|Wyoming (Albany County), Buford — Lonetree on the Laramie Range|
|This area of southeast Wyoming is rich in history, geology and recreational activities. Within a short distance from this point, sites abound of early day events that have shaped the western heritage of this area, including the Arapaho and Cheyenne Indian tribes who hunted and camped within the shelter of the Vedauwoo Rocks. The transcontinental railroad tracks of the Union Pacific Railroad are a short distance to the west as is the Ames Monument, erected to commemorate the highest point of the . . . — Map (db m68052) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Buford — Sherman Mountains|
|The Sherman Mountains are erosional remnants rising above the general level of the surface of the Laramie Range. The flat topped characteristic of the range resulted from beveling during an ancient erosion cycle. Bedrock here is granite, a crystalline rock made up of pink feldspar, glassy quartz, black mica and hornblende, which originated deep in the earth's crust over a billion years ago.
The peculiar rock forms of the Sherman Mountains are controlled by three sets of joints, or planes . . . — Map (db m68051)|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Buford — Tree Rock|
|This small pine tree that seems to be growing out of solid rock has fascinated travelers since the first train rolled past on the Union Pacific Railroad. It is said that the builders of the original railroad diverted the tracks slightly to pass by the tree as they laid rails across Sherman Mountain in 1867-69. It is also said that trains stopped here while locomotive fireman "gave the tree a drink" from their water buckets. The railroad moved several miles to the south in 1901 and the abandoned . . . — Map (db m62159) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — 150 N. 2nd Street|
|Built in 1869 for the Methodist Episcopal Church, this edifice is likely the oldest church building in Wyoming.
It originally was located across the street where the Elks Lodge now stands. — Map (db m76783) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Abraham Lincoln — "We must think anew and act anew"|
|1809 - 1865 This monument commemorates the sesquicentennial of Lincoln's birth by the State of Wyoming in 1959 Charles W. Jeffrey, M.D., Rawlins - Wyo. Donor Robert I. Russin, Sculptor — Map (db m47144) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — First Woman Jury|
|This tablet marks the site where the first woman jury served during March 1870
Placed in 1922
The Jacques LaRamie
Chapter Daughters of The American Revolution — Map (db m76786) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Ft. Sanders — 1866-1882|
The emigrant trails across Wyoming were a vital link in the transcontinental migration of an estimated 250,000 Americans in the 19th century, and opened the area to settlers. The Indians resented this intrusion and threatened these transportation corridors. Ft. Sanders, one of several army posts built along the trails, was established to protect emigrant, military and stage line traffic on the Laramie Plains portion of the Overland/Cherokee and Lodgepole Creek Trails.
. . . — Map (db m67994) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Gateway to the Rockies|
|Tall trees, short trees, shrubs, grasses and flowering plants -- mountains, canyons, river bottoms, and prairies -- all intermingle to form the landscape. The greater the variety of landforms and vegetation, the more homes or habitats there are for wildlife.|
the large expanses of native wildland habitats make Wyoming unique and the home to over 600 species of native wildlife.
Here at the Gateway to the Rockies you will see animals of the conifer forest. The golden-crowned kinglet is found . . . — Map (db m47149) HM
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Henry B. Joy Monument|
"That there should be a Lincoln Highway across this country is the most important thing"
In memory of Henry B. Joy
The first president of the Lincoln Highway Association
Who saw realized the dream of a continuous improved highway from the Atlantic to the Pacific — Map (db m84887) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Henry Bourne Joy and the Lincoln Highway|
|This monument commemorates the Lincoln Highway, America's first transcontinental automobile road, and Henry Bourne Joy, the first president of the Lincoln Highway Association (1913). Joy, also president of the Packard Motor Car Company, is sometimes called the father of the nation's modern highway system. he said that his effort to create the Lincoln Highway was "the greatest thing I ever did."|
The old Lincoln Highway passed over the crest of the hill seen beyond the monument. This was the . . . — Map (db m47145) HM
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Laramie|
|Founded in 1868 upon the arrival of the Union Pacific Railroad, Laramie was named after the fur trader Jacques LaRamie. The first female jurors served here in 1870 after Wyoming Territory in 1869, for the first time in history, gave women full rights of suffrage. Humorist Bill Nye founded his Boomerang newspaper in 1881, and the University of Wyoming opened its doors in 1887. At the south edge of the city lie the ruins of Fort Sanders, 1866-1882. West of the city can be seen the first . . . — Map (db m67993) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Laramie|
|Founded in 1868 upon the arrival of the Union Pacific Railroad, Laramie was named after the fur trader Jacques LaRamie. The first female jurors served here in 1870 after Wyoming Territory, in 1869, for the first time in history, gave women full rights of suffrage. Humorist Bill Nye founded his Boomerang newspaper in 1881, and the University of Wyoming opened its doors in 1887. At the south edge of the city lie the ruins of Fort Sanders, 1866-1882. West of the city can be seen the first . . . — Map (db m76789) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Laramie Timeline|
|This marker is made up of a dozen plaques embedded in a cement patio and a map of historic Laramie also embedded in patio. As each plaque has the same format, only a few of them have been illustrated.
French Canadian Jacques LaRamie trapped beaver throughout the bountiful rivers and steams of southeast Wyoming. Today a city, county river, mountain range, peak and fort bear his name. Only mountain man Jim Bridger has Wyoming landmarks named for him.
May 1868 . . . — Map (db m76849) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Ranching from the High Point|
|This area of Albany and Laramie Counties is noted for its rich agricultural history. The forests and rolling hills were home to large sheep and cattle herds from the mid 1800s into the 1900s. After the Civil War, trees harvested from what is now the Medicine Bow National Forest helped build the Union Pacific Railroad -- essential to moving livestock to markets. Cheyenne was known in the 1880s as "the wealthiest little city in the world". Much of this wealth was held by area cattle barons.|
Tom . . . — Map (db m47150) HM
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Site of Fort Sanders|
Marks the Site of
Established September 5, 1866
Abandoned May 18, 1882
Named in Honor of
William P. Sanders
Erected by the
State of Wyoming
Jacques Laramie Chapter
Daughters of the
From July 10, to
September 5, 1866
Fort John Buford — Map (db m67995) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — Telephone Canyon|
|The first in the west through which a telephone line was run. The first conversation over this line was held in 1882 between Bill Nye at Laramie and Hon. E. E. Warren at Cheyenne. — Map (db m47148) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — The Franchise|
John D. Baker
The title “The Franchise” refers to the recognition and bestowal of the right of women to vote under full civil equality with men. In 1869, Wyoming became the first state or territory to grant this right.
This act was inspirational to both the women’s suffrage movement and the cause of civil rights throughout the nation. The nineteenth amendment to the United States Constitution would not be ratified until 1920 - fifty years later. . . . — Map (db m76744) HM|
|Wyoming (Albany County), Laramie — The Purple Heart Trail|
|The Purple Heart Medal was originated by General George Washington on August 7, 1782 for distinguished valor and is now awarded only to members of the armed forces of the United States, who have been wounded in combat against an armed enemy.|
Recipients of this unique award have been specifically honored by the U.S. Congress as a chartered fraternal organization known as the Military Order of the Purple Heart and have active members in Chapters throughout Wyoming, the United States and the . . . — Map (db m47143) HM
|Wyoming (Big Horn County), Burlington — McCullough Peaks Wild Horses — Wyoming|
| No larger than a dog, the eohippus, or dawn horse, first appeared approximately 55 million years ago. It had four toes on its front legs and three on its hind legs. Eohippus remains have been found in Wyoming’s Wind River Basin. Over time, the eohippus evolved into Equus - - the horse as we know it. The horse became extinct in America about 8,000 years ago. In the fifteenth century, Spanish explorers and missionaries reintroduced it to the Americas. Legend has it today’s wild horses are . . . — Map (db m86912) HM|
|Wyoming (Big Horn County), Burlington — Shortcut to the Goldfields — Bridger Trail - 1864|
| This region is totally unfit for either rail or wagon roads and can only be traversed with the greatest of difficulty. - U.S. Army Lieutenant Henry Mayandier, while attempting to map a wagon route across the Big Horn Basin in 1860 You are standing near the Bridger Trail which is visible as you look towards Bridger Butte to the north. The Devil’s Backbone, the roughest descent on the trail, is situated at the northern edge of the plain as the trail drops down into the . . . — Map (db m86910) HM|
|Wyoming (Big Horn County), Lovell — Raptors: Winged Hunters of Bighorn Canyon — Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior|
|Raptors are graceful hunters of Bighorn Canyon. The location is ideal home for these birds of prey because of the abundance of food and excellent nesting spots. Watch for these magnificent birds in action. — Map (db m62158) HM|
|Wyoming (Big Horn County), Shell — Copman's Tomb|
|The red cliff face to your left flanks Sunlight Mesa. At the top is Elephant Head Rock, so named because of its shape. The triangle-shaped mountain to the right is named Pyramid Peak. To your far right is a prominent rock-topped mountain called Copman's Tomb. Copman's Tomb is named after Wolfgang R. Copman, a pioneer who was fascinated by the Canyon's splendor, and asked that his ashes be scattered over the mountain when he died.
At the bottom of Shell Canyon, Shell Creek flows as it has . . . — Map (db m68892) HM|
|Wyoming (Big Horn County), Shell — Nature's Destruction|
|In June 1959, a tornado roared over the south rim of the canyon directly before you. Its path was along Granite Creek to your left and through what used to be Granite Creek Campground. One person was killed. The twister ripped up timber and laid it out in the pattern you see now.
While tornadoes usually occur on the plains, several have visited the Big Horn Mountains. Blowing down mountain timber at 10,000 feet above sea level, these tornadoes are among the highest on record. The Forest . . . — Map (db m71500) HM|
|Wyoming (Carbon County), Elk Mountain — Wagonhound Rest Area|
|The area near the Wagonhound Rest Area has played an important role in western transportation since the earliest days of human activity in the Rock Mountain west. The area has provided Wyoming's earliest inhabitants, explorers, westbound settlers, and modern travelers with a viable rout around the formidable Elk Mountain and the Medicine Bow range. numerous teepee rings in the immediate vicinity attest to the fact Native Americans utilized the area for thousands of years as they lived and . . . — Map (db m47142) HM|
|Wyoming (Carbon County), Elk Mountain — Wagonhound Tipi Rings|
|The stone circles of "Tipi Rings" as this site mark the location of a prehistoric Native American campsite. The stones were probably used to anchor the skins of conical tents known by the Sioux word "Tipi". the stones were placed around the base of the tipi to hold down the skins as well as to provide additional support to the tipi in high winds. After the introduction of the metal ax, wooden pegs gradually replaced the tones for holding down the skins.|
The tipi was used for shelter and . . . — Map (db m47141) HM
|Wyoming (Carbon County), Elk Mountain — Wyoming Winds|
|This site lies at the northern-most extent of the Snowy Range Mountains, a spot where the high mountain peaks end and the winds begin. Winds here may exceed 70 miles per hour at times, blowing winter snows, leaving ridges and slopes bare, and exposing grasses and shrubs to provide food for elk, mule deer and pronghorn antelope.|
Elk and mule deer migrate from the high mountain summer ranges to these foothills and basins to winter. The Wyoming game and Fish Department has acquired 12,870 acres . . . — Map (db m47140) HM
|Wyoming (Carbon County), Rawlins — Rawlins Springs|
|In the summer of 1867, a survey party led by General Grenville M. Dodge seeking a route for the Union Pacific Railroad stopped here.
General John A. Rawlins, a member of the party, spoke of the spring as "the most gracious and acceptable of anything he had had on the march" and said that if anything was ever named after him he wanted it to be a spring of water.
General Dodge replied "We will name this Rawlins Springs." — Map (db m67982) HM|
|Wyoming (Carbon County), Saratoga — This Marker on the Overland Trail|
This marker on the
Platte River crossing
nine miles west
1861 to 1868 — Map (db m62160) HM|
|Wyoming (Carbon County), Sinclair — Fort Fred Steele — Historical Overview|
|The south central portion of Wyoming has long been a travel corridor for prehistoric and historic people. Native American tribes from the Great Basin region to the west crossed this area to hunt buffalo on the eastern plains.
From 1810 until the decline of the Rocky Mountain fur trade in the late 1830's, fur traders and trappers traversed this region on their way west in quest of beaver pelts, then retraced their route east laden with furs. These men left little evidence of their . . . — Map (db m67988) HM|
|Wyoming (Carbon County), Sinclair — Fort Fred Steele|
Fort Fred Steele
U.S. Military Post
June 30, 1868
August 7, 1886
Marked by the
State of Wyoming
1914 — Map (db m67989) HM|
|Wyoming (Carbon County), Sinclair — Ranching Central|
|You are in Carbon County, an area central to Wyoming's past and present ranching industry. In the 1930s the county was populated by over one million sheep and annually shipped more pounds of wool than any other county in the United States.
Today cattle dominate the ranching scene with nearly 100,000 head in the county. The rough forage common to this dry desert area with normal annual precipitation of less than 11 inches is well-suited to harvesting disease-free, all-natural beef . . . — Map (db m67987) HM|
|Wyoming (Carbon County), Sinclair — Viewing the Fort Grounds|
|Fort Fred Steele was established in 1868 as one of a group of military posts placed along the route of the Trans-Continental Railroad to protect and support the railroad construction. Today, except for the Powder Magazine (south of the Railroad tracks), only foundations remain. The buildings are marked with metal signs indicating the original use of the building and the dotted lines on the above map closely follows the original Parade Ground Path. This post did have some unique structures. . . . — Map (db m71623) HM|
|Wyoming (Carbon County), Sinclair — Wyoming - A Fortress for Wildlife|
|It is not happenstance that Wyoming hosts a wealth of our nation's wildlife resource. Early explorers wrote descriptions of the buffalo, "... blackening the plains as far as the eye could see. The pronghorn antelope were as numerous as the buffalo."
