills. By late 1876, miners began shifting their attentions to the source of the gold by tunneling into the hills. Such hard rock mining used explosives instead of pans and sluices. As mining moved from the creek bottoms to tunnels, the economic structure changed. While place miners worked alone or is small groups, hard rock mining demanded a great initial investment and a larger work force. Instead of working on their own, . . . — Map (db m49651) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Chinese Immigrants
Chinese Immigrants came to Deadwood to make their fortune. After burial in Mt. Moriah, with appropriate ceremonies, the remains were removed for reburial in their home village in China. Not more than two bodies remain in the Chinese Section. — Map (db m49688) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — 13 — Civic Stability
Deadwood erected two monuments to order and permanence in the early 1900s. The federal building open in 1907, and activities in the county courthouse started the next year.

In its early gold rush days, Deadwood had been a wild, raucous mining camp with a widespread reputation for lawlessness. But over time the community matured, and the residents supported law and order. Townspeople viewed the two government buildings as symbols of the respectability, permanence and importance that Deadwood . . . — Map (db m49689) HM

South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Civilian Conservation Corps Camp
Camp F-6 (Roubaix): 100 yards N of Lake entrance: W of road. Companies: 792--6/3/33-5/15/35: 10/18/35 6/1/40; 10/1/40-10/11/41; 2759V-(Detachment from Park Creek)--5/15/35-10/18/35. The Civilian Conservation Corps was a federal work-relief program during the Great Depression. From 1933 to 1942, the CCC provided work for 31,097 jobless men in South Dakota--about 22,000 enrollees (single men aged 17-25), about 1,700 veterans, 4,554 American Indians and 2,834 supervisors. The U.S. Army . . . — Map (db m34248) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Deadwood Changing -- 1884 1902 and Now
Note the sites of the county courthouse, the federal building, the depot, the slime plant, and the school. The buildings on Main Street also changed character. Whitewood Creek was partly channelized in 1884, and is covered by a highway today. — Map (db m36631) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Deadwood City 1876
Thousands of people suddenly burst into Deadwood Gulch in 1876. Some came to try their luck at mining, while others hoped to strike it rich with supply stores, restaurants, and saloons. "Six weeks ago the site of Deadwood City was a heavy forest of pine timber, now it extends nearly a mile along Deadwood and Whitewood, and contains nearly two thousand of the most energetic, driving people on the continent. Every branch of business is represented,... houses are going up on every hand - . . . — Map (db m36563) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Generations of Change
Within twenty years Deadwood changed from mining camp to prosperous Victorian city. Deadwood survived several floods and fires, each time replacing the destroyed wood-framed buildings with stone and brick. The town acquired some modern technology early: the telegraph (1876), the telephone (1879), and electric lights (1883). However, oxen-pulled freight wagons and stage coaches had to provide transportation until 1890, when two standard gauge railroads arrived. In 1904, The Black Hills . . . — Map (db m36630) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — 1 — Gold Discovery in the Great Sioux Reservation
Gold sparkled in the prospector’s pan – the first discovery of the mineral in Deadwood Gulch. Exactly who the prospector was -- or the date and place of the discovery – is open to question. It is generally agreed that the Frank Bryant party found the gold in August 1875 on Whitewood Creek, probably 100 yards downstream from this spot. Word of the discovery spread quickly, and within months miners crowded into the gulch along Whitewood and Deadwood Creeks.

The Deadwood miners . . . — Map (db m49648) HM

South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — 2 — Gold in the Gulch
Placer miners first looked for gold among the gravel and sand in the creek bottoms, such as the one near you. If panning was productive, a group of miners would build a sluice to wash gold from the gravel.

[Illustration captions, left to right:] Library of Congress Individual prospectors used a metal pan to separate gold from sand and rocks. The miner swirled the sand and water mixture, allowing the heavy gold to sink to the bottom.

[Photo:] Library of Congress A Sluice removed . . . — Map (db m49649) HM

South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Hebrew Hill (Mt. Zion)
Deadwood is recognized as the site of the first organized Jewish Community in South Dakota. The Hebrew Cemetery Association was the first to purchase a section of Mount Moriah Cemetery, August 20, 1896. The section is located higher up on Jerusalem Ave., to the right. Hebrew Hill, or Mt. Zion, as it was known in the Jewish community, holds the graves of some of Deadwood's many respected Pioneering Jewish citizens; among those are members of the Franklin, Colman, Schwarzwald, Wertheimer, . . . — Map (db m27070) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Historic Facade Replication
A fire in 1982 destroyed the historic Horace Clark and Apex buildings. The facades of the two buildings were replicated in 1997. 1900, Horace Clark Building (left); 1897, Apex Building (right). Owner: Olympic Gaming SD, L.L.C. Replication Architect: Spencer Raymond Ruff, A.L.A. N.C.A.R.B. General Contactor: Developers & Associates, Inc. Masonry Contractor: Mike Kroger Restorations & Masonry — Map (db m49665) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — James Butler Hickok
Alias "Wild Bill" Born - May 27, 1837 Troy Grove, Illinois Died - August 2, 1876 Deadwood, Dakota Territory Victim of the Assassin Jack McCall — Map (db m45372) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Jewish American Pioneers and Deadwood
Jewish American pioneers significantly contributed to the commercial development and establishment of responsible government in Deadwood. Gritty Jewish Westerners, such as Sol Star, arrived with his business partner Seth Bullock in the midst of the Gold Rush in 1876. The firm of Star & Bullock, located at Wall and Main Streets, proved to be one of the most prosperous in the Black Hills. Sol Star served as mayor of Deadwood for 14 years. Star established the Deadwood Flouring Mill with partners . . . — Map (db m27071) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Martha Jane BurkeAlias "Calamity Jane"
Born - May 1, 1852 Princeton, Missouri Died - August 1, 1903 Terry, South Dakota Her Dying Request "Bury me beside Wild Bill" — Map (db m71412) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Original Site of Saloon No. 10
Site of capture of the assassin Jack McCall who shot "Wild Bill" Hickok Aug 2, 1876 — Map (db m92714) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Preacher Smith of Deadwood Gulch
"Deadwood's Sky Pilot." Henry Weston Smith, was born in Ellington, Connecticut, January 110, 1828. At 23 he became a Methodist exhorter. This led to ordination in the Methodist Episcopal church and he served various communities in New England. In 1862 he enlisted in the Union Army. Caring for the wounded may have turned his mind to healing, for he studied the practice of medicine and was licensed in 1867l

