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South Dakota Markers
South Dakota (Bon Homme County), Scotland — The History Of Scotland Academy
In 1880 Reverend-Doctor Harlan P. Carson, Synodical Missionary for Dakota Territory, arrived from Illinois. In 1886 he established Scotland Academy for pioneering settlers in Bon Homme and surrounding counties to support the two Christian crusades of the Presbyterian Church. The Academy occupied the entire 200 block fronting Fourth Street and consisted of the Academy School, dormitory and boarding hall, coalhouse, and out-house. The houses at 211 and 221 housed ministers and staff. The staff of . . . — Map (db m556) HM
South Dakota (Brookings County), Brookings — Brookings/Hillcrest Park
Brookings: The county seat of Brookings County was platted October 3-4, 1879, when the Northwestern Railroad reached here. Some of the early store buildings were moved overland from Fountain and Medary, which soon became ghost towns. In November 1879, after a stiff election contest with Aurora and Volga, Brookings became the county seat, replacing Medary, the seat since May 9, 1873. Residents of Brookings voted on May 2, 1881 to incorporate the village. A city charter was approved on May 9, . . . — Map (db m63968) HM
South Dakota (Butte County), Belle Fourche — Lasting Legacy
Dedicated July 3, 1989 to Celebrate a Century State of South Dakota Belle Fourche area 1889-1989 — Map (db m4612) HM
South Dakota (Butte County), Belle Fourche — Sheepherder's Monuments
Sheepherder's Monuments or stone Johnnies survive the day of the open range. These stone columns were probably built to indicate distance and direction to waterholes and provided the sheepherder with a pastime while tending his flock. — Map (db m4564) HM
South Dakota (Butte County), Belle Fourche — Welcome to Belle FourcheThe Geo Center of the U.S.
In 1959 following the admission of Alaska and Hawaii to the Union, the U.S. Coast and Geodetic survey officially designated a point 20 miles north of Belle Fourche, South Dakota as the Geographic Center of the Nation. Entry of Alaska and Hawaii as states moved the site from its old position in Smith Center Kansas to Butte County, South Dakota. The U.S. Coast and Geodetic survey announced that the location of the new center is at Latitude 44 degrees, 58 minutes North, and Longitude 103 degrees, 46 minutes West. — Map (db m4867) HM
South Dakota (Campbell County), Herreid — You are about to enter South Dakota / You are now leaving South Dakota
You are about to enter South Dakota

Created with its twin, North Dakota, 2 November 1889, its 77,047 square miles ranks 15th in size. Those square miles include exceptional corn land in the SE, grass land in the W, wheat land in the N. and Productive land all over. Its lowest point, Big Stone is 979 feet above sea level; its highest, Harney Peak, at 7,247 feet is the highest point in the U.S.A. east of the Rockies. The Black Hills "The American Alps are scenically unsurpassed and are the . . . — Map (db m44710) HM

South Dakota (Clay County), Vermillion — Bruyer Church
August Bruyer, his wife, Josephine (Simon) and their sons, John and Julius, were born in France, coming to America about the middle of the nineteenth century. By 1858, they had settled in Fairview Township, 4 miles east of what was to be Vermillion. They were Catholic and in 1859, August donated ten acres for a church site and cemetery. In 1860, a small log dirt floor church was built thereon sited on the SW of the SE of the NE of Section 15, Township 92 North, Range 51 West. This was the first . . . — Map (db m39686) HM
South Dakota (Clay County), Vermillion — First Rural Electric Cooperative
On November 25, 1935, 17 farmers from Clay and Union counties held an historic meeting at the Manning/O'Connor store in Burbank, three miles south of this spot. Their purpose was to form a consumer-owned corporation which would allow the rural residents of this portion of southeastern South Dakota to provide themselves with central station electric service. At this meeting Clay-Union Electric, the first rural electric cooperative in South Dakota, was formed.

The establishment of . . . — Map (db m39687) HM

South Dakota (Clay County), Vermillion — From Lewis and Clark to the Future
Change came slowly to Spirit Mound after 1804. For 55 years the area remained the land of the Yankton Sioux, with fur traders conducting business from posts on the Missouri. The tallgrass prairie continued to thrive as it had for thousands of years before. In 1859 the Yankton moved to a reservation 70 miles upriver, and Congress created Dakota Territory in 1861.

The first homestead was filed on Spirit Mound in 1868. A pioneer recalled that looking north from the top of the mound, he . . . — Map (db m39702) HM

South Dakota (Clay County), Vermillion — Lewis and Clark Visit Spirit MoundAugust 25, 1804
On the hot day of August 25, 1804, captains Lewis and Clark and several of their men walked from the river to explore Spirit Mound. They had heard that little people with deadly arrows inhabited the mound. Although they did not find little people, they saw their big herds of buffalo as well as elk, burrows of either badgers or "Prairie Wolves" (coyotes), meadowlarks, swallows, and the first bat they had seen on the expedition. Suffering from heat and thirst, they walked back to the . . . — Map (db m39698) HM
South Dakota (Clay County), Vermillion — Lewis and Clark Were Here...and Here...
The Missouri National Recreational River preserves two splendid segments of the free-flowing, once unpredictable "Big Muddy." These natural-appearing reaches are reminiscent of the river as reported in the journal pages of captains Lewis and Clark and four other members of the Corps of Discovery.

Change is a constant. And much has changed along the Corps of Discovery's route since "Mr. Lewis' Tour" first traveled through the middle Missouri region two centuries ago. Both human and natural . . . — Map (db m39701) HM

South Dakota (Clay County), Vermillion — Spirit Mound
This trail leads to the summit of Spirit Mound, a sacred site for several Plains Indian tribes. Some tribal members make pilgrimages to Spirit Mound, say prayers on top, and leave offerings. As you approach and walk to the top, please do so respectfully.

