|Wyoming (Albany County), Buford — Lonetree on the Laramie Range|
|This area of southeast Wyoming is rich in history, geology and recreational activities. Within a short distance from this point, sites abound of early day events that have shaped the western heritage of this area, including the Arapaho and Cheyenne Indian tribes who hunted and camped within the shelter of the Vedauwoo Rocks. The transcontinental railroad tracks of the Union Pacific Railroad are a short distance to the west as is the Ames Monument, erected to commemorate the highest point of the . . . — Map (db m68052) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Buford — Sherman Mountains|
|The Sherman Mountains are erosional remnants rising above the general level of the surface of the Laramie Range. The flat topped characteristic of the range resulted from beveling during an ancient erosion cycle. Bedrock here is granite, a crystalline rock made up of pink feldspar, glassy quartz, black mica and hornblende, which originated deep in the earth's crust over a billion years ago.
The peculiar rock forms of the Sherman Mountains are controlled by three sets of joints, or planes . . . — Map (db m68051)|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Buford — Tree Rock|
|This small pine tree that seems to be growing out of solid rock has fascinated travelers since the first train rolled past on the Union Pacific Railroad. It is said that the builders of the original railroad diverted the tracks slightly to pass by the tree as they laid rails across Sherman Mountain in 1867-69. It is also said that trains stopped here while locomotive fireman "gave the tree a drink" from their water buckets. The railroad moved several miles to the south in 1901 and the abandoned . . . — Map (db m62159) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — 150 N. 2nd Street|
|Built in 1869 for the Methodist Episcopal Church, this edifice is likely the oldest church building in Wyoming.
It originally was located across the street where the Elks Lodge now stands. — Map (db m76783) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Abraham Lincoln — "We must think anew and act anew"|
|1809 - 1865 This monument commemorates the sesquicentennial of Lincoln's birth by the State of Wyoming in 1959 Charles W. Jeffrey, M.D., Rawlins - Wyo. Donor Robert I. Russin, Sculptor — Map (db m47144) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — First Woman Jury|
|This tablet marks the site where the first woman jury served during March 1870
Placed in 1922
The Jacques LaRamie
Chapter Daughters of The American Revolution — Map (db m76786) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Ft. Sanders — 1866-1882|
The emigrant trails across Wyoming were a vital link in the transcontinental migration of an estimated 250,000 Americans in the 19th century, and opened the area to settlers. The Indians resented this intrusion and threatened these transportation corridors. Ft. Sanders, one of several army posts built along the trails, was established to protect emigrant, military and stage line traffic on the Laramie Plains portion of the Overland/Cherokee and Lodgepole Creek Trails.
. . . — Map (db m67994) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Gateway to the Rockies|
|Tall trees, short trees, shrubs, grasses and flowering plants -- mountains, canyons, river bottoms, and prairies -- all intermingle to form the landscape. The greater the variety of landforms and vegetation, the more homes or habitats there are for wildlife.|
the large expanses of native wildland habitats make Wyoming unique and the home to over 600 species of native wildlife.
Here at the Gateway to the Rockies you will see animals of the conifer forest. The golden-crowned kinglet is found . . . — Map (db m47149) HM
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Henry B. Joy Monument|
"That there should be a Lincoln Highway across this country is the most important thing"
In memory of Henry B. Joy
The first president of the Lincoln Highway Association
Who saw realized the dream of a continuous improved highway from the Atlantic to the Pacific — Map (db m84887) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Henry Bourne Joy and the Lincoln Highway|
|This monument commemorates the Lincoln Highway, America's first transcontinental automobile road, and Henry Bourne Joy, the first president of the Lincoln Highway Association (1913). Joy, also president of the Packard Motor Car Company, is sometimes called the father of the nation's modern highway system. he said that his effort to create the Lincoln Highway was "the greatest thing I ever did."|
The old Lincoln Highway passed over the crest of the hill seen beyond the monument. This was the . . . — Map (db m47145) HM
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Laramie|
|Founded in 1868 upon the arrival of the Union Pacific Railroad, Laramie was named after the fur trader Jacques LaRamie. The first female jurors served here in 1870 after Wyoming Territory in 1869, for the first time in history, gave women full rights of suffrage. Humorist Bill Nye founded his Boomerang newspaper in 1881, and the University of Wyoming opened its doors in 1887. At the south edge of the city lie the ruins of Fort Sanders, 1866-1882. West of the city can be seen the first . . . — Map (db m67993) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Laramie|
|Founded in 1868 upon the arrival of the Union Pacific Railroad, Laramie was named after the fur trader Jacques LaRamie. The first female jurors served here in 1870 after Wyoming Territory, in 1869, for the first time in history, gave women full rights of suffrage. Humorist Bill Nye founded his Boomerang newspaper in 1881, and the University of Wyoming opened its doors in 1887. At the south edge of the city lie the ruins of Fort Sanders, 1866-1882. West of the city can be seen the first . . . — Map (db m76789) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Laramie Timeline|
|This marker is made up of a dozen plaques embedded in a cement patio and a map of historic Laramie also embedded in patio. As each plaque has the same format, only a few of them have been illustrated.
French Canadian Jacques LaRamie trapped beaver throughout the bountiful rivers and steams of southeast Wyoming. Today a city, county river, mountain range, peak and fort bear his name. Only mountain man Jim Bridger has Wyoming landmarks named for him.
May 1868 . . . — Map (db m76849) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Ranching from the High Point|
|This area of Albany and Laramie Counties is noted for its rich agricultural history. The forests and rolling hills were home to large sheep and cattle herds from the mid 1800s into the 1900s. After the Civil War, trees harvested from what is now the Medicine Bow National Forest helped build the Union Pacific Railroad -- essential to moving livestock to markets. Cheyenne was known in the 1880s as "the wealthiest little city in the world". Much of this wealth was held by area cattle barons.|
Tom . . . — Map (db m47150) HM
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Site of Fort Sanders|
Marks the Site of
Established September 5, 1866
Abandoned May 18, 1882
Named in Honor of
William P. Sanders
Erected by the
State of Wyoming
Jacques Laramie Chapter
Daughters of the
From July 10, to
September 5, 1866
Fort John Buford — Map (db m67995) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Telephone Canyon|
|The first in the west through which a telephone line was run. The first conversation over this line was held in 1882 between Bill Nye at Laramie and Hon. E. E. Warren at Cheyenne. — Map (db m47148) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — The Franchise|
John D. Baker
The title “The Franchise” refers to the recognition and bestowal of the right of women to vote under full civil equality with men. In 1869, Wyoming became the first state or territory to grant this right.
This act was inspirational to both the women’s suffrage movement and the cause of civil rights throughout the nation. The nineteenth amendment to the United States Constitution would not be ratified until 1920 - fifty years later. . . . — Map (db m76744) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — The Purple Heart Trail|
|The Purple Heart Medal was originated by General George Washington on August 7, 1782 for distinguished valor and is now awarded only to members of the armed forces of the United States, who have been wounded in combat against an armed enemy.|
Recipients of this unique award have been specifically honored by the U.S. Congress as a chartered fraternal organization known as the Military Order of the Purple Heart and have active members in Chapters throughout Wyoming, the United States and the . . . — Map (db m47143) HM
|Wyoming (Big Horn County), Lovell — Raptors: Winged Hunters of Bighorn Canyon — Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior|
|Raptors are graceful hunters of Bighorn Canyon. The location is ideal home for these birds of prey because of the abundance of food and excellent nesting spots. Watch for these magnificent birds in action. — Map (db m62158) HM|
|Wyoming (Big Horn County), Shell — Copman's Tomb|
|The red cliff face to your left flanks Sunlight Mesa. At the top is Elephant Head Rock, so named because of its shape. The triangle-shaped mountain to the right is named Pyramid Peak. To your far right is a prominent rock-topped mountain called Copman's Tomb. Copman's Tomb is named after Wolfgang R. Copman, a pioneer who was fascinated by the Canyon's splendor, and asked that his ashes be scattered over the mountain when he died.
At the bottom of Shell Canyon, Shell Creek flows as it has . . . — Map (db m68892) HM|
|Wyoming (Big Horn County), Shell — Nature's Destruction|
|In June 1959, a tornado roared over the south rim of the canyon directly before you. Its path was along Granite Creek to your left and through what used to be Granite Creek Campground. One person was killed. The twister ripped up timber and laid it out in the pattern you see now.
While tornadoes usually occur on the plains, several have visited the Big Horn Mountains. Blowing down mountain timber at 10,000 feet above sea level, these tornadoes are among the highest on record. The Forest . . . — Map (db m71500) HM|
|Wyoming (Carbon County), Elk Mountain — Wagonhound Rest Area|
|The area near the Wagonhound Rest Area has played an important role in western transportation since the earliest days of human activity in the Rock Mountain west. The area has provided Wyoming's earliest inhabitants, explorers, westbound settlers, and modern travelers with a viable rout around the formidable Elk Mountain and the Medicine Bow range. numerous teepee rings in the immediate vicinity attest to the fact Native Americans utilized the area for thousands of years as they lived and . . . — Map (db m47142) HM|
|Wyoming (Carbon County), Elk Mountain — Wagonhound Tipi Rings|
|The stone circles of "Tipi Rings" as this site mark the location of a prehistoric Native American campsite. The stones were probably used to anchor the skins of conical tents known by the Sioux word "Tipi". the stones were placed around the base of the tipi to hold down the skins as well as to provide additional support to the tipi in high winds. After the introduction of the metal ax, wooden pegs gradually replaced the tones for holding down the skins.|
The tipi was used for shelter and . . . — Map (db m47141) HM
|Wyoming (Carbon County), Elk Mountain — Wyoming Winds|
|This site lies at the northern-most extent of the Snowy Range Mountains, a spot where the high mountain peaks end and the winds begin. Winds here may exceed 70 miles per hour at times, blowing winter snows, leaving ridges and slopes bare, and exposing grasses and shrubs to provide food for elk, mule deer and pronghorn antelope.|
Elk and mule deer migrate from the high mountain summer ranges to these foothills and basins to winter. The Wyoming game and Fish Department has acquired 12,870 acres . . . — Map (db m47140) HM
|Wyoming (Carbon County), Rawlins — Rawlins Springs|
|In the summer of 1867, a survey party led by General Grenville M. Dodge seeking a route for the Union Pacific Railroad stopped here.
General John A. Rawlins, a member of the party, spoke of the spring as "the most gracious and acceptable of anything he had had on the march" and said that if anything was ever named after him he wanted it to be a spring of water.
General Dodge replied "We will name this Rawlins Springs." — Map (db m67982) HM|
|Wyoming (Carbon County), Saratoga — This Marker on the Overland Trail|
This marker on the
Platte River crossing
nine miles west
1861 to 1868 — Map (db m62160) HM|
|Wyoming (Carbon County), Sinclair — Fort Fred Steele — Historical Overview|
|The south central portion of Wyoming has long been a travel corridor for prehistoric and historic people. Native American tribes from the Great Basin region to the west crossed this area to hunt buffalo on the eastern plains.
From 1810 until the decline of the Rocky Mountain fur trade in the late 1830's, fur traders and trappers traversed this region on their way west in quest of beaver pelts, then retraced their route east laden with furs. These men left little evidence of their . . . — Map (db m67988) HM|
|Wyoming (Carbon County), Sinclair — Fort Fred Steele|
Fort Fred Steele
U.S. Military Post
June 30, 1868
August 7, 1886
Marked by the
State of Wyoming
1914 — Map (db m67989) HM|
|Wyoming (Carbon County), Sinclair — Ranching Central|
|You are in Carbon County, an area central to Wyoming's past and present ranching industry. In the 1930s the county was populated by over one million sheep and annually shipped more pounds of wool than any other county in the United States.
Today cattle dominate the ranching scene with nearly 100,000 head in the county. The rough forage common to this dry desert area with normal annual precipitation of less than 11 inches is well-suited to harvesting disease-free, all-natural beef . . . — Map (db m67987) HM|
|Wyoming (Carbon County), Sinclair — Viewing the Fort Grounds|
|Fort Fred Steele was established in 1868 as one of a group of military posts placed along the route of the Trans-Continental Railroad to protect and support the railroad construction. Today, except for the Powder Magazine (south of the Railroad tracks), only foundations remain. The buildings are marked with metal signs indicating the original use of the building and the dotted lines on the above map closely follows the original Parade Ground Path. This post did have some unique structures. . . . — Map (db m71623) HM|
|Wyoming (Carbon County), Sinclair — Wyoming - A Fortress for Wildlife|
|It is not happenstance that Wyoming hosts a wealth of our nation's wildlife resource. Early explorers wrote descriptions of the buffalo, "... blackening the plains as far as the eye could see. The pronghorn antelope were as numerous as the buffalo."
The rush to the West increased in tempo in the late 1800's. The game herds seemed limitless and settlers took their wildlife for granted. Buffalo, antelope, elk and mountain sheep became nearly extinct by 1900. Market hunters, taking . . . — Map (db m67986)|
|Wyoming (Converse County), Douglas — Bozeman Trail|
|From this point, the Bozeman Trail wound a long, twisting northwesterly route to the Montana goldfields. This view points out a portion of that difficult and dangerous road. The map shows the locations of forts, rivers and mountains along the trail.
Also leaving the fort at this point was the telegraph line to Fort Reno, about 75 miles northwest. Later, with the abandonment of that fort in 1868, the line ended here until it was extended to Fort McKinney, established in 1878, near the present town of Buffalo. — Map (db m80089) HM|
|Wyoming (Converse County), Douglas — Formation of Ayres Natural Bridge|
|Meandering La Prele Creek drainage cuts into alternating layers of sandstone and sandy limestone of the Permian / Pennsylvanian Casper formation.
La Prele Creek erodes both the upstream and downstream sides of the outcrop.
Undercutting by creek collapses the lower level of stone forming the bridge. The creek then follows the shortcut, flowing undern the bridge.