The rush to the West increased in tempo in the late 1800's. The game herds seemed limitless and settlers took their wildlife for granted. Buffalo, antelope, elk and mountain sheep became nearly extinct by 1900. Market hunters, taking . . . — Map (db m67986)|
|Wyoming (Converse County), Douglas — Bozeman Trail|
|From this point, the Bozeman Trail wound a long, twisting northwesterly route to the Montana goldfields. This view points out a portion of that difficult and dangerous road. The map shows the locations of forts, rivers and mountains along the trail.
Also leaving the fort at this point was the telegraph line to Fort Reno, about 75 miles northwest. Later, with the abandonment of that fort in 1868, the line ended here until it was extended to Fort McKinney, established in 1878, near the present town of Buffalo. — Map (db m80089) HM|
|Wyoming (Converse County), Douglas — Formation of Ayres Natural Bridge|
|Meandering La Prele Creek drainage cuts into alternating layers of sandstone and sandy limestone of the Permian / Pennsylvanian Casper formation.
La Prele Creek erodes both the upstream and downstream sides of the outcrop.
Undercutting by creek collapses the lower level of stone forming the bridge. The creek then follows the shortcut, flowing undern the bridge.
In memory of Lou B. Reed — Map (db m71496)|
|Wyoming (Converse County), Douglas — Fort Fetterman — (1867-1882)|
|This plateau above LaPrele Creek and the North Platte River was chosen as an Army post by Major Dye who described it as “…being neither so low as to be seriously affected by the rains or snow; nor so high and unprotected as to suffer from the winter winds.” This optimistic view did not stand up during the winter months.
The museum’s exhibits, restored buildings, and trails leading to the remains of the Fort, provide a glimpse into Army operations at this remote outpost and into . . . — Map (db m80092) HM|
|Wyoming (Converse County), Douglas — Hog Ranch|
|Above is an artist’s conception of the interior of the Fort Fetterman version of a “Hog Ranch,” a common frontier term used to describe certain off-post facilities which catered to the lonely soldier’s desire for wine, women and song. A cluster of cabins, the “ranch” was typical of similar establishments located outside the bounds of many western military reservations. This one was among the most notorious in the history of the west. The device on the right shows its . . . — Map (db m80093) HM|
|Wyoming (Converse County), Douglas — James Bridger’s Ferry|
| James Bridger’s Ferry,
established in 1864, was
located 1500 feet up the
river from this monument. — Map (db m80088) HM|
|Wyoming (Converse County), Douglas — Natural Bridge and the Oregon Trail|
|The Oregon Trail crosses LaPrele Creek about one mile downstream from Natural Bridge. Before the modern road was built into the gorge, Natural Bridge was difficult to access, and it was only rarely visited by emigrants of the covered wagon era. From time to time, however, a few ambitious travelers made their way through the heavy brush and down the steep walls of the canyon to see this remarkable work of nature.
While Native Americans were probably well aware of Natural Bridge, the . . . — Map (db m71495) HM|
|Wyoming (Converse County), Douglas — The One Mile Hog Ranch|
|Also known as the Hog Ranch at Fetterman, the One Mile Hog Ranch was perhaps the rowdiest, roughest and most dangerous red light establishment in Wyoming. Built by Harrison Kane in 1880, the saloon sat just across the Platte River, about one mile north of Fort Fetterman, a government-controlled military reservation on the Bozeman Trail. With the addition of a dance hall and bawdy house, the place soon acquired a tough reputation. Not only did Kane’s whiskey business flourish but he had poker . . . — Map (db m80124) HM|
|Wyoming (Converse County), Douglas — Water Supply|
|From this location, where the water reservoir once stood, one can see several interesting points. The sighting device points out the location of the pump used during the later years to supply the fort with water. Prior to installation of the pump the water detail was usually a punishment duty, water having been dipped from the river and hauled in a wooden tank wagon to the fort. There were never any wells on the grounds of the post. — Map (db m80091) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Aladdin — Aladdin Tipple History|
|The Aladdin Tipple in Crook County, Wyoming, was constructed as part of the Aladdin coal mining operations. In 1898, an 18-mile-long short line known as the Wyoming and Missouri River Railroad was built to connect coal mines near Aladdin with the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad main line at Belle Fourche, South Dakota. The railroad linked the coal mines at Aladdin with the gold smelters at Lead and Deadwood. The Black Hills Coal Company, which built both the mine and the Wyoming and Missouri . . . — Map (db m34833) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Aladdin — Custer's 1874 Expedition|
|During the summer of 1874, General George Armstrong Custer led the first official government expedition to the Black Hills, which the Sioux Indians claimed as their territory. Although the United States Government officially sent this expedition of more than 1,000 men to scout for a new fort location, the presence of engineers, geologists, and miners indicated that recording the topography, geography, and location of gold deposits were other important goals.
The expedition's discovery of . . . — Map (db m34586) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Aladdin — Vore Buffalo Jump|
|Plains Indians depended upon buffalo for many of their material needs - food, shelter, clothing, tools, fuel, ceremonial objects, even toys. Prior to acquiring horses in the 18th century, hunting individual animals on foot with bows and arrows was difficult and dangerous. As winter approached, tribes often joined in communal hunts to provide meat and hides for harsh winters by driving herds of buffalo over a cliff or into a trap where the animals were killed, butchered and processed in . . . — Map (db m45545) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Devils Tower — Devils Tower|
|Devils Tower, an important landmark for Plains Indian tribes long before the white man reached Wyoming, was called Mateo Tepee, or Grizzly Bear Lodge, by the Sioux. A number of Indian legends describe the origin of Devils Tower. One legend tells about seven little girls chased onto a low rock to escape attacking bears. Their prayers for help were heeded. The rock carried them upward to safety as the claws of the leaping bears left furrowed columns in the sides of the ascending tower. . . . — Map (db m34465) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Hulett — Buried Tower — Devils Tower National Monument|
|Ancient rivers took millions of years to excavate Devils Tower. The waters carried away softer sedimentary rocks leaving behind the hard igneous rock called phonolite. This rock type is found here in northeastern Wyoming, and central Montana, but mostly in east Africa.
The Tower is still emerging. The Belle Fourche River (below) continues to wash away the softer sedimentary rocks. Plateaus across the valley—some higher than the Tower’s summit—are eroded layers of the same . . . — Map (db m72588)|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Hulett — Camp Devin|
|The Ft. Laramie treaties of 1851 & 1868 set aside the Black Hills for the Sioux, for as long as the grass shall grow and the river shall flow. Nevertheless, in 1874 Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer was sent to investigate rumors of gold in the area giving rise to a flood of goldseekers and camp followers who poured into the hills violating the treaties. Sioux representatives were called to Washington to negotiate, but in November 1875, before a new agreement could be reached, President Grant . . . — Map (db m42556) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Hulett — Devils Tower|
|Devils Tower, known as Bear's Lodge to Northern Plains Tribes, rises high above the Belle Fourche River, grasslands, and ponderosa pine forests. This major landmark of the Northern Great Plains has attracted people for thousands of years. Today, it still holds many meanings for people including American Indians, local ranchers, rock climbers and thousands of visitors from near and far.
The Tower and the Missouri Buttes to the northwest formed about 50 million years ago. They are the result . . . — Map (db m34463) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Hulett — How Did the Tower Form? — Devils Tower National Monument|
|The process began about 50 million years ago. Magma (molten rock) was injected into layers of sedimentary rock, forming the Tower one and one-half miles below the earth’s surface. It has since taken millions of years to erode away the surrounding sedimentary rock to expose the Tower we see today.
Geologists agree the Tower is an igneous (hardened magma) intrusion, but have three different interpretations of the Tower’s original size and shape. Because of erosion, we may never know which . . . — Map (db m72589)|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Hulett — Life Above and Below Ground — Devils Tower National Monument|
|Above ground, prairie dogs are usually looking for plants to eat, eating, or scanning for predators. At a warning bark, prairie dogs dive into a dark city of tunnels, where they spend more than half their lives. They play an important role in the prairie ecosystem. Their habits change the environment, resulting in increased plant and animal diversity.
Eradication programs have reduced the black-tailed prairie dog’s range from thousands of square miles to a few scattered preserves like this . . . — Map (db m71946)|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Hulett — People of the Land — Devils Tower National Monument|
|The Tower and Black Hills area have been a gathering place and home to many people. Archeological discoveries show that native people lived here 10,000 years ago. As time passed, Arapaho, Cheyenne, Crow, Kiowa, Lakota, and Shoshone all developed cultural and spiritual connections with the Tower. They continue to hand down their beliefs from one generation to the next.
The Great Race
Once the buffalo believed they were the most powerful creature. Humans thought this unfair. So the . . . — Map (db m72587) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Sundance — Paha Sapa, Black Hills — Geologic History of the Lakotas' Sacred Hills|
|Also known as "Temple of the Sioux," Sundance Mountain rises majestically in the southwest. It belongs to the Bear Lodge Mountain Range, which defines the northwestern edge of the Black Hills. It was named for the Plains Indians' religious ceremony—and in turn it provided the name for the town at its base, which dubbed one of its earliest and most notorious prisoners, the "Sundance Kid." In the Lakota language, the mountain is called Wi Wacipi Paha, which literally means Sun Dance . . . — Map (db m45541) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Sundance — Bird of the Black Hills — The Black Hills are Home to more than 200 Species of Glorious Birds|
|The Red Valley surrounding you belongs to the transition zone between the flat, treeless Great Plains and the pine-forested Black Hills. Artesian springs and creeks draining from the hills and mountains create draws that provide water, shade, and food for wildlife. The mixture of habitats here attract abundant birds and mammals, making this an excellent area for wildlife viewing, particularly birding. Here are some of the many species you might see in these red lands stretching between . . . — Map (db m45536) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Sundance — Petrified Trees — Fossils Give Clues to Wyoming's Paleo-Past|
|Giant cypress trees growing today in swamps (or forested wetlands), such as these found in Louisiana's Pointe Lake, used to grow in Wyoming back when it was a warm, subtropical swamp - about 55 million years ago during the Late Paleocene epoch. Some of these ancient trees were buried under sediment and turned to stone. the three petrified trees located here were found during coal mining operations at the Eagle Butte Mine near Gillette. They were generously donated by Alpha Coal West, Inc., and . . . — Map (db m45539) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Sundance — Rich Colors, Rich Lands — Gold Metal, Green Grass, Black Coal & Crude|
|The first Caucasian residents of this area came as prospectors following the Black Hills Gold Rush. In 1876 the glitter of gold led them from the large mining camps of Lead and Deadwood westward to Sand Creek, located near this site. Instead of moving on when they reached the end of the precious vein, many of these adventurers settled here, shifting their energies to other forms of mining as well as farming and ranching.|
Aladdin Coal Mines The Black Hills Gold Rush brought with it the . . . — Map (db m45535) HM
|Wyoming (Crook County), Sundance — The Custer Trail — Site of Sacred Lands and Historic Battles|
|Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer's Black Hills Expedition crossed northeastern Wyoming from July 17-25, 1874, camping within three miles of this location. forged by 1000 men (cavalry, infantry, teamsters, scientists, miners, newspaper reporters, Santee Sioux guides, and Arikara guides), four artillery pieces, 110 supply wagons, and about 1600 animals (horses, mules, and cattle), traces of the trail can still be seen today. This tour, which trespassed on Lakota land, led to war, seizure of . . . — Map (db m45381) HM|
|Wyoming (Crook County), Sundance — The Vore Buffalo Jump — Hunting Large Bison Took Teamwork and Ingenuity|
|Located a short distance to the east and camouflaged by the red eroded landscape is the Vore Buffalo Jump. This sinkhole served early residents as a slaughterhouse. using the natural pit as a trap, hunters would capture bison in late fall by running a herd over the edge. Once killed, the animals were butchered to provide food and supplies for winter.|
The Coordinated Bison Hunt The hunters camped and made ceremonial preparations downwind and out of sight of the jump. Days before the hunt, . . . — Map (db m45537) HM
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Atlantic City — Atlantic City: Surviving the Bust|
|Centrally located on the gold-bearing vein in the area, mines literally surrounded Atlantic City by the fall of 1868. The townspeople soon fostered a thriving business community. In addition to sawmills and blacksmith shops, Atlantic City boasted of beer breweries and one of Wyoming Territory’s first public schools.
Boom rapidly led to bust and the town faltered for a time. A French capitalist, Emile Granier, revived mining interests in the late 1880’s and early 1890’s with a short-lived . . . — Map (db m80134) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Atlantic City — Fort Stambaugh, 1870-1878|
| was established to protect from Indians the gold mining camps of South Pass City, Atlantic City, Miners’ Delight, and others. It was named for 1st Lt. Charles B. Stambaugh, 2nd Cavalry, U.S.A. who was shot from his horse by Indians when defending a freighting party, May 4, 1870. Site about 6 miles East. — Map (db m80145) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Atlantic City — Miners Delight: The Boom’s Broken Promises — The Boom’s Broken Promises|
|As the news of gold spread, the Sweetwater Mining District filled with miners who established Hamilton City about two miles east of here in 1867. The following year, the name of the town changed to Miners Delight, after a highly productive nearby mine. The Miners Delight mine produced the greatest wealth of any in the mining district while the town remained the smallest and most isolated. According to a 1916 government report, the Miners Delight mine and surrounding placers has produced over . . . — Map (db m80133) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Hudson — Bonneville Cabins|
|Five hundred yards northwest of this marker stood the Bonneville Cabins, built by Captain B.L.E. Bonneville in 1835 to store his trade goods. Three cabins were constructed and later two more. They were long known as “The Five Cabins, : the first mercantile establishment in central Wyoming. In 1866 Major Noyes Baldwin moved a stock of goods into the cabins to trade with Shoshoni Indians, but vacated the following year because of Indian hostilities. In 1868 he located a trading post on . . . — Map (db m80128) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Jeffrey City — Gold Flakes to Yellowcake Historic Mine Trail|
|The Historic Mine Trail and Byway Program designated the Gold Flakes to Yellowstone Historic Mine Trail in 2005. This trail links significant finds of gold, iron ore, and uranium, each of which played important roles in Wyoming's history.