On clear days, the summit offers views as far away as the Big Sioux River to the southeast, the James River to the west, and the Nebraska Bluffs to the south. Before starting out on this 0.8-mile trail to the summit, be aware that there . . . — Map (db m39700) HM

South Dakota (Codington County), Watertown — Codington County Courthouse
An example of Neo-classical architecture with Renaissance exterior elements, the Codington County Courthouse was built by Gray Construction under the direction of architects Freed and Perkins & McWayne. It cost $375,000.00 and was dedicated in June 1929 by County Commissioners Vern G. Wolheter, James E. Kiley, R. S. Lockhart, Thomas M. Spartz, Col. Lee Stover, Ivar Tvinde, and Patrick Walsh. Richly finished in marble and gold leaf, the interior is one of the most ornate of any courthouse in . . . — Map (db m23930) HM
South Dakota (Custer County), Custer — Campsite of General Custer's ExpeditionAugust 1 - 6, 1874
This picturesque valley was the site of the permanent camp of the Black Hills Expedition of 1874 under the command of General George A. Custer of the 7th Cavalry. Their 5 day stay was the longest stop made during the entire expedition and General Custer used this campsite as a base for reconnaissance trips to other points in the Black Hills.

The expedition party totaled about 1000 men, 1900 horses and mules, 300 beef cattle and 110 wagons. In addition to the cavalry, the personnel included . . . — Map (db m45353) HM

South Dakota (Custer County), Custer — Civilian Conservation Corps Camp
Camp F-14 Lightning Creek: located 0.7 mile NW on road 288. Companies: 1783V--10/17/33-Spring 34 791--4/30/34-Fall 41 The Civilian Conservation Corps was a federal relief program during 1933-1942 that gave jobless men work renovating abused lands. The Army built 48 200-man camps in South Dakota and provided food, clothing, medical care, pay and programs of education, recreation and religion for 23,709 enrollees (single men aged 17-25 who sent $25 of their $30 wage to their families) and . . . — Map (db m34296) HM
South Dakota (Custer County), Custer — Jasper Fire
Breaking the Records On August 24, 2000, a carelessly dropped match started what would become the largest fire in the recorded history of South Dakota. By the time the inferno finished its race through the forest, it had consumed 83,508 acres, in a swath 8 miles wide and 10 miles long. At its peak, more than 1,000 fire fighters battled the blaze, and more than 100 homes were evacuated. Black Hills residents were lucky. No lives were lost, and only 4 structures burned. Had the . . . — Map (db m37093) HM
South Dakota (Custer County), Custer — Jasper vs. JewelSeeking Answers to Questions About Caves and Wildfires
The Jasper Fire started on August 24, 2000. It burned over 83,000 acres. This includes the entire surface above known parts of Jewel Cave. Will such a large, intense wildfire affect this unique national treasure? Now is our chance to find out. While the Fire Burned Wildfire does not threaten Jewel Cave. Its passages and the life within are well insulated by thick rock. But could smoke harm cave animals, like bats? Jewel Cave "breathes". A large amount of air flows in or out of the . . . — Map (db m37095) HM
South Dakota (Custer County), Custer — Life in a Prairie Dog TownWind Cave National Park
Whether they know it or not, black-tailed prairie dogs are wildlife managers. These ground squirrels are intricately connected to numerous plant and animal species and play a key role in the health and stability of the prairie. The eating habits alter vegetation, attracting bison, elk, pronghorn antelope, and deer to their towns to graze on tender new shoots. Their burrows provide shelter for insects, amphibians, reptiles, small mammals, and even burrowing owls. Their towns attract . . . — Map (db m71076) HM
South Dakota (Custer County), Custer — Prescribed FireAn Important Tool to Tame Wildfire
Did you notice that this forest burned? Some areas show no signs of fire. Blackened tree skeletons tell of crown fire in other areas. This is a typical burn mosaic of a western wildfire. How did the visitor center and nearby trees survive? Fire tells a story at Jewel Cave National Monument. Serving the Forest Prescribed fires revived the forest around you. How? Without natural fires the forest stagnated. Prescribed fires released locked up nutrients by turning plants into ash. Now . . . — Map (db m37096) HM
South Dakota (Custer County), Custer — The Hearst HighwayDedicated to the memory of
George Hearst (1820-1891) United States Senator, mining engineer, sportsman, speculator. Starting with nothing, he developed three of the fabled mines in the American West -- The Ophir, the Anaconda, and the Homestake -- and founded one of the great American Fortunes. His vision and organizing genius built a small mining claim into the mightiest gold mine in the world -- the Homestake -- and laid the foundations for the continuing prosperity of the Black Hills and the State of South Dakota. . . . — Map (db m34580) HM
South Dakota (Custer County), Custer — The Needles EyeOne Rock Formation Offers Millions of Stories
Geology provides the foundation of scenery in the Black Hills. From rocky outcroppings to towering spires, the northern portion of Custer State Park highlights the essence of the central core. The central core is a region of rocks mainly composed of granite. This area is also home to some of the oldest rocks in North America, dating over two billion years in age. Formed underground and now exposed at the surface, the Black Hills region features a dome-like mass of resistant rocks. The . . . — Map (db m34626) HM
South Dakota (Custer County), Fairburn — The Buffalo Corrals
Commonly called "buffalo", bison (Bison bison) are North America's largest land mammal, and one of Custer State Park's most valuable resources. Sometimes called "Lord of the Plains" the buffalo is a unique animal. A mature bull can stand up to six feet high at the shoulder and weigh nearly a ton. Looking very docile as they graze on the open prairie, buffalo can outrun a horse and turn with amazing agility. Stay in or near your vehicle when viewing buffalo. The Custer State Park herd averages . . . — Map (db m45354) HM
South Dakota (Fall River County), Hot Springs — Paha Sapa LimestoneWind Cave National Park — Natinal Park Service
All Black Hills caves have formed in this layer 300 to 600 feet thick. Originally it was laid down on a shallow seabottom about 300 million years ago. Its name derives from the Lakota word meaning "Black Hills". — Map (db m70978) HM
South Dakota (Fall River County), Hot Springs — The CCC's Enduring LegacyWind Cave National Park
The Civilian Conservation Corps established a camp here during the Great Depression of the 1930s to make improvements to the park. This camp employed 200 men at a time and provided much needed jobs and training. Over an eight-year period, the young men helped build this visitor center, built concrete stairs in the cave, and helped sink the 212-foot elevator shaft. They also graded roadsides, planted trees, built trails, and served as fire lookouts. Besides room, board, and clothing, they . . . — Map (db m70977) HM
South Dakota (Haakon County), Philip — Civilian Conservation Corps Camps
Camps NP-2: 8 miles S of Wall on SD 240. 13 miles W (1 mile W of Sage Creek); and NP-3: 3/4 mile S. of Cedar Pass Visitor Center. Company: 2754 (NP-2) -- 11/1/39 - 10/24/41; (NP-3) -- 10/24.41 - 3/25/42.