In 1876 he joined the great rush to these Black Hills -- not to mine gold, but to claim . . . — Map (db m45375) HM

South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Riches from Mud
Gold had to be removed from the ore (rock) brought out of the mine. Milling processes crushed the ore to the size of sand. Mercury, cyanide or heat then isolated the gold particles. Deadwood Gulch mill men used several methods, including stamp/amalgamation, chlorination, cyanide leaching, and smelting. The Slime Plant in front of you extracted gold from muddy, finely crushed ore. This slime was dried in large filter presses, then leached with cyanide solution, which dissolved the gold. Charles . . . — Map (db m49650) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Ride High, T.C., Ride High
Travis Calvin Holloway began his career as a professional cowboy in the family's living room near Eagle Butte, South Dakota, where he rode his first bucking horse - his brother Chuck. When Chuck would no longer unseat his younger sibling, their father built T.C. a bucking barrel. The aspiring bronc rider offered his other brothers and sisters a dollar for every hour they would buck him on the contraption. So practiced, T.C. entered his first rodeo at the age of five.

Born to rodeo champ . . . — Map (db m45360) HM

South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Second Deadwood Gold Discovery
Near this point in 1875 occurred the second of two initial gold discoveries in the Deadwood area. It was made by the Lardner party of eight prospectors, steered here by John B. Pearson, a man already familiar with Deadwood Gulch. Their "Discovery Claim" was staked near this spot on November 9. The narrow gulch from here to Deadwood proved fabulously rich in placer gold -- by far the richest in the Black Hills. Pearson had been prospecting two miles downstream in August with the Frank . . . — Map (db m34830) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Serving the Black Hills
Although Deadwood was in a mining district, it didn't remain a mining town. Instead, it became the service center for the Northern Black Hills. Regional residents came to Deadwood for their legal, financial, wholesale, retail and entertainment needs. In the autumn of 1876, the Black Hills Pioneer reported that Deadwood had 173 businesses, including an assayer, a bank, a bath house, 3 butchers, 2 brewers, 4 billiard halls, 11 clothing houses, 21 grocers, 2 hardware stores, 8 . . . — Map (db m36629) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — 12 — Sherman Street and the East Side
Deadwood developed along both sides of Whitewood Creek, forming the two main thoroughfares of Main and Sherman Street. In the 1880s the firms on Sherman tended to be small retail and service businesses. With the arrival of the railroads in the early 1890s, Sherman became the town’s railroad center and wholesale warehouse district.

[Photo captions, clockwise from the top left] Note the differences between these two photographs of eastern Deadwood. You look north from about the same place . . . — Map (db m49686) HM

South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — The Badlands
The "badlands," the lower end of Main Street in front of you, earned its reputation through its saloons, brothels, theaters, gambling halls, and opium houses, which provided rowdy entertainment for the largely male population. Out of this district came many of the personalities and the folklore that made Deadwood famous. "The man who ventured the remark that a fool and his money are soon parted must have had in his mind's eye some place such as [Deadwood].... The 'tenderfoot' is here . . . — Map (db m36560) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — 10 — The Fire of 1879
In the early morning hours of September 26, 1879, fire broke out at a bakery on Sherman Street. The fire spread quickly to Jensen and Bliss’s Hardware where it met eight kegs of gunpowder. The subsequent explosion caused the fire to sweep quickly through the town, destroying three hundred buildings and leaving two thousand homeless. The people of Deadwood promptly rebuilt their town, this time using more brick and stone to provide resistance to fire, creating an image of permanence.

[Photo . . . — Map (db m49671) HM

South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — The Franklin’s Fine HomeDeadwood's Jewish American History
Harris Franklin, his wife Anna, and son Nathan arrived in Deadwood, Dakota Territory in 1877. A Jewish immigrant from humble beginnings, Harris Franklin earned his fortune through the wholesale liquor business and gradually diversified into cattle, gold mining, and banking. Between 1883 and 1890, the Franklins purchased four parcels of land in order to build their lovely home with all the modern amenities. In 1891 Harris and Anna Franklin commissioned Simeon D. Eisendrath, a Jewish . . . — Map (db m34144) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — 11 — The Great Flood
“Prepare for the worst!” the telephone call from upstream warned. About that time Whitewood Creek, swollen from spring snow and rain, broke over its banks within Deadwood, carving a path of destruction. The creek which now flows under the highway in front of you, swept away over a hundred Deadwood buildings. Debris lodged against the Lee Street bridge, forming a dam; water rushed around the bridge, destroying structures along Lee Street. The businesses on Main Street were above the . . . — Map (db m49672) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — The Presidential DistrictHistory Link: A Trail to Deadwood's Past
As South Deadwood expanded along Sherman Street in early 1876, log cabins and small frame houses appeared on the hillsides above the mining camp. A cemetery was quickly established on a hill deemed too far away from town to ever be developed. Soon known as Ingleside, it was the original burial place of Wild Bill Hickock, Preacher Henry Weston Smith and dozens of faceless miners, muleskinners and madams. In 1877 the gentle slopes of the hill became attractive to homeowners, who were being . . . — Map (db m37097) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — The Presidential DistrictHistory Link: A Trail to Deadwood’s Past — Deadwood Historic Preservation Commission
As South Deadwood expanded along Sherman Street in early 1876, log cabins and small frame houses appeared on the hillsides above the mining camp. A cemetery was quickly established on a hill deemed too far away from town to ever be developed. Soon known as Ingleside, it was the original burial place of Wild Bill Hickok, Preacher Henry Weston Smith and dozens of faceless miners, muleskinners and madams.