In memory of Lou B. Reed — Map (db m71496)|
|Wyoming (Converse County), Douglas — Fort Fetterman — (1867-1882)|
|This plateau above LaPrele Creek and the North Platte River was chosen as an Army post by Major Dye who described it as “…being neither so low as to be seriously affected by the rains or snow; nor so high and unprotected as to suffer from the winter winds.” This optimistic view did not stand up during the winter months.
The museum’s exhibits, restored buildings, and trails leading to the remains of the Fort, provide a glimpse into Army operations at this remote outpost and into . . . — Map (db m80092) HM|
|Wyoming (Converse County), Douglas — Hog Ranch|
|Above is an artist’s conception of the interior of the Fort Fetterman version of a “Hog Ranch,” a common frontier term used to describe certain off-post facilities which catered to the lonely soldier’s desire for wine, women and song. A cluster of cabins, the “ranch” was typical of similar establishments located outside the bounds of many western military reservations. This one was among the most notorious in the history of the west. The device on the right shows its . . . — Map (db m80093) HM|
|Wyoming (Converse County), Douglas — James Bridger’s Ferry|
| James Bridger’s Ferry,
established in 1864, was
located 1500 feet up the
river from this monument. — Map (db m80088) HM|
|Wyoming (Converse County), Douglas — Natural Bridge and the Oregon Trail|
|The Oregon Trail crosses LaPrele Creek about one mile downstream from Natural Bridge. Before the modern road was built into the gorge, Natural Bridge was difficult to access, and it was only rarely visited by emigrants of the covered wagon era. From time to time, however, a few ambitious travelers made their way through the heavy brush and down the steep walls of the canyon to see this remarkable work of nature.
While Native Americans were probably well aware of Natural Bridge, the . . . — Map (db m71495) HM|
|Wyoming (Converse County), Douglas — The One Mile Hog Ranch|
|Also known as the Hog Ranch at Fetterman, the One Mile Hog Ranch was perhaps the rowdiest, roughest and most dangerous red light establishment in Wyoming. Built by Harrison Kane in 1880, the saloon sat just across the Platte River, about one mile north of Fort Fetterman, a government-controlled military reservation on the Bozeman Trail. With the addition of a dance hall and bawdy house, the place soon acquired a tough reputation. Not only did Kane’s whiskey business flourish but he had poker . . . — Map (db m80124) HM|
|Wyoming (Converse County), Douglas — Water Supply|
|From this location, where the water reservoir once stood, one can see several interesting points. The sighting device points out the location of the pump used during the later years to supply the fort with water. Prior to installation of the pump the water detail was usually a punishment duty, water having been dipped from the river and hauled in a wooden tank wagon to the fort. There were never any wells on the grounds of the post. — Map (db m80091) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Aladdin — Aladdin Tipple History|
|The Aladdin Tipple in Crook County, Wyoming, was constructed as part of the Aladdin coal mining operations. In 1898, an 18-mile-long short line known as the Wyoming and Missouri River Railroad was built to connect coal mines near Aladdin with the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad main line at Belle Fourche, South Dakota. The railroad linked the coal mines at Aladdin with the gold smelters at Lead and Deadwood. The Black Hills Coal Company, which built both the mine and the Wyoming and Missouri . . . — Map (db m34833) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Aladdin — Custer's 1874 Expedition|
|During the summer of 1874, General George Armstrong Custer led the first official government expedition to the Black Hills, which the Sioux Indians claimed as their territory. Although the United States Government officially sent this expedition of more than 1,000 men to scout for a new fort location, the presence of engineers, geologists, and miners indicated that recording the topography, geography, and location of gold deposits were other important goals.
The expedition's discovery of . . . — Map (db m34586) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Aladdin — Vore Buffalo Jump|
|Plains Indians depended upon buffalo for many of their material needs - food, shelter, clothing, tools, fuel, ceremonial objects, even toys. Prior to acquiring horses in the 18th century, hunting individual animals on foot with bows and arrows was difficult and dangerous. As winter approached, tribes often joined in communal hunts to provide meat and hides for harsh winters by driving herds of buffalo over a cliff or into a trap where the animals were killed, butchered and processed in . . . — Map (db m45545) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Devils Tower — Devils Tower|
|Devils Tower, an important landmark for Plains Indian tribes long before the white man reached Wyoming, was called Mateo Tepee, or Grizzly Bear Lodge, by the Sioux. A number of Indian legends describe the origin of Devils Tower. One legend tells about seven little girls chased onto a low rock to escape attacking bears. Their prayers for help were heeded. The rock carried them upward to safety as the claws of the leaping bears left furrowed columns in the sides of the ascending tower. . . . — Map (db m34465) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Hulett — Buried Tower — Devils Tower National Monument|
|Ancient rivers took millions of years to excavate Devils Tower. The waters carried away softer sedimentary rocks leaving behind the hard igneous rock called phonolite. This rock type is found here in northeastern Wyoming, and central Montana, but mostly in east Africa.
The Tower is still emerging. The Belle Fourche River (below) continues to wash away the softer sedimentary rocks. Plateaus across the valley—some higher than the Tower’s summit—are eroded layers of the same . . . — Map (db m72588)|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Hulett — Camp Devin|
|The Ft. Laramie treaties of 1851 & 1868 set aside the Black Hills for the Sioux, for as long as the grass shall grow and the river shall flow. Nevertheless, in 1874 Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer was sent to investigate rumors of gold in the area giving rise to a flood of goldseekers and camp followers who poured into the hills violating the treaties. Sioux representatives were called to Washington to negotiate, but in November 1875, before a new agreement could be reached, President Grant . . . — Map (db m42556) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Hulett — Devils Tower|
|Devils Tower, known as Bear's Lodge to Northern Plains Tribes, rises high above the Belle Fourche River, grasslands, and ponderosa pine forests. This major landmark of the Northern Great Plains has attracted people for thousands of years. Today, it still holds many meanings for people including American Indians, local ranchers, rock climbers and thousands of visitors from near and far.
The Tower and the Missouri Buttes to the northwest formed about 50 million years ago. They are the result . . . — Map (db m34463) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Hulett — How Did the Tower Form? — Devils Tower National Monument|
|The process began about 50 million years ago. Magma (molten rock) was injected into layers of sedimentary rock, forming the Tower one and one-half miles below the earth’s surface. It has since taken millions of years to erode away the surrounding sedimentary rock to expose the Tower we see today.
Geologists agree the Tower is an igneous (hardened magma) intrusion, but have three different interpretations of the Tower’s original size and shape. Because of erosion, we may never know which . . . — Map (db m72589)|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Hulett — Life Above and Below Ground — Devils Tower National Monument|
|Above ground, prairie dogs are usually looking for plants to eat, eating, or scanning for predators. At a warning bark, prairie dogs dive into a dark city of tunnels, where they spend more than half their lives. They play an important role in the prairie ecosystem. Their habits change the environment, resulting in increased plant and animal diversity.
Eradication programs have reduced the black-tailed prairie dog’s range from thousands of square miles to a few scattered preserves like this . . . — Map (db m71946)|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Hulett — People of the Land — Devils Tower National Monument|
|The Tower and Black Hills area have been a gathering place and home to many people. Archeological discoveries show that native people lived here 10,000 years ago. As time passed, Arapaho, Cheyenne, Crow, Kiowa, Lakota, and Shoshone all developed cultural and spiritual connections with the Tower. They continue to hand down their beliefs from one generation to the next.
The Great Race
Once the buffalo believed they were the most powerful creature. Humans thought this unfair. So the . . . — Map (db m72587) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Sundance — Paha Sapa, Black Hills — Geologic History of the Lakotas' Sacred Hills|
|Also known as "Temple of the Sioux," Sundance Mountain rises majestically in the southwest. It belongs to the Bear Lodge Mountain Range, which defines the northwestern edge of the Black Hills. It was named for the Plains Indians' religious ceremony—and in turn it provided the name for the town at its base, which dubbed one of its earliest and most notorious prisoners, the "Sundance Kid." In the Lakota language, the mountain is called Wi Wacipi Paha, which literally means Sun Dance . . . — Map (db m45541) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Sundance — Bird of the Black Hills — The Black Hills are Home to more than 200 Species of Glorious Birds|
|The Red Valley surrounding you belongs to the transition zone between the flat, treeless Great Plains and the pine-forested Black Hills. Artesian springs and creeks draining from the hills and mountains create draws that provide water, shade, and food for wildlife. The mixture of habitats here attract abundant birds and mammals, making this an excellent area for wildlife viewing, particularly birding. Here are some of the many species you might see in these red lands stretching between . . . — Map (db m45536) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Sundance — Petrified Trees — Fossils Give Clues to Wyoming's Paleo-Past|
|Giant cypress trees growing today in swamps (or forested wetlands), such as these found in Louisiana's Pointe Lake, used to grow in Wyoming back when it was a warm, subtropical swamp - about 55 million years ago during the Late Paleocene epoch. Some of these ancient trees were buried under sediment and turned to stone. the three petrified trees located here were found during coal mining operations at the Eagle Butte Mine near Gillette. They were generously donated by Alpha Coal West, Inc., and . . . — Map (db m45539) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Sundance — Rich Colors, Rich Lands — Gold Metal, Green Grass, Black Coal & Crude|
|The first Caucasian residents of this area came as prospectors following the Black Hills Gold Rush. In 1876 the glitter of gold led them from the large mining camps of Lead and Deadwood westward to Sand Creek, located near this site. Instead of moving on when they reached the end of the precious vein, many of these adventurers settled here, shifting their energies to other forms of mining as well as farming and ranching.|
Aladdin Coal Mines The Black Hills Gold Rush brought with it the . . . — Map (db m45535) HM
|Wyoming (Crook County), Sundance — The Custer Trail — Site of Sacred Lands and Historic Battles|
|Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer's Black Hills Expedition crossed northeastern Wyoming from July 17-25, 1874, camping within three miles of this location. forged by 1000 men (cavalry, infantry, teamsters, scientists, miners, newspaper reporters, Santee Sioux guides, and Arikara guides), four artillery pieces, 110 supply wagons, and about 1600 animals (horses, mules, and cattle), traces of the trail can still be seen today. This tour, which trespassed on Lakota land, led to war, seizure of . . . — Map (db m45381) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Sundance — The Vore Buffalo Jump — Hunting Large Bison Took Teamwork and Ingenuity|
|Located a short distance to the east and camouflaged by the red eroded landscape is the Vore Buffalo Jump. This sinkhole served early residents as a slaughterhouse. using the natural pit as a trap, hunters would capture bison in late fall by running a herd over the edge. Once killed, the animals were butchered to provide food and supplies for winter.|
The Coordinated Bison Hunt The hunters camped and made ceremonial preparations downwind and out of sight of the jump. Days before the hunt, . . . — Map (db m45537) HM
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Atlantic City — Atlantic City: Surviving the Bust|
|Centrally located on the gold-bearing vein in the area, mines literally surrounded Atlantic City by the fall of 1868. The townspeople soon fostered a thriving business community. In addition to sawmills and blacksmith shops, Atlantic City boasted of beer breweries and one of Wyoming Territory’s first public schools.
Boom rapidly led to bust and the town faltered for a time. A French capitalist, Emile Granier, revived mining interests in the late 1880’s and early 1890’s with a short-lived . . . — Map (db m80134) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Atlantic City — Fort Stambaugh, 1870-1878|
| was established to protect from Indians the gold mining camps of South Pass City, Atlantic City, Miners’ Delight, and others. It was named for 1st Lt. Charles B. Stambaugh, 2nd Cavalry, U.S.A. who was shot from his horse by Indians when defending a freighting party, May 4, 1870. Site about 6 miles East. — Map (db m80145) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Atlantic City — Miners Delight: The Boom’s Broken Promises — The Boom’s Broken Promises|
|As the news of gold spread, the Sweetwater Mining District filled with miners who established Hamilton City about two miles east of here in 1867. The following year, the name of the town changed to Miners Delight, after a highly productive nearby mine. The Miners Delight mine produced the greatest wealth of any in the mining district while the town remained the smallest and most isolated. According to a 1916 government report, the Miners Delight mine and surrounding placers has produced over . . . — Map (db m80133) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Hudson — Bonneville Cabins|
|Five hundred yards northwest of this marker stood the Bonneville Cabins, built by Captain B.L.E. Bonneville in 1835 to store his trade goods. Three cabins were constructed and later two more. They were long known as “The Five Cabins, : the first mercantile establishment in central Wyoming. In 1866 Major Noyes Baldwin moved a stock of goods into the cabins to trade with Shoshoni Indians, but vacated the following year because of Indian hostilities. In 1868 he located a trading post on . . . — Map (db m80128) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Jeffrey City — Gold Flakes to Yellowcake Historic Mine Trail|
|The Historic Mine Trail and Byway Program designated the Gold Flakes to Yellowstone Historic Mine Trail in 2005. This trail links significant finds of gold, iron ore, and uranium, each of which played important roles in Wyoming's history.
The Gold Flakes Region
Gold found at the Carissa lode in 1867 set off a rush, Wyoming's largest, to the South Pass region. The towns of Miners Delight and Atlantic City sprouted to support the miners. The gold quickly played out, and most people . . . — Map (db m67009) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Jeffrey City — Ice Slough|
|Ice Slough is a small stream that flows into the Sweetwater River five miles east of here. In front of this point is a slough (i.e. a marsh or shallow un-drained depression). This slough gave the name to the stream east of here. In the "Ice Slough" the marshes soils and plants insulated the previous winter's ice and it melted slowly throughout the summer. Under the marshes a thick mat of ice could be found late into June or early July. Westward bound immigrants would stop their wagons here for . . . — Map (db m62076) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Jeffrey City — Jeffrey City — Biggest Bust of Them All|
|Home on the range, a tiny community consisting of a post office, gas station, and a few souls, sat quiet and undisturbed along this lonesome stretch of highway until the 1950's. That all changed when the nation's uranium industry boomed after World War II.