The Gold Flakes Region
Gold found at the Carissa lode in 1867 set off a rush, Wyoming's largest, to the South Pass region. The towns of Miners Delight and Atlantic City sprouted to support the miners. The gold quickly played out, and most people . . . — Map (db m67009) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Jeffrey City — Ice Slough|
|Ice Slough is a small stream that flows into the Sweetwater River five miles east of here. In front of this point is a slough (i.e. a marsh or shallow un-drained depression). This slough gave the name to the stream east of here. In the "Ice Slough" the marshes soils and plants insulated the previous winter's ice and it melted slowly throughout the summer. Under the marshes a thick mat of ice could be found late into June or early July. Westward bound immigrants would stop their wagons here for . . . — Map (db m62076) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Jeffrey City — Jeffrey City — Biggest Bust of Them All|
|Home on the range, a tiny community consisting of a post office, gas station, and a few souls, sat quiet and undisturbed along this lonesome stretch of highway until the 1950's. That all changed when the nation's uranium industry boomed after World War II.
In the early 1950s, prospectors started combing Wyoming's hills for surefire riches. Then, in 1954 prospector Robert (Bob) Adams discovered uranium. He founded the Lost Creek Oil and Uranium Company, purchased property next . . . — Map (db m67008) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Jeffrey City — Pony Express|
The need was there
Competing with time, harsh climates, long distances, tough terrain and the hostility of numerous Indian bands, the Pony Express carried the mail 1600 miles across the West. From April 4, 1860 to October 24, 1861, the California Overland Mail and Pikes Peak Express, better known as the Pony Express, was this Nation's western communications link. It kept the West informed and helped keep California in the Union at the outbreak of the Civil War.
Buffalo . . . — Map (db m69604) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Jeffrey City — Split Rock|
|Originally called the Emigrant Road, the Oregon Trail was the main route of westward expansion from 1812 to 1869. An estimated 500,000 people journeyed past here in search of new lands and new lives in the West.
Because of its unique shape, Split Rock was a well known trail landmark and navigation aid. Emigrants were guided by the rock for an entire day's travel from the east. It remained in view behind them for another two days. From Split Rock, it was about six days to South Pass, the . . . — Map (db m62092) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Jeffrey City — Split Rock|
|A famous natural landmark used by Indians, trappers, and emigrants on the Oregon Trail. Site of Split Rock Pony Express 1860-1861, stage and telegraph station is on the south side of the Sweetwater. Split Rock can be seen as a cleft on the Rattlesnake Range. — Map (db m67007) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Jeffrey City — Split Rock|
|Split Rock was a relay station during the turbulent 18 month life of the Pony Express. The Express operated at a gallop, speeding mail across the West in only 10 days. However, because of the "talking wire," its days were numbered. The telegraph reached California by October 1861, ending a unique American experiment.
How it was done
Mail relay stations were set up 10 to 15 miles apart, each with two to four men and extra horses. About 500 of the hardiest western ponies were . . . — Map (db m69603) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Jeffrey City — Split Rock Meadows|
|Shoshone, Arapaho, Crow and Sioux Indians occupied this pleasant valley long before the Oregon Trail, which changed their cultures and life styles forever. This led to tragic warfare and the eventual loss of country they had called their own.
Split Rock Relay Station, a crude log structure with a pole corral, was built at the base of the mass of rocks directly in front of you. It was used by both the Pony Express and the Overland Stage and until the early 1940s, was a U.S. Post Office.
. . . — Map (db m69602) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — Beaver Rim and the Wind River Range|
|Viewed from Beaver Rim, the Wind River Mountains, part of the Rocky Mountain chain, boast 53 granite peaks over 13,000 feet high. The Continental Divide runs the length of the Wind River Range. Water on the east side of the Continental Divide flows into the Atlantic Ocean. Water from the west side of the Divide ends up in the Pacific Ocean.
During the geologic event known as the Laramide Orogeny, the Wind River Mountains were pushed upward 60,000 feet. After 10 million years of erosion, . . . — Map (db m67012) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — Gold Flakes to Yellowcake Historic Mine Trail|
|The Historic Mine Trail and Byway Program designated the Gold Flakes to Yellowstone Historic Mine Trail in 2005. This trail links significant finds of gold, iron ore, and uranium, each of which played important roles in Wyoming's history.
The Gold Flakes Region
Gold found at the Carissa lode in 1867 set off a rush, Wyoming's largest, to the South Pass region. The towns of Miners Delight and Atlantic City sprouted to support the miners. The gold quickly played out, and most people . . . — Map (db m67011) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — Gold Flakes to Yellowcake Historic Mine Trail|
|The Historic Mine Trail and Byway Program designated the Gold Flakes to Yellowstone Historic Mine Trail in 2005. This trail links significant finds of gold, iron ore, and uranium, each of which played important roles in Wyoming's history.
The Gold Flakes Region
Gold found at the Carissa lode in 1867 set off a rush, Wyoming's largest, to the South Pass region. The towns of Miners Delight and Atlantic City sprouted to support the miners. The gold quickly played out, and most people . . . — Map (db m67015) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — Narcissa Prentiss Whitman — Eliza. Hart Spalding|
July 4, 1836 — Map (db m80500) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — Old Oregon Trail|
1843-57 — Map (db m80503) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — Oregon Buttes|
|To the south stand the Oregon Buttes, a major trail landmark. The name is significant because the Buttes were roughly the beginning of the Oregon Territory and also helped keep emigrants encouraged, even though there were still hundreds of miles of rough going ahead. Today, the Oregon Buttes are an Area of Critical Environmental Concern because of their cultural significance and important wildlife values.
About twelve-miles to the southwest of Oregon Buttes is the Tri-Territory site. This . . . — Map (db m80499) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — Red Canyon|
|Red Canyon is cooperatively managed by the Wyoming Game and Fish Department, the State of Wyoming, the Bureau of Land Management and private landowners.
The spectacular orange and red sandstone formations you see here have been exposed through millions of years of erosion. The brilliant red color comes from concentrations of ferrous oxide, or iron, in the soil and stone.
These slopes are crucial winter range for elk. Over seven hundred elk use this area every winter. Sometimes it is . . . — Map (db m80132) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — Site of Fort McGraw|
Site of Fort McGraw (sic)
Scouts & Trappers
1812 - 1835
Another marker, next to the Site of Fort McGraw marker, is currently missing, but its text is provided below:
Site of Fort Thompson or Camp MaGaw
In 1856 the United States Congress appropriated money to build the central division of the Fort Kearney-South Pass-Honey Lake Wagon Road from Nebraska to California. W.M.F. Magaw was appointed superintendent by the Secretary of the . . . — Map (db m80129) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — South Pass|
|The South Pass, in which you are now located, is perhaps the most significant transportation-gateway through the Rocky Mountains. Indians, mountain men, Oregon Trail emigrants, Pony Express riders, and miners all recognized the value of this passageway straddling the Continental Divide. Bounded by the Wind River Range on the north and the Antelope Hills on the south, the pass offered overland travelers a broad, relatively level corridor between the Atlantic and Pacific watersheds. . . . — Map (db m67016) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — South Pass — On Top of the World|
|From where you're standing South Pass doesn't look all that remarkable. But compared to the rugged Wind River Mountains, it can easily be recognized as a type of gateway.
Nevertheless, crossing the Continental Divide into "Oregon Country" was a task for all westward-bound travelers, and many described their feelings about the event. In 1852 Lucy Rutledge Cooke, a young woman with "California Fever" wrote:
"... This morn we arrived at the South Pass after which all water we see will . . . — Map (db m67020) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — South Pass|
|Even after the discovery of South Pass in 1824, it was years before the route was used extensively. Fur trapper/trader William Sublette brought a small caravan of wagons to South Pass in 1828. While his party did not take wagons over the pass, they demonstrated the feasibility of using them.
Captain Benjamin Bonneville took the first wagons over South Pass in 1832. But it was U.S. Government explorer, Lt. John Charles Fremont, who was responsible for publicizing the South Pass route. . . . — Map (db m67021) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — South Pass|
|South Pass was discovered in 1812 by a small band of Astorians led by Robert Stuart as they traveled east with dispatches for John Jacob Astor. It was “rediscovered” in 1824 by a party led by Jedediah Smith as they searched for a winter crossing through the Wind River Mountain Range. William Sublette led a small caravan of wagons to South Pass in 1828. While the party did not take the wagons over the pass, they proved that wagon travel was possible.
Captain Benjamin Bonneville . . . — Map (db m80501) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — The Atlantic City Project — The Iron Ore Boom and Bust|
|The hills of the Sweetwater Mining District hold various minerals, and beginning in the 1960s, iron ore mining provided an economic boom for the area. In 1960 the U.S. Steel Corporation broke ground on the nation's highest open pit iron ore mine at 8,300 feet above sea level. By the spring of 1963 the complex was in full swing. Employees operated an open pit mine, an ore crushing and screening facility, a concentrating plant and water storage and handling system, and storage, loading, and . . . — Map (db m67014) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — The Corridor West|
|The trail over South Pass is a transportation corridor which served many purposes. In addition to being the route to Oregon and California, it was used by Mormon pioneers and by the Pony Express.
A great exodus to the Salt Lake Valley in 1847 was only the beginning of Mormon emigrant travel along the Oregon Trail. About 68,000 took the the Utah branch of the trail from 1847 until 1869 when the completion of the Union Pacific Railroad ushered in a new phase of overland travel. The community . . . — Map (db m67019) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — The Fur Trade|
|The demand for beaver pelts in the early 1800s led to the exploration and eventual settlement of the American West. South Pass was part of a major thoroughfare through the Rockies and its discovery is significant to the era known as the fur trade.
South Pass was first crossed by white men in 1812. The Astorians, a small party of American Fur Company trappers led by Robert Stuart, used it as they traveled east with dispatches for company owner, John Jacob Astor. Even though Stuart noted . . . — Map (db m67022) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — The Oregon Trail|
| The Oregon Trail
In memory of those who passed this way to win and hold the West
Plaque placed by the Historical Landmark Commission of Wyoming
1950 — Map (db m80504) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Lander — The Way West|
|With South Pass behind them, Oregon and California-bound travelers faced the second half of their journey. The roughest travel was yet to come. From Missouri to South Pass, emigrants were able to follow rivers. But from South Pass to Oregon and California, they faced dry stretches such as the high-altitude desert of the Green River Basin. The dry climate played havoc with wagon wheels that kept shrinking wood away from iron rims.
Approximately 20 miles on the trail west of this place, . . . — Map (db m67018) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Riverton — Trappers, Traders and Explorers|
of the Trappers, Traders
and Explorers, who
established the Rendezvous
at the Junction of the
Little and Big Wind Rivers — Map (db m80127) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), Shoshoni — Wind River Canyon|
|Boysen Dam, completed in 1951, marks the southern margin of the east-west trending Owl Creek Mountains and the Wind River Canyon. Drained by the north flowing Wind River, the canyon is 14 miles long, 1.3-2 miles wide and 2,400 feet deep where it crosses the axis of the mountain range, north of here. Steep canyon walls display rocks of the Precambrian and Paleozoic eras ranging in age from several billion to 235 million years. The Wind River originally flowed across flat terrain beneath which . . . — Map (db m70611) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), South Pass City — Esther Hobart Morris|
|Two related, side-by-side markers pay tribute to Esther Hobart Morris.
Home & office site of
Esther Hobart Morris
First woman Justice
of the Peace
in the World
Feb. 14, 1870
Author with W.H. Bright
of the first
equal suffrage law
Dec. 10, 1869
Controversy exists concerning Esther Morris and women suffrage. In 1869, the legislature passed and Governor . . . — Map (db m80149) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), South Pass City — First Masonic Lodge in Wyoming|
| 1869 - 1925
First Masonic Lodge in Wyoming
under jurisdiction of Nebraska
Wyoming Lodge No. Two
Lander, Wyoming — Map (db m80150) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), South Pass City — Lander Cut-Off on the Oregon Trail|
|In 1858, this ancient path, which had been used by Indians, explorers and mountain men as a short cut to the Snake River country was developed by Frederick Lander in to an alternate route on the Oregon Trail. What is commonly called the Lander Trail or Lander Cut-Off starts 9 miles to the southeast at Burnt Ranch (directly behind this sign), crosses the Sweetwater River 6 miles to the northwest, and continued along Lander Creek for 13 miles to the Continental Divide at Little Sandy Creek, the . . . — Map (db m80161) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), South Pass City — South Pass and South Pass City|
|A region rich in history. A city rich in gold. From 1812 to 1868 this open country at the end of the Wind River Mountains provided a passage - the only passage - through the Rocky Mountain barrier of the Continental Divide for some 500,000 westering Americans. Through this Great South Pass came the Mountain Men, fur trappers and traders, explorers, missionaries, pioneers in covered wagons traversing the Oregon, California and Mormon trails, overland stage coaches, military expeditions, and Pony . . . — Map (db m80160) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), South Pass City — South Pass City — Wyoming|
| Founded 1868
A Great Gold Camp
Part of Wyoming’s historical heritage. Acquired for preservation May 18, 1966, with funds raised by Wyoming;s 75th Anniversary Commission Inc., its advisers, county committees and people of Wyoming.