In 1877 the gentle slopes of the hill became attractive to homeowners, who were being . . . — Map (db m49687) HM

South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Waite Block Annex1899 — 19 Deadwood Street
Architect O.C. Jewett built the Waite Block Annex as a two-story structure and immediately established his offices on the second floor. In 1901 The Wrought Iron Range Co. moved in to the first floor. A recessed entry between this building and the Waite Block provided access to a separate storefront occupied by the Great Eastern Coffee and Tea Company. In 1903 the building was rebuilt with three stories, and partially reconstructed in 1904 after suffering flood damage. Today it is Hickok’s Hotel . . . — Map (db m49664) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Wild Bill
Scout for the Pioneers Scout for the Union Army Marshall for Hay City Dodge City and Abeline Killed in Deadwood August 2, 1876 Buried on Mount Moriah 300 feet above this spot Presented to the City of Deadwood By George R. Hunter — Map (db m26251) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Lead — Homestake Open Cut Mine
This is Homestake's Open Cut Mine, one of the best known landmarks in the Black Hills. It is the site of the original discovery in 1876 of the Homestake claim, named for "making a man rich enough to make his home stake (enough money to return home and live comfortably)." Homestake mined this area periodically from 1876 to 1998. Two noteworthy expansions of the Open Cut occurred in the 1980's -- the first in the north end and the second and much larger expansion toward the south. Both . . . — Map (db m34673) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Lead — The Homestake Gold Mine and Open Cut
The Homestake lode, the basis for the great Homestake Mining Company, was discovered by Moses Manuel, who, with his brother Fred, had come to the Black Hills in 1875. The two brothers, along with Hank Harney, officially located the claim on April 9, 1876. The claims were later sold to a San Francisco syndicate consisting of Senator George Hearst, Lloyd Tevis, and J.B. Haggin. The Homestake Mining Company was incorporated on November 5, 1877, with $10,000,000 capital. With the completion of . . . — Map (db m34714) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Lead — The Open Cut
The Open Cut was once a solid mountain on which Fred and Moses Manuel with Hank Harney located the original Homestake claim on April 9, 1876. It is estimated that up to 14 different mining companies removed 48 million tons of ore and waste from the area of the Open Cut prior to 1945. In 1981 Homestake Mining Company began a test drilling program to determine how much ore was left in the Open Cut. A "Test Pit" was mined in 1983 and 1984 near the former townsite of Terraville in . . . — Map (db m34674) HM
South Dakota (Marshall County), Lake City — Fort Sisseton
Rebuilt by State of South Dakota and Works Progress Administration WPA Project Number 3384 Nineteen Thirty Nine Centennial Time Capsule In Cement Block, beneath this Marker Placed July 35, 1984 - To be opened at Bicentennial Observance of Fort Sisseton July 25, 2064 Norteast South Dakota Lake Region Association Centennial Committee R.B. Swanberg, Chairman Robert D. Soule, Secretary Kenneth M. Baukol, Treasurer Jack Adams ... Robert Perry Charles L. Card ... . . . — Map (db m91620) HM
South Dakota (Marshall County), Lake City — Fort Wadsworth 1864Fort Sisseton 1876
Major John Clowney, 30th Wisconsin Infantry with Cos. B. E. G. and K, Captains Burton, Devlin, Swain & Klatt, started the fort on 1 August 1864, pursuant to orders of General John Pope, Department Commander. They were mostly from the north woods and chopped and whittled out the post. Huge logs, a couple of inches above a dirt embankment, dug from a ditch in front, provided loopholes. Two hewn log blockhouses on the NW and SE corners provided enfilading fire. Major Clowney said he could resist . . . — Map (db m91618) HM
South Dakota (Marshall County), Lake City — Marshall County South DakotaYou Are Entering
The last county organized east of the Missouri, on May 2, 1885; it had been in Sheyenne County 1862; a gigantic Hanson 1870; coincident with Stone 1873; the north half of Day 1879 and was created by the 1885 Legislature and named for Governor William W. Marshall of Minnesota. Its high coteaus and many wooded lakes made it the early and happy habitat of the Cuthead Yanktonaise and Sisseton Sioux. White trappers and traders enroute from Lake Traverse to the Aricara villages on the Missouri near . . . — Map (db m91617) HM
South Dakota (McCook County), Salem — Salem Rest Area
South Dakota's rich western heritage has been remembered along the Interstate highway system at safety rest areas and tourist information centers. The eight pillars which thrust skyward here merge in the framework of a tipi, the Plains Indian home. The one-by-one and one-half foot concrete lodgepoles rise fifty-six feet in the air and weigh six-and-one-half tons each. The structures were executed in an architectural manner reflecting the spartan lifestyle of the nomadic Lakota (Sioux) . . . — Map (db m37138) HM
South Dakota (Meade County), Sturgis — Bear ButteMountain of Plains Indians — Cheyenne (Nowawaste) Sioux (Mato Paha)
This 4,422 foot high volcanic bubble rises 1,200 feet above the plains, a guide for centuries to Indians, fur traders, soldiers, cowboys, and travelers. It was visited or passed by Verendrye, 1743; Lt. G. K. Warren, 1855; Hayden, the scientist and Reynolds, 1859; Custer, 1874; and since by a galaxy of geological scientists. This was a sacred mountain to the Cheyenne, the first Indians known to white man to live adjacent to it and here Sweet Medicine, their spiritual leader, received four . . . — Map (db m34305) HM
South Dakota (Meade County), Sturgis — Bear Butte (Mato Paha) Indian Camp
This area, extending along Bear Butte Creek, was for centuries a select camp site for the Plains Indians, who found here mountain spring water, wood, protection from the bitter north winds, together with much game and wild fruit in season. Here, or nearly adjacent, was held the Grand Council of 1857 attended by many bands of Plains Indians. This council determined to resist white advance into their lands and most particularly the mountainous area, now known as the Black Hills. Crazy Horse, an . . . — Map (db m34141) HM
South Dakota (Meade County), Sturgis — Camp J.G. Sturgis / Scooptown
Camp J.G. Sturgis Named for Lt. J.G. Sturgis, killed June 25, 1876 at Battle of Little Big Horn. Established July 1, 1878 in this area by Cos. G.F.I.K., 1st US Infantry; D.G. 11th US Infantry; Hq. & Trs. A.C.D.E.G.I.K.M. 7th US Cavalry; Col. S.D. Sturgis, Comdg. joined command July 18; Trs. H.L. joined Aug. 8. Abandoned Aug. 28 troops moving to Camp Ruhlen (now Ft. Meade). Cavalry was one day late to prevent Wagnus massacre a few miles north. Scooptown Was located 1 mile west . . . — Map (db m34404) HM
South Dakota (Meade County), Sturgis — Civilian Conservation Corps Camps
Camps D-Army-1 & SCS-6 (Fechner): 1/2 mile S on W edge of Ft. Meade D-Army-1 company: 2758--7/20/34-10/31/35. SCS-6 companies: 2765--10/15/36-5/27/42; 4725V--5/28/42-7/27/42. The Civilian Conservation Corps was a federal work-relief program during the Great Depression. From 1933 to 1942, the CCC provided work for 31,097 jobless men in South Dakota--about 22,000 enrollees (single men aged 17-25), about 1,700 veterans, 4,554 American Indians and 2,834 supervisors. The U.S. Army provided 200-man . . . — Map (db m34300) HM
South Dakota (Minnehaha County), Garretson — 1908 Palisades Bridge
In 1908 the Western Bridge and Construction Co. of Omaha, Nebraska, built this Pratt-Through Truss Bridge. Workers fastened beams together with diagonal bracing to create a strong rigid framework. Each beam of a truss bridge shares a portion of the weight of the bridge to help displace the weight and stress of crossing traffic. The steel bridge rests on natural abutments of Sioux quartzite. A milldam bridge was built nearby in 1870 when C. W. Patten erected a flour mill on high ground . . . — Map (db m68663) HM
South Dakota (Minnehaha County), Garretson — Garretson
Two events in the 1870s in eastern Minnehaha County, Dakota Territory, provided the stimulus leading to the beginning of the town of Garretson. The first was the founding of the now-vanished village of Palisade, often referred to as Garretson’s “Mother City”. Located high above Split Rock Creek two miles south of this marker, Palisade began when C. W. Patten built a flour mill there in the early 1870’s. The second event was the migration into nearby townships of scores of pioneer . . . — Map (db m69089) HM