In the early 1950s, prospectors started combing Wyoming's hills for surefire riches. Then, in 1954 prospector Robert (Bob) Adams discovered uranium. He founded the Lost Creek Oil and Uranium Company, purchased property next . . . — Map (db m67008) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Jeffrey City — Pony Express|
The need was there
Competing with time, harsh climates, long distances, tough terrain and the hostility of numerous Indian bands, the Pony Express carried the mail 1600 miles across the West. From April 4, 1860 to October 24, 1861, the California Overland Mail and Pikes Peak Express, better known as the Pony Express, was this Nation's western communications link. It kept the West informed and helped keep California in the Union at the outbreak of the Civil War.
Buffalo . . . — Map (db m69604) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Jeffrey City — Split Rock|
|Originally called the Emigrant Road, the Oregon Trail was the main route of westward expansion from 1812 to 1869. An estimated 500,000 people journeyed past here in search of new lands and new lives in the West.
Because of its unique shape, Split Rock was a well known trail landmark and navigation aid. Emigrants were guided by the rock for an entire day's travel from the east. It remained in view behind them for another two days. From Split Rock, it was about six days to South Pass, the . . . — Map (db m62092) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Jeffrey City — Split Rock|
|A famous natural landmark used by Indians, trappers, and emigrants on the Oregon Trail. Site of Split Rock Pony Express 1860-1861, stage and telegraph station is on the south side of the Sweetwater. Split Rock can be seen as a cleft on the Rattlesnake Range. — Map (db m67007) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Jeffrey City — Split Rock|
|Split Rock was a relay station during the turbulent 18 month life of the Pony Express. The Express operated at a gallop, speeding mail across the West in only 10 days. However, because of the "talking wire," its days were numbered. The telegraph reached California by October 1861, ending a unique American experiment.
How it was done
Mail relay stations were set up 10 to 15 miles apart, each with two to four men and extra horses. About 500 of the hardiest western ponies were . . . — Map (db m69603) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Jeffrey City — Split Rock Meadows|
|Shoshone, Arapaho, Crow and Sioux Indians occupied this pleasant valley long before the Oregon Trail, which changed their cultures and life styles forever. This led to tragic warfare and the eventual loss of country they had called their own.
Split Rock Relay Station, a crude log structure with a pole corral, was built at the base of the mass of rocks directly in front of you. It was used by both the Pony Express and the Overland Stage and until the early 1940s, was a U.S. Post Office.
. . . — Map (db m69602) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — Beaver Rim and the Wind River Range|
|Viewed from Beaver Rim, the Wind River Mountains, part of the Rocky Mountain chain, boast 53 granite peaks over 13,000 feet high. The Continental Divide runs the length of the Wind River Range. Water on the east side of the Continental Divide flows into the Atlantic Ocean. Water from the west side of the Divide ends up in the Pacific Ocean.
During the geologic event known as the Laramide Orogeny, the Wind River Mountains were pushed upward 60,000 feet. After 10 million years of erosion, . . . — Map (db m67012) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — Gold Flakes to Yellowcake Historic Mine Trail|
|The Historic Mine Trail and Byway Program designated the Gold Flakes to Yellowstone Historic Mine Trail in 2005. This trail links significant finds of gold, iron ore, and uranium, each of which played important roles in Wyoming's history.
The Gold Flakes Region
Gold found at the Carissa lode in 1867 set off a rush, Wyoming's largest, to the South Pass region. The towns of Miners Delight and Atlantic City sprouted to support the miners. The gold quickly played out, and most people . . . — Map (db m67011) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — Gold Flakes to Yellowcake Historic Mine Trail|
|The Historic Mine Trail and Byway Program designated the Gold Flakes to Yellowstone Historic Mine Trail in 2005. This trail links significant finds of gold, iron ore, and uranium, each of which played important roles in Wyoming's history.
The Gold Flakes Region
Gold found at the Carissa lode in 1867 set off a rush, Wyoming's largest, to the South Pass region. The towns of Miners Delight and Atlantic City sprouted to support the miners. The gold quickly played out, and most people . . . — Map (db m67015) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — Narcissa Prentiss Whitman — Eliza. Hart Spalding|
July 4, 1836 — Map (db m80500) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — Old Oregon Trail|
1843-57 — Map (db m80503) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — Oregon Buttes|
|To the south stand the Oregon Buttes, a major trail landmark. The name is significant because the Buttes were roughly the beginning of the Oregon Territory and also helped keep emigrants encouraged, even though there were still hundreds of miles of rough going ahead. Today, the Oregon Buttes are an Area of Critical Environmental Concern because of their cultural significance and important wildlife values.
About twelve-miles to the southwest of Oregon Buttes is the Tri-Territory site. This . . . — Map (db m80499) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — Red Canyon|
|Red Canyon is cooperatively managed by the Wyoming Game and Fish Department, the State of Wyoming, the Bureau of Land Management and private landowners.
The spectacular orange and red sandstone formations you see here have been exposed through millions of years of erosion. The brilliant red color comes from concentrations of ferrous oxide, or iron, in the soil and stone.
These slopes are crucial winter range for elk. Over seven hundred elk use this area every winter. Sometimes it is . . . — Map (db m80132) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — Site of Fort McGraw|
Site of Fort McGraw (sic)
Scouts & Trappers
1812 - 1835
Another marker, next to the Site of Fort McGraw marker, is currently missing, but its text is provided below:
Site of Fort Thompson or Camp MaGaw
In 1856 the United States Congress appropriated money to build the central division of the Fort Kearney-South Pass-Honey Lake Wagon Road from Nebraska to California. W.M.F. Magaw was appointed superintendent by the Secretary of the . . . — Map (db m80129) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — South Pass|
|The South Pass, in which you are now located, is perhaps the most significant transportation-gateway through the Rocky Mountains. Indians, mountain men, Oregon Trail emigrants, Pony Express riders, and miners all recognized the value of this passageway straddling the Continental Divide. Bounded by the Wind River Range on the north and the Antelope Hills on the south, the pass offered overland travelers a broad, relatively level corridor between the Atlantic and Pacific watersheds. . . . — Map (db m67016) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — South Pass — On Top of the World|
|From where you're standing South Pass doesn't look all that remarkable. But compared to the rugged Wind River Mountains, it can easily be recognized as a type of gateway.
Nevertheless, crossing the Continental Divide into "Oregon Country" was a task for all westward-bound travelers, and many described their feelings about the event. In 1852 Lucy Rutledge Cooke, a young woman with "California Fever" wrote:
"... This morn we arrived at the South Pass after which all water we see will . . . — Map (db m67020) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — South Pass|
|Even after the discovery of South Pass in 1824, it was years before the route was used extensively. Fur trapper/trader William Sublette brought a small caravan of wagons to South Pass in 1828. While his party did not take wagons over the pass, they demonstrated the feasibility of using them.
Captain Benjamin Bonneville took the first wagons over South Pass in 1832. But it was U.S. Government explorer, Lt. John Charles Fremont, who was responsible for publicizing the South Pass route. . . . — Map (db m67021) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — South Pass|
|South Pass was discovered in 1812 by a small band of Astorians led by Robert Stuart as they traveled east with dispatches for John Jacob Astor. It was “rediscovered” in 1824 by a party led by Jedediah Smith as they searched for a winter crossing through the Wind River Mountain Range. William Sublette led a small caravan of wagons to South Pass in 1828. While the party did not take the wagons over the pass, they proved that wagon travel was possible.
Captain Benjamin Bonneville . . . — Map (db m80501) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — The Atlantic City Project — The Iron Ore Boom and Bust|
|The hills of the Sweetwater Mining District hold various minerals, and beginning in the 1960s, iron ore mining provided an economic boom for the area. In 1960 the U.S. Steel Corporation broke ground on the nation's highest open pit iron ore mine at 8,300 feet above sea level. By the spring of 1963 the complex was in full swing. Employees operated an open pit mine, an ore crushing and screening facility, a concentrating plant and water storage and handling system, and storage, loading, and . . . — Map (db m67014) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — The Corridor West|
|The trail over South Pass is a transportation corridor which served many purposes. In addition to being the route to Oregon and California, it was used by Mormon pioneers and by the Pony Express.
A great exodus to the Salt Lake Valley in 1847 was only the beginning of Mormon emigrant travel along the Oregon Trail. About 68,000 took the the Utah branch of the trail from 1847 until 1869 when the completion of the Union Pacific Railroad ushered in a new phase of overland travel. The community . . . — Map (db m67019) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — The Fur Trade|
|The demand for beaver pelts in the early 1800s led to the exploration and eventual settlement of the American West. South Pass was part of a major thoroughfare through the Rockies and its discovery is significant to the era known as the fur trade.
South Pass was first crossed by white men in 1812. The Astorians, a small party of American Fur Company trappers led by Robert Stuart, used it as they traveled east with dispatches for company owner, John Jacob Astor. Even though Stuart noted . . . — Map (db m67022) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — The Oregon Trail|
| The Oregon Trail
In memory of those who passed this way to win and hold the West
Plaque placed by the Historical Landmark Commission of Wyoming
1950 — Map (db m80504) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — The Way West|
|With South Pass behind them, Oregon and California-bound travelers faced the second half of their journey. The roughest travel was yet to come. From Missouri to South Pass, emigrants were able to follow rivers. But from South Pass to Oregon and California, they faced dry stretches such as the high-altitude desert of the Green River Basin. The dry climate played havoc with wagon wheels that kept shrinking wood away from iron rims.
Approximately 20 miles on the trail west of this place, . . . — Map (db m67018) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Riverton — Trappers, Traders and Explorers|
of the Trappers, Traders
and Explorers, who
established the Rendezvous
at the Junction of the
Little and Big Wind Rivers — Map (db m80127) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Shoshoni — Wind River Canyon|
|Boysen Dam, completed in 1951, marks the southern margin of the east-west trending Owl Creek Mountains and the Wind River Canyon. Drained by the north flowing Wind River, the canyon is 14 miles long, 1.3-2 miles wide and 2,400 feet deep where it crosses the axis of the mountain range, north of here. Steep canyon walls display rocks of the Precambrian and Paleozoic eras ranging in age from several billion to 235 million years. The Wind River originally flowed across flat terrain beneath which . . . — Map (db m70611) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), South Pass City — Esther Hobart Morris|
|Two related, side-by-side markers pay tribute to Esther Hobart Morris.
Home & office site of
Esther Hobart Morris
First woman Justice
of the Peace
in the World
Feb. 14, 1870
Author with W.H. Bright
of the first
equal suffrage law
Dec. 10, 1869
Controversy exists concerning Esther Morris and women suffrage. In 1869, the legislature passed and Governor . . . — Map (db m80149) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), South Pass City — First Masonic Lodge in Wyoming|
| 1869 - 1925
First Masonic Lodge in Wyoming
under jurisdiction of Nebraska
Wyoming Lodge No. Two
Lander, Wyoming — Map (db m80150) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), South Pass City — Lander Cut-Off on the Oregon Trail|
|In 1858, this ancient path, which had been used by Indians, explorers and mountain men as a short cut to the Snake River country was developed by Frederick Lander in to an alternate route on the Oregon Trail. What is commonly called the Lander Trail or Lander Cut-Off starts 9 miles to the southeast at Burnt Ranch (directly behind this sign), crosses the Sweetwater River 6 miles to the northwest, and continued along Lander Creek for 13 miles to the Continental Divide at Little Sandy Creek, the . . . — Map (db m80161) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), South Pass City — South Pass and South Pass City|
|A region rich in history. A city rich in gold. From 1812 to 1868 this open country at the end of the Wind River Mountains provided a passage - the only passage - through the Rocky Mountain barrier of the Continental Divide for some 500,000 westering Americans. Through this Great South Pass came the Mountain Men, fur trappers and traders, explorers, missionaries, pioneers in covered wagons traversing the Oregon, California and Mormon trails, overland stage coaches, military expeditions, and Pony . . . — Map (db m80160) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), South Pass City — South Pass City — Wyoming|
| Founded 1868
A Great Gold Camp
Part of Wyoming’s historical heritage. Acquired for preservation May 18, 1966, with funds raised by Wyoming;s 75th Anniversary Commission Inc., its advisers, county committees and people of Wyoming.
Clifford P. Hansen - Governor
Alice Mesick - Chairman
Stephen Accola - Secretary
Kerm Kath - Treasurer
Edness Kimball Wilkins • Lewis Bath
James K. Harrower • Earl A. Madsen — Map (db m80162) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), South Pass City — South Pass City: Wyoming’s Biggest Gold Boom and Bust|
|Emigrant travelers on their way west likely discovered small amounts of gold in the 1840’s, but it took until 1868 for the first mining claims to be staked. Word of the new gold rush spread and the summer of 1868 brought an influx of people from every corner of the globe to partake in the bonanza. A torrent of mining activity followed for the next several years. In 1869 South Pass City, with perhaps 3,000 people, was Wyoming Territory’s second largest town.
Every boom ends, and by the early . . . — Map (db m80148) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), South Pass City — The Carissa Mine: Cycle of Boom and Bust|
|Thousands rushed to the South Pass area following the find of substantial gold deposits at the Carissa Mine in 1867. As the boom gained steam, the Carissa sat at the center of mining development, serving as the primary economic force for South Pass City. Eventually, the gold played out and the Carissa’s mining technology reached its limit. As a result, the Carissa closed, contributing to the gold bust and the decline of South Pass City in the 1870s.