Clifford P. Hansen - Governor
Alice Mesick - Chairman
Stephen Accola - Secretary
Kerm Kath - Treasurer
Edness Kimball Wilkins • Lewis Bath
James K. Harrower • Earl A. Madsen — Map (db m80162) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), South Pass City — South Pass City: Wyoming’s Biggest Gold Boom and Bust|
|Emigrant travelers on their way west likely discovered small amounts of gold in the 1840’s, but it took until 1868 for the first mining claims to be staked. Word of the new gold rush spread and the summer of 1868 brought an influx of people from every corner of the globe to partake in the bonanza. A torrent of mining activity followed for the next several years. In 1869 South Pass City, with perhaps 3,000 people, was Wyoming Territory’s second largest town.
Every boom ends, and by the early . . . — Map (db m80148) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), South Pass City — The Carissa Mine: Cycle of Boom and Bust|
|Thousands rushed to the South Pass area following the find of substantial gold deposits at the Carissa Mine in 1867. As the boom gained steam, the Carissa sat at the center of mining development, serving as the primary economic force for South Pass City. Eventually, the gold played out and the Carissa’s mining technology reached its limit. As a result, the Carissa closed, contributing to the gold bust and the decline of South Pass City in the 1870s.
Modern advances in mining technology and . . . — Map (db m80146) HM|
|Wyoming (Fremont County), South Pass City — 27 — Willie’s Handcart Company|
|Captain James G. Willie’s Handcart Company of Mormon emigrants on the way to Utah, greatly exhausted by the deep snow of an early winter and suffering form lack of food and clothing, had assembled here for reorganization by relief parties from Utah, about the end of October, 1856. Thirteen persons were frozen to death during a single night and were buried here in one grave, Two others died the next day and were buried nearby. Of the company of 404 persons 77 perished before help arrived. The survivors reached Salt Lake City November 9, 1856. — Map (db m80154) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — “Officers Row”|
| This 1889 winter scene shows buildings along the west side of the Parade Ground which housed Fort Laramie’s officer complement – hence, “Officers Row”. RIGHT TO LEFT, the “Burt” House, the “Surgeon’s” quarters, two adobe quarters and “Old Bedlam”. The surgeon’s eminent position in the social life of Fort Laramie is reflected in this 1888 view (left). — Map (db m87031) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — ‘Where’s the Wall?’ — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
| It is one of the most commonly asked questions here – and with good reason. Those who grew up watching western movies expect to see a fort with a large wooden stockade. Like many other aspects of Hollywood westerns, the walled military fort makes for better entertainment than good history. One reason Fort Laramie lacked a wall was that timber was not abundant. The other reason had to do with the combat style of the Plains Indian Warrior, who relied on mobility and preferred fighting on . . . — Map (db m87076) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — A Father’s Grief . . . A Soldier’s Honor — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
| Some days since I received a messenger from [Sinte Gleska], head chief of the Brule Sioux, saying that his daughter had died on the way here and had begged her Father to have her grave made with the whites . . . Wishing to do him honor . . . I rode out with several officers, and met him half way between the fort and he Platte . . I conducted him to the Fort and my headquarters. So begins Colonel Henry Maynadier’s account of one of the most extraordinary and poignant events . . . — Map (db m87041) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Administration Building|
| The large structure built on this site in 1885 – pictured shortly after completion – was put to many uses. The section on the far right was used as a schoolroom for officers’ children. The central portion housed the Headquarters offices. The left part contained a large auditorium. Often used for theater productions. BELOW: Guard Mount in front of Administration Building around 1889. — Map (db m87005) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Between Two Worlds . . . the American Métis — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
| “French, Spanish and Indian and mixed are very common here and all languages are being jabbered in promiscuous interchange.”Charles B. Darwin, Fort Laramie, June 28, 1849 Métis (ma-tes’) – of mixed race, particularly, mixed Native American and French ancestry. All but forgotten, the mixed-blood peoples of the plains trace their origins to the heyday of the fur trade. Fur traders, predominately of French and French-Canadian ancestry, entered into “trade . . . — Map (db m87012) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — C.O.’s Chicken Coop — (Built in 1881)|
| High ranking officers commonly kept chickens for their own use. The consumption of chickens and eggs provided a welcome change from meals of wild game and tough army beef. Individual soldiers and cooks utilizing company funds could purchase chickens and eggs from civilians. However, such items were a luxury which seldom appeared on the enlisted man’s table. — Map (db m87024) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Captain’s Quarters|
| Originally intended as housing for the commanding officer, this building was divided into a duplex when the C.O. chose to remain in another new dwelling. As such, the quarters was completed in 1870 at which time high-ranking officers and their families took up residency. Lumber for the quarters was hauled from Laramie Peak and Denver. Adobe brick was made on site on sunny days. Often during twenty years of military use, the structure required whitewashing and substantial . . . — Map (db m87009) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Cavalry Barracks — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
|The building before you is the only surviving enlisted men's barracks at Fort Laramie. The building proper was completed in late 1874 and was designed to provide quarters and other needed support facilities for two companies of soldiers, The veranda, although originally planned, was not added until 1883. As constructed the entire second floor was made up of only two equal, large rooms. These were the company dormitory bays or squad rooms where the enlisted soldiers lived. Each could house about . . . — Map (db m71018) HM WM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Commissary Storehouse — Fort Laramie National Historic Site — Visitor Center|
|This building was completed in 1884. It was built as a commissary storage facility. As such it would have been primarily divided into two large storerooms: one for meat and one for flour, rice, and beans. Three or four smaller rooms would have been used as offices, an "issue room" and a storage room for canned goods. This building also had a partial cellar with a trap door for use with a hand-operated elevator, rations and other official army food items were issued from this building. A commissary officer and sergeant ran the operation. — Map (db m71017) WM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Crossroads of a Nation Moving West — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
| Crossed the Laramie ford this morning and passed through the fort registering our names and found that . . . 16,913 men, Women 235, Children 242, Wagons 4,672, Horses 14,974, Mules, 4,641, Oxen 7,427, Cows 465, passed, besides nearly as many more had probably gone without registering.Alfred Davis, June 12, 1850 Between 1841 and 1866 at least 350,000 people crossed the Missouri westbound for new homes in Oregon, California, and Utah. Fort Laramie provided a welcome respite from the . . . — Map (db m86975) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Embassy on the Northern Plains — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
| As the main outpost of the U.S. Government on the Northern Plains, Fort Laramie served as an official meeting ground between the United States of America and the sovereign tribes of the Northern Plains. The first great treaty negotiation, the Treaty of 1851, proved to be too big for Fort Laramie and quickly moved to Horse Creek in western Nebraska. With over 10,000 participants, it was the largest gathering of Plains Indians in the 19th century. For the next 17 years Fort Laramie served as an . . . — Map (db m86984) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Fort John – The ‘Second Fort Laramie’ — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
| . . . the articles of trade consist, on the one side, almost entirely of buffalo robes; and, on the other, of blankets, calicoes, guns, powder, and lead, [and] . . . cheap ornaments such as glass beads, looking-glasses, rings, vermillion for painting, tobacco, and . . . spirits, brought into the country in the form of alcohol, and diluted with water before sold . . .John C. Frémont, July 1842 Pierre Chouteau and Company, then owners of Fort William, constructed a new fort on this . . . — Map (db m86968) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Fort Laramie National Historic Site — Crossroads of a Nation Moving West|
|Fort Laramie was perhaps the single most important location in America’s expansion into the west. Founded in 1834 as a trading post, it became a military fort in 1849. Until it closed in 1890, Fort Laramie influenced major events in the history of the Trans-Mississippi West. From the eras of the fur trade, the Oregon Trail and the Indian Wars, the fort served as an American foothold in a rapidly changing west.
We recommend that you begin at the Visitor Center. Follow the paved path to your . . . — Map (db m71016) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
|The epic story of America’s western expansion played out on a grand scale at Fort Laramie, where the North Platte and Laramie Rivers meet.
Fort Laramie was first established in 1834 as a private fur trading post. By the 1840’s, it served as an important way station for thousands of emigrants traveling the Oregon, California and Mormon Pioneer trails. After purchase by the government in 1849, it rapidly became the primary military post on the Northern Plains. Stage lines, the Pony Express, . . . — Map (db m79778) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Fort Platte|
| A trading post built by
Lancaster P. Lupton
Stood fifty yards to the
north. — Map (db m79745) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Fort William and the Fur Trade — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
| In 1834, Robert Campbell and William Sublette established the first fort at the confluence of the North Platte and Laramie Rivers. Christened Fort William, the post was rectangular, measuring only 100 by 80 feet. Hewn cottonwood logs 15 feet high formed the palisade. At diagonal corners were log blockhouses. A third blockhouse with a cannon mounted in it was located over the front gate. Against the inside of the stockade were a series of cabins, workshops, and storehouses whose flat roofs . . . — Map (db m86958) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — General Sink (Latrine)|
| In the 1880’s the Surgeon General determined that the privy vault - - “That most objectionable and dangerous nuisance” - - was a threat to the soldier’s health. His concern had been prompted by the accumulated reports from disgusted post surgeons including several from Fort Laramie. Post surgeon Hartsuff, for instance, had recommended in 1874 that sinks be made bearable at least, so that “The call of nature shall not go unheeded nor be hurriedly performed.” This . . . — Map (db m86996) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Guardhouse — 1850 – 1868|
| The remains of the first guardhouse constructed in 1850, at Fort Laramie were discovered by workmen in 1960 during restoration of the “new” guardhouse. This site is a good example of the structural changes that occurred during the forts forty-one year military history. Old buildings were torn down and new ones erected, sometimes directly over old remains. The tiny cells below were only five feet in height and length and were usually reserved for “mill birds” or repeat . . . — Map (db m87001) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Handcarts – The New Plan — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
| We cannot afford to purchase wagons and teams as in times past. I am consequently thrown back upon my old plan – to make hand-carts, and let the emigration foot it . . . Brigham Young, 1855 Between 1856 and 1860, nearly 3,000 members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, or Mormons, pulled their earthly possessions in two-wheeled handcarts from Iowa to Utah. Most “Handcart Pioneers” were poor immigrant converts from northern . . . — Map (db m86981) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Infantry Barracks|
| In answer to the perpetual need for housing, construction of an enlisted men’s barracks commenced at the opposite end of these foundation ruins. The barracks were extended in this direction as more men were assigned. Kitchens, mess halls, laundress’ quarters and latrines were built behind (to your left). Home to about 150 men, the two-story barracks were sparsely furnished. Bunks, made of wood by the quartermaster, were two tiers high with each tier accommodating two men. The . . . — Map (db m87030) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — John (Portugee) Phillips|
Here on December 25, 1866
John (Portugee) Phillips
finished his 236 mile ride to obtain troops for the relief of Fort Phil Kearny after the Fetterman Massacre. — Map (db m79773) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Magazine — (Built in 1849)|
| Restored here to the 1850-1862 period, the magazine is among the oldest surviving structures at Fort Laramie. It was during this early period that George Balch, 1st Lieutenant, Ordinance Corp, sent the following report to the Assistant Adjutant General: “I find all the ordnance property with the exception of the field guns and their carriages stored in the magazine arranged with much order and preserved with great care. The different kinds of ammunition piled together in such . . . — Map (db m87032) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Military Justice: Punishment Harsh and Certain — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
| As long as you behaved yourself and performed your duty as a soldier, you got along alright.Sergeant Perley S. Eaton, 3rd Cavalry Few soldiers completed their enlistments without experiencing the military justice system. Minor infractions resulted in “company punishment,” non-regulation punishments that usually consisted of extra duty assignments, restrictions to quarters, and unpleasant fatigue details. Court martial routinely imposed fines, confinement, and hard labor . . . — Map (db m87003) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — 49 — Mormon Pioneers at Fort Laramie|
|Between the years 1847 and 1868, most of the approximate 80,000 Mormon Pioneers passed through Fort Laramie. This was the first stop for the vanguard company after leaving Winter Quarters, (near Omaha) Nebraska.
In June, 1847, after following a faint trapper trail on the north side of the Platte River, the Pioneers reached Fort Laramie. Brigham Young, with a number of his party, crossed the river and walked up to the fort.
At this time the fort was called Fort John. It was owned by the . . . — Map (db m79776) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Noncommissioned Officers’ Quarters — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
| Before you stand the remains of a six-unit apartment building constructed in 1884. Built for the fort’s senior noncommissioned officers and their families, this new structure provided the best housing available for married enlisted men on post. The staff entitled to live here were the post ordnance, quartermaster, and commissary sergeants; chief musician; and regimental sergeant major. Often in their fortes and fifties with many years of service in the military, these senior NCOs were usually . . . — Map (db m87054) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Officers Quarters|
| This 1885 photograph shows the buildings constructed on this site in 1881. Previous adobe structures, built in 1855, were left standing as rear wings. On the far left was the Commanding Officer’s residence. Between 1881 and 1890 it was successively occupied by the families of Colonels Meritt, Gibbon and Merriam and the only one equipped with inside plumbing, with a full bathroom upstairs and water piped into the kitchen. The other two buildings were customarily occupied by Lieutenants or . . . — Map (db m87026) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Old Army Bridge Over the Platte River|
|Erected in 1875. This bridge was a vital link between Cheyenne, Fort Laramie and the Military outposts, Indiana Agencies and gold fields of the Black Hills, Dakota Region.
Placed by The Historical Landmark Commission of Wyoming, June 1951 — Map (db m5747) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Old Bedlam|
|This graceful old structure, built in 1849, is the oldest standing building in Wyoming. It was nicknamed “Old Bedlam” because of boisterous sounds supposedly heard while it was occupied by bachelor officiers.