South Dakota (Minnehaha County), Humboldt — Hartman, 1899 - 191620 Rods West
Townsite of Hartman was homesteaded in 1878 by John Hartmann, Sr. Town started in January 1899. Hans J. Johnson, Postmaster & General Store; Charles F. Bartling, Creamery; Jarvis W. Phelps, Blacksmith; John and Carl Johnson, Farm Implements; John Hempfling, Harware Store; Hartman, Humboldt, Wellington Telephone Company; John Hartman, Manager; also Community Hall. Went out of existence in 1916. — Map (db m93588) HM
South Dakota (Minnehaha County), Humboldt — Pumpkin Center
Front On plains where Native Americans once hunted vast herds of buffalo, a country general store called Wellington Corner sprang up at this location in 1921. The first building, which became the ice house, was constructed by Luther and Anna Gage. The store bordered a section-line dirt trail used by horse drawn wagons and buggies and an occasional automobile. A private highway association, active in promoting a tourist road from the East to Yellowstone National Park, included the . . . — Map (db m93596) HM
South Dakota (Minnehaha County), Sioux Falls — Battleship XU.S.S. South Dakota
[Marker Front] On June 7, 1941, Vera Bushfield, wife of the governor of South Dakota, smashed a bottle of champagne against the towering bow of a new battleship and proudly proclaimed, “I christen thee South Dakota!” While an 80 piece band from Sioux Falls’ Washington High School played “Anchors Away” and “The Star Spangled Banner,” the huge hull of the battleship slowly slid into the Delaware River at Camden, New Jersey. The U.S.S. South Dakota was . . . — Map (db m40516) HM
South Dakota (Minnehaha County), Sioux Falls — Columbus College
Front Columbus College began in 1909 in Chamberlain. S. Dak., and operated there for 12 years. With the inspiration of Bishop Thomas O'Gorman, the all-male prep school, high school, and college were moved to Sioux Falls and reopened in September 1921. Sixty acres were purchased at this location, and a dormitory, classrooms, and other buildings were constructed in the Collegiate Gothic architectural style. It was said the college was intended to become the "Notre Dame of the . . . — Map (db m92174) HM
South Dakota (Minnehaha County), Sioux Falls — Department of Veterans Affairs
Front Near the beginning of the 19th century two wars were fought in two widely separated Spanish possessions. Men from South Dakota were federal combatants in both conflicts. The 1898 Spanish-American War was fought in Cuba, only 90 miles from Florida, while action in the 1899 Philippine Insurrection took place thousands of miles away in the North Pacific Ocean in the Philippine Islands. Two decades later another generation of men from South Dakota served in Europe during World War I. . . . — Map (db m92196) HM
South Dakota (Minnehaha County), Sioux Falls — Frederick Manfred’s “Siouxland”
This spot is near the center of an area called “Siouxland,” so named by writer Frederick F. Manfred (1912–1994). Manfred established a distinct identity for this region, the drainage basin of the Big Sioux River. It includes parts of Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska and South Dakota. Manfred was born on an Iowa farm and christened Frederick Feike Feikema VII. He chose to live in Siouxland after years in politics and journalism in Minneapolis. His home was at the south edge of Blue . . . — Map (db m92175) HM
South Dakota (Minnehaha County), Sioux Falls — The Dubuque House
The Dubuque House, Sioux Falls’ first hotel, was built about 350 yards due west of this spot by Wilmot W. Brookings and members of the Western Town Company of Dubuque, Iowa, in September 1857. In the previous year, they had staked out a 320 acre claim and established the town of Sioux Falls, Minnesota Territory, on the west side of the Big Sioux River. The new town-site was northwest of a large wooded island, originally called Brookings but later renamed Seney. . . . — Map (db m91556) HM
South Dakota (Oglala Lakota County), Wounded Knee — Massacre of Wounded Knee
[Front side]: Dec. 29, 1890, Chief Big Foot, with his Minneconjou and Hunkpapa Sioux Band of 108 warriors, 250 women and children were encamped on this Flat, surrounded by the U.S. 7th Cavalry (470 soldiers) commanded by Col. Forsythe. The "Messiah Craze" possessed many Indians, who left the vicinity of Ind. Agencies to "Ghost Dance" during the summer and fall of 1890. "Unrest" on the Pine Ridge Reservation was partly due to the reduction of beef rations by Congress, and to the . . . — Map (db m40643) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Ellsworth AFB — Rockwell B-1B "Lancer"South Dakato Air and Space Museum — Ellsworth Air Force Base
The B-1A was initially developed in the 1970s as a replacement for the B-52. Four prototypes of his long –range, high speed strategic bomber were developed and tested but the program was canceled in 1977 before going into production. The B-1B is an improved variant initiated in 1981. The first production B-1B flew in October 1984 and the first B-1B was delivered to Dyess AFB, Texas in June 1985. The B-1B holds almost 50 world records for speed, payload, range, and time of climb in its . . . — Map (db m70966) HM WM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Hill City — Civilian Conservation Corps Camp
Camp F-2 (DF-2) Horse Creek: Located 2 miles W on Horse Creek. Companies: 791--5/22/33-4/30/34 2752--7/30/34-10/21/35 2761--10/25/35-01/36 2748--01/36-5/25/36 The Civilian Conservation Corps was a federal relief program during 1933-1942 that gave jobless men work renovating abused lands. The Army built 48 200-man camps in South Dakota and provided food, clothing, medical care, pay and programs of education, recreation and religion for 23,709 enrollees (single men aged 17-25 who sent $25 of . . . — Map (db m34275) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Hill City — Hill City
First laid out as a gold camp in February 1876 by Thomas Harvey, John Miller and Hugh McCullough, the rich strikes in the Northern Hills made it a deserted village by May 1876. Its deserted cabins had many transient occupants and the cabin that stood just behind this marker was last occupied by a family named Crippen. Prior to 1880 Samuel H. Coates and others came and needing a school, re-chinked the outside with mud, the inside with V-shaped slats and Coates taught the school. By the time of . . . — Map (db m34250) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Hill City — Multiple Purpose Management in Action
This young Ponderosa Pine forest was thinned by the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1935 to improve the growth of the remaining trees[.] The first commercial harvest was made in 1959 when the area was thinned again for posts and poles. From now on a commercial cutting can be made about every twenty years. The best trees have been pruned to produce knot-free lumber. Young trees becoming established will replace the older trees as they are harvested. Under multiple-use management, this roadside . . . — Map (db m37116) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Hill City — Sheridan1875-1942
Sheridan, located 1/2 mile NE, now 30 feet under water, was named for General Philip Sheridan and founded in 1875 on Cheyenne-Deadwood Trail, as Golden, in the belief that fabulous placer gold existed here. Still Indian Country and everybody a trespasser until 1877 Sheridan was named county seat of Pennington County on April 19 and in October of that year Judge Granville G. Bennett held first term of Court in Black Hills there. The first gold seekers here came in early July 1875 and were Andre . . . — Map (db m34276) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Hill City — The Black Hills Central Railroad1880 Train
The Black Hills Central Railroad has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places by the United States Department of the Interior 1893 — Map (db m70976) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Interior — Journey to Wounded KneeBadlands National Park
Journey to Wounded Knee-December 24, 1890 a bitter Christmas Eve wind rattled the wagon in which Minneconjou Chief Big Foot lay waiting while his people cleared a pass down the Badlands Wall. Several hours of hard work with axes and spades made the disused trail passable. The band of 350 men, women, and children continued their flight from units of the United States Army.