The Civilian Conservation Corps was a Federal work-relief program during the Great Depression. From 1933 to 1942, the CCC provided work for 31,097 jobless men in South Dakota -- about 22,000 enrollees (single men aged 17-25), about 1,700 veterans, 4,554 American Indians and 2,834 supervisors. . . . — Map (db m45287) HM

South Dakota (Haakon County), Philip — Typical Sod House Homesteader
Edgar I. Brown, born in 1854, came here with wife, Alice, and son, Charles, to homestead in the Badlands when he was 55. Their first and only home was a side hill, sod wall, dirt roofed house. About it they built up a humble homestead. Intact today, it is a classic example of the frugal but satisfactory life of the men who built the West. It should interest every American. — Map (db m45288) HM
South Dakota (Hughes County), Pierre — Combat Wounded Veterans
Top Dedicated to all men and women wounded in all our wars.

Front My stone is red for the blood they shed. The medal I bear is my country;s way to show they care if I could be seen by all mankind. Maybe peace will come in my lifetime. — Map (db m45285) HM

South Dakota (Hughes County), Pierre — Dedicated to You, A Free Citizen in a Free Land
This reproduction of the Liberty Bell was presented to the people of South Dakota by direction of The Honorable John W. Snyder Secretary of the Treasury As the inspirational symbol of the United States Savings Bonds Independence Drive from May 16 to July 4,1950, it was displayed in every part of this state The dimensions and tone are identical with those of the original Liberty bell when it rang out our independence in 1776. In standing before this symbol, you have the opportunity . . . — Map (db m45286) HM
South Dakota (Hughes County), Pierre — Soldiers' & Sailors' World War Memorial
Dedicated to the brave sons of South Dakota who gave their lives to preserve liberty. Anno Domini MCMXXX Map (db m45284) HM
South Dakota (Hughes County), Pierre — South Dakota State Capitol
Choosing South Dakota's capital did not come easily. Elections in 1889, 1890, and 1904 put the capital location to a vote of the people. Pierre won all three elections. Once the site was established, a grand capitol went up. The capitol symbolized prosperity and stability for the young state.

South Dakota's capitol is a fine example of Renaissance Revival architecture. Exterior features include a copper dome and graceful Corinthian columns. A grand marble staircase, faux marble columns, . . . — Map (db m44715) HM

South Dakota (Jackson County), Interior — The Badlands Wall
The Badlands Wall constantly retreats north as it erodes and washes into the White River Valley below. The Wall, an intricately carved cliff, divides the upper from the lower prairie.

The wall is more than sixty miles long. It is the geologic feature around which park boundaries were drawn. The Loop Road follows the Wall, sometimes dipping to the lower prairie, then climbing back to the rim.

Anywhere a wagon could be worked up and down the Wall was called a pass by homesteaders. Getting a . . . — Map (db m45289) HM

South Dakota (Jackson County), Kadoka — Closer than You Imagined
...for years, countless travellers had driven across Interstate 90 in western South Dakota, en route to Mt. Rushmore National Memorial, or Yellowstone National Park,...within sight of nearly a dozen nuclear missile sites.... Tim Pavek, Ellsworth Air Force Base, Minuteman Program Deactivation Manager & Missile Engineer Are you on your way to or from the Black Hills or Yellowstone? You may be surprised to learn that during the Cold War parts of South Dakota, Wyoming, . . . — Map (db m34295) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — 4 — Bonanza in the Hills
The placer gold in the creeks had been eroded from the surrounding hills. By late 1876, miners began shifting their attentions to the source of the gold by tunneling into the hills. Such hard rock mining used explosives instead of pans and sluices. As mining moved from the creek bottoms to tunnels, the economic structure changed. While place miners worked alone or is small groups, hard rock mining demanded a great initial investment and a larger work force. Instead of working on their own, . . . — Map (db m49651) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Chinese Immigrants
Chinese Immigrants came to Deadwood to make their fortune. After burial in Mt. Moriah, with appropriate ceremonies, the remains were removed for reburial in their home village in China. Not more than two bodies remain in the Chinese Section. — Map (db m49688) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — 13 — Civic Stability
Deadwood erected two monuments to order and permanence in the early 1900s. The federal building open in 1907, and activities in the county courthouse started the next year.