Shown in an 1889 photograph, “Old Bedlam” is generally regarded as the Bachelor Officiers Quarters. However, the left half was used as Post Headquarters and Commanders Apartment in the 1860’s and, at various times, the building was occupied by married officiers. — Map (db m79774) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Parade Ground|
| The parade ground was the center around which a variety of utilitarian buildings were constructed between 1849 and 1885. Though intended as a center of activities for the post with its parades and drills, Fort Laramie’s parade ground was not in constant use. Soldiers were kept busy with a broad array of duties related to the upkeep of the post and security of the region. The parade ground saw two types of formations. Guard mount or changing of the guard, occurred daily at 9:00 a.m. A full . . . — Map (db m87002) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Post Quartermaster’s Area — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
| The job of building, maintaining, and supplying military posts belonged to the Quartermaster’s Department. The QMD was responsible for quarters, barracks, construction, infrastructure, transportation of personnel and supplies, and the procurement of most equipment and commodities. The empty field in front of you once bustled with activity at the workshops of the blacksmith, wheelwright, farrier, carpenter, painter, and saddler. The quartermaster’s area extended from where you are standing for . . . — Map (db m87105) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Reading, ‘Riting, and ‘Rithmetic — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
| I knew little about reading, spelling and arithmetic, while I was well versed in lightning, thunder, vapor and geography. Guy V. Henry Jr. on growing up at frontier military posts Wyoming’s first public school opened at Fort Laramie in 1852. Schools often suffered from inadequate facilities along with shortages of textbooks, supplies, and qualified teachers. Not until 1881 did regulations make commanders responsible for providing an effective school system. Fort Laramie . . . — Map (db m87006) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Refinement at Fort Laramie|
| Fort Laramie began as a dusty, drab frontier outpost as pictured above in the 1868 photograph. However, by the 1880’s, the Army had embarked upon a major cleanup and improvement campaign. The delightful results are evident in the 1887 view – trees and grass, gaslights, boardwalks, picket fences and vine-covered verandas, modern, comfortable quarters . . . even birdbaths! — Map (db m87020) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Sawmill |
| Through a succession of accidental fires, Fort Laramie’s sawmills gained a reputation of being oll-fated. The lime-grout building erected upon this site in 1887 was the last of several such structures that sheltered stream engines used for sawing wood and pumping water. — Map (db m87044) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Site of Army Bridge|
| The Laramie River was unpredictable and unchecked by dams. High water during the spring of the year often damaged or washed away existing bridges; therefore, from 1853 to post abandonment in 1890 the river was spanned by several successive bridges on or near this site. The first was constructed by a private firm which charged tolls to both soldiers and emigrants. In subsequent years they were free to all users. The bridges were well-traveled since a variety of living quarters and a hotel had . . . — Map (db m86986) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Spanning a Century: End of an Era|
|Once broad and turbulent, the North Platte River posed a formidable obstacle to 19th century travelers. High water made it nearly impossible to cross the river for several months each year. The crossing became less dangerous by 1850 when ferry service was established to meet the growing volume of military and emigrant traffic. Frequent ferry accidents and slow crossing speeds continued to impede travelers until a permanent bridge was built.
Following the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868, which . . . — Map (db m79743) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — The “Government Workhouse” — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
| “I am beginning to think the soldiers . . . know better how to handle pick and shovel than they do a gun . . .”Private George W. McAnulty, Fort Laramie, W.T., 1878 “ . . . nothing worries a soldier more than doing the dirty [work] about the post.”Private Paul Lindsley Mulford, 7th U.S. Cavalry The daily routine of the frontier army enlisted man was a highly regimented, never-ending cycle of drills, guard duty, roll calls, inspections, and fatigue . . . — Map (db m87018) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — The “New” Guardhouse and Adjacent Barracks|
| The “new” guardhouse, built in 1876 and shown in this 1887 view, was the last and most comfortable of three such structures at Fort Laramie. It was constructed upon the ruins of the original guardhouse, built in 1849-1850. The “new” guardhouse contained spacious guard quarters and prison rooms, and relatively few prisoners. In 1885, for example, inmates averaged less than three out of every hundred soldiers on the post. Also appearing in the photograph is the . . . — Map (db m86998) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — The Cavalry Stables — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
| Most of the four generations of cavalry stables constructed at Fort Laramie were located here, just below the rise you are standing on. Measuring as large as 310 by 28 feet, the stables were made of log or board and batten construction. Typically configured with a double row of stalls, each stable housed 80 to 100 animals. Altogether, as many as 350 cavalry horses were kept here. Mountains of manure produced by the cavalry horses were a continual problem for the garrison. A report dated . . . — Map (db m87051) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — The Cheyenne-Black Hills Trail|
| passed near this point between 1876 and 1887. Built to supply the Dakota gold camps, the road was constructed in violation of the Ft. Laramie treaty of 1868 which reserved the Black Hills for Sioux Indians. Stagecoaches and wagons carrying passengers, freight and gold bullion rumbled through nearby Ft. Laramie, an important stopping point along the lime, until the arrival of the Chicago and North Western Railroad rendered the route obsolete. — Map (db m79780) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — The Greatest Ride in History|
|In memory of the Thoroughbred horse
John “Portugee” Phillips
from Fort Phil Kearny Wyoming to Fort Laramie Wyoming December 24, and 25, 1866, when he's sought aid for the garrison at Fort Phil Kearny, which was surrounded by Indians, after the battle with Lieutenant Colonel William F. Fetterman resulting in the death of Lieutenant Colonel Fetterman and 80 men. The horse died from exhaustion soon after arriving at Fort Laramie, having gone 236 miles in two days, . . . — Map (db m79746) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — The Pony Express — 1860-1861 — 1960-1961|
|From April, 1860, to October, 1861, Fort Laramie was a major post on the Pony Express route between St. Joseph, Missouri and Sacramento, California. — Map (db m49117) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — The Pony Express — 1860-1861 — 1960-1961|
|120 celebrated riders rode 650,000 miles with only one rider killed by Indians, one schedule not completed and one mail lost.|
Russell • Majors • Waddell
Founders • Owners • Operators — Map (db m49118) HM
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — The Post Bakeries|
| Four different bakeries operated successively at Fort Laramie. The remains of two bakeries stand before you. The nearer, built in 1876, was used until 1884, when it was converted into a school. A bakery built upon the far site operated from 1884 until 1890. Army bakers produced one eighteen-ounce loaf daily for each man at the fort. With a garrison numbering as many as 700 men, imagine the production that resulted! — Map (db m87100) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — The Post Hospital — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
| A succession of three hospitals served Fort Laramie from 1849 to 1890. The first hospital was located in the old adobe trading post (Fort John) at the south end of the parade ground. Suffering from structural failure and a serious vermin infestation, the hospital moved in 1856. Constructed of wood and adobe brick, the second hospital was located just below and to the left of the ridge on which you now stand. Only subsurface remains survive. The ruins in front of you are all that remain of . . . — Map (db m87085) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — The Queens of Soap Suds Row — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
| With reddened knuckles and rolled up sleeves, an obscure corps served the 19th century army. Beginning in 1802, the army enlisted women aged 13 and older to wash soldiers’ laundry. Laundresses received a wage, quarters, fuel, rations, and medical care. On average, a laundress washed for about 20 men. In 1868 enlisted men paid $1 per month for laundry services, with single officers paying $3 and married officers $6. Clothing repairs and tailoring were extra. Laundresses also earned extra income . . . — Map (db m86993) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — The Rustic Hotel — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
|The Rustic Hotel opened in 1876. During that year it probably provided the best accommodations for travelers between Cheyenne and the Black Hills. It also served as a station for the Cheyenne-Black Hills Stage and Express Line. By 1883, when this photograph was taken, one lady found “horrid little bugs” in the sheets. Three years later the stage station corrals were polluting the water supply and had to be removed.
(Inscription under the photo in the lower left) Primitive . . . — Map (db m71020) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — The Rustic Hotel “ . . . No Second-Rate Affair” — Fort Laramie National Historic Site|
| As the nation prepared to celebrate its centennial in 1876, electrifying news of a gold rush in the Black Hills flashed across the country. A new bridge over the North Platte River guaranteed that the preferred route to the gold fields passed through Fort Laramie. Post Trader John S. Collins erected a hotel on this location to provide lodging for the gold seekers. Collins christened the new establishment the Rustic. The hotel also served as headquarters for the Cheyenne and Black Hills Stage . . . — Map (db m87095) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — The Sutler’s House|
| The Victorian-style cottage, built in 1863 and shown in this 1868 photograph, must have been a strange sight on the untamed Northern Plains. Sometime between 1875 and 1882, the cottage was replaced by a much larger lime-grout structure, used by the Sutler or his agents until the abandonment of the post in 1890. RIGHT: Families of Post Trader John London and Captain Louis Brechemin. This 1886 photograph reflects the serenity of Fort Laramie’s declining years. — Map (db m87046) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — The Sutler’s Store|
| Parts of this building date from the earliest periods at Fort Laramie. The adobe portion on the left, built in 1849, housed the Post Sutler’s Store. In 1852, the right section was added and used at various times as the Sutler’s office, the Post Office and a game room. The photograph shows an 1887 view. The rear portion was built in 1883. The Enlisted Men’s Bar and a public saloon were on the right; the Officers Club on the left. RIGHT: The Sutler’s Store in 1875. (courtesy University . . . — Map (db m87035) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Fort Laramie — Transcontinental Telegraph|
|Electrical Engineering Milestone Transcontinental Telegraph Between July 4 and October 24, 1861, a telegraph line was constructed by the Western Union Telegraph Co. between St. Joseph, Missouri, and Sacramento, California, thereby completing the first high speed communication link between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. This service met the critical demand for fast communication between these two areas, this telegraph line operated until May, 1869, when it was replaced by a multi-wire . . . — Map (db m87102) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Lingle — “If I Should Die Before…”|
|Many emigrants journals and diaries from the 1840s to 1860s mention experiences such as; “nooning,” camping for the night, crossing over, or burying a loved one on the banks of Rawhide Creek. Of these experiences, death and disease were common. It’s been estimated that there is an average of ten graves to every mile along the emigrant trails. The top five causes were; unclean water, poor food preparation, chilly night watches, sleeping on cold or wet ground, months of exhausting . . . — Map (db m79704) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Lingle — Oregon Trail|
| Oregon Trail
Marked by the
State of Wyoming
1914 — Map (db m79741) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Lingle — The Grattan Fight|
|Sioux Indians massacred
29 Soldiers with their
Brevet 2nd Lt. L. Grattan,
on Aug. 19, 1854. Site is
1/2 mile north-west.
An Indian killed a cow from a Mormon caravan. The detachment of soldiers was sent to receive the offender. In the ensuing fight all soldier and the chief of the Brule’s Sioux, Marton-Ioway, were killed. — Map (db m79706) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Lingle — To All Pioneers|
To all Pioneers
who passed this way
to win and hold the West
Trail crossed one mile South — Map (db m79742) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Torrington — Cold Springs|
| 3/4 mile east from this point
Cold Springs was a popular camping ground on the Overland Trail to California, Oregon, Utah and other points in the far west. It was a stage station along the Overland Stage Route 1854-1862 and also a Pony Express relay stop 1860-1861. Station tender was M. Reynal. — Map (db m79702) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Torrington — Stuart’s 1812-13 Astorian Party Campsite|
|Following the Lewis and Clark Expedition, much of the interior of the western United States remained a mystery and most people traveling to the west coast went by ship. By 1811, at the height of the fur trade, John Jacob Astor, owner of the Pacific Fur Company, pursued an overland route to link his trading empire in the Pacific Northwest to the East. He also recognized the new trading opportunities an overland route would provide for his business. Astor sent companies of men, called Astorians, . . . — Map (db m79700) HM|
|Wyoming (Goshen County), Torrington — The Oregon Trail|
| Entered Wyoming
at this point
Main trail 3 miles South — Map (db m79699) HM|
|Wyoming (Hot Springs County), Thermopolis — Hot Springs State Park — Wyoming|
| In the foreground across the river are the Rainbow Terraces formed of mineral deposits called travertine. The Big Spring produces 127° mineral water and as it makes its way down the terraces the water temperature changes and different colors of algae and micro-organisms give the terraces its multi-colored look. The site was sacred to several Native American tribes and was used for bathing and conducting various ceremonies. Chief Washakie of the Shoshone and Chief Sharp Nose of the Arapahoe led . . . — Map (db m86916) HM|
|Wyoming (Johnson County), Buffalo — Big Horn Mountains|
| The high country backdrop on top of the Big Horn Mountains encompasses much of the Cloud Peak Wilderness area. This 195,000 acre area was designated as wilderness by Congress in 1984. The highest point in the wilderness area is Cloud Peak, which can be seen by looking through the peep hole on the right hand side of this sign. Cloud Peak is 13,165 feet high. The peaks to the north are the Black Tooths which are 13,005 feet high. The peak immediately to the South is Bomber . . . — Map (db m87714) HM|
|Wyoming (Johnson County), Buffalo — Bozeman Trail|
|Marked by the State of Wyoming 1865 John Bozeman Killed by Indians on Yellowstone 1867 — Map (db m85994) HM|
|Wyoming (Johnson County), Buffalo — High Side Freight Wagon|
| Before you is the “eighteen wheeler” of the 1860’s. It could haul 2000 lbs. to 5000 lbs. of weight depending on the grades of the trail. This model of the wagon was powered by oxen. Anywhere from 3 yokes (a yoke being two oxen) to 10 yokes, depending on the load and the trail or road. Notice that there is no seat on the wagon. This is because the teamster or bullwhacker walked on the left side of his oxen. He would swing a long bull whip and out to the left, then back . . . — Map (db m87708) HM|
|Wyoming (Johnson County), Buffalo — Homesteader Cabin|
| This cabin was moved here from the George Schreibeis ranch on the Tongue River. It’s made of hand hewn cottonwood logs. As you can see the cabin builder was not a practiced log home builder. He used the materials that were readily available and cost the least, as did most homesteaders. The small paned windows are original and the glass shows the imperfections of the glass of the 1890’s. Nevertheless, the window was expensive and therefore a luxury. Many cabins simply had openings with . . . — Map (db m87712) HM|
|Wyoming (Johnson County), Buffalo — Living on the Edge — Sculptor: D. Michael Thomas|
|An independent cowboy, or small rancher, brands a calf on the open range. Surprised at his work, he turns to see a rider from a large cattle outfit galloping threateningly toward him.|
Small ranchers, like this cowboy, rode south from Buffalo on the morning of April 11, 1892, to confront “the invaders” at the Ta Ranch. Sheriff Red Angus, citizens of Buffalo, and small ranchers laid siege to the gunmen. Three days later, troops from Fort McKinney, near Buffalo, arrived on the . . . — Map (db m51697) HM
|Wyoming (Johnson County), Buffalo — Occidental Hotel — Est. 1878|
|The National Register of Histroic Places Wyoming Place No. 176 Downtown Historic District|
Historic Hotels of America National Trust for Historic Preservation — Map (db m45546) HM
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — 1974 Downtown National Historic District|
|Although Cheyenne was originally established in the 1857, much of the early town had been destroyed by fires over the years and it was not until the late 1800s that masonry structures were introduced. The current Downtown District of Cheyenne was built between 1872-1920s and represents Cheyenne's first half century of growth. Cheyenne belongs to a breed of American towns established at the same time as the westward movement of the Transcontinental Railroad. Most of these towns were "tent . . . — Map (db m47184) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — Cheyenne Corner Stone|
|S.W. corner of site chosen by General Grenville Dodge in 1867 for the division point of the U.P.R.R. and for the location of Cheyenne City. The original 4 sq miles were laid at an angle to give "all houses maximum sunshine throughout the year." This stone was set in 1890.