Big Foot was ill, close to death, and disillusioned by the broken promises of Whites and by the lack of unity among . . . — Map (db m62104) HM

South Dakota (Pennington County), Johnson Siding — Civilian Conservation Corps Camp
Camp F-4: Pactola Campsite inundated by Lake Pactola. Companies: 1789--6/8/33-10/35 2748--5/25/36-1940 The Civilian Conservation Corps was a federal relief program during 1933-1942 that gave jobless men work renovating abused lands. The Army built 48 200-man camps in South Dakota and provided food, clothing, medical care, pay and programs of education, recreation and religion for 23,709 enrollees (single men aged 17-25 who sent $25 of their $30 wage to their families) and war veterans. . . . — Map (db m34249) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Johnson Siding — Pactola Dam & ReservoirFlood Control, Irrigation & Recreation
Construction of Pactola Dam began in 1952 and was completed in 1956. At times nearly 200 men worked on the dam. Unskilled workers earned $1.25 an hour and skilled workers $2.75 an hour. The men placed 2,163,251 cubic yards of impervious earthfill and 2,156,742 cubic yards of rockfill for a total of 4,319,993 cubic yards of embankment fill. There were no accidental deaths in the four years of construction at Pactola, but numerous injuries resulted from the steep terrain and outcroppings of hard . . . — Map (db m37064) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Johnson Siding — Water for a Thirsty WestThe Rapid Valley Unit & Project
By the mid-20th century, water in the West did more than irrigate 160 acre patches of alfalfa. Water flowed as the life blood of cities, private industries, and military bases. Droughts during the 1930s illustrated that Rapid City could not depend on surrounding springs as the foundation of a municipal water supply. In 1942, the War Department broke ground on Ellsworth Air Force Base northeast of the city. The additional 5,000 military personnel strained the city's water supply. This . . . — Map (db m37070) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Keystone — (Mount Rushmore) Chronology
1923 • Colossal sculpture in the Black Hills first suggested by Doane Robinson. 1924 • Gutzon Borglum's first visit to the Black Hills. 1927 • Address by President Calvin Coolidge at Mount Rushmore and first actual drilling. 1929 • Senator Norbeck sponsors legislation for first federal funds and creation of Mount Rushmore National Memorial Commission. 1933 • National Park Service first given jurisdiction of the project. 1936 • Visit by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. 1940 • . . . — Map (db m89492) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Keystone — Abraham Lincoln16th President — 1861-1865
Born: February 12, 1809, in a log cabin in Harden (now Larue) County, Kentucky Married: Mary Todd (1818-1882), November 4, 1842 Children: Robert Todd, Edward Baker, William Wallace, and Thomas "Tad" Died: April 15, 1865, Washington, D.C., having been shot at Ford's Theatre the night before. Education: No formal education Occupation: Lawyer Political Party: Whig, then Republican Career Highlights: • Elected captain of his company in the Black Hawk War, 1832; • Elected to . . . — Map (db m89398) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Keystone — After the Fire
The Galena Fire consumed 16,788 acres, mostly within the borders of Custer State Park. More than $2.1 million was spent fighting the fire, and about $4.4 million worth of timber burned. None of Custer State Park's buildings were damaged, no people were injured, and few animals were lost in the fire. Recovery efforts have been made to ensure that vegetation on the most severely burned portions of the fire area has successfully covered the soil surface.