In its early gold rush days, Deadwood had been a wild, raucous mining camp with a widespread reputation for lawlessness. But over time the community matured, and the residents supported law and order. Townspeople viewed the two government buildings as symbols of the respectability, permanence and importance that Deadwood . . . — Map (db m49689) HM

South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Civilian Conservation Corps Camp
Camp F-6 (Roubaix): 100 yards N of Lake entrance: W of road. Companies: 792--6/3/33-5/15/35: 10/18/35 6/1/40; 10/1/40-10/11/41; 2759V-(Detachment from Park Creek)--5/15/35-10/18/35. The Civilian Conservation Corps was a federal work-relief program during the Great Depression. From 1933 to 1942, the CCC provided work for 31,097 jobless men in South Dakota--about 22,000 enrollees (single men aged 17-25), about 1,700 veterans, 4,554 American Indians and 2,834 supervisors. The U.S. Army . . . — Map (db m34248) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Deadwood Changing -- 1884 1902 and Now
Note the sites of the county courthouse, the federal building, the depot, the slime plant, and the school. The buildings on Main Street also changed character. Whitewood Creek was partly channelized in 1884, and is covered by a highway today. — Map (db m36631) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Deadwood City 1876
Thousands of people suddenly burst into Deadwood Gulch in 1876. Some came to try their luck at mining, while others hoped to strike it rich with supply stores, restaurants, and saloons. "Six weeks ago the site of Deadwood City was a heavy forest of pine timber, now it extends nearly a mile along Deadwood and Whitewood, and contains nearly two thousand of the most energetic, driving people on the continent. Every branch of business is represented,... houses are going up on every hand - . . . — Map (db m36563) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Generations of Change
Within twenty years Deadwood changed from mining camp to prosperous Victorian city. Deadwood survived several floods and fires, each time replacing the destroyed wood-framed buildings with stone and brick. The town acquired some modern technology early: the telegraph (1876), the telephone (1879), and electric lights (1883). However, oxen-pulled freight wagons and stage coaches had to provide transportation until 1890, when two standard gauge railroads arrived. In 1904, The Black Hills . . . — Map (db m36630) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — 1 — Gold Discovery in the Great Sioux Reservation
Gold sparkled in the prospector’s pan – the first discovery of the mineral in Deadwood Gulch. Exactly who the prospector was -- or the date and place of the discovery – is open to question. It is generally agreed that the Frank Bryant party found the gold in August 1875 on Whitewood Creek, probably 100 yards downstream from this spot. Word of the discovery spread quickly, and within months miners crowded into the gulch along Whitewood and Deadwood Creeks.

The Deadwood miners . . . — Map (db m49648) HM

South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — 2 — Gold in the Gulch
Placer miners first looked for gold among the gravel and sand in the creek bottoms, such as the one near you. If panning was productive, a group of miners would build a sluice to wash gold from the gravel.

[Illustration captions, left to right:] Library of Congress Individual prospectors used a metal pan to separate gold from sand and rocks. The miner swirled the sand and water mixture, allowing the heavy gold to sink to the bottom.

[Photo:] Library of Congress A Sluice removed . . . — Map (db m49649) HM

South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Hebrew Hill (Mt. Zion)
Deadwood is recognized as the site of the first organized Jewish Community in South Dakota. The Hebrew Cemetery Association was the first to purchase a section of Mount Moriah Cemetery, August 20, 1896. The section is located higher up on Jerusalem Ave., to the right. Hebrew Hill, or Mt. Zion, as it was known in the Jewish community, holds the graves of some of Deadwood's many respected Pioneering Jewish citizens; among those are members of the Franklin, Colman, Schwarzwald, Wertheimer, . . . — Map (db m27070) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Historic Facade Replication
A fire in 1982 destroyed the historic Horace Clark and Apex buildings. The facades of the two buildings were replicated in 1997. 1900, Horace Clark Building (left); 1897, Apex Building (right). Owner: Olympic Gaming SD, L.L.C. Replication Architect: Spencer Raymond Ruff, A.L.A. N.C.A.R.B. General Contactor: Developers & Associates, Inc. Masonry Contractor: Mike Kroger Restorations & Masonry — Map (db m49665) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — James Butler Hickok
Alias "Wild Bill" Born - May 27, 1837 Troy Grove, Illinois Died - August 2, 1876 Deadwood, Dakota Territory Victim of the Assassin Jack McCall — Map (db m45372) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Jewish American Pioneers and Deadwood
Jewish American pioneers significantly contributed to the commercial development and establishment of responsible government in Deadwood. Gritty Jewish Westerners, such as Sol Star, arrived with his business partner Seth Bullock in the midst of the Gold Rush in 1876. The firm of Star & Bullock, located at Wall and Main Streets, proved to be one of the most prosperous in the Black Hills. Sol Star served as mayor of Deadwood for 14 years. Star established the Deadwood Flouring Mill with partners . . . — Map (db m27071) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Martha Jane BurkeAlias "Calamity Jane"
Born - May 1, 1852 Princeton, Missouri Died - August 1, 1903 Terry, South Dakota Her Dying Request "Bury me beside Wild Bill" — Map (db m71412) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Preacher Smith of Deadwood Gulch
"Deadwood's Sky Pilot." Henry Weston Smith, was born in Ellington, Connecticut, January 110, 1828. At 23 he became a Methodist exhorter. This led to ordination in the Methodist Episcopal church and he served various communities in New England. In 1862 he enlisted in the Union Army. Caring for the wounded may have turned his mind to healing, for he studied the practice of medicine and was licensed in 1867l

In 1876 he joined the great rush to these Black Hills -- not to mine gold, but to claim . . . — Map (db m45375) HM

South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Riches from Mud
Gold had to be removed from the ore (rock) brought out of the mine. Milling processes crushed the ore to the size of sand. Mercury, cyanide or heat then isolated the gold particles. Deadwood Gulch mill men used several methods, including stamp/amalgamation, chlorination, cyanide leaching, and smelting. The Slime Plant in front of you extracted gold from muddy, finely crushed ore. This slime was dried in large filter presses, then leached with cyanide solution, which dissolved the gold. Charles . . . — Map (db m49650) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Ride High, T.C., Ride High
Travis Calvin Holloway began his career as a professional cowboy in the family's living room near Eagle Butte, South Dakota, where he rode his first bucking horse - his brother Chuck. When Chuck would no longer unseat his younger sibling, their father built T.C. a bucking barrel. The aspiring bronc rider offered his other brothers and sisters a dollar for every hour they would buck him on the contraption. So practiced, T.C. entered his first rodeo at the age of five.