Plot and fence donated by Mildred and John Arp — Map (db m68053) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — Dedicated to You, A Free Citizen in a Free Land|
|This reproduction of the Liberty Bell was presented to the people of
by direction of The Honorable John W. Snyder
Secretary of the Treasury
As the inspirational symbol of the
United States Savings Bonds Independence Drive
from May 16 to July 4,1950, it was displayed in
every part of this state
The dimensions and tone are identical
with those of the original Liberty bell when it
rang out our independence in 1776.
In standing before this symbol, you have the . . . — Map (db m47188) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — Esther Hobart Morris|
|Proponent of the Legislative Act Which in 1869 gave distinction to the Territory of Wyoming as the 1st government in the world to grant Women Equal Rights — Map (db m47185) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — Historic Plains Hotel|
|The National Register of Historic Places Wyoming Place No. 343 Downtown Historic District — Map (db m47156) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — Mt. Sinai Congregation — First Permanent Jewish House of Worship in Wyoming|
|The first Permanent Jewish Synagogue in Wyoming was erected in 1915 by Cheyenne’s Mt. Sinai Congregation. German Jewish merchants came to Cheyenne starting in 1867, organized but were unable to build a Synagogue. After 1900, with the arrival of Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe it became possible to both organize and build. This Synagogue was replaced by one at 2610 Pioneer which was dedicated in 1949. Jewish settlement in Wyoming has been called the furthermost reaches of the Jewish . . . — Map (db m27087) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — The Burlington Routes — 1887 - Present|
| Side A Incorporated as the Cheyenne & Burlington Railroad in March 1887, the 30-mile long Wyoming segment was a part of the larger 145-mile long Chicago, Burlington & Quincy (CB&Q) Railroad line that ran from Midland, Nebraska, westward to Sterling, Colorado, and then northwestward into Cheyenne, Wyoming. Completed and opened for traffic to Cheyenne on December 11, 1887. the Wyoming portion, now vacated, ran from the Colorado-Wyoming State border in the vicinity of Carpenter, Wyoming . . . — Map (db m47181) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — The first steam-powered locomotive reached Cheyenne on November 14, 1867|
| Side A By 1868 the community boasted 3,000 to 4,000 residents, plus business, schools, churches and newspapers. The UP's stone roundhouse was the first permanent structure (non-wood) built in town. The City's phenomenal growth produced its nickname, "The Magic City of the Plains," as it seemingly developed by magic. Wyoming became a new territory less than nine months later, when President Andrew Johnson signed the Wyoming Organic Act on July 25, 1868. Of course, Cheyenne was its . . . — Map (db m47182) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — The Trolleys / Cheyenne's Street Railway|
| The Trolleys The railway included a connector past the Fairgrounds to Fort S.A. Russell. Although 1890 drawings show a fail line going up over the wooden viaduct to South Cheyenne, it was never completed and no trolley service went south of the Union Pacific tracts. Because of declining ridership, the company closed August 4, 1892, being "deemed unprofitable."|
Revived in June 1908, the second trolley company was the Cheyenne Electric Railway Company owned by Thomas Cosgriff, the . . . — Map (db m47159) HM
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — The Union Pacific Railroad / The Union Pacific Railroad — Part 1 (1867 - 1890) / Part 2 (1869 - 1890)|
| Part i The story of the Union Pacific Railroad is also a story of Wyoming and particularly Cheyenne. One cannot be told without the telling of the other. It is no exaggeration to say that Cheyenne, Fort D.A. Russell (now F.E. Warren Air Force Base), and the Wyoming Territory were all children of the Union Pacific (UP).|
In 1863, the Pacific Railroad Act was approved by Congress and signed into law by then President Abraham Lincoln, an enthusiastic supporter of railroads. Congress had . . . — Map (db m47178) HM
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — Union Pacific Depot|
|The Union Pacific Depot was built in 1886 and given to the community or Cheyenne in April 1993 by the Union Pacific Railroad Company. — Map (db m47157) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — Wyoming Army and Air National Guard Memorial|
|Eternal gratitude to the men and women who have served and sacrificed in the Wyoming Army and Air National Guard — Map (db m47191) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Cheyenne — Wyoming Spanish American War Monument|
|Erected to the Memory of The heroes of the Spanish American War by The State of Wyoming and The Ladies Volunteer Aid Society Second Regiment U.S, Vol. Cavalry First Battalion, Wyoming Volunteers Battery A Wyoming Volunteers — Map (db m47190) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Pine Bluff — Geology Shaping History|
|The region’s unique geology created ‘woodland islands’ for planes and animals, and played a key role in the routing of the Transcontinental Railroad
The area’s distinctive Pine Bluffs are the result of early geologic activity followed by millions of years of weathering. At the top of the bluffs is an erosion-resistant layer of sandstone and claystone called caprock. As rain and wind erode the softer clay beneath the caprock, sections of the top layer collapse and tumble . . . — Map (db m76851) HM|
|Wyoming (Laramie County), Pine Bluffs — Old Texas Trail|
|Over this trail from distant Texas, passed the greatest migration of men and cattle in the history of America.
of the pioneer cattlemen who passed this way on the Old Texas Trail 1866 to 1897. This plaque placed by the Historical Landmark Commission of Wyoming 1948.
This monument sponsored by the Lions Club of Pine Bluffs, Wyoming Stock Growers Association, and the Family of Captain D.H. and J.W. Snyder, Texas Trail drivers who brought the first herds of Texas cattle to Wyoming in 1866. — Map (db m68054) HM|
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), Kemmerer — Fossil Butte|
|Fossil Butte is a 50 million year old lakebed and one of the richest fossil resources in the world. It is part of the Green River Formation, a layer of rock composed of laminated limestone, mudstone, and volcanic ash. Complete paleo-ecosystems are preserved in the formation, which is the geologic remnant of the Green River Lake System of the Eocene era. Designated on October 23, 1972, Fossil Butte National Monument encompasses a part of land that was once under Fossil Lake.
Fossil Lake was . . . — Map (db m36624) HM|
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), Kemmerer — Home of James C. Penney|
|Founded J.C. Penny Company Inc.
April 14, 1902 in Kemmerer Wyoming
Operated by J.C. Penny Homestead, Inc. — Map (db m80541) HM|
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), Kemmerer — Kemmerer Founders Monument — Wyoming's Aquarium in Stone|
Mahlon S. Kemmerer
1843 - 1925
Patrick J. Quealy
1857 - 1930 — Map (db m80542) HM|
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), Kemmerer — Oregon Trail Memorial|
|To All Pioneers
To Win and Hold
Kemmerer 1931 — Map (db m36650) HM|
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), Kemmerer — Wyoming Centennial|
|This bell was used at the
Kemmerer Grade School
Built in 1901 and used
Tower Donated by the
K/D 1990 Centennial Committee
and the Kemmerer/Diamondville
Chamber of Commerce. — Map (db m36654) HM|
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), La Barge — Jim Bridger — Trapper 1844|
|He little knew that when he cut his name, or had it cut, in this stone, that it would be engraved in the annals of the West deeper than that of any other man. As one of the world's outstanding explorers he guided emigrants, railroads and army in the expansion of the nation — Map (db m36660) HM|
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), La Barge — 25 — Names Hill|
| The National Register
of Historic Places
Wyoming Place No. 25 — Map (db m36661) HM|
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), La Barge — Names Hill State Historic Site|
|Names Hill is one of three prominent sites in Wyoming where travelers inscribed their names into stone along the emigrant trails. The other sites are Register Cliff and Independence Rock. After crossing a 40 miles stretch of waterless desert, wagon trains would stop and camp near the Green River crossing, providing an opportunity for travelers to inscribe their names into the soft limestone.
Parting of the Ways
Names Hill is located along the Sublette-Greenwood Cutoff, a . . . — Map (db m80533) HM|
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), La Barge — Seeds-Kee-Dee-Agie, Spanish River, Rio Verde, Green River|
|To the Shoshone Indian, this river was the Seeds-Kee-Dee Agie (Prairie Chicken River). On Sept. 16 1811, the Astorians near its headwaters termed it the Spanish River. To the Spaniards, far to the south, it was the Rio Verde (Green River). Jedediah Smith and his Mountain Men, making the first westward crossing of the south Pass by white men, camped near here Mar. 19, 1824 on the Seeds-Kee-Dee. They trapped the river and its forks which were named for them: LaBarge, Ham's, Black's, Smith's, . . . — Map (db m36659) HM|
|Wyoming (Lincoln County), Thayne — Wyoming's Wildlife — Star Valley|
|Often termed the star of all valleys, the Shoshone Indians referred to the valley as a "heap fine hunting ground." Unusually high precipitation and topographic features make the Salt River Valley one of the most productive and diverse of all wildlife areas found in Wyoming. Sandhill cranes, Canada geese, ruffed grouse, and bald eagles are among the birds nesting in the area. The valleys of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, including Star Valley, are important waterfowl production areas for . . . — Map (db m84594) HM|
|Wyoming (Natrona County), Alcova — Frederick Richard Fulkerson|
|The grave of F.R. Fulkerson was noted by forty-niner J.G. Bruff on July 26, 1849, as he traveled through what he termed "Pass of the Rattle-Snake Mountain to the left of Devil's Gate." The survival of the large granite boulder used as the Fulkerson headstone and the sketch made of it by Bruff allows us to locate this grave precisely.
Frederick Richard Fulkerson, son of James M. and Mary Fulkerson, died July 1, 1847, while en route to Oregon. His father, James Monroe Fulkerson, was born in . . . — Map (db m66997) HM|
|Wyoming (Natrona County), Alcova — Independence Rock|
|Thousands who traveled the Oregon Trail in central Wyoming were unaware that they were the beneficiaries of a long series of geological events. The granite peaks around you are mountains that rose, sank and then were buried in sand and ashy sediments. Erosion exposed their summits and created the Sweetwater Valley, part of an east-west passageway through the Rockies. The route was used by game animals, Native Americans and fur trappers, followed at mid-century by wagon train and handcart . . . — Map (db m62149) HM|
|Wyoming (Natrona County), Arminto — “Committed to the Land” — Wyoming’s Agriculture|
| Large numbers of cattle populated this country prior to the devastating storms of the 1880’s. Sheep were far more profitable than cattle and sheep herds began to multiply. However, the terrible winter of 1919 and predators took their toll on the sheep industry. This land was heavily homesteaded when the federal government encouraged World War I veterans to populate the new west, offering 320 acres to anyone who asked. The climate proved too dry for even the dry land wheat that . . . — Map (db m86920) HM|
|Wyoming (Natrona County), Arminto — Bridger Road – Waltman Crossing — Wyoming|
| Here the present-day highway crosses what remains of an all but forgotten road. That road led to the remote goldfields of western Montana, booming since 1862. The government, in 1859, ordered Captain W.F. Raynolds, Topographical Engineers, U. S. Army, to reconnoiter Rocky Mountain topography and potential routes leading to areas of indicated mineralization. Old Jim Bridger, noted explorer since fur trade days, was Raynolds’ guide. In 1864 official energy was still concentrated . . . — Map (db m86918) HM|
|Wyoming (Natrona County), Casper — City of Casper|
| The city of Casper, established near the site of old Fort Casper, formerly Plate Bridge Station, was named in honor of Lieut. Casper Collins, who lost his life in an Indian battle there on July 26, 1865. The fort was one of the small army posts which guarded the Oregon and Emigrant Trail and the transcontinental telegraph line during the mid-1800’s. The first railroad came to Casper in 1888, and the town remained “rail’s end” until 1905 when the line was extended to Lander. . . . — Map (db m86899) HM|
|Wyoming (Natrona County), Casper — Giving Shape to History |
| This larger-than-life sculpture, “The Pony Express”, was conceived and created by the heart and hands of Avard Tennyson Fairbanks (1897 – 1987). Born into an artistic family in Provo, Utah, Avard Fairbanks showed childhood talent for creative expression by sculpting animals from clay. As he grew, he sought new learning experiences to further his ability in giving shape to the history that inspired him. After studying Fine Art at Yale University, sculpting in marble while in . . . — Map (db m86900) HM|
|Wyoming (Natrona County), Casper — Hell’s Half Acre|
|This unique setting of natural beauty cover approximately 320 acres. Viewed from a point of maximum depth, its walls and pinnacles show soft and varied hues comparable to the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone.