Modern advances in mining technology and . . . — Map (db m80146) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), South Pass City — 27 — Willie’s Handcart Company|
|Captain James G. Willie’s Handcart Company of Mormon emigrants on the way to Utah, greatly exhausted by the deep snow of an early winter and suffering form lack of food and clothing, had assembled here for reorganization by relief parties from Utah, about the end of October, 1856. Thirteen persons were frozen to death during a single night and were buried here in one grave, Two others died the next day and were buried nearby. Of the company of 404 persons 77 perished before help arrived. The survivors reached Salt Lake City November 9, 1856. — Map (db m80154) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Cavalry Barracks — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
|The building before you is the only surviving enlisted men's barracks at Fort Laramie. The building proper was completed in late 1874 and was designed to provide quarters and other needed support facilities for two companies of soldiers, The veranda, although originally planned, was not added until 1883. As constructed the entire second floor was made up of only two equal, large rooms. These were the company dormitory bays or squad rooms where the enlisted soldiers lived. Each could house about . . . — Map (db m71018) HM WM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Commissary Storehouse — Fort Laramie National Historic Site — Visitor Center|
|This building was completed in 1884. It was built as a commissary storage facility. As such it would have been primarily divided into two large storerooms: one for meat and one for flour, rice, and beans. Three or four smaller rooms would have been used as offices, an "issue room" and a storage room for canned goods. This building also had a partial cellar with a trap door for use with a hand-operated elevator, rations and other official army food items were issued from this building. A commissary officer and sergeant ran the operation. — Map (db m71017) WM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Fort Laramie National Historic Site — Crossroads of a Nation Moving West|
|Fort Laramie was perhaps the single most important location in America’s expansion into the west. Founded in 1834 as a trading post, it became a military fort in 1849. Until it closed in 1890, Fort Laramie influenced major events in the history of the Trans-Mississippi West. From the eras of the fur trade, the Oregon Trail and the Indian Wars, the fort served as an American foothold in a rapidly changing west.
We recommend that you begin at the Visitor Center. Follow the paved path to your . . . — Map (db m71016) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
|The epic story of America’s western expansion played out on a grand scale at Fort Laramie, where the North Platte and Laramie Rivers meet.
Fort Laramie was first established in 1834 as a private fur trading post. By the 1840’s, it served as an important way station for thousands of emigrants traveling the Oregon, California and Mormon Pioneer trails. After purchase by the government in 1849, it rapidly became the primary military post on the Northern Plains. Stage lines, the Pony Express, . . . — Map (db m79778) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Fort Platte|
| A trading post built by
Lancaster P. Lupton
Stood fifty yards to the
north. — Map (db m79745) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — John (Portugee) Phillips|
Here on December 25, 1866
John (Portugee) Phillips
finished his 236 mile ride to obtain troops for the relief of Fort Phil Kearny after the Fetterman Massacre. — Map (db m79773) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — 49 — Mormon Pioneers at Fort Laramie|
|Between the years 1847 and 1868, most of the approximate 80,000 Mormon Pioneers passed through Fort Laramie. This was the first stop for the vanguard company after leaving Winter Quarters, (near Omaha) Nebraska.
In June, 1847, after following a faint trapper trail on the north side of the Platte River, the Pioneers reached Fort Laramie. Brigham Young, with a number of his party, crossed the river and walked up to the fort.
At this time the fort was called Fort John. It was owned by the . . . — Map (db m79776) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Old Army Bridge Over the Platte River|
|Erected in 1875. This bridge was a vital link between Cheyenne, Fort Laramie and the Military outposts, Indiana Agencies and gold fields of the Black Hills, Dakota Region.
Placed by The Historical Landmark Commission of Wyoming, June 1951 — Map (db m5747) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Old Bedlam|
|This graceful old structure, built in 1849, is the oldest standing building in Wyoming. It was nicknamed “Old Bedlam” because of boisterous sounds supposedly heard while it was occupied by bachelor officiers.
Shown in an 1889 photograph, “Old Bedlam” is generally regarded as the Bachelor Officiers Quarters. However, the left half was used as Post Headquarters and Commanders Apartment in the 1860’s and, at various times, the building was occupied by married officiers. — Map (db m79774) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Spanning a Century: End of an Era|
|Once broad and turbulent, the North Platte River posed a formidable obstacle to 19th century travelers. High water made it nearly impossible to cross the river for several months each year. The crossing became less dangerous by 1850 when ferry service was established to meet the growing volume of military and emigrant traffic. Frequent ferry accidents and slow crossing speeds continued to impede travelers until a permanent bridge was built.
Following the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868, which . . . — Map (db m79743) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — The Cheyenne-Black Hills Trail|
| passed near this point between 1876 and 1887. Built to supply the Dakota gold camps, the road was constructed in violation of the Ft. Laramie treaty of 1868 which reserved the Black Hills for Sioux Indians. Stagecoaches and wagons carrying passengers, freight and gold bullion rumbled through nearby Ft. Laramie, an important stopping point along the lime, until the arrival of the Chicago and North Western Railroad rendered the route obsolete. — Map (db m79780) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — The Greatest Ride in History|
|In memory of the Thoroughbred horse
John “Portugee” Phillips
from Fort Phil Kearny Wyoming to Fort Laramie Wyoming December 24, and 25, 1866, when he's sought aid for the garrison at Fort Phil Kearny, which was surrounded by Indians, after the battle with Lieutenant Colonel William F. Fetterman resulting in the death of Lieutenant Colonel Fetterman and 80 men. The horse died from exhaustion soon after arriving at Fort Laramie, having gone 236 miles in two days, . . . — Map (db m79746) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — The Pony Express — 1860-1861 — 1960-1961|
|From April, 1860, to October, 1861, Fort Laramie was a major post on the Pony Express route between St. Joseph, Missouri and Sacramento, California. — Map (db m49117) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — The Pony Express — 1860-1861 — 1960-1961|
|120 celebrated riders rode 650,000 miles with only one rider killed by Indians, one schedule not completed and one mail lost.|
Russell • Majors • Waddell
Founders • Owners • Operators — Map (db m49118) HM
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — The Rustic Hotel — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
|The Rustic Hotel opened in 1876. During that year it probably provided the best accommodations for travelers between Cheyenne and the Black Hills. It also served as a station for the Cheyenne-Black Hills Stage and Express Line. By 1883, when this photograph was taken, one lady found “horrid little bugs” in the sheets. Three years later the stage station corrals were polluting the water supply and had to be removed.
(Inscription under the photo in the lower left) Primitive . . . — Map (db m71020) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Lingle — “If I Should Die Before…”|
|Many emigrants journals and diaries from the 1840s to 1860s mention experiences such as; “nooning,” camping for the night, crossing over, or burying a loved one on the banks of Rawhide Creek. Of these experiences, death and disease were common. It’s been estimated that there is an average of ten graves to every mile along the emigrant trails. The top five causes were; unclean water, poor food preparation, chilly night watches, sleeping on cold or wet ground, months of exhausting . . . — Map (db m79704) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Lingle — Oregon Trail|
| Oregon Trail
Marked by the
State of Wyoming
1914 — Map (db m79741) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Lingle — The Grattan Fight|
|Sioux Indians massacred
29 Soldiers with their
Brevet 2nd Lt. L. Grattan,
on Aug. 19, 1854. Site is
1/2 mile north-west.
An Indian killed a cow from a Mormon caravan. The detachment of soldiers was sent to receive the offender. In the ensuing fight all soldier and the chief of the Brule’s Sioux, Marton-Ioway, were killed. — Map (db m79706) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Lingle — To All Pioneers|
To all Pioneers
who passed this way
to win and hold the West
Trail crossed one mile South — Map (db m79742) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Torrington — Cold Springs|
| 3/4 mile east from this point
Cold Springs was a popular camping ground on the Overland Trail to California, Oregon, Utah and other points in the far west. It was a stage station along the Overland Stage Route 1854-1862 and also a Pony Express relay stop 1860-1861. Station tender was M. Reynal. — Map (db m79702) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Torrington — Stuart’s 1812-13 Astorian Party Campsite|
|Following the Lewis and Clark Expedition, much of the interior of the western United States remained a mystery and most people traveling to the west coast went by ship. By 1811, at the height of the fur trade, John Jacob Astor, owner of the Pacific Fur Company, pursued an overland route to link his trading empire in the Pacific Northwest to the East. He also recognized the new trading opportunities an overland route would provide for his business. Astor sent companies of men, called Astorians, . . . — Map (db m79700) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Torrington — The Oregon Trail|
| Entered Wyoming
at this point
Main trail 3 miles South — Map (db m79699) HM|
|Wyoming (Johnson County), Buffalo — Bozeman Trail|
|Marked by the State of Wyoming 1865 John Bozeman Killed by Indians on Yellowstone 1867 — Map (db m85994) HM|
|Wyoming (Johnson County), Buffalo — Living on the Edge — Sculptor: D. Michael Thomas|
|An independent cowboy, or small rancher, brands a calf on the open range. Surprised at his work, he turns to see a rider from a large cattle outfit galloping threateningly toward him.|
Small ranchers, like this cowboy, rode south from Buffalo on the morning of April 11, 1892, to confront “the invaders” at the Ta Ranch. Sheriff Red Angus, citizens of Buffalo, and small ranchers laid siege to the gunmen. Three days later, troops from Fort McKinney, near Buffalo, arrived on the . . . — Map (db m51697) HM
|Wyoming (Johnson County), Buffalo — Occidental Hotel — Est. 1878|
|The National Register of Histroic Places Wyoming Place No. 176 Downtown Historic District|
Historic Hotels of America National Trust for Historic Preservation — Map (db m45546) HM
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — 1974 Downtown National Historic District|
|Although Cheyenne was originally established in the 1857, much of the early town had been destroyed by fires over the years and it was not until the late 1800s that masonry structures were introduced. The current Downtown District of Cheyenne was built between 1872-1920s and represents Cheyenne's first half century of growth. Cheyenne belongs to a breed of American towns established at the same time as the westward movement of the Transcontinental Railroad. Most of these towns were "tent . . . — Map (db m47184) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — Cheyenne Corner Stone|
|S.W. corner of site chosen by General Grenville Dodge in 1867 for the division point of the U.P.R.R. and for the location of Cheyenne City. The original 4 sq miles were laid at an angle to give "all houses maximum sunshine throughout the year." This stone was set in 1890.
Plot and fence donated by Mildred and John Arp — Map (db m68053) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — Dedicated to You, A Free Citizen in a Free Land|
|This reproduction of the Liberty Bell was presented to the people of
by direction of The Honorable John W. Snyder
Secretary of the Treasury
As the inspirational symbol of the
United States Savings Bonds Independence Drive
from May 16 to July 4,1950, it was displayed in
every part of this state
The dimensions and tone are identical
with those of the original Liberty bell when it
rang out our independence in 1776.
In standing before this symbol, you have the . . . — Map (db m47188) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — Esther Hobart Morris|
|Proponent of the Legislative Act Which in 1869 gave distinction to the Territory of Wyoming as the 1st government in the world to grant Women Equal Rights — Map (db m47185) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — Historic Plains Hotel|
|The National Register of Historic Places Wyoming Place No. 343 Downtown Historic District — Map (db m47156) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — Mt. Sinai Congregation — First Permanent Jewish House of Worship in Wyoming|
|The first Permanent Jewish Synagogue in Wyoming was erected in 1915 by Cheyenne’s Mt. Sinai Congregation. German Jewish merchants came to Cheyenne starting in 1867, organized but were unable to build a Synagogue. After 1900, with the arrival of Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe it became possible to both organize and build. This Synagogue was replaced by one at 2610 Pioneer which was dedicated in 1949. Jewish settlement in Wyoming has been called the furthermost reaches of the Jewish . . . — Map (db m27087) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — The Burlington Routes — 1887 - Present|
| Side A Incorporated as the Cheyenne & Burlington Railroad in March 1887, the 30-mile long Wyoming segment was a part of the larger 145-mile long Chicago, Burlington & Quincy (CB&Q) Railroad line that ran from Midland, Nebraska, westward to Sterling, Colorado, and then northwestward into Cheyenne, Wyoming. Completed and opened for traffic to Cheyenne on December 11, 1887. the Wyoming portion, now vacated, ran from the Colorado-Wyoming State border in the vicinity of Carpenter, Wyoming . . . — Map (db m47181) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — The first steam-powered locomotive reached Cheyenne on November 14, 1867|
| Side A By 1868 the community boasted 3,000 to 4,000 residents, plus business, schools, churches and newspapers. The UP's stone roundhouse was the first permanent structure (non-wood) built in town. The City's phenomenal growth produced its nickname, "The Magic City of the Plains," as it seemingly developed by magic. Wyoming became a new territory less than nine months later, when President Andrew Johnson signed the Wyoming Organic Act on July 25, 1868. Of course, Cheyenne was its . . . — Map (db m47182) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — The Trolleys / Cheyenne's Street Railway|
| The Trolleys The railway included a connector past the Fairgrounds to Fort S.A. Russell. Although 1890 drawings show a fail line going up over the wooden viaduct to South Cheyenne, it was never completed and no trolley service went south of the Union Pacific tracts. Because of declining ridership, the company closed August 4, 1892, being "deemed unprofitable."|
Revived in June 1908, the second trolley company was the Cheyenne Electric Railway Company owned by Thomas Cosgriff, the . . . — Map (db m47159) HM
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — The Union Pacific Railroad / The Union Pacific Railroad — Part 1 (1867 - 1890) / Part 2 (1869 - 1890)|
| Part i The story of the Union Pacific Railroad is also a story of Wyoming and particularly Cheyenne. One cannot be told without the telling of the other. It is no exaggeration to say that Cheyenne, Fort D.A. Russell (now F.E. Warren Air Force Base), and the Wyoming Territory were all children of the Union Pacific (UP).|
In 1863, the Pacific Railroad Act was approved by Congress and signed into law by then President Abraham Lincoln, an enthusiastic supporter of railroads. Congress had . . . — Map (db m47178) HM
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — Union Pacific Depot|
|The Union Pacific Depot was built in 1886 and given to the community or Cheyenne in April 1993 by the Union Pacific Railroad Company. — Map (db m47157) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — Wyoming Army and Air National Guard Memorial|
|Eternal gratitude to the men and women who have served and sacrificed in the Wyoming Army and Air National Guard — Map (db m47191) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — Wyoming Spanish American War Monument|
|Erected to the Memory of The heroes of the Spanish American War by The State of Wyoming and The Ladies Volunteer Aid Society Second Regiment U.S, Vol. Cavalry First Battalion, Wyoming Volunteers Battery A Wyoming Volunteers — Map (db m47190) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Pine Bluff — Geology Shaping History|
|The region’s unique geology created ‘woodland islands’ for planes and animals, and played a key role in the routing of the Transcontinental Railroad
The area’s distinctive Pine Bluffs are the result of early geologic activity followed by millions of years of weathering. At the top of the bluffs is an erosion-resistant layer of sandstone and claystone called caprock. As rain and wind erode the softer clay beneath the caprock, sections of the top layer collapse and tumble . . . — Map (db m76851) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Pine Bluffs — Old Texas Trail|
|Over this trail from distant Texas, passed the greatest migration of men and cattle in the history of America.
of the pioneer cattlemen who passed this way on the Old Texas Trail 1866 to 1897. This plaque placed by the Historical Landmark Commission of Wyoming 1948.