1988 The West on Fire The severe . . . — Map (db m45351) HM

South Dakota (Pennington County), Keystone — George Washington1st President — 1789-1797
Born: February 22, 1732, Westmoreland County, Virginia Married: Martha Danbridge Curtis, (1732-1802), January 6, 1759 Children: John and Martha Curtis (adopted) Died: December 14, 1799, at Mount Vernon, Virginia Education: No formal education Occupation: Planter, soldier Political Party: Federalist Career Highlights: • Officer in the French and Indian War; • Commander in Chief, Continental Army, American Revolution; • President, Constitutional Convention National . . . — Map (db m89399) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Keystone — Gutzon Borglum(John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum) — Born March 25, 1867--Died March 6, 1941
His birthplace was Idaho. California first taught him art. Then France, who first gave him fame. England welcomed him. America called him home. His genius for the exquisite as for the colossal, gave permanence on canvas, in bronze, in marble, to moods of beauty or passion, to figures of legend and history. Nations, cities, colleges paid him tribute. As a patriot, he stripped corruption bare. As a statesman, he toiled for equality in the rights of man. At last he carved a mountain for a . . . — Map (db m49105) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Keystone — History of the United States of America
Almighty God, from this pulpit of stone the American people render thanksgiving and praise for the new era of civilization brought forth upon this continent. Centuries of tyrannical oppression sent to these shores, God-fearing men to seek in freedom the guidance of the benevolent hand in the progress toward wisdom, goodness toward men, and piety toward God. 1776 • Consequently, on July 4, 1776, our forefathers promulgated a principle never before successfully asserted, that life, . . . — Map (db m89493) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Keystone — Peter Norbeck
Norbeck Wildlife Preserve Created by Act of Congress, 1949 Peter Norbeck 1870 – 1936 Well driller, Statesman, first native Governor of South Dakota, U.S. Senator, founder of Custer State Park, sponsor of Mount Rushmore Memorial, road builder, art lover, poet of nature, patriot, gentleman. His was the heritage of cold, strong lands: his the pioneer vision which saw far ahead, far beyond. He felt the strong heart throb of his beloved people commanding him to do . . . — Map (db m4395) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Keystone — Rushmore Workers
1927–1941 (list of names) Map (db m2114) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Keystone — The Galena Fire Chronology
Contributing Factors For several months prior to the Galena Fire, weather conditions were unusually hot and dry. Average annual precipitation for this region is 18 inches. In the 12 months before the fire only 11 inches fell in the Park.

The Fire Begins A large lightning storm passed over the Black Hills on the evening of July 4, 1988. On the morning of July 5, staff at Mount Coolidge firetower spotted smoke in a remote section of the Park near Galena Creek. Suppression efforts began . . . — Map (db m45350) HM

South Dakota (Pennington County), Keystone — The Power to Carve a Mountain
Over 450,000 tons of rock were removed from Mount Rushmore to bring out the four presidential faces. Although about 90% of the rock was removed with dynamite, the remaining rock was removed by drilling with jackhammers and wedging the rock off the mountain. The final finishing work on the faces was completed using small jackhammers and facing bits. Air compressors located here at the base of the mountain provided the power to operate the jackhammers. The Ingersoll-Rand Imperial Type 10 Air . . . — Map (db m89491) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Keystone — Theodore Roosevelt26th President — 1901-1909
Born: October 27, 1858, New York, New York Married: Alice Hathaway Lee (1861-1884), October 27, 1880; Edith Kermit Carow (1861-1848), December 2, 1886 Children: Alice, Theodore, Jr., Kermit, Ethel, Archibald, Quentin Died: January 6, 1919, Oyster Bay, New York Education: Harvard College, 1880 Occupation: Author, lawyer, public official Political Party: Republican Career Highlights: • Governor of New York; • Commander of Rough Riders in Spanish-American War; • William . . . — Map (db m89459) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Keystone — Wildlife and Fire
It would seem that a large forest fire would destroy an area for wildlife. However, the Galena Fire has improved much of the Park's wildlife habitat. The fire created many open meadows where grasses and shrubs are now growing. The mixture of meadow and forest created by a large fire provides better food and cover for animals. Initially, Park managers seeded the severely burned areas with quick growing clover to prevent erosion. Now a wide variety of plants can be found throughout the burned . . . — Map (db m45352) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Scenic — Cliff Shelf Nature Trail
This loop trail rises 300 feet to a dramatic view of the White River Valley. From this elevation you can also see the flat-topped Eagle Butte, 25 miles (40 km) to the south. Humans have used the Cliff Shelf for more than 11,000 years. More than 50 plant species and 100 bird species have been identified in this small area.

The dense, compacted area of a geologic slump retains moisture and fosters the rich vegetation you see on this trail. Things to Know Before You Go Accessible Boardwalk . . . — Map (db m45290) HM

