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Berryville in Clarke County, Virginia — The American South (Mid-Atlantic)
Battle of Cool Spring
Sharp Action at the Shenandoah River

ó 1864 Valley Campaign ó
 
Battle of Cool Spring Marker Photo, Click for full size
By Craig Swain, June 18, 2007
1. Battle of Cool Spring Marker
 
Inscription. To draw Union troops from Petersburg to Washington, Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early attacked the capitalís defenses on July 11, 1864. He then withdrew to the Shenandoah Valley, where he had left Gen. John C. Breckinridgeís division to hold the Shenandoah River fords. Union Gen. George Crook, pursuing Early, decided to make a reconnaissance in force across the river near hear on July 18 after his cavalry was repulsed the previous day, a Sunday.

Guided by a Confederate deserter well acquainted with the area, three brigades forded the river about a mile north of Castlemanís Ferry concealed by woodlands and virtually undetected by Earlyís pickets. Federal skirmishers moved forward while the brigades formed a line of battle in the woods behind a stone fence on Cool Spring Farm (present-day Holy Cross Monastery).

Breckinridge, who was attending services at Grace Episcopal Church in Berryville when he was informed of the Federal cavalry probes, dispatched Gens. John B. Gordonís and Gabriel C. Whartonís divisions to positions in front of the Union line. While Confederate skirmishers engaged the Federals, Gen. Robert E. Rodes led his division behind the Southern lines to strike the Union right flank and rear. An attack by all three divisions threw the Federals into confusion, and they retreated across the river to the safety
 
Battle of Cool Spring Marker Photo, Click for full size
By Craig Swain, June 18, 2007
2. Battle of Cool Spring Marker
The plaque on the right is the "Robert W. Smalley, Sr. Memorial Bridges At Castelmans's Ferry Marker" Dedication.
 
of their artillery on the east bank. Losing 422 killed, wounded, and missing (some drowned). Confederate casualties totaled about 295. Early continued his withdrawal to Winchester, where his army regrouped for the next phase of the Valley Campaign.
 
Erected by Virginia Civil War Trails.
 
Marker series. This marker is included in the Virginia Civil War Trails marker series.
 
Location. 39° 7.566′ N, 77° 53.654′ W. Marker is in Berryville, Virginia, in Clarke County. Marker is at the intersection of Castlemanís Road (Virginia Route 603) and Harry Byrd Highway (Virginia Route 7), on the right when traveling east on Castlemanís Road. Click for map. Marker is in this post office area: Berryville VA 22611, United States of America.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within 3 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. Castlemanís Ferry Fight (about 800 feet away, measured in a direct line but has been reported missing); The Retreat (approx. 0.4 miles away); Colonial Highway (approx. 0.9 miles away); a different marker also named Battle of Cool Spring (approx. 1.5 miles away); a different marker also named Battle of Cool Spring (approx. 1.5 miles away); a different marker also named Battle of Cool Spring (approx. 1.7 miles away); Appalachian Trail and Bears Den (approx. 2.3 miles away); Crook and Early (approx. 2.6 miles away but has been reported missing). Click for a list of all markers in Berryville.
 
Detail Map of the Cool Spring Battle Photo, Click for full size
By Craig Swain, June 18, 2007
3. Detail Map of the Cool Spring Battle
 

 
More about this marker. On the lower left are portraits of Gens. Early, Breckinridge, and Crook. On the right side of the marker is a strategic map showing the course of Gen. Early's Washington Raid. It contains an inset map showing the action here at Cool Springs.
 
Related markers. Click here for a list of markers that are related to this marker. Markers related to the Battle of Cool Springs and Castleman's Ferry
 
Also see . . .  Battle of Cool Springs. Detailed National Park Service summary of the battle breaking down the action into six phases. (Submitted on December 27, 2007, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia.) 
 
Holy Cross Monastery Entrance Photo, Click for full size
By Craig Swain, June 18, 2007
4. Holy Cross Monastery Entrance
The abbey is open by appointment only, but the battleground is well preserved. Confederate divisions advanced down the ridge beyond the