This monument sponsored by the Lions Club of Pine Bluffs, Wyoming Stock Growers Association, and the Family of Captain D.H. and J.W. Snyder, Texas Trail drivers who brought the first herds of Texas cattle to Wyoming in 1866. — Map (db m68054) HM|
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), Kemmerer — Fossil Butte|
|Fossil Butte is a 50 million year old lakebed and one of the richest fossil resources in the world. It is part of the Green River Formation, a layer of rock composed of laminated limestone, mudstone, and volcanic ash. Complete paleo-ecosystems are preserved in the formation, which is the geologic remnant of the Green River Lake System of the Eocene era. Designated on October 23, 1972, Fossil Butte National Monument encompasses a part of land that was once under Fossil Lake.
Fossil Lake was . . . — Map (db m36624) HM|
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), Kemmerer — Home of James C. Penney|
|Founded J.C. Penny Company Inc.
April 14, 1902 in Kemmerer Wyoming
Operated by J.C. Penny Homestead, Inc. — Map (db m80541) HM|
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), Kemmerer — Kemmerer Founders Monument — Wyoming's Aquarium in Stone|
Mahlon S. Kemmerer
1843 - 1925
Patrick J. Quealy
1857 - 1930 — Map (db m80542) HM|
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), Kemmerer — Oregon Trail Memorial|
|To All Pioneers
To Win and Hold
Kemmerer 1931 — Map (db m36650) HM|
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), Kemmerer — Wyoming Centennial|
|This bell was used at the
Kemmerer Grade School
Built in 1901 and used
Tower Donated by the
K/D 1990 Centennial Committee
and the Kemmerer/Diamondville
Chamber of Commerce. — Map (db m36654) HM|
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), La Barge — Jim Bridger — Trapper 1844|
|He little knew that when he cut his name, or had it cut, in this stone, that it would be engraved in the annals of the West deeper than that of any other man. As one of the world's outstanding explorers he guided emigrants, railroads and army in the expansion of the nation — Map (db m36660) HM|
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), La Barge — 25 — Names Hill|
| The National Register
of Historic Places
Wyoming Place No. 25 — Map (db m36661) HM|
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), La Barge — Names Hill State Historic Site|
|Names Hill is one of three prominent sites in Wyoming where travelers inscribed their names into stone along the emigrant trails. The other sites are Register Cliff and Independence Rock. After crossing a 40 miles stretch of waterless desert, wagon trains would stop and camp near the Green River crossing, providing an opportunity for travelers to inscribe their names into the soft limestone.
Parting of the Ways
Names Hill is located along the Sublette-Greenwood Cutoff, a . . . — Map (db m80533) HM|
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), La Barge — Seeds-Kee-Dee-Agie, Spanish River, Rio Verde, Green River|
|To the Shoshone Indian, this river was the Seeds-Kee-Dee Agie (Prairie Chicken River). On Sept. 16 1811, the Astorians near its headwaters termed it the Spanish River. To the Spaniards, far to the south, it was the Rio Verde (Green River). Jedediah Smith and his Mountain Men, making the first westward crossing of the south Pass by white men, camped near here Mar. 19, 1824 on the Seeds-Kee-Dee. They trapped the river and its forks which were named for them: LaBarge, Ham's, Black's, Smith's, . . . — Map (db m36659) HM|
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), Thayne — Wyoming's Wildlife — Star Valley|
|Often termed the star of all valleys, the Shoshone Indians referred to the valley as a "heap fine hunting ground." Unusually high precipitation and topographic features make the Salt River Valley one of the most productive and diverse of all wildlife areas found in Wyoming. Sandhill cranes, Canada geese, ruffed grouse, and bald eagles are among the birds nesting in the area. The valleys of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, including Star Valley, are important waterfowl production areas for . . . — Map (db m84594) HM|
|Wyoming (Natrona County), Alcova — Frederick Richard Fulkerson|
|The grave of F.R. Fulkerson was noted by forty-niner J.G. Bruff on July 26, 1849, as he traveled through what he termed "Pass of the Rattle-Snake Mountain to the left of Devil's Gate." The survival of the large granite boulder used as the Fulkerson headstone and the sketch made of it by Bruff allows us to locate this grave precisely.
Frederick Richard Fulkerson, son of James M. and Mary Fulkerson, died July 1, 1847, while en route to Oregon. His father, James Monroe Fulkerson, was born in . . . — Map (db m66997) HM|
|Wyoming (Natrona County), Alcova — Independence Rock|
|Thousands who traveled the Oregon Trail in central Wyoming were unaware that they were the beneficiaries of a long series of geological events. The granite peaks around you are mountains that rose, sank and then were buried in sand and ashy sediments. Erosion exposed their summits and created the Sweetwater Valley, part of an east-west passageway through the Rockies. The route was used by game animals, Native Americans and fur trappers, followed at mid-century by wagon train and handcart . . . — Map (db m62149) HM|
|Wyoming (Natrona County), Casper — Hell’s Half Acre|
|This unique setting of natural beauty cover approximately 320 acres. Viewed from a point of maximum depth, its walls and pinnacles show soft and varied hues comparable to the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone.
Investigation has confirmed that in former days the Indians drove great herds of buffalo into this depression for slaughter. Flint arrowheads and buffalo bones have been found here. A detachment of Captain B.L.E. Bonneville’s party visited this site in July 1833. This area has been . . . — Map (db m80126) HM|
|Wyoming (Niobrara County), Lusk — Redwood Water Tank|
|This Redwood Water Tank was built by the Wyoming Central Railway in 1886. It was first filled by a windmill, then by other types of pumps. It stored water for the steam engines that pulled the trains. It is one of only six remaining in the nation.
The Sioux City & Pacific R.R. surveyed the route from Chadron NE to Fort Fetterman Wyoming Territory in 1883. They organized the Wyoming Central Railway a Wyo. Corp. as required by law to build or own a railroad in the territory in 1886. As the . . . — Map (db m41961) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Cody — Colter’s Hell — Wyoming|
| John Colter, veteran of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, notably self-sufficient mountain man and indefatigable explorer, was the first white man known to have reconnoitered this locale. In 1807, possibly traveling alone but probably escorted by Crow guides, he crossed the Stinking Water (Shoshone River) via a major Indian-trail ford located about a mile downstream from this observation point. Here, extending along both sides of the river, he discovered an active geyser district. Steam . . . — Map (db m86150) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Cody — Colter’s Hell & Extinct Geyser Basin|
| Colter’s Hell is a large, mostly extinct, geyser basin. Today, there are a few hot springs, and vents which release sulphurous gasses along the Shoshone River. This site includes some of the world’s largest extinct geyser cones and thermal pools. While only about 170 acres of this thermal area are listed on the National Register of Historic Places near these historic markers. Colter’s Hell is actually an area of several square miles. It was named for John Colter, a hunter with the Lewis and . . . — Map (db m86147) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Cody — Shoshone Canyon — Wyoming|
| Shoshone Canyon is a gorge cut through Rattlesnake Mountain by the wearing action of the Shoshone River. The mountain is a northwest trending uplift in the earth’s crust that rises 3700 feet above the surrounding terrain. Beds of sedimentary rock that are exposed on the mountain’s northeast flank slope eastward beneath the plains. The same units, which range in age from 205 to 570 million years, bend up and over the crest of the mountain and stand vertically along the southwest flank. . . . — Map (db m86154) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — A Good Duty Station|
|The lifespan of most Western military posts was measured in months, or several years. Accordingly, their structures were temporary, and many have long since vanished from the landscape. Fort Yellowstone was unusual because of its permanence and the corresponding substance of its buildings. It also bore little resemblance to older, barricaded forts.
Because of its good facilities, relaxed discipline, and interesting surroundings, Fort Yellowstone was considered a prized assignment by many . . . — Map (db m39727) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — A Most Fortunate Thing...|
|Before the Army arrived in Yellowstone, the park's future was in doubt. Vandals destroyed thermal features, squatters sawed down trees and poachers decimated herds of wildlife. Perhaps the Army's greatest contribution to Yellowstone's history was bringing law and order to the park.
In the winter of 1894, soldiers caught the notorious poacher Ed Howell killing buffalo. Because no laws existed to prosecute Howell, public indignation caused Representative Lacey of Iowa to propose a bill "to . . . — Map (db m39745) HM
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — A Sense of Community|
|Fort Yellowstone was truly a community as well as a military outpost. The small village frequently assembled to welcome new residents or bid farewell to departing neighbors. The joys of births, christenings, and marriages mingles with the sorrows of illnesses, accidents and deaths. Religious services were held in the troop mess hall, the post exchange, or in a private residence until the chapel was built.
The last of the structures built by the Army (1913), the chapel added a "finishing . . . — Map (db m39742) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — A Soldier's Life|
|A solider lived with the rest of his company in the Troop Barracks (structure in front of you).
A typical day began at 5:30 am, at the stable, just behind the barracks where the horses were fed. From that time until almost noon, soldiers groomed their mounts, inspected their equipment, and fed and watered the horses at least one more time.
The rest of the day might be spent patrolling the Mammoth Hot Spring Terraces to prevent visitors from chipping away souvenirs, practicing on the . . . — Map (db m40589) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — At Guard|
|Protecting Yellowstone's wildlife and natural wonders was the primary function of the Army. An important part of this duty was managing the growing visitation to the park and watching for "shady characters."
Park roads were once aligned so that the guardhouse controlled traffic into Yellowstone from the north. Here soldiers contacted each party and entered the name of the driver, passengers, and type of rig into a large ledger. Guns not held at the guardhouse were sealed on the spot. They . . . — Map (db m39729) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — Boiling River Trail — Endangered Stream|
|This stretch of river runs warmer than most mountain streams. A half mile up the trail, underground discharge from Mammoth Hot Springs enters the current and creates a year-round climate for water birds, trout, and aquatic plants. Over the years, delicate travertine terraces have formed along the thermal channel.
With as many as 200 visitors a day, Boiling River is threatened by its popularity. Trail traffic has collapsed several terraces; soap has polluted the water and killed fish and . . . — Map (db m40583) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — From Soldier to Ranger|
|In 1912, President Taft in a special message to Congress said:
"I earnestly recommend the establishment of a bureau of National Parks. Such legislation is essential to the proper management of those wonderful manifestations of nature, so startling and so beautiful that everyone recognizes the obligations of the government to preserve them for the edification and recreation of the people."
The National Park Service Act was signed on August 25, 1916. Soon after, soldiers were . . . — Map (db m40599) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — Mt. Everts Mudslides — Temporary Scenery|
|Landslides are epidemic in this valley. In late spring and summer, storm clouds travel through the Gardner River canyon, striking Mt. Everts from brief but intense showers. The dry, layered cliffs have little protective vegetation. Loosened by seismic tremors and constant freezing and thawing, tons of mud and rock wash downslope, forming alluvial fans at the base.
Inset photo caption - Down valley, toward Gardiner, the slumping is more severe. After a heavy rain, cliffs of shale, mudstone . . . — Map (db m40588) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — Obsidian Cliff — Volcanic Glass|
|Yellowstone Plateau glowed red from volcanic activity, with molten rock welling up and spreading from numerous fissures. Obsidian Cliff, a 180,000-year-old lava flow, is part of the evidence. Cooling and shrinking, the lava solidified into large columns visible at the base of the cliff.
Obsidian is a rock of high silica content with few visible crystals. By contrast, Golden Gate, 10 miles north, cuts through a lighter-colored flow of welded ash. The two formation are chemically identical but . . . — Map (db m83690) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — Sheepeater Cliff|
|This cliff was named for the Shoshone Indians who lived throughout this mountainous region.
Their use of bighorn sheep earned them the name "Tukadika" or "Sheepeaters".
The cliff is basalt lava that formed "columnar joints" when it cooled nearly 500,000 years ago. — Map (db m83687) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — The Drill Field|
|Gathering place, site of ceremonies and parades, training ground - the drill field was the focal point of daily life at Fort Yellowstone.
Each day began with a bugler sounding Reveille. Gradually, the Fort came to life and another bugle call brought horse-mounted soldiers trotting onto the field for the flag raising. Assignments were announced, and troopers headed out to patrol the Mammoth Hot Spring Terraces or other nearby attractions.|
Those remaining behind assumed the . . . — Map (db m39723) HM
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — Welcome to Historic Fort Yellowstone|
|From 1886 until the creation of the National Park Service in 1916 the United States Army was responsible for the administration and management of Yellowstone National Park.|
The row of buildings ahead of you is part of Historic Fort Yellowstone. These structures were built in three phases between 1891 and 1913 to serve as Army headquarters and to accommodate the troops assigned to Yellowstone National Park.
A stroll along the sidewalks of Fort Yellowstone takes you back to when . . . — Map (db m40590) HM
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Artist Point — Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River|
A Photographer's Canvas
Artist Point offers a magnificent view of Lower Falls plunging 308 feet (93 meters). Framed by canyon walls, forest, and sky, the picturesque scene has been photographed countless times for more than a century.