South Dakota (Pennington County), Wall — Born of Volcanos
Thirty-seven million years ago, the ancient crystalline core of the Black Hills had already been exposed by erosion. The long blue profile of those mountains, visible to the west, looked much as it does now. About that time, streams flowing from the west began to deposit sediments in this area. Most of the sediment was wind blown volcanic ash which had settled into the watershed which fed the streams. Occasionally the rivers brought gravel and stream-worn rocks from the Black Hills . . . — Map (db m4404) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Wall — High Security
The fence in front of you once guarded the Delta-09 Launch Facility which held a Minuteman II intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). During the Cold War, anyone or anything that crossed this fence was in serious trouble. Standing orders meant the use of deadly force was authorized. Motion sensors recorded activity day and night. Now imagine one thousand ICBM silos like this, each roughly the size of a football field, scattered widely across the American heartlands. Here you see part of . . . — Map (db m66953) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Wall — Jungle on a Seabed
A jungle grew here. Before that, a shallow sea covered the land. Both are gone now, but both left evidence of their passing. The sea's signature is ammonites, baculites, and clams, pearly fossils entombed in a fossil mud called the Pierre Shale. This shale is exposed in the gully below you. A jungle sprang up after the sea drained away about 65 million years ago. For a long time tree roots broke up the shale, and chemicals from decaying plants produced a yellow soil. About 37 . . . — Map (db m4399) HM
South Dakota (Roberts County), Corona — First German Baptist Church
. . . — Map (db m90545) HM
South Dakota (Roberts County), New Effington — Glacial Lakes Rest Area
South Dakota's rich western heritage has been remembered along the interstate highway system at safety rest areas and tourist information centers. The eight pillars which thrust skyward here merge in the framework of a tipi, the Plains Indian home. The one-by-one-and-one-half foot concrete lodge poles rise fifty-six feet in the air and weigh six-and-one-half tons each. The structures were executed in an architectural manner reflecting the spartan life lifestyle of the nomadic Lakota . . . — Map (db m93243) HM
South Dakota (Roberts County), Ortley — Day County South DakotaYou Are Entering
Created west of the Sisseton Reservation Line, surveyed in 1869; from Greeley (South) and Stone (North) so named in 1873; by the Legislature of 1879; it was named for Merritt H. Day of Turner County, a member. Before that, its area had been in a Gigantic Hanson County (1870). Its first white resident was Francis Rondelle, a trader, in the area as early as 1868 and who was located by Horace J. Austin, surveyor, living 2 miles west of present Waubay in October, 1877. Earl P. Owen settled near . . . — Map (db m91412) HM
South Dakota (Roberts County), Ortley — Roberts County South DakotaYou Are Entering
Long the home of Sisseton, Wahpeton & Cuthead Yanktonaise Sioux, it became part of Deuel & Cheyenne Counties in 1862; Deuel extending N to 46th parallel (4 miles N) in 1872. The Reservation extending S to Lake Kampeska in a giant flatiron was established in 1867. Grant County included the part SE of the Reservation from 1873 to 1883, when Roberts County, named for S.G. Roberts, Territorial Councilman of Fargo, was created. Org. Aug. 6, 1883 by Frederick Dittes, Charles Crissey, Indian Agent and . . . — Map (db m91411) HM
South Dakota (Roberts County), Sisseton — Two Brothers
A grove of tall, stately pine trees two miles north of this marker whisper the tale of two Dakota Indian brothers, Clarence and Joseph Grey, who died in an early winter snowstorm in November 1958, while trapping along the coteau. Their bodies were found the following spring under snowdrifts in the evergreen trees.

Clarence Grey was born February 10, 1918 and Joseph Grey was born August 31, 1921. Their parents were Andrew and Lilly Grey. Having grown up near Grey Lake, the brothers were expert . . . — Map (db m91446) HM

South Dakota (Roberts County), Sisseton — Two Companions
The Dakota winter of 1937 stretched out too long for farm boys Charles Almos and Clayton Week. They lived with their parents on the Coteau des Prairies eight and ten miles west of Sisseton. During their high school years, the boys shared room and board in town.

For over a month, snowdrifts the height of telephone poles blocked Highway 10 west of town leaving little hope for the boys to get home for a weekend with their families. One Friday the invincible, yet lonesome, lads started out on . . . — Map (db m91444) HM

South Dakota (Roberts County), Sisseton — Two Sisters
On a pleasant winter day, January 6, 1903, Knut Throndson, an 1892 homesteader from Hellingdal, Norway, decided to visit his closest neighbors, Tobias and Bertha Herigstad, who lived less than a quarter mile east of this spot. Knut's wife, Caroline, remained at home with three small children, while the older daughters Theoline Age 13, and Menne, age 15, accompanied their father on the sleigh. Returning home late in the day, they were caught in a sudden blizzard. The sled runner hit a rock and . . . — Map (db m91445) HM
South Dakota (Roberts County), Wilmont — Whetstone Valley Rest Area
You are standing on top of the Coteau des Prairies (Hills of the Prairies) overlooking the rich Whetstone Valley. This landscape was carved out some 20,000 years ago by a massive glacier which extended approximately 2,000 feet above where you now stand. Thirty miles northeast between Lake Traverse and Big Stone Lake is a continental divide. This line separates waters which flow north to the Hudson Bay and south to the Gulf of Mexico.

The remains of a human and his flint tools, radiocarbon . . . — Map (db m91421) HM