Born to rodeo champ . . . — Map (db m45360) HM

South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Second Deadwood Gold Discovery
Near this point in 1875 occurred the second of two initial gold discoveries in the Deadwood area. It was made by the Lardner party of eight prospectors, steered here by John B. Pearson, a man already familiar with Deadwood Gulch. Their "Discovery Claim" was staked near this spot on November 9. The narrow gulch from here to Deadwood proved fabulously rich in placer gold -- by far the richest in the Black Hills. Pearson had been prospecting two miles downstream in August with the Frank . . . — Map (db m34830) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Serving the Black Hills
Although Deadwood was in a mining district, it didn't remain a mining town. Instead, it became the service center for the Northern Black Hills. Regional residents came to Deadwood for their legal, financial, wholesale, retail and entertainment needs. In the autumn of 1876, the Black Hills Pioneer reported that Deadwood had 173 businesses, including an assayer, a bank, a bath house, 3 butchers, 2 brewers, 4 billiard halls, 11 clothing houses, 21 grocers, 2 hardware stores, 8 . . . — Map (db m36629) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — 12 — Sherman Street and the East Side
Deadwood developed along both sides of Whitewood Creek, forming the two main thoroughfares of Main and Sherman Street. In the 1880s the firms on Sherman tended to be small retail and service businesses. With the arrival of the railroads in the early 1890s, Sherman became the town’s railroad center and wholesale warehouse district.

[Photo captions, clockwise from the top left] Note the differences between these two photographs of eastern Deadwood. You look north from about the same place . . . — Map (db m49686) HM

South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — The Badlands
The "badlands," the lower end of Main Street in front of you, earned its reputation through its saloons, brothels, theaters, gambling halls, and opium houses, which provided rowdy entertainment for the largely male population. Out of this district came many of the personalities and the folklore that made Deadwood famous. "The man who ventured the remark that a fool and his money are soon parted must have had in his mind's eye some place such as [Deadwood].... The 'tenderfoot' is here . . . — Map (db m36560) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — 10 — The Fire of 1879
In the early morning hours of September 26, 1879, fire broke out at a bakery on Sherman Street. The fire spread quickly to Jensen and Bliss’s Hardware where it met eight kegs of gunpowder. The subsequent explosion caused the fire to sweep quickly through the town, destroying three hundred buildings and leaving two thousand homeless. The people of Deadwood promptly rebuilt their town, this time using more brick and stone to provide resistance to fire, creating an image of permanence.

[Photo . . . — Map (db m49671) HM

South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — The Franklin’s Fine HomeDeadwood's Jewish American History
Harris Franklin, his wife Anna, and son Nathan arrived in Deadwood, Dakota Territory in 1877. A Jewish immigrant from humble beginnings, Harris Franklin earned his fortune through the wholesale liquor business and gradually diversified into cattle, gold mining, and banking. Between 1883 and 1890, the Franklins purchased four parcels of land in order to build their lovely home with all the modern amenities. In 1891 Harris and Anna Franklin commissioned Simeon D. Eisendrath, a Jewish . . . — Map (db m34144) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — 11 — The Great Flood
“Prepare for the worst!” the telephone call from upstream warned. About that time Whitewood Creek, swollen from spring snow and rain, broke over its banks within Deadwood, carving a path of destruction. The creek which now flows under the highway in front of you, swept away over a hundred Deadwood buildings. Debris lodged against the Lee Street bridge, forming a dam; water rushed around the bridge, destroying structures along Lee Street. The businesses on Main Street were above the . . . — Map (db m49672) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — The Presidential DistrictHistory Link: A Trail to Deadwood's Past
As South Deadwood expanded along Sherman Street in early 1876, log cabins and small frame houses appeared on the hillsides above the mining camp. A cemetery was quickly established on a hill deemed too far away from town to ever be developed. Soon known as Ingleside, it was the original burial place of Wild Bill Hickock, Preacher Henry Weston Smith and dozens of faceless miners, muleskinners and madams. In 1877 the gentle slopes of the hill became attractive to homeowners, who were being . . . — Map (db m37097) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — The Presidential DistrictHistory Link: A Trail to Deadwood’s Past — Deadwood Historic Preservation Commission
As South Deadwood expanded along Sherman Street in early 1876, log cabins and small frame houses appeared on the hillsides above the mining camp. A cemetery was quickly established on a hill deemed too far away from town to ever be developed. Soon known as Ingleside, it was the original burial place of Wild Bill Hickok, Preacher Henry Weston Smith and dozens of faceless miners, muleskinners and madams.

In 1877 the gentle slopes of the hill became attractive to homeowners, who were being . . . — Map (db m49687) HM