Investigation has confirmed that in former days the Indians drove great herds of buffalo into this depression for slaughter. Flint arrowheads and buffalo bones have been found here. A detachment of Captain B.L.E. Bonneville’s party visited this site in July 1833. This area has been . . . — Map (db m80126) HM|
|Wyoming (Natrona County), Casper — Pioneer Monument / Fort Casper|
|Pioneer Monument Erected on this site of the Old Oregon Trail in memory of the pioneers who blazed the way. Built by Natrona County Pioneer Association 1849 1911
Fort Casper ---------- U. S. Military Post Established about 1864 by volunteers Abandoned Oct. 19, 1867 ---------- Situated one mile west of this spot Marked by the State of Wyoming 1914 — Map (db m86897) HM|
|Wyoming (Niobrara County), Lusk — Redwood Water Tank|
|This Redwood Water Tank was built by the Wyoming Central Railway in 1886. It was first filled by a windmill, then by other types of pumps. It stored water for the steam engines that pulled the trains. It is one of only six remaining in the nation.
The Sioux City & Pacific R.R. surveyed the route from Chadron NE to Fort Fetterman Wyoming Territory in 1883. They organized the Wyoming Central Railway a Wyo. Corp. as required by law to build or own a railroad in the territory in 1886. As the . . . — Map (db m41961) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Cody — Arland & Corbett — Indian Trading Post|
| Off in the distance in front of you, a large red butte lies against a much larger mountain, Rattlesnake Mountain. Flowing down the valley is Trail Creek, named for the ancient Indian trail that crosses the Shoshone River at the Indian ford in the canyon below you. The trail leads into the Yellowstone Country from the Big Horn Basin. Vic Arland and John Corbett built a trading post in 1880 near the red butte on the Indian trail to trade with the Crow and Shoshone Indians. The Indians traded . . . — Map (db m87571) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Cody — Cedar Mountain — Indian Tree Burials and Frost Cave|
| Cedar Mountain, the mountain in front of you to the left of the canyon, was known to the Crow Indians as “the mountain of spirits.” Early settlers told of finding Indian tree burials on its northeast slope. Unfortunately, those sites have been looted and are now gone. The Captain Jones expedition of 1873 was led by Shoshoni scouts as they mapped and named some of the landmarks in the area. The Shoshoni gave their own name to the mountain “mountain of many cedars.” The . . . — Map (db m87566) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Cody — Colter’s Hell — Wyoming|
| John Colter, veteran of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, notably self-sufficient mountain man and indefatigable explorer, was the first white man known to have reconnoitered this locale. In 1807, possibly traveling alone but probably escorted by Crow guides, he crossed the Stinking Water (Shoshone River) via a major Indian-trail ford located about a mile downstream from this observation point. Here, extending along both sides of the river, he discovered an active geyser district. Steam . . . — Map (db m86150) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Cody — Colter’s Hell & Extinct Geyser Basin|
| Colter’s Hell is a large, mostly extinct, geyser basin. Today, there are a few hot springs, and vents which release sulphurous gasses along the Shoshone River. This site includes some of the world’s largest extinct geyser cones and thermal pools. While only about 170 acres of this thermal area are listed on the National Register of Historic Places near these historic markers. Colter’s Hell is actually an area of several square miles. It was named for John Colter, a hunter with the Lewis and . . . — Map (db m86147) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Cody — Indian Names for Land Features|
| Looking west is the Shoshone Canyon, named for the Shoshoni Indians, who hunted in the region. However, most of the Big Horn Basin had been Crow territory until the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868. West of the canyon, the north and the south forks of the Shoshone (Stinking Water) Rivers meet. Indians called the North Fork the “Grass House River” and the South Fork the “Rock in the Valley River.” South of the canyon, is Cedar or Spirit Mountain, called “Mountain of . . . — Map (db m87558) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Cody — Lee Street – Cody City|
| The rocky ridge you are now crossing marks the southern edge of Lee Street, one of the original roads of Cody City. Wagon ruts, phone wires and rock cairn lot markers have been found along its path. In memory of Jerry Housel and Mary Elaine Housel by their family — Map (db m87580) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Cody — Old Cody City & Buffalo Bill Cody’s Town in the Rockies|
| Buffalo Bill Cody and some business partners established the Shoshone Irrigation Co. in 1894. Work began on the Cody Canal to bring water for crop irrigation from the South Fork of the Shoshone River, around the south side of Cedar Mountain. The area north of this marker, to the Shoshone River and beyond, was surveyed to become Cody City on October 5, 1895. The spot was chosen by Buffalo Bill Cody and associates. H.P. Arnold began a general store, a blacksmith shop was built, and before winter . . . — Map (db m87556) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Cody — Pioneer Stagecoach Drivers|
| The pioneer stagecoach drivers of the Old West were as fiercely independent as any men the country has ever seen. They were men of whang-leather toughness, who were accustomed to the harshness of frontier life. They never failed to laugh in the face of every hardship and danger. Self-reliance and vitality were foremost in their make-up, and they took a large measure of pride in their work. These rough men had a taste of genuine life, and, while it lasted, they savored every bit of it. . . . — Map (db m87199) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Cody — Shoshone Canyon — Wyoming|
| Shoshone Canyon is a gorge cut through Rattlesnake Mountain by the wearing action of the Shoshone River. The mountain is a northwest trending uplift in the earth’s crust that rises 3700 feet above the surrounding terrain. Beds of sedimentary rock that are exposed on the mountain’s northeast flank slope eastward beneath the plains. The same units, which range in age from 205 to 570 million years, bend up and over the crest of the mountain and stand vertically along the southwest flank. . . . — Map (db m86154) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Cody — Shoshone River Siphon — The Shoshone Project Story|
| The Heart Mountain Division of the Shoshone Project receives irrigation water directly from Buffalo Bill Reservoir via the Shoshone Canyon Conduit, a three-mile-long tunnel drilled through Cedar Mountain located to the left. From the conduit, the water travels over the Shoshone River through the Shoshone River Siphon and into the 28-mile-long Heart Mountain Canal. The siphon, completed in 1938, is 1,640-feet-long and at the time of construction was the longest self-supporting pipe span in the . . . — Map (db m87589) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Cody — Stone Circles — Near the River Crossing|
| On both sides of the Shoshone River there are many circles made of stones built by the Indians who frequented this area. Some of the sites are simply circles with no doorways, believed to be religious symbols associated with the circle of life or with the sun and moon. Other circles show an opening for a door or have a firepit inside, indicating that they are tepee rings used to anchor hides for dwellings. The hot mineral springs in this region attracted the Indians who bathed in the springs . . . — Map (db m87575) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Cody — The Panoramic View|
| Look to your left and you will see the canyon cut by the Shoshone River. The mountain to the left of the canyon is Cedar Mountain. To the right of Shoshone Canyon you can see Rattlesnake Mountain. The red butte (to the right of Rattlesnake Mt.) is the site of the first Indian trading post built in this region in 1880. The blue mountain beyond Red Butte was called Blue Bead Mountain by the Indians. Its name was later changed to Pat O’Hara Mountain after a fur trapper. Look straight in front of . . . — Map (db m87565) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Cody — Trail to Old Cody City — Founded by Buffalo Bill Cody in 1895|
| Here on the prairie there are still visible remnants of several old wagon trails dating back to Cody City in the late 1800’s. The first buildings of Cody City were constructed on the nearby plain to the west, although the town was supposed to be built on both sides of the river. The original town plat map shows that the streets were to be named after Civil War generals. One of the visible trails just north of here is Lee Street, named after Confederate General Robert E. Lee. The settlement . . . — Map (db m87586) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Cody — William Garlow Cody — “Bill Cody”|
|Jan. 4, 1913 Sept. 18, 1992 Grandson of the World-Famous Colonel William F. Cody “Buffalo Bill” Bill Cody was born at Buffalo Bill’s “Scouts Rest Ranch” in North Platte, Nebraska. He died in Cody, Wyoming. He was a graduate of the University of Nebraska and Harvard Law School. His career included: WWII Army Officer, Lawyer, Cody City Attorney, and Business man. Bill lectured on the subject of “Our American Heritage” to more than 1172 school . . . — Map (db m87560) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Cody — Yellowstone Fire Fighters|
| We the citizens of the Yellowstone gateway communities whose lives and properties were imperiled by the 1988 Yellowstone fires, hereby express our gratitude to those whose courage, skill and devotion tamed the inferno that devastated over 363,000 acres. Our abiding thanks to the firefighters and communities (including Edward Hutton of Casper, WY who gave his life fighting the fires). Their extraordinary effort and fortitude averted catastrophe. We will never forget — Map (db m87200) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — A Good Duty Station|
|The lifespan of most Western military posts was measured in months, or several years. Accordingly, their structures were temporary, and many have long since vanished from the landscape. Fort Yellowstone was unusual because of its permanence and the corresponding substance of its buildings. It also bore little resemblance to older, barricaded forts.
Because of its good facilities, relaxed discipline, and interesting surroundings, Fort Yellowstone was considered a prized assignment by many . . . — Map (db m39727) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — A Most Fortunate Thing...|
|Before the Army arrived in Yellowstone, the park's future was in doubt. Vandals destroyed thermal features, squatters sawed down trees and poachers decimated herds of wildlife. Perhaps the Army's greatest contribution to Yellowstone's history was bringing law and order to the park.
In the winter of 1894, soldiers caught the notorious poacher Ed Howell killing buffalo. Because no laws existed to prosecute Howell, public indignation caused Representative Lacey of Iowa to propose a bill "to . . . — Map (db m39745) HM
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — A Sense of Community|
|Fort Yellowstone was truly a community as well as a military outpost. The small village frequently assembled to welcome new residents or bid farewell to departing neighbors. The joys of births, christenings, and marriages mingles with the sorrows of illnesses, accidents and deaths. Religious services were held in the troop mess hall, the post exchange, or in a private residence until the chapel was built.
The last of the structures built by the Army (1913), the chapel added a "finishing . . . — Map (db m39742) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — A Soldier's Life|
|A solider lived with the rest of his company in the Troop Barracks (structure in front of you).
A typical day began at 5:30 am, at the stable, just behind the barracks where the horses were fed. From that time until almost noon, soldiers groomed their mounts, inspected their equipment, and fed and watered the horses at least one more time.
The rest of the day might be spent patrolling the Mammoth Hot Spring Terraces to prevent visitors from chipping away souvenirs, practicing on the . . . — Map (db m40589) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — At Guard|
|Protecting Yellowstone's wildlife and natural wonders was the primary function of the Army. An important part of this duty was managing the growing visitation to the park and watching for "shady characters."
Park roads were once aligned so that the guardhouse controlled traffic into Yellowstone from the north. Here soldiers contacted each party and entered the name of the driver, passengers, and type of rig into a large ledger. Guns not held at the guardhouse were sealed on the spot. They . . . — Map (db m39729) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — Boiling River Trail — Endangered Stream|
|This stretch of river runs warmer than most mountain streams. A half mile up the trail, underground discharge from Mammoth Hot Springs enters the current and creates a year-round climate for water birds, trout, and aquatic plants. Over the years, delicate travertine terraces have formed along the thermal channel.
With as many as 200 visitors a day, Boiling River is threatened by its popularity. Trail traffic has collapsed several terraces; soap has polluted the water and killed fish and . . . — Map (db m40583) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — From Soldier to Ranger|
|In 1912, President Taft in a special message to Congress said:
"I earnestly recommend the establishment of a bureau of National Parks. Such legislation is essential to the proper management of those wonderful manifestations of nature, so startling and so beautiful that everyone recognizes the obligations of the government to preserve them for the edification and recreation of the people."
The National Park Service Act was signed on August 25, 1916. Soon after, soldiers were . . . — Map (db m40599) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — Mt. Everts Mudslides — Temporary Scenery|
|Landslides are epidemic in this valley. In late spring and summer, storm clouds travel through the Gardner River canyon, striking Mt. Everts from brief but intense showers. The dry, layered cliffs have little protective vegetation. Loosened by seismic tremors and constant freezing and thawing, tons of mud and rock wash downslope, forming alluvial fans at the base.
Inset photo caption - Down valley, toward Gardiner, the slumping is more severe. After a heavy rain, cliffs of shale, mudstone . . . — Map (db m40588) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — Obsidian Cliff — Volcanic Glass|
|Yellowstone Plateau glowed red from volcanic activity, with molten rock welling up and spreading from numerous fissures. Obsidian Cliff, a 180,000-year-old lava flow, is part of the evidence. Cooling and shrinking, the lava solidified into large columns visible at the base of the cliff.
Obsidian is a rock of high silica content with few visible crystals. By contrast, Golden Gate, 10 miles north, cuts through a lighter-colored flow of welded ash. The two formation are chemically identical but . . . — Map (db m83690) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — Sheepeater Cliff|
|This cliff was named for the Shoshone Indians who lived throughout this mountainous region.
Their use of bighorn sheep earned them the name "Tukadika" or "Sheepeaters".
The cliff is basalt lava that formed "columnar joints" when it cooled nearly 500,000 years ago. — Map (db m83687) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — The Drill Field|
|Gathering place, site of ceremonies and parades, training ground - the drill field was the focal point of daily life at Fort Yellowstone.
Each day began with a bugler sounding Reveille. Gradually, the Fort came to life and another bugle call brought horse-mounted soldiers trotting onto the field for the flag raising. Assignments were announced, and troopers headed out to patrol the Mammoth Hot Spring Terraces or other nearby attractions.|
Those remaining behind assumed the . . . — Map (db m39723) HM
|Wyoming (Park County), Mammoth Hot Springs — Welcome to Historic Fort Yellowstone|
|From 1886 until the creation of the National Park Service in 1916 the United States Army was responsible for the administration and management of Yellowstone National Park.|
The row of buildings ahead of you is part of Historic Fort Yellowstone. These structures were built in three phases between 1891 and 1913 to serve as Army headquarters and to accommodate the troops assigned to Yellowstone National Park.