South Dakota (Sanborn County), Forestburg — Forestburg Roadside ParkAlong the Old Dacotah Trail
Long before the white man, an Indian Trail from the sanctuary at Pipestone Quarry to the "Three Rivers of the Sioux" near Ft. Thompson passed closely by. The whiteman's first road in Dakota, the Ft. Ridgely & South Pass Wagon Road, forded the James 7 miles north in 1857. The rock ford and a monument mark the site. December 1862 the "March to Moscow" relief expedition from Minnesota to Ft Thompson passed by "Mazeppa Hill" 2 1/2 miles NE, now called Big Mound. In 1865 the "Big Cheyenne Wagon . . . — Map (db m92696) HM
South Dakota (Sanborn County), Forestburg — Ruskin Park1/2 Mile South
Ruskin Park was synonymous with excitement, entertainment and romance from its inception. The area's first pioneers settled along the James River near here in 1873. The Santee and Rodee families homesteaded south of here near a large grove (Rodee's Grove), where picnics, political rallies and community gatherings were held. In 1902 Hiram A. Rodee Jr. cleared part of the grove and built a two story hotel, a lunchroom, stables and other buildings; erected a large canvas auditorium; . . . — Map (db m92701) HM
South Dakota (Union County), Elk Point — St. Paul Lutheran ChurchOne and one-fourth miles
Stately church edifices frequently have humble beginnings and so with St. Paul Lutheran Church, one of South Dakota's finest. The humble log church pictured hereon was erected in 1867 by the members of the Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Congregation by Brule Creek an organization created August 12, 1863 but who had no permanent pastor. It was ready for use by Christmas 1868. The name had been changed to St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Congregation in Dakota. The first church council were Kjell . . . — Map (db m92706) HM
South Dakota (Union County), Jefferson — Grasshopper Cross
. . . — Map (db m92759) HM
South Dakota (Union County), Jefferson — St. Peter's ChurchJefferson
The vicinity of Jefferson, even before the organization of Dakota Territory in 1861, was a French - Canadian community and Catholic services were held sporadically prior to the advent of Father Pierre Boucher in 1867. In 1862 a small log building north of the present church was used as a school house and church where services were held. Father Boucher had a pastorate extending over a vast area of south-eastern Dakota and about twenty-five French-Canadian families formed the nucleus of his . . . — Map (db m92762) HM
South Dakota (Union County), Richland — Fort Brule
This granite block erected by the Old Settlers Association of Union County, South Dakota, marks the site of Fort Brule Built in 1862 by soldiers and settlers as protection against renegade and hostile Indians. Abandoned in 1868 Dismantled 1873 — Map (db m93600) HM
South Dakota (Union County), Richland — Richland Methodist Episcopal Church1/4 Mile ->
Rev. S.W. Ingham, a travelling Missionary, in 1861 baptized Minnesota Watson, daughter of Thomas and Adeline Watson, who with A.J. Bell and wife were its earliest members in the Brule Creek community. The Indian War of the Outbreak in August 1862 drove the settlers away but they returned that fall and the church was reorganized by Rev. Ingham with Jason Payne as Pastor and about twenty-five members. The church prospered under various pastors until in 1885 W.H.H. Fate, J.L. Jordin, . . . — Map (db m93599) HM
South Dakota (Union County), Spink — St. Mary's Catholic ChurchGarryowen, South Dakota
Front The first parish in Garryowen was organized in 1879. St. Mary's Church and cemetery were located together on five acres of land donated by Patrick Mahan. The church eventually became too small for a growing community and a larger one was constructed in 1904. In 1924, this church was destroyed by fire. A third church was built in 1925 across the road from the cemetery on land donated by Tom O'Connor. The people of Garryowen supported this parish until the diocese of Sioux . . . — Map (db m93597) HM
South Dakota (Union County), Vermillion — Homestead Rest Area
The rich farm country of southeast South Dakota lies in the triangle formed as the Missouri River, to the west, and the Big Sioux River, east of here, flow toward their confluence about 37 miles southeast of this point. This was the land that drew settlers to Dakota Territory. What may have been the number one entry in the entire United States under the Homestead Act was filed near here. Just minutes after midnight on Jan. 1, 1863, when the Homestead Act went into effect, Vermillion . . . — Map (db m92824) HM
South Dakota (Union County), Vermillion — The Great Missouri RiverMissouri National Recreational River
The Missouri, the continent's longest river, figures prominently in the unfolding of America's saga. Flowing nearby in its 2,341 - mile course from the Rocky Mountains to the Mississippi, the Big Muddy is not only loaded with sediment but steeped in stories about American Indians, Lewis and Clark, fur traders, and steamboat captains. The Missouri River's role in the settlement of the Great Plains is celebrated in two free flowing portions that Congress set aside as Missouri National . . . — Map (db m92825) HM
South Dakota (Walworth County), Mobridge — Sakakawea
Sakakawea won her place in history as the indomitable guide of Lewis and Clark on their trip to the Pacific in 1805. She was a member of the Shoshoni tribe dwelling near the Big Horn mountains in Montana. In one of the frequent tribal conflicts she was captured and taken to North Dakota as a war captive. Here she was purchased by a fur trader named Tousant Charbonneau, who according to custom made her his wife. Lewis and Clark, in search of an interpreter for their trip west, tried to hire . . . — Map (db m90533) HM
South Dakota (Walworth County), Mobridge — Sitting BullTatanka Iyotake — 1834 - 1890
Sitting Bull was born on the Grand River a few miles west of Mobridge. His tragic end came at the very place he was born. He was shot when being arrested because of his alleged involvement with the Ghost Dance craze. Sitting Bull was originally buried at Fort Yates, ND. On April 8, 1953 surviving relatives with the aid of the Dakota Memorial Association moved his remains to the present location and dedicated the Memorial Burial Site April 11, 1953. 1876 - Victorious at the Battle . . . — Map (db m90537) HM
South Dakota (Walworth County), Selby — Bangor
This monument marks the side of Bangor County seat of Walworth County 1884 -1909 Scranton 1883-1884 Bangor 1884-1904 Selby 1904-1905 Bangor 1905-1909 Selby 1909-1950 — Map (db m44714) HM
South Dakota (Walworth County), Selby — You are now on the 100° Meridian
Historically that meridian is significant. For two generations the Insurance Companies and other worldwide lending agencies would not, as a matter of agreed policy, lend a shiny dime west of this line. There reason was that some geographer had labeled it the EAST EDGE of the Great American Desert. Neither the geographer nor the Insurance Companies had been west of 100°. Today, more that a quarter of America's new animal wealth alone, is produced from that misnamed desert. This unrealistic, . . . — Map (db m44712) HM
South Dakota (Yankton County), Yankton — Courthouse Memorial
The Yankton County Courthouse stood at this site from 1905 to 2003. The handsome three-story building was dedicated Nov. 1, 1905. Speakers at that event estimated it would have "a long life of 25 years." The building far exceeded those expectations and served Yankton County residents for most of a century. Inspections and tests by a team of architects and engineers in 1999 and 2000 revealed several serious flaws in the structural integrity of the courthouse building. A new Yankton County . . . — Map (db m742) HM
South Dakota (Yankton County), Yankton — Pierre Dorion, Sr.
West of this stone near the crest of the hill is the burial site of Pierre Dorion, Sr., an early trader in what is now South Dakota. Born in Canada in 1740, Pierre came to this area around 1774–1775 to trade with the Sioux. He married Holy Rainbow, the daughter of a Yankton Sioux chief. While delivering a boatload of hides and tallow to St. Louis, Pierre met the Corps of Discovery on June 12th, 1804 on their trek upriver and was hired as their interpreter. On August 29th & 30th, . . . — Map (db m34829) HM
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