South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Waite Block Annex1899 — 19 Deadwood Street
Architect O.C. Jewett built the Waite Block Annex as a two-story structure and immediately established his offices on the second floor. In 1901 The Wrought Iron Range Co. moved in to the first floor. A recessed entry between this building and the Waite Block provided access to a separate storefront occupied by the Great Eastern Coffee and Tea Company. In 1903 the building was rebuilt with three stories, and partially reconstructed in 1904 after suffering flood damage. Today it is Hickok’s Hotel . . . — Map (db m49664) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Deadwood — Wild Bill
Scout for the Pioneers Scout for the Union Army Marshall for Hay City Dodge City and Abeline Killed in Deadwood August 2, 1876 Buried on Mount Moriah 300 feet above this spot Presented to the City of Deadwood By George R. Hunter — Map (db m26251) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Lead — Homestake Open Cut Mine
This is Homestake's Open Cut Mine, one of the best known landmarks in the Black Hills. It is the site of the original discovery in 1876 of the Homestake claim, named for "making a man rich enough to make his home stake (enough money to return home and live comfortably)." Homestake mined this area periodically from 1876 to 1998. Two noteworthy expansions of the Open Cut occurred in the 1980's -- the first in the north end and the second and much larger expansion toward the south. Both . . . — Map (db m34673) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Lead — The Homestake Gold Mine and Open Cut
The Homestake lode, the basis for the great Homestake Mining Company, was discovered by Moses Manuel, who, with his brother Fred, had come to the Black Hills in 1875. The two brothers, along with Hank Harney, officially located the claim on April 9, 1876. The claims were later sold to a San Francisco syndicate consisting of Senator George Hearst, Lloyd Tevis, and J.B. Haggin. The Homestake Mining Company was incorporated on November 5, 1877, with $10,000,000 capital. With the completion of . . . — Map (db m34714) HM
South Dakota (Lawrence County), Lead — The Open Cut
The Open Cut was once a solid mountain on which Fred and Moses Manuel with Hank Harney located the original Homestake claim on April 9, 1876. It is estimated that up to 14 different mining companies removed 48 million tons of ore and waste from the area of the Open Cut prior to 1945. In 1981 Homestake Mining Company began a test drilling program to determine how much ore was left in the Open Cut. A "Test Pit" was mined in 1983 and 1984 near the former townsite of Terraville in . . . — Map (db m34674) HM
South Dakota (McCook County), Salem — Salem Rest Area
South Dakota's rich western heritage has been remembered along the Interstate highway system at safety rest areas and tourist information centers. The eight pillars which thrust skyward here merge in the framework of a tipi, the Plains Indian home. The one-by-one and one-half foot concrete lodgepoles rise fifty-six feet in the air and weigh six-and-one-half tons each. The structures were executed in an architectural manner reflecting the spartan lifestyle of the nomadic Lakota (Sioux) . . . — Map (db m37138) HM
South Dakota (Meade County), Sturgis — Bear ButteMountain of Plains Indians — Cheyenne (Nowawaste) Sioux (Mato Paha)
This 4,422 foot high volcanic bubble rises 1,200 feet above the plains, a guide for centuries to Indians, fur traders, soldiers, cowboys, and travelers. It was visited or passed by Verendrye, 1743; Lt. G. K. Warren, 1855; Hayden, the scientist and Reynolds, 1859; Custer, 1874; and since by a galaxy of geological scientists. This was a sacred mountain to the Cheyenne, the first Indians known to white man to live adjacent to it and here Sweet Medicine, their spiritual leader, received four . . . — Map (db m34305) HM
South Dakota (Meade County), Sturgis — Bear Butte (Mato Paha) Indian Camp
This area, extending along Bear Butte Creek, was for centuries a select camp site for the Plains Indians, who found here mountain spring water, wood, protection from the bitter north winds, together with much game and wild fruit in season. Here, or nearly adjacent, was held the Grand Council of 1857 attended by many bands of Plains Indians. This council determined to resist white advance into their lands and most particularly the mountainous area, now known as the Black Hills. Crazy Horse, an . . . — Map (db m34141) HM
South Dakota (Meade County), Sturgis — Camp J.G. Sturgis / Scooptown
Camp J.G. Sturgis Named for Lt. J.G. Sturgis, killed June 25, 1876 at Battle of Little Big Horn. Established July 1, 1878 in this area by Cos. G.F.I.K., 1st US Infantry; D.G. 11th US Infantry; Hq. & Trs. A.C.D.E.G.I.K.M. 7th US Cavalry; Col. S.D. Sturgis, Comdg. joined command July 18; Trs. H.L. joined Aug. 8. Abandoned Aug. 28 troops moving to Camp Ruhlen (now Ft. Meade). Cavalry was one day late to prevent Wagnus massacre a few miles north. Scooptown Was located 1 mile west . . . — Map (db m34404) HM
South Dakota (Meade County), Sturgis — Civilian Conservation Corps Camps
Camps D-Army-1 & SCS-6 (Fechner): 1/2 mile S on W edge of Ft. Meade D-Army-1 company: 2758--7/20/34-10/31/35. SCS-6 companies: 2765--10/15/36-5/27/42; 4725V--5/28/42-7/27/42. The Civilian Conservation Corps was a federal work-relief program during the Great Depression. From 1933 to 1942, the CCC provided work for 31,097 jobless men in South Dakota--about 22,000 enrollees (single men aged 17-25), about 1,700 veterans, 4,554 American Indians and 2,834 supervisors. The U.S. Army provided 200-man . . . — Map (db m34300) HM
South Dakota (Minnehaha County), Garretson — 1908 Palisades Bridge
In 1908 the Western Bridge and Construction Co. of Omaha, Nebraska, built this Pratt-Through Truss Bridge. Workers fastened beams together with diagonal bracing to create a strong rigid framework. Each beam of a truss bridge shares a portion of the weight of the bridge to help displace the weight and stress of crossing traffic. The steel bridge rests on natural abutments of Sioux quartzite. A milldam bridge was built nearby in 1870 when C. W. Patten erected a flour mill on high ground . . . — Map (db m68663) HM
South Dakota (Minnehaha County), Garretson — Garretson
Two events in the 1870s in eastern Minnehaha County, Dakota Territory, provided the stimulus leading to the beginning of the town of Garretson. The first was the founding of the now-vanished village of Palisade, often referred to as Garretson’s “Mother City”. Located high above Split Rock Creek two miles south of this marker, Palisade began when C. W. Patten built a flour mill there in the early 1870’s. The second event was the migration into nearby townships of scores of pioneer . . . — Map (db m69089) HM
South Dakota (Minnehaha County), Sioux Falls — Battleship XU.S.S. South Dakota
[Marker Front] On June 7, 1941, Vera Bushfield, wife of the governor of South Dakota, smashed a bottle of champagne against the towering bow of a new battleship and proudly proclaimed, “I christen thee South Dakota!” While an 80 piece band from Sioux Falls’ Washington High School played “Anchors Away” and “The Star Spangled Banner,” the huge hull of the battleship slowly slid into the Delaware River at Camden, New Jersey. The U.S.S. South Dakota was . . . — Map (db m40516) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Ellsworth AFB — Rockwell B-1B "Lancer"South Dakato Air and Space Museum — Ellsworth Air Force Base
The B-1A was initially developed in the 1970s as a replacement for the B-52. Four prototypes of his long –range, high speed strategic bomber were developed and tested but the program was canceled in 1977 before going into production. The B-1B is an improved variant initiated in 1981. The first production B-1B flew in October 1984 and the first B-1B was delivered to Dyess AFB, Texas in June 1985. The B-1B holds almost 50 world records for speed, payload, range, and time of climb in its . . . — Map (db m70966) HM WM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Hill City — Civilian Conservation Corps Camp
Camp F-2 (DF-2) Horse Creek: Located 2 miles W on Horse Creek. Companies: 791--5/22/33-4/30/34 2752--7/30/34-10/21/35 2761--10/25/35-01/36 2748--01/36-5/25/36 The Civilian Conservation Corps was a federal relief program during 1933-1942 that gave jobless men work renovating abused lands. The Army built 48 200-man camps in South Dakota and provided food, clothing, medical care, pay and programs of education, recreation and religion for 23,709 enrollees (single men aged 17-25 who sent $25 of . . . — Map (db m34275) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Hill City — Hill City
First laid out as a gold camp in February 1876 by Thomas Harvey, John Miller and Hugh McCullough, the rich strikes in the Northern Hills made it a deserted village by May 1876. Its deserted cabins had many transient occupants and the cabin that stood just behind this marker was last occupied by a family named Crippen. Prior to 1880 Samuel H. Coates and others came and needing a school, re-chinked the outside with mud, the inside with V-shaped slats and Coates taught the school. By the time of . . . — Map (db m34250) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Hill City — Multiple Purpose Management in Action
This young Ponderosa Pine forest was thinned by the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1935 to improve the growth of the remaining trees[.] The first commercial harvest was made in 1959 when the area was thinned again for posts and poles. From now on a commercial cutting can be made about every twenty years. The best trees have been pruned to produce knot-free lumber. Young trees becoming established will replace the older trees as they are harvested. Under multiple-use management, this roadside . . . — Map (db m37116) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Hill City — Sheridan1875-1942
Sheridan, located 1/2 mile NE, now 30 feet under water, was named for General Philip Sheridan and founded in 1875 on Cheyenne-Deadwood Trail, as Golden, in the belief that fabulous placer gold existed here. Still Indian Country and everybody a trespasser until 1877 Sheridan was named county seat of Pennington County on April 19 and in October of that year Judge Granville G. Bennett held first term of Court in Black Hills there. The first gold seekers here came in early July 1875 and were Andre . . . — Map (db m34276) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Hill City — The Black Hills Central Railroad1880 Train
The Black Hills Central Railroad has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places by the United States Department of the Interior 1893 — Map (db m70976) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Interior — Journey to Wounded KneeBadlands National Park
Journey to Wounded Knee-December 24, 1890 a bitter Christmas Eve wind rattled the wagon in which Minneconjou Chief Big Foot lay waiting while his people cleared a pass down the Badlands Wall. Several hours of hard work with axes and spades made the disused trail passable. The band of 350 men, women, and children continued their flight from units of the United States Army.