A stroll along the sidewalks of Fort Yellowstone takes you back to when . . . — Map (db m40590) HM
|Wyoming (Park County), Meeteetse — Arland — 1884 - - 1897 — Wyoming|
| A few miles up Meeteetse Creek from here, stood one of the toughest settlements of Wyoming’s frontier history. The town was founded in the spring of 1884 by Victor Arland, a French businessman, and John Corbett, a buffalo hunter. From 1880 to 1884, the men were partners in a trading post on Trail Creek and another on Cottonwood Creek, just north of Cody, Wyoming. They moved to Meeteetse Creek to be in the center of cattle country and the development ranches. “Arland” . . . — Map (db m87608) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Meeteetse — Site of Halfway House Stage Stop — Wyoming|
| At this spot in 1904, brothers Charles and George Wilson, builders of the Cody-Meeteetse Road, constructed a rock dugout near Dry Creek Spring. The primitive accommodation stood halfway between Corbett Crossing on the Shoshone River to the northeast and the town of Meeteetse to the south. The light Concord stage coaches that traveled this route carried passengers and mail and changed horses here. The station, which advertised both telephone service and delicious pies, was abandoned in . . . — Map (db m87149) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Wapiti — Absaroka Volcanic Field — Wyoming|
| Stretching across 9,000 square miles, the Absaroka Volcanic Field forms one of the largest volcanic fields in the continental United States. Between thirty-five to fifty-five million years ago volcanoes in the Yellowstone region erupted, depositing 10,000 feet of lava and debris. Glacial activity then sculpted the volcanic material creating the beautiful Absaroka Range seen today, including the castle-like forms in front of you. Remote areas of the Absaroka Range can only be accessed by . . . — Map (db m87599) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — A Sense of Community|
| The last of the structures built by the army (completed in 1913), the chapel added a finishing touch to the fort and was considered by far its most beautiful structure. The community held religious services in the troop mess hall, the post exchange, or in a private residence until the chapel was built. In 1914, Katherine Piercy Edmunds and Captain Albert Ady King of the First U.S. Cavalry became the first couple to be married here. In the decades since, the chapel continues to serve the . . . — Map (db m87140) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — A Soldier’s Life|
| Here in Fort Yellowstone, a soldier lived with the rest of his company in the Troop Barracks (structure in front of you). A typical day began at 5:30 a.m. at the stable where the horses were fed and groomed. Activities could also include guard duty, training, and work details (also known as Fatigue). Afternoons could be spent practicing on the firing range, participating in ceremonies and demonstrations for visiting dignitaries or patrolling the Mammoth Hot Springs terraces to prevent visitors from chipping away souvenirs. — Map (db m87142) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Artist Point — Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River|
A Photographer's Canvas
Artist Point offers a magnificent view of Lower Falls plunging 308 feet (93 meters). Framed by canyon walls, forest, and sky, the picturesque scene has been photographed countless times for more than a century.
Artist Point is thought to have been named by park photographer F.J. Haynes, possibly as early as 1883. He and his son, Jack Ellis Haynes, photographed and hand-tinted Yellowstone images for eight decades, including numerous works from Artist . . . — Map (db m45265) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Beehive Geyser|
|this geyser, named for its 4-foot high cone, resembles an old fashioned beehive. Though its cone is modest by comparison to others in the Upper Geyser Basin, Beehive is one of the most powerful and impressive geysers in Yellowstone. The cone acts as a nozzle, directing a column of steam and water to heights of up to 200 feet.|
Fast Facts: Typically, Beehive's activity is not predictable, but when eruption cycles start, intervals between eruptions can range from 10 hours to 5 days. An . . . — Map (db m46274) HM
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Brink of Lower Falls — Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River|
Sculpting Lower Falls
Reaching the Brink of Lower Falls overlook requires hiking a steep trail that winds down the canyon wall…a wall of hardened rhyolite lava…a wall exposed by the Yel1owstone River while excavating the canyon.
Below Lower Falls, volcanic heat and gases soften the rhyolite rock. The river carves more quickly there than upstream—sculpting a ledge and creating a waterfall.
Welcome to Brink of Lower falls
The steep, winding path to the Brink . . . — Map (db m45293) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Brink of Upper Falls — Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River|
Between a Rock and a Hard Place
From the Brink of Upper Falls viewpoint you can witness the power of the Yellowstone River as you watch millions of gallons (liters) of water plunging 109 feet (33 meters).
From the brink, notice the solid walls of rock on each side of the river. About 484,000 years ago, this rock was hot, molten rhyolite lava oozing across the land. Today, Upper Falls cuts through this hardened lava flow.
Welcome to Brink of Upper Falls
Trail to . . . — Map (db m45291) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Canyon Colors|
|Mineral stains mark the sites of hot springs and steam vents in the canyon walls. For thousands of years,upwardly percolating fluids have altered the chemistry of the rocks, turning them yellow, red, white, and pink.
From the rim, the bright patches of color are the most visible evidence of hot spots. Puffs of steam, visible on all but the warmest days of summer, mark areas of ongoing thermal activity in the canyon. — Map (db m45266) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Captive Tourists — The Nez Perce Encounter|
| During their fighting retreat toward freedom in Canada, the non-treaty Nez Perce passed directly through Yellowstone National Park in August, 1877. Their route followed this creek. When outriders encountered a party of sightseers camped nearby, the Nez Perce held the group hostage for several hours.|
Angry at past betrayals, a pair of Nez Perce shot and left for dead George Cowan, but a chief intervened and the rest of the tourists were released unharmed. Six weeks later the Nez Perce . . . — Map (db m39455) HM
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Chance Encounter — Nez Perce War|
| Across the meadow, a fire burned in the campsite of nine tourists on the night of August 23, 1877. The Cowan party had unknowingly camped near hundreds of Nez Perce men, women, and children who were under violent pursuit by the United States Army. Through the darkness, the Cowan’s firelight flickered and was spotted by Hemene Moxmox (Yellow Wolf) and other Nez Perce scouts. With the heightened instincts of war-torn hearts, the scouts entered the camp at daybreak. They dared not risk the Army . . . — Map (db m86788) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Crime in Wonderland|
| From poachers to stagecoach robbers, soldiers were kept busy enforcing the law in Yellowstone. There were five stagecoach robberies in Yellowstone, with the last occurring on 1914. What is often considered the greatest stagecoach robbery of the twentieth century occurred on August 24, 1908, about three miles east of Kepler Cascades, when a single robber held up 17 coaches with 174 passengers. He netted a total of $2,094.20 in cash and jewelry and was never caught. < Sidebar : > . . . — Map (db m87141) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Dragon's Mouth Spring|
|An unknown park visitor named this feature around 1912, perhaps due to the water that frequently surged from the cave like the lashing of a dragon's tongue. Until 1994, this dramatic wave-like action ofter splashed water as far as the boardwalk. The rumbling sounds are caused by steam and other gasses exploding through the water causing it to crash against the walls of the hidden caverns. — Map (db m46269) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Fort Yellowstone|
| When Yellowstone was established in 1872, the fledgling park was viewed greedily by poachers, railroads, and mining interests. The nineteenth-century way of seeing wilderness as empty land on which to capitalize would need to change before these threats would be removed forever. The Army’s thirty-two year protection of Yellowstone from 1886-1918 bought time for the new national park idea to be accepted. As this completely new idea was gaining hold, wild places came to be viewed as worth . . . — Map (db m87112) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Fort Yellowstone National Historic Landmark|
| “This is the only point in the park where an extensive transformation of natural conditions by the work of man has been permitted. Yet, it was unavoidable here, and in yielding to this necessity, the effort has been made to provide a substitution that would be in harmony with the natural surroundings, and would itself be a feature of interest.”Major John Pitcher Acting Superintendent 1901- 1907 A stroll along the sidewalks of the fort takes you back to when the West . . . — Map (db m87127) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — From Soldier to Ranger|
| The National Park Service Act was signed on August 25, 1916. About one month later on September 30th, twenty-three soldiers were discharged from the army to be hired by the civilian agency as the first rangers in Yellowstone. Included with the soldiers were some of the one-time civilian scouts who had led the soldiers in patrolling the backcountry for poachers. These first rangers, like modern rangers, took pride in the ability to “do it all” including fighting wildfires, . . . — Map (db m87144) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Fumaroles|
| Letting off Steam Listen intently for the hiss of steam escaping the mountain. Fumaroles are sometimes barely audible, but sometimes roar as steam rushes upward through narrow vents. during the 1800s, Roaring Mountain was, at times, heard four miles away at Obsidian Cliff.|
Photo As hydrogen sulfide and sulfur gases escape the underworld, yellow sulfur crystals are sometimes left where gases mix with air. Sulfur-eating thermophiles may reside at the vents, assisting with the . . . — Map (db m45383) HM
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Grand View — Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River|
Deep and Wide
The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River is…
• More than 1,000 feet deep in most places (305 m)
• Up to 4,000 feet wide (1,219 m)
• 20 miles long (32 km)
• Carved from old rhyolitic lava flows
• Thermally altered—changed by heat and gases from the Yellowstone Volcano
Welcome to Grand View
For a magnificent view of the canyon, follow the path to the overlook, just ahead. On your way, you can rest on stone benches. The path to the . . . — Map (db m45298) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Guard Duty|
| Protecting Yellowstone’s wildlife and natural wonders was the primary aim of the army. An important part of this duty was managing the growing visitation to the park and watching for “shady characters.” Park roads were once aligned so that the guardhouse controlled traffic into Yellowstone from the north. Here, soldiers contacted each party and entered the name of the driver, passengers, and type of rig into a large ledger. Guns not held at the guardhouse were sealed on the spot. . . . — Map (db m87139) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Inspiration Point — Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River|
A Youthful Glow
The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River was born thousands of years ago, but is till young in geologic time.
After Yellowstone’s most recent icecap melted about 14,000 years ago, the Yellowstone River began excavating old rhyolitic lava flows. With help from wind, rain, and gravity, the river is still carving today.
The canyon’s color and texture are also changing. Heat and gases from Yellowstone’s volcano flow through the rock, transforming it from buff, . . . — Map (db m45301) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Life in the Fort|
| During the season (June, July, August, September), life at the post was always busy with fire patrol, guarding the thermal features, flirting with the maids of the hotels and camps, and going to dances. There were sports as well. Baseball was viewed as the national pastime, and games were played with tourists to cheer the soldiers on. “A great deal of calling always among army people. Calling on newcomers, calling if anyone had a house guest and people always called when they were . . . — Map (db m87138) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Lookout Point — Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River|
Welcome to Lookout Point
Lookout Point is popular for its lofty view. The trail to the overlook is about 145 yards (133 m) long, and includes 13 steps.
A steep descent to Red Rock will take you to the North Rim's closest full view of Lower Falls. Please be prepared for steep grades, steps, and a rough surface. The trail descends rapidly—about 500 feet (150 m) in 3/8 mile (0.6 km). Wear sturdy walking shoes with good tread, and be prepared for a steep uphill . . . — Map (db m45295) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Mail Carrier’s Cabin|
| When Alden Roseborough accepted the Mail Carrier’s position in 1895, a long and rugged road awaited. The route – 100 miles round trip – took him from Mammoth Hot Springs through remote northern Yellowstone National Park to Cooke City, an isolated mining town in the Absaroka Mountains. He carried precious threads of communication between Cooke City and the outside world. To facilitate regular journeys, Mr. Roseborough leased two cabins along the route. He also erected this cabin . . . — Map (db m87135) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Mud Volcano|
| Explosive Change In 1870, explorers stood in awe as Mud Volcano spewed mud into the treetops, shaking the ground with each eruption. Two years later it was a pool of bubbling, muddy water. Mud Volcano has blown itself apart!|
While returning by a new route to our camp, dull, thundering sounds, which General Washburn likened to frequent discharges of a distant mortar, broke upon our ears. We followed their direction, and found them to proceed from a mud volcano, which occupied the slope of . . . — Map (db m46272) HM
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Norris Geyser Basin|
Beautiful and Bizarre
As you walk through Norris Geyser Basin, you may feel as if you are encountering another world. In the basin—far below the towering peaks of the Gallatin Mountains—water accumulates underground. Heated by the Yellowstone Volcano, the water travels upward to erupt from acidic geysers, rise from steaming fumaroles, and simmer in shimmering pools.
Two loop trails begin here. Due to rough terrain and highly changeable conditions, . . . — Map (db m45316) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Petrified Tree — Subtropical Yellowstone|
| This petrified redwood is a clue to a warmer, damper, more violent Yellowstone landscape. Anatomically the trunk is indistinguishable from present-day redwoods in California. When a chain of volcanoes erupted here in Eocene times 50 million years ago, they triggered massive landslides into mountain and valley streams. The rolling mix of ash, water and sand buried forests. Before the trees could rot, abundant silica in the volcanic flow plugged living cells, creating “forests of stone.” — Map (db m87146) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Road Builders|
| In 1883, when Lieutenant Dan C. Kingman and the Army Corps of Engineers arrived, the road situation was dismal. When the Corps left 35 year later, there were 400 miles of stable, secure roads which had been designed with the intent of allowing access to major points of interest, while preserving the land as “nearly . . . as nature left it.” The Corps also improved life at Fort Yellowstone by constructing a hydroelectric power plant, which provided electricity for the fort’s . . . — Map (db m87117) HM|
|Wyoming (Park County), Yellowstone National Park — Roaring Mountain|
| Living Landscape Amid Roaring Mountain's steam and sulfur-rich gases, microscopic organisms are hard at work. This barren slope, inhospitable to humans, is the perfect home for Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Billions upon billions of these thermophiles live here, wearing away the mountain.|
What's for Dinner? Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, hardy residents of Roaring Mountain live on hydrogen sulfide gas escaping from below. They consume the gas, helping to convert it into . . . — Map (db m45382) HM