Artist Point is thought to have been named by park photographer F.J. Haynes, possibly as early as 1883. He and his son, Jack Ellis Haynes, photographed and hand-tinted Yellowstone images for eight decades, including numerous works from Artist . . . — Map (db m45265) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Beehive Geyser|
|this geyser, named for its 4-foot high cone, resembles an old fashioned beehive. Though its cone is modest by comparison to others in the Upper Geyser Basin, Beehive is one of the most powerful and impressive geysers in Yellowstone. The cone acts as a nozzle, directing a column of steam and water to heights of up to 200 feet.|
Fast Facts: Typically, Beehive's activity is not predictable, but when eruption cycles start, intervals between eruptions can range from 10 hours to 5 days. An . . . — Map (db m46274) HM
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Brink of Lower Falls — Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River|
Sculpting Lower Falls
Reaching the Brink of Lower Falls overlook requires hiking a steep trail that winds down the canyon wall…a wall of hardened rhyolite lava…a wall exposed by the Yel1owstone River while excavating the canyon.
Below Lower Falls, volcanic heat and gases soften the rhyolite rock. The river carves more quickly there than upstream—sculpting a ledge and creating a waterfall.
Welcome to Brink of Lower falls
The steep, winding path to the Brink . . . — Map (db m45293) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Brink of Upper Falls — Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River|
Between a Rock and a Hard Place
From the Brink of Upper Falls viewpoint you can witness the power of the Yellowstone River as you watch millions of gallons (liters) of water plunging 109 feet (33 meters).
From the brink, notice the solid walls of rock on each side of the river. About 484,000 years ago, this rock was hot, molten rhyolite lava oozing across the land. Today, Upper Falls cuts through this hardened lava flow.
Welcome to Brink of Upper Falls
Trail to . . . — Map (db m45291) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Canyon Colors|
|Mineral stains mark the sites of hot springs and steam vents in the canyon walls. For thousands of years,upwardly percolating fluids have altered the chemistry of the rocks, turning them yellow, red, white, and pink.
From the rim, the bright patches of color are the most visible evidence of hot spots. Puffs of steam, visible on all but the warmest days of summer, mark areas of ongoing thermal activity in the canyon. — Map (db m45266) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Captive Tourists — The Nez Perce Encounter|
| During their fighting retreat toward freedom in Canada, the non-treaty Nez Perce passed directly through Yellowstone National Park in August, 1877. Their route followed this creek. When outriders encountered a party of sightseers camped nearby, the Nez Perce held the group hostage for several hours.|
Angry at past betrayals, a pair of Nez Perce shot and left for dead George Cowan, but a chief intervened and the rest of the tourists were released unharmed. Six weeks later the Nez Perce . . . — Map (db m39455) HM
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Dragon's Mouth Spring|
|An unknown park visitor named this feature around 1912, perhaps due to the water that frequently surged from the cave like the lashing of a dragon's tongue. Until 1994, this dramatic wave-like action ofter splashed water as far as the boardwalk. The rumbling sounds are caused by steam and other gasses exploding through the water causing it to crash against the walls of the hidden caverns. — Map (db m46269) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Fumaroles|
| Letting off Steam Listen intently for the hiss of steam escaping the mountain. Fumaroles are sometimes barely audible, but sometimes roar as steam rushes upward through narrow vents. during the 1800s, Roaring Mountain was, at times, heard four miles away at Obsidian Cliff.|
Photo As hydrogen sulfide and sulfur gases escape the underworld, yellow sulfur crystals are sometimes left where gases mix with air. Sulfur-eating thermophiles may reside at the vents, assisting with the . . . — Map (db m45383) HM
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Grand View — Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River|
Deep and Wide
The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River is…
• More than 1,000 feet deep in most places (305 m)
• Up to 4,000 feet wide (1,219 m)
• 20 miles long (32 km)
• Carved from old rhyolitic lava flows
• Thermally altered—changed by heat and gases from the Yellowstone Volcano
Welcome to Grand View
For a magnificent view of the canyon, follow the path to the overlook, just ahead. On your way, you can rest on stone benches. The path to the . . . — Map (db m45298) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Inspiration Point — Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River|
A Youthful Glow
The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River was born thousands of years ago, but is till young in geologic time.
After Yellowstone’s most recent icecap melted about 14,000 years ago, the Yellowstone River began excavating old rhyolitic lava flows. With help from wind, rain, and gravity, the river is still carving today.
The canyon’s color and texture are also changing. Heat and gases from Yellowstone’s volcano flow through the rock, transforming it from buff, . . . — Map (db m45301) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Lookout Point — Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River|
Welcome to Lookout Point
Lookout Point is popular for its lofty view. The trail to the overlook is about 145 yards (133 m) long, and includes 13 steps.
A steep descent to Red Rock will take you to the North Rim's closest full view of Lower Falls. Please be prepared for steep grades, steps, and a rough surface. The trail descends rapidly—about 500 feet (150 m) in 3/8 mile (0.6 km). Wear sturdy walking shoes with good tread, and be prepared for a steep uphill . . . — Map (db m45295) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Mud Volcano|
| Explosive Change In 1870, explorers stood in awe as Mud Volcano spewed mud into the treetops, shaking the ground with each eruption. Two years later it was a pool of bubbling, muddy water. Mud Volcano has blown itself apart!|
While returning by a new route to our camp, dull, thundering sounds, which General Washburn likened to frequent discharges of a distant mortar, broke upon our ears. We followed their direction, and found them to proceed from a mud volcano, which occupied the slope of . . . — Map (db m46272) HM
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Norris Geyser Basin|
Beautiful and Bizarre
As you walk through Norris Geyser Basin, you may feel as if you are encountering another world. In the basin—far below the towering peaks of the Gallatin Mountains—water accumulates underground. Heated by the Yellowstone Volcano, the water travels upward to erupt from acidic geysers, rise from steaming fumaroles, and simmer in shimmering pools.
Two loop trails begin here. Due to rough terrain and highly changeable conditions, . . . — Map (db m45316) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Roaring Mountain|
| Living Landscape Amid Roaring Mountain's steam and sulfur-rich gases, microscopic organisms are hard at work. This barren slope, inhospitable to humans, is the perfect home for Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Billions upon billions of these thermophiles live here, wearing away the mountain.|
What's for Dinner? Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, hardy residents of Roaring Mountain live on hydrogen sulfide gas escaping from below. They consume the gas, helping to convert it into . . . — Map (db m45382) HM
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Shifting Ground|
|Before the earthquake on June 30, 1975, the observation platform extended one hundred feet farther into the canyon. The main tremor and numerous aftershocks measuring 6.1 on the Richter scale shattered a portion of this cliff, tumbling it into the gorge.
Up and down the canyon you can see evidence of other rockfalls. This section of the Yellowstone River overlies a major fracture zone, and the park records thousands of minor tremors annually. Do not assume the scenery will be the same when you return. — Map (db m45302) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Sulphur Caldron|
|Ten times more acidic than lemon juice, Sulphur Caldron sits on the edge of one of the most active areas of Yellowstone's buried volcano. Sulphur-rich gasses rise furiously here, filling Sulphur Caldron with sulfuric acid. Incredibly, this muddy pool is teeming with life!|
Home Sweet Home Billions of thermoacidophiles thrive in Sulphur Caldron. They convert the pool's hydrogen sulfide gas into sulfuric acid. The sulfuric acid breaks soil and rock into mud, making this spring a very muddy . . . — Map (db m46268) HM
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone — [Artist Point]|
| The canyon varies from 800 to 1200 feet in depth
and from 1500 to 4000 feet in width. Its length is about 24 miles. The upper 2½ miles is the most colorful section. Hot spring activity has continued through the ages altering the lava rock to produce lovely colors which are largely due to varied iron compounds. Have you noticed that stream vents and geysers are still at work on the canyon walls? — Map (db m41398) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — The Grand Canyon Of The Yellowstone|
|The canyon varies from 800 to 1200 feet in depth and from 1500 to 4000 feet in width. Its length is about 24 miles. The upper 2½ miles is the most colorful section. Hot spring activity has continued through the ages altering the lava rock to produce lovely colors which are largely due to varied iron compounds. Have you noticed that steam vents and geysers are still at work on the canyon walls? — Map (db m45299) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — The Madison Elk Herd|
|From an elk's perspective, this valley offers
everything needed for year-round survival.
Food is abundant. These meadows become
snow-free relatively early and stay lush longer
into summer. During May-June calving season,
nearby lodgepole pine forests shelter newborns
from coyotes and bears.|
In 1988 fires burned the slopes across the river.
For the next several years the dense forest will
be more open and less sheltering, which may
affect the movement of the herd. Harsh . . . — Map (db m46262) HM
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — The National Park System|
|The national park idea is often referred to as one of America's greatest contributions to world culture. America's natural and cultural heritage—its very character and soul—is preserved in over 360 units of the National Park System.
The National Park Service administers the system, striving to preserve these places for the future while providing for public enrichment and enjoyment today. Yellowstone National Park was established in 1872 as the world's first national . . . — Map (db m45314) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — The Norris Area — Orientation|
Norris Geyser Basin
You are close to a world of heat and gases where microorganisms live in such massive numbers they add color to the landscape. This strange, beautiful place is on the edge of a giant volcano-the Yellowstone Volcano-one of the largest on Earth.
Norris Geyser Basin Museum
On your way to the geyser basin, you will arrive at the Norris Geyser Basin Museum. This historic stone structure opened in 1930 to help orient park visitors to Yellowstone's amazing . . . — Map (db m45349) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Uncle Tom’s Point — Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River|
Welcome to Uncle Tom’s Point
Uncle Tom’s Trail
For a memorable descent into the canyon, follow Uncle Tom’s Trail. From there, you can sense the power of Lower Falls as the Yellowstone River thunders over the brink, dropping 308 feet (93 m).
This modern version of the historic Uncle Tom’s Trail—a trail that once consisted of wooden ladders and rope handrails—contains many steps and is very strenuous.
Upper Falls Viewpoint
For a leisurely . . . — Map (db m45272) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Upper Falls of the Yellowstone River|
|A waterfall is a clue that you are standing on a geologic crossroads.
A waterfall forms in a river channel where harder rocks meet softer rocks that erode more easily and quickly. Here, volcanic and hydrothermal activity have created the 109-foot (33 m) Upper falls.
1 About 480,000 years ago, lava formed a layer of rock that resists erosion. The lava naturally cracks in a zig-zag pattern.
2 Over time, hydrothermal springs rose through some of these cracks, . . . — Map (db m45275) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Volcanic Landscape|
|You are inside a caldera of one of the largest volcanoes in the world! The volcano has erupted at least three times, and Yellowstone is full of signs that volcanic activity is still very much alive below ground.|
On the Rise Magma is moving and pushing underground forcing the hill in front of you to rise! two of these bulges or "resurgent domes" have been found in the caldera. From here, you can see part of the Sour Creek dome - an oval-shaped hill about ten miles long and six miles . . . — Map (db m46265) HM
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Waterfall Makers|
|Here the Yellowstone River plunges 308 feet over the Lower Falls. Hot springs have weakened the rock jut downstream, where you might see several geysers spouting into the river. As falling water pounds the thermally softened rock, it continues to undercut the falls and deepen the gorge.
In this geologically active landscape, the park’s riverbeds drop abruptly in more than a hundred locations. A half-mile upstream, the Upper Falls formed at a junction of a lava flow and glacial lake . . . — Map (db m45297) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Yellowstone National Park|
|Yellowstone has been designated a U.S. Biosphere Reserve, a World Heritage Site, and is one of the largest national parks in the lower 48 states. Its boundaries protect over 10,000 geysers,hot springs, mudpots, and steam vents-the earth's largest array of geothermal features. An incredible variety of wildlife, including some threatened and rare species, is also protected in a vast wilderness habitat.
Geysers and hot springs played a compelling role in the park's establishment. Since . . . — Map (db m45315) HM|
|Wyoming (Platte County), Guernsey — Centre Star Station|
|Vertical on the stake
XP / Centre Star / Station Site/ Pony Express / Trail 1860 - 1861
Small plaque mounted on the stake
AKA Ward’s Station
Nine Mile House - Sand Point - Adolph’s
Sponsored by: Jim Stretesky - Frederick Family - Rob and Gail Collins Families
Pony Express Trail Association - Joe Nardone, Historian — Map (db m79803) HM|
|Wyoming (Platte County), Guernsey — Encampments in the Guernsey Area|
|By wagon, encampments in the Guernsey area, are a day's trek from Fort Laramie. Emigrants had three choices of camp sites in the Guernsey area: Register Cliff, Warm Springs or Cold Springs, the farthest encampment.
Lieutenant John C. Fremont's Camp Site
In 1842, Lieutenant John C. Fremont, led a mapping expedition of the Oregon Trail. According to Fremont's map maker, Charles Preuss, the flat area just below this sign is the most likely where the expedition camped on 21-22 July . . . — Map (db m85773) HM|
|Wyoming (Platte County), Guernsey — Forts, Stations, and Camps|
|Two plaque, under the same name, described military forts and stations on the Wyoming's Platte River section of the Oregon Trail.
There were four forts, numerous stations, and camps along the Oregon-California-Mormon Trails in Wyoming during the mid-1800s. In 1849, Fort Laramie was specifically established to protect emigrants travelling west. The post was abandoned on March 2, 1890. Fort Clay was established October 1855 and predesignated Camp Davis February . . . — Map (db m85769) HM|
|Wyoming (Platte County), Guernsey — Grave of Lucindy Rollins|
| Grave of
1849 - 1934
Dedicated to the Pioneer
Women of Wyoming
Erected by the
Historical Landmark Commission
of Wyoming — Map (db m79831) HM|
|Wyoming (Platte County), Guernsey — Guernsey War Memorial|
| In memory of those who made the supreme sacrifice in defense of their country in World War II
Simeon Albert • Edgar A . Beal • Arthur L. Birieffi • Joseph N. Bowman • Frank L. Covington • Marvin Holcomb • Leland L. Lane • Charles M. Mathews • Milton A. Patterson • Gerald W. Sharp • Roy Ross Stratton • James Beryl Thompson • Jack A. Webb • Jim F. Webb — Map (db m79806) WM|
|Wyoming (Platte County), Guernsey — Historic Guernsey Area|
|Platted and established by the Lincoln Land Company of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad, Guernsey garners its name from Charles A. Guernsey, noted legislator, rancher, and investor in early Wyoming.