Big Foot was ill, close to death, and disillusioned by the broken promises of Whites and by the lack of unity among . . . — Map (db m62104) HM

South Dakota (Pennington County), Johnson Siding — Civilian Conservation Corps Camp
Camp F-4: Pactola Campsite inundated by Lake Pactola. Companies: 1789--6/8/33-10/35 2748--5/25/36-1940 The Civilian Conservation Corps was a federal relief program during 1933-1942 that gave jobless men work renovating abused lands. The Army built 48 200-man camps in South Dakota and provided food, clothing, medical care, pay and programs of education, recreation and religion for 23,709 enrollees (single men aged 17-25 who sent $25 of their $30 wage to their families) and war veterans. . . . — Map (db m34249) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Johnson Siding — Pactola Dam & ReservoirFlood Control, Irrigation & Recreation
Construction of Pactola Dam began in 1952 and was completed in 1956. At times nearly 200 men worked on the dam. Unskilled workers earned $1.25 an hour and skilled workers $2.75 an hour. The men placed 2,163,251 cubic yards of impervious earthfill and 2,156,742 cubic yards of rockfill for a total of 4,319,993 cubic yards of embankment fill. There were no accidental deaths in the four years of construction at Pactola, but numerous injuries resulted from the steep terrain and outcroppings of hard . . . — Map (db m37064) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Johnson Siding — Water for a Thirsty WestThe Rapid Valley Unit & Project
By the mid-20th century, water in the West did more than irrigate 160 acre patches of alfalfa. Water flowed as the life blood of cities, private industries, and military bases. Droughts during the 1930s illustrated that Rapid City could not depend on surrounding springs as the foundation of a municipal water supply. In 1942, the War Department broke ground on Ellsworth Air Force Base northeast of the city. The additional 5,000 military personnel strained the city's water supply. This . . . — Map (db m37070) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Keystone — After the Fire
The Galena Fire consumed 16,788 acres, mostly within the borders of Custer State Park. More than $2.1 million was spent fighting the fire, and about $4.4 million worth of timber burned. None of Custer State Park's buildings were damaged, no people were injured, and few animals were lost in the fire. Recovery efforts have been made to ensure that vegetation on the most severely burned portions of the fire area has successfully covered the soil surface.