The historic Guernsey area encompasses a key stretch of the North Platte River Valley from the Nebraska border west to the Hartville Uplift. The river forms an historic transportation corridor that began with the Native Americans, continued with emigrants along the . . . — Map (db m79807) HM|
|Wyoming (Platte County), Guernsey — Lock and Roll Down a Rocky Road|
|The historic Oregon Trail descends from the benchlands across the valley to the river bottom below. Brigham Young’s 1847 Company of Mormon Pioneers crossed the south side of the North Platte River near Fort Laramie to follow the Oregon Trail past this point. William Clayton, in his guidebook for emigrants, describes the trail as a ”steep hill to descend… the descent being over rock and very steep… dangerous to wagons, but it is not lengthy.”
The trail followed a line of . . . — Map (db m79834) HM|
|Wyoming (Platte County), Guernsey — North Platte River|
| North Platte River: Gateway Corridor
Currents of History Travel Alongside the North Platte River
Routes along the river originally used by Native Americans were later adopted by fur traders. Beginning as a trickle, waves of wagon train emigrants turned the North Platte River Valley into a major corridor west. Permanent communities came later, and were dependent on the transportation routes that continued to follow the river. The wagon roads, railroads, and eventually . . . — Map (db m79839) HM|
|Wyoming (Platte County), Guernsey — Oregon Trail|
|Two monuments, one erected in 1932 and the other a modern replacement, are located in the Guernsey city park.
To All Pioneers
Who Passed This Way
To Win and Hold the West
Trail Ruts and Register Cliff
One Mile South — Map (db m79833) HM|
|Wyoming (Platte County), Guernsey — Oregon Trail Ruts — Registered National Historic Landmark|
|Wagon wheels cut solid rock, carving a memorial to Empire Builders. what manner of men and beasts impelled conveyances weighting on those griding wheels? Look! A line of shadows crossing boundless wilderness.
Foremost, nimble mules drawing their carts, come poised Montain Men carrying trade goods to a fur fair -- the Rendezvous. So, in 1830, Bill Sublette turns the first wheels from St. Louis to the Rocky Mountains! Following his faint trail, a decade later and on throught the 1860's, . . . — Map (db m5748) HM|
|Wyoming (Platte County), Guernsey — Oregon Trail Ruts State Historic Site — The Trail West — A Difficult Journey|
| Three panels are found at the Park Kiosk near the parking lot.
The Trail West
During the mid-1800s, more than 500,000 pioneers journeyed west. Never more than a rocky, rutted trail, the road west began in Missouri, crossing the plains before entering Wyoming along the North Plate River. Travel became more difficult, upon reaching Wyoming, as the terrain changed from the wide-open plains to the rugged, arid landscape typical of the west. The westward migration by wagon . . . — Map (db m85924) HM|
|Wyoming (Platte County), Guernsey — Register Cliff|
|The wayfarer's penchant for inscribing names and dates on prominent landmarks excites the interest of his descendants. Regrettably, marks of historic value are often effaced by later opportunists.
Along the Oregon Trail, famed transcontinental route of the 19th century, pertinent dates are from the 1820's through the 1860's. Three outstanding recording areas exist within Wyoming: Register Cliff here; Independence Rock, 180 miles west; and Names Hill, a further 175 miles along the Trail's . . . — Map (db m5749) HM|
|Wyoming (Platte County), Guernsey — Register Cliff State Historic Site|
|Three panels are located at the Register Cliff State Historic Site kiosk.
Register Cliff State Historic Site
West of Register Cliff the landscape changes, presenting new challenges for the emigrants. Limited water and rugged terrain made travel more difficult as they journeyed across the plains of southern Wyoming toward Fort Bridger, the next major supply point - 368 miles away.
Register Cliff represents one of the best ‘trail registers . . . — Map (db m79836) HM|
|Wyoming (Platte County), Guernsey — Rifle Pit Hill — Cold Springs Camping Ground|
|Rock quarries, visible from several points near this location, were used beginning in 1849 to supply stone and lime for construction projects at Fort Laramie, about 15 miles east. Workers in the quarries were protected by soldiers stationed in fortified rifle pits dug in the crest of the low hill to the northeast. Five such rifle pits, eighteen to twenty four inches deep, form a well arranged defense perimeter.
The rifle pits also overlook the Cold Spring campground, a popular camping and . . . — Map (db m85753) HM|
|Wyoming (Platte County), Guernsey — The United States Army and the Oregon Trail|
| The U.S. Army's Role in Protecting the Oregon Trail in Wyoming 1842 to 1870
Lieutenant John C. Fremont led an expedition west in 1842 to map a route to Oregon Territory. The scout, Kit Carson, guided the expedition. Lieutenant Fremont’s report and Charles Preuss’s maps were used by many emigrants.
In June of 1849, the First Army post in Wyoming was established at Fort Laramie, also known as Fort John. Fort John was an old American Fur Company trading post located near . . . — Map (db m85771) HM|
|Wyoming (Platte County), Guernsey — The US Army’s Role in Protecting the Oregon Trail is Best Described by the Soldiers|
|Three plaques, under the same title, describe how the U.S. Army protected immigrants on the Oregon Trail.
“If it is in contemplation to keep open communications with Oregon Territory, a show of military force in this country is absolutely necessary; and a combination of advantages renders the neighborhood of Fort Laramie the most suitable place, on the line of the Platte, for the establishment of a military post." Brevet Capt. John C. Fremont, leader of the . . . — Map (db m85766) HM|
|Wyoming (Sheridan County), Banner — Fetterman Massacre Memorial|
|On this field on the 21st day of December, 1866, three commissioned officers and seventy six privates of the 18th U.S. Infantry, and of the 2nd U.S. Cavalry, and four civilians, under the command of Captain Brevet-Lieutenant Colonel William J. Fetterman were killed by an overwhelming force of Sioux, under the command of Red Cloud. There were no survivors. — Map (db m85998) HM|
|Wyoming (Sheridan County), Banner — Fort Phil Kearny — Registered National Historic Landmark|
| The Land
The land under view where the Great Plains meets the Rocky Mountains was once the Red Man's land of milk and honey, then as now teaming with wildlife. It was a most productive--thus favorite--hunting ground. But it was also a natural route used from time immemorial by nomadic men and migratory beasts. Lying hundreds of miles beyond the 1860 frontier, it was treaty-confirmed Indian country.
Here came a frontiersman, John Bozeman, pioneering a wagon road which followed . . . — Map (db m21870) HM|
|Wyoming (Sheridan County), Banner — Portugee Phillips|
|In honor of John (Portugee) Phillips who Dec. 22-24, 1866, rode 236 miles in sub-zero weather through Indian infested country to Fort Laramie to summon aid for the garrison of Fort Phil Kearny beleaguered by Indians following the Fetterman Massacre. Erected by The Historical Landmark Commission of Wyoming 1936 — Map (db m86069) HM|
|Wyoming (Sheridan County), Banner — Powder River Indian Wars – 1865 to 1868|
| In 1863, a party led by John Bozeman blazed a trail from the North Platte River, northwest across the Powder River Basin and along the foothills of the Big Horn Mountains to the gold fields of Montana. Established in violation of the 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie, this incursion into Indian Country precipitated the Powder River Indian Wars between 1865 and 1868, as the U.S. Government and several Indian nations battled for control of the region. By 1866, the government had established . . . — Map (db m86159) WM|
|Wyoming (Sheridan County), Ranchester — Bozeman Trail|
|Marked by the State of Wyoming 1864 — Map (db m86254) HM|
|Wyoming (Sheridan County), Ranchester — Connor Battlefield — Wyoming|
| At this site on Tongue River, August 29, 1865, Brigadier General Patrick E. Connor. 125 cavalrymen, and 90 Indian scouts attacked an Arapaho village of several hundred lodges. After a swift night march, Connor’s men surprised and stormed the village. As women and children fled, the men held off the troopers before withdrawing. Connor galloped in pursuit while Pawnee scouts rounded up the Arapaho horse herd and soldiers destroyed the village. When the Arapahos launched an aggressive . . . — Map (db m86053) HM|
|Wyoming (Sheridan County), Ranchester — Stagecoach Roads in Sheridan County — Bingham Post Office and Stage Station|
| Bingham Post Office and stage station on the Rock Creek stage line was located from 1879 to 1885 at Benjamin F. Smith’s ranch on the north side of the Tongue River, where the stage road crossed. The site is in a field west of the ranch buildings, about a half mile southeast of this sign. The ranch was one of twenty-three stage stations, eighteen to twenty miles apart, on the Rock Creek to Montana stage road. The stations consisted of stables and houses for the employees on the route, and nine . . . — Map (db m86278) HM|
|Wyoming (Sheridan County), Ranchester — The Battle of Tongue River — Wyoming|
| On this site during the early morning hours of August 29, 1865, General Patrick Edward Connor led over 200 troops in an attack on Chief Black Bear’s Arapaho village. Connor had departed from Fort Laramie on July 30th with 184 wagons, a contingent of Pawnee scouts, nearly 500 cavalrymen and the aging Jim Bridger as guide. His column was one of three comprising the Powder River Indian Expedition sent to secure the Bozeman and other emigrant trails leading to the Montana mining fields. . . . — Map (db m86058) HM|
|Wyoming (Sheridan County), Ranchester — Tongue River Crossing — Wyoming|
| Historically, this area of the Tongue River served as a trail and stage road crossing. The Boseman Trail, road to the Montana gold fields, crossed here beginning in 1864. The Bozeman cut through the Powder River Basin, violating the Fort Laramie Treaties, which designated the area as tribal lands for the Northern Plains Tribes. Use of the trail contributed to the “Plains Indian War” and military occupation of the region. In the summer of 1865 a road building . . . — Map (db m86276) HM|
|Wyoming (Sheridan County), Sheridan — Sheridan|
| Founded only a few years after removal of Native American tribes from the Powder River Basin, the town of Sheridan retains the atmosphere of a bustling late 19th/early 20th century western town. The original downtown was platted in 1882 by John D. Loucks and named in honor of Civil War General Philip Sheridan. The arrival of the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy railroad in 1892 cemented Sheridan’s permanence as a thriving business center. The town’s population exploded from a mere 281 people in . . . — Map (db m86160) HM|
|Wyoming (Sheridan County), Sheridan — The Bozeman Trail|
| Jim Bridger first came west in 1822, working in the fur trade until that industry declined. He traveled throughout the west, becoming an expert on the Indians and the land. After working as a trader, he established the Bridger Trail through the Big Horn Basin in 1864. During his last years on the frontier, he served as a scout for the army, including the Connor Expedition and at the Bozeman Trail forts until late 1867, returning once more in 1868 to help in the abandonment of the posts. He . . . — Map (db m86164) HM|
|Wyoming (Sheridan County), Story — Wagon Box Fight — August 2, 1867|
| This monument is erected to perpetuate the memory of one of the famous battles of history. It is dedicated to the courage and bravery of twenty-eight soldiers in Company C, 27th United States Infantry, and four civilians, who held their improvised fort made of fourteen ordinary wagon-boxes, against three thousand Sioux warriors under the leadership or Red Cloud, for a period of six or seven hours under continuous fire. The number of Indians killed has been variously estimated from . . . — Map (db m86050) HM|
|Wyoming (Sheridan County), Story — Wagon Box Fight — Wyoming|
| In August 1867, a war party of hundreds of Sioux and Cheyenne warriors, led by Ogallala chief Red Cloud, left their camp on the Big Horn River, hoping to destroy military posts along the Bozeman trail. Some of the warriors rode toward Fort C. F. Smith, while others approached Fort Phil Kearny. Soldiers under the command of Captain James W. Powell, Company C, 27th Infantry, had been assigned to guard civilian woodcutters on Piney Island, approximately six miles west of Fort Phil . . . — Map (db m86062) HM|
|Wyoming (Sublette County), Big Piney — Of Cattle and Men — Route of the Lander Cut-off|
|You are standing just north of the route taken by thousands of people, cattle and horses migrating west on the Lander Cut-off, the northern fork of the Oregon Trail, starting in 1858. None settled here then. By the late 1870s, cattle from the west were being trailed back to stock Wyoming ranges. The first Sublette County herds were a mix of western cattle but generally not Texas longhorns. In 1878-79, Ed Swan’s PL, Otto Leifer’s Circle, D.B. Budd’s Quarter Circle Six, Hugh McKay’s Sixty-Seven . . . — Map (db m85813) HM|
|Wyoming (Sublette County), Bondurant — Astorian Camp|
|On this site, Oct. 18, 1811, sixty-one Astorians of the Pacific Fur Company led by Wilson Price Hunt camped for 5 days. They were on their way to the Pacific Ocean from St. Louis and were the second group to cross the continent, just 5 years after Lewis and Clark. Here they met and traded with the Snake Indians, killed buffalo, and cured meat.|
The group included Marie Dorian, the Iowa Indian wife of guide, Pierre Dorian, and her two children, ages 2 and 4. Later during the trip, on Dec. 30, . . . — Map (db m47078) HM
|Wyoming (Sublette County), Boulder — “The Best Mountain Road in the West” — “A Cold Supper Was Eaten This Evening in Silence” — “Good Water, Abundance of Grass,” and Natural Gas!|
|This maker consists of three plaques, each dealing with the Lander Cut-off.
“The Best Mountain Road in the West”
In 1857, Congress funded construction of the Fort Kearney-South Pass-Honey Lakes Wagon Road (Lander Road), marking the government’s first efforts to boost western emigration and fulfill its “Manifest Destiny” through road construction.