1988 The West on Fire The severe . . . — Map (db m45351) HM

South Dakota (Pennington County), Keystone — Gutzon Borglum(John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum) — Born March 25, 1867--Died March 6, 1941
His birthplace was Idaho. California first taught him art. Then France, who first gave him fame. England welcomed him. America called him home. His genius for the exquisite as for the colossal, gave permanence on canvas, in bronze, in marble, to moods of beauty or passion, to figures of legend and history. Nations, cities, colleges paid him tribute. As a patriot, he stripped corruption bare. As a statesman, he toiled for equality in the rights of man. At last he carved a mountain for a . . . — Map (db m49105) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Keystone — Peter Norbeck
Norbeck Wildlife Preserve Created by Act of Congress, 1949 Peter Norbeck 1870 – 1936 Well driller, Statesman, first native Governor of South Dakota, U.S. Senator, founder of Custer State Park, sponsor of Mount Rushmore Memorial, road builder, art lover, poet of nature, patriot, gentleman. His was the heritage of cold, strong lands: his the pioneer vision which saw far ahead, far beyond. He felt the strong heart throb of his beloved people commanding him to do . . . — Map (db m4395) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Keystone — Rushmore Workers
1927–1941 (list of names) Map (db m2114) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Keystone — The Galena Fire Chronology
Contributing Factors For several months prior to the Galena Fire, weather conditions were unusually hot and dry. Average annual precipitation for this region is 18 inches. In the 12 months before the fire only 11 inches fell in the Park.

The Fire Begins A large lightning storm passed over the Black Hills on the evening of July 4, 1988. On the morning of July 5, staff at Mount Coolidge firetower spotted smoke in a remote section of the Park near Galena Creek. Suppression efforts began . . . — Map (db m45350) HM

South Dakota (Pennington County), Keystone — Wildlife and Fire
It would seem that a large forest fire would destroy an area for wildlife. However, the Galena Fire has improved much of the Park's wildlife habitat. The fire created many open meadows where grasses and shrubs are now growing. The mixture of meadow and forest created by a large fire provides better food and cover for animals. Initially, Park managers seeded the severely burned areas with quick growing clover to prevent erosion. Now a wide variety of plants can be found throughout the burned . . . — Map (db m45352) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Scenic — Cliff Shelf Nature Trail
This loop trail rises 300 feet to a dramatic view of the White River Valley. From this elevation you can also see the flat-topped Eagle Butte, 25 miles (40 km) to the south. Humans have used the Cliff Shelf for more than 11,000 years. More than 50 plant species and 100 bird species have been identified in this small area.

The dense, compacted area of a geologic slump retains moisture and fosters the rich vegetation you see on this trail. Things to Know Before You Go Accessible Boardwalk . . . — Map (db m45290) HM

South Dakota (Pennington County), Wall — Born of Volcanos
Thirty-seven million years ago, the ancient crystalline core of the Black Hills had already been exposed by erosion. The long blue profile of those mountains, visible to the west, looked much as it does now. About that time, streams flowing from the west began to deposit sediments in this area. Most of the sediment was wind blown volcanic ash which had settled into the watershed which fed the streams. Occasionally the rivers brought gravel and stream-worn rocks from the Black Hills . . . — Map (db m4404) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Wall — High Security
The fence in front of you once guarded the Delta-09 Launch Facility which held a Minuteman II intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). During the Cold War, anyone or anything that crossed this fence was in serious trouble. Standing orders meant the use of deadly force was authorized. Motion sensors recorded activity day and night. Now imagine one thousand ICBM silos like this, each roughly the size of a football field, scattered widely across the American heartlands. Here you see part of . . . — Map (db m66953) HM
South Dakota (Pennington County), Wall — Jungle on a Seabed
A jungle grew here. Before that, a shallow sea covered the land. Both are gone now, but both left evidence of their passing. The sea's signature is ammonites, baculites, and clams, pearly fossils entombed in a fossil mud called the Pierre Shale. This shale is exposed in the gully below you. A jungle sprang up after the sea drained away about 65 million years ago. For a long time tree roots broke up the shale, and chemicals from decaying plants produced a yellow soil. About 37 . . . — Map (db m4399) HM
South Dakota (Shannon County), Wounded Knee — Massacre of Wounded Knee
[Front side]: Dec. 29, 1890, Chief Big Foot, with his Minneconjou and Hunkpapa Sioux Band of 108 warriors, 250 women and children were encamped on this Flat, surrounded by the U.S. 7th Cavalry (470 soldiers) commanded by Col. Forsythe. The "Messiah Craze" possessed many Indians, who left the vicinity of Ind. Agencies to "Ghost Dance" during the summer and fall of 1890. "Unrest" on the Pine Ridge Reservation was partly due to the reduction of beef rations by Congress, and to the . . . — Map (db m40643) HM
South Dakota (Walworth County), Selby — Bangor
This monument marks the side of Bangor County seat of Walworth County 1884 -1909 Scranton 1883-1884 Bangor 1884-1904 Selby 1904-1905 Bangor 1905-1909 Selby 1909-1950 — Map (db m44714) HM
South Dakota (Walworth County), Selby — You are now on the 100° Meridian
Historically that meridian is significant. For two generations the Insurance Companies and other worldwide lending agencies would not, as a matter of agreed policy, lend a shiny dime west of this line. There reason was that some geographer had labeled it the EAST EDGE of the Great American Desert. Neither the geographer nor the Insurance Companies had been west of 100°. Today, more that a quarter of America's new animal wealth alone, is produced from that misnamed desert. This unrealistic, . . . — Map (db m44712) HM
South Dakota (Yankton County), Yankton — Courthouse Memorial
The Yankton County Courthouse stood at this site from 1905 to 2003. The handsome three-story building was dedicated Nov. 1, 1905. Speakers at that event estimated it would have "a long life of 25 years." The building far exceeded those expectations and served Yankton County residents for most of a century. Inspections and tests by a team of architects and engineers in 1999 and 2000 revealed several serious flaws in the structural integrity of the courthouse building. A new Yankton County . . . — Map (db m742) HM
South Dakota (Yankton County), Yankton — Pierre Dorion, Sr.
West of this stone near the crest of the hill is the burial site of Pierre Dorion, Sr., an early trader in what is now South Dakota. Born in Canada in 1740, Pierre came to this area around 1774–1775 to trade with the Sioux. He married Holy Rainbow, the daughter of a Yankton Sioux chief. While delivering a boatload of hides and tallow to St. Louis, Pierre met the Corps of Discovery on June 12th, 1804 on their trek upriver and was hired as their interpreter. On August 29th & 30th, . . . — Map (db m34829) HM
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