During the summer of 1857, Frederick W. Lander’s team of engineers surveyed 3,000 miles of . . . — Map (db m80540) HM|
|Wyoming (Sublette County), Boulder — Pronghorn Antelope and the High Cold Desert|
|Dominated by sagebrush grasslands, the "high cold desert" provides habitat for one of the largest pronghorn antelope herds in the world. This region is home to 40,000 to 60,000 antelope, known as the Sublette Herd. The pronghorn has keen eyesight and the ability to run up to 60 miles an hour.|
As you travel this highway, small groups of the herd can be viewed during the late spring and summer. As the fall season turns into winter and snow begins to cover their food sources, thousands of . . . — Map (db m85809) HM
|Wyoming (Sublette County), Boulder — Sand Spring - A Stop on the Oregon Trail|
|This site is a crossing of the Lander Cut-off, the northern fork of the Oregon Trail. Originally called the Fort Kearney-South Pass-Honey Lake Wagon Road when it opened in 1858, it was the first federally-funded road project west of the Mississippi River.|
F.W. Lander mapped this new route, shortening the trip to the Pacific by 5 days and avoiding a ferry crossing to the south where price gouging was alleged. Sand Springs was the only reliable water available to emigrants between Muddy Creek, . . . — Map (db m47092) HM
|Wyoming (Sublette County), Boulder — To All Pioneers Who Passed This Way to Win and Hold the West|
|Route of Lander cut-off first government financed road in Wyoming. Officially called Ft. Kearney, South Pass and Honey Lake Road. Built in 1858 from Rocky Ridge to Ft. Hall to provide shorter route for emigrants. — Map (db m47093) HM|
|Wyoming (Sublette County), Cora — First Tie Drive on Green River|
|Because timber was scarce in neighboring states along the first transcontinental railroad line, the tie business flourished here and in other Wyoming mountain locations. Ties were cut in winter, stored on the river bank until spring, and floated downstream during high water.
Charles DeLoney was a youthful Michigan Civil War veteran who came to Wyoming after the war. An experienced timberman, he contracted with the Union Pacific Railroad in 1867 to supply ties. A crew of 30 men hauled . . . — Map (db m80522) HM|
|Wyoming (Sublette County), Cora — Gros Ventre Lodge|
|This lodge, one of the earliest dude ranches in Wyoming, was built on the hill beyond in 1897 by William (Billy) Wells and operated until 1906. It was name for the Little Gros Ventre (now Tosi Creek) and was known locally as “Dog Ranch: because of the foxhounds Wells kept for hunting. While Wells guided guests on summer trips through the Green River Valley and Bridger National Forest, the Gros Ventre was most notable as a hunting lodge the served prominent American and British big game . . . — Map (db m80523) HM|
|Wyoming (Sublette County), Daniel — First Holy Mass in Wyoming|
was offered here
for the first time
in Wyoming by
July 5 1840 — Map (db m80516) HM|
|Wyoming (Sublette County), Daniel — 39 — Fort Bonneville|
|In May of 1832, Captain Benjamin Bonneville left Fort Osage, Missouri with an expedition consisting of one hundred and ten men and twenty wagons, headed for the Rocky Mountain West. Upon his arrival in the Green River Valley, he ordered immediate construction of a fort along the west bank of the River. Some uncertainty surrounds Bonneville’s intent, but historians believe it was to use the fort as a trading establishment and military outpost to demonstrate to the British that Americans were in . . . — Map (db m80521) HM|
|Wyoming (Sublette County), Daniel — Green River Rendezvous|
|From the first big beaver season in 1824 to the last Rendezvous in 1840, the Green River Valley was the center of the Rocky Mountain fur trade. Six of the 16 summer Rendezvous (1833, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1839, 1840) were held here at the confluence of Horse Creek and the Green River. For mountain men who trapped during the long cold months for the best fur, the summer Rendezvous provided an opportunity to sell beaver hides, re-supply for the coming year, meet old friends, and celebrate. Rendezvous . . . — Map (db m80517) HM|
|Wyoming (Sublette County), Daniel — Narcissa Prentiss Whitman — Eliza Hart Spalding|
Narcissa Prentiss Whitman
Eliza Hart Spalding
First white women in Wyoming
First women over Oregon Trail
July 6 to July 18 was spent at
“Green River Rendezvous”
These pilgrim women took an active part in religious services held here.
Wyoming Federation of Women’s Clubs
The Historical Landmarks Commission of Wyoming
Sublette County Historical Association — Map (db m80518) HM|
|Wyoming (Sublette County), Daniel — Pinckey W. Sublette — Died 1865|
| Buried on Fontenelle Creek, exhumed 1897, taken to the U.S.Circuit Court at St. Louis, Mo., returned by a court order to Sublette County, Wyoming to be buried here July 27, 1935.
July 4, 1936
The Historical Landmark Commission
of Wyoming — Map (db m80513) HM|
|Wyoming (Sublette County), Daniel — The Prairie of the Mass|
|Rev. Pierre DeSmet (1801-1873) was born in Belgium but came to America in 1821, joined by the Jesuit Society and began his work with the Indians. In his work, he established 16 treaties, crossed the ocean 19 times and traveled 180,000 miles on his errands of charity for the Indians who knew him as “The Sincerest Friend”. On July 5, 1840, in the presence of 2,000 Indians, trappers and traders he offered the first Holy Mass in what is now Wyoming on an alter of native stone decorated . . . — Map (db m80512) HM|
|Wyoming (Sublette County), Farson — "Parting of the Ways"|
|This marks a fork in the trail, right to Oregon, left to Utah and California.
1812, Robert Stuart and eastbound Astorians used South Pass gateway.
1824, Eleven westbound Ashley-Henry men led by Jedediah Smith and Thomas Fitzpatrick.
1832, N. Wyeth and Capt. B.L.E. Bonneville parties.
1836, Missionaries M. Whitman and H.H. Spalding and wives.
1841, Bartleson-Bidwell Party.
1852, Peak year, estimated 40,000 emigrants. — Map (db m67035) HM|
|Wyoming (Sublette County), Farson — Parting of the Ways|
|Trail ruts at this site were mistakenly identified as the Parting-of-the-Ways where emigrant parties separated on their journeys to Oregon, California, or Utah.
The actual Parting-of-the-Ways is approximately 10 miles west of this spot. Where you are standing now is part of the main Oregon Trail over which 350,000 - 500,000 people passed on their way West between 1844 and 1869.
Look closely at the ground between the pullout fence and the monuments. The uneven "ridges" in the ground . . . — Map (db m67034) HM|
|Wyoming (Sublette County), Farson — The Parting of the Ways|
|In July 1844 the California bound Stevens-Townsend-Murphy wagon train, guided by Isaac Hitchcock and 81-year old Caleb Greenwood, passed this point and continued nine and one half miles southwest from here, to a place destined to become prominent in Oregon Trail history - the starting point of the Sublette Cut-off.
There, instead of following the regular Oregon Trail route southwest to Fort Bridger, then northwest to reach the Bear River below present day . . . — Map (db m67036) HM|
|Wyoming (Sublette County), Farson — To All Pioneers Who Passed This Way to Win and Hold the West|
|Route of Sublette cut-off from Big Sandy to Bear River. Traversed after 1843 by emigrants to Oregon and California. — Map (db m47096) HM|
|Wyoming (Sublette County), Pinedale — Rendezvous - Birth of an Empire|
|The river below is the Green. The mountains to the west are the Wyomings (Bear Rivers). Those to the the east, the Windrivers. Along the river banks below are the Rendezvous sites of 1833, 1835 (New Fork), 1836, 1837 (Cottonwood), 1839, 1840 and Fort Bonneville. Trappers, traders and Indians from throughout the west here met the wagons from the east to barter, trade for furs, gamble, drink, frolic, pray and scheme. The Indians, Deleware and Iroquois brought in by the Hudson Bay Company, Snakes, . . . — Map (db m80511) HM|
|Wyoming (Sublette County), Pinedale — Welcome to the Riparian Community of Duck Creek|
|Duck Creek riparian community is a diverse and complex society of living organisms. Wild brown trout feed on caddisfly nymphs, which live in self-made stick and stone shelters, clinging to the rocks. Yellow warblers and flycatchers next in willow bushes. Beaver harvest willows to build dams and lodges. A mallard hen raises its brood on the beaver pond. In the wet meadows beyond the creek, sandhill cranes and long-billed curlews raise their chicks. On a good morning yo can see more than 30 kinds . . . — Map (db m47080) HM|
|Wyoming (Sweetwater County), Farson — "Graves" of the Unknown Emigrants|
|Graves were an all-to-frequent reminder of the dangers of overland travel. Most emigrant journals record death, burial, or passing graves during the day's travel. Most burials along the trail were hasty affairs.
The official Company Journal of the Edmund Ellsworth Company of Handcart Pioneers, dated September 17, 1856, stated,
"James Birch, age 28 died this morning of diarrhea. Buried on the top of sand ridge east side of Sandy. The camp rolled at eight and traveled eleven miles. . . . — Map (db m67045) HM|
|Wyoming (Sweetwater County), Farson — Burial on the Trail|
|Death on the trail did not allow for the fineries of the funerals back home. Emigrants made do with materials available. Black would adorn the clothes of mourners, and care would be taken to provide the best funeral possible. The most travelers could provide was often just a shallow trench beside the trail and no coffin for the deceased.
Many emigrants worried about the lack of propriety of a simple grave on the windswept prairie and vowed to return and provide a "proper" resting place.
. . . — Map (db m67044) HM|
|Wyoming (Sweetwater County), Farson — Burning Wagons|
|Brigham Young sent the Utah Militia, also known as the Nauvoo Legion, to harass the Federal troops and delay their approach. In the early hours of October 4th, Major Lot Smith of the Utah Militia and 40 men captured and burned two supply trains, totalling 52 wagons, west of here near the Green River.
The next day Smith and his men struck again near where you are now standing. Militiaman Newton Tuttle, wrote in his journal:
"Mond 5 We went on to the Sandy got breakfast then . . . — Map (db m67040) HM|
|Wyoming (Sweetwater County), Farson — Continuing the Journey West|
|Just a few miles from where you're standing, the emigrants would come to the first of several trail "splits" that would take them to a crossing on the Green River where they would camp for the evening.
Even with South Pass behind them, Oregon or California-bound travelers still faced more than half their journey and the roughest traveling portion of the trail. Emigrants headed to Utah were slightly better off as they were less than a month away from journey's end.
As you continue your . . . — Map (db m67043) HM|
|Wyoming (Sweetwater County), Farson — Death on the Trail|
|Death was a constant companion for emigrants headed west. It is estimated that 10,000 to 30,000 people died and were buried along the trails between 1843 and 1869.
Cholera and other diseases were the most common cause of death. People didn't know that cholera was caused by drinking contaminated water. Poor sanitation and burial practices perpetuated the disease. People infected long before might die by a river crossing and would be buried near the river which would in turn . . . — Map (db m67046) HM|
|Wyoming (Sweetwater County), Farson — Emigrant/Indian Relations|
|Relations between emigrants using the trails and the Indians were inconsistent during the migration period. While hostile acts and violent confrontation did occur, they have been overemphasized in trail history. During the early migration period of the 1840s, there is documentation of the Indians helping emigrants with treacherous river crossings, giving directions, conducting peaceful trading, and providing food. It appeared that the native populations did not view the small numbers of . . . — Map (db m67049) HM|
|Wyoming (Sweetwater County), Farson — First Transcontinental Telegraph|
|In 1859, the California legislature offered $6,000 a year for the first overland telegraph. This was followed by an act of the United States Congress on June 16, 1860, pledging $40,000 a year for ten years for carrying government messages. With these inducements, the first work was begun in 1860, but by the end of that year the line ran only to Fort Kearny, Nebraska, from the east and to Fort Churchill, Nevada, from the west.
There was some question of which route should be followed over . . . — Map (db m67048) HM|
|Wyoming (Sweetwater County), Farson — 26 — Little Sandy Crossing|
|On Monday evening, June 28, 1847, Brigham Young and the Mormon pioneers met James Bridger and party near this place. Both companies encamped here over night and conferred at length regarding the route and the possibility of establishing and sustaining a large population in the valley of the Great Salt Lake. Bridger tried to discourage the undertaking in this conference he is reported to have said that he would give one thousand dollars for the first bushel of corn crown in the Salt Lake Valley. — Map (db m47138) HM|
|Wyoming (Sweetwater County), Farson — Pilot Butte|
|On the horizon about 25 miles to the south is Pilot Butte. An important landmark, Pilot Butte served as a guide post separating South Pass trails from the more southerly Overland Trail that crossed southern Wyoming. Oddly enough, Pilot Butte was more important to travelers headed east than it was for west-bound emigrants.
The name Pilot Butte appears on fur trade maps at least as early as 1837. Captain Howard Stansbury mentioned Pilot Butte on September 12, 1850, as his column of . . . — Map (db m67047) HM|
|Wyoming (Sweetwater County), Farson — Pilot Butte & "Graves" of the Unknown Emigrants|
|Welcome to the Pilot Butte Emigrant Trails Interpretive Site. The purpose of the site is to help you gain a sense of what life was like for the 400,000 emigrants who left their homes to seek a new life in the West. They were seeking wealth, religious freedom, land of their own, a new life. They all found hardship and suffering along the trail.
At the bottom of the path you'll see the actual trail ruts of the Oregon, California, Mormon Pioneer, and Pony Express National Historic Trails.
. . . — Map (db m67042) HM|
|Wyoming (Sweetwater County), Farson — Simpson's Hollow|
|One of only three significant engagements of the Utah War, the incident at Simpson's Hollow played a key role in the conflict. The Utah War (1857-1858) was the result of a lack of communication between the U.S. Government and the Utah Territory concerning Brigham Young's power as governor of Utah and as head of the Church of Latter Day Saints. To resolve this conflict of interest, President Buchanan appointed a new governor, Alfred Cumming. However, fearing Utah's citizens would not calmly . . . — Map (db m67038) HM|
|Wyoming (Sweetwater County), Farson — Simpson's Hollow|
|Here on Oct. 6, 1857, U.S. Army supply wagons led by a Capt. Simpson were burned by Major Lot Smith and 43 Utah Militia men. They were under orders from Brigham Young, Utah Territorial Governor, to delay the army's advance on Utah. This delay of the army helped affect a peaceful settlement of difficulties.
The day earlier a similar burning of 52 army supply wagons took place near here at Smith's Bluff. — Map (db m67039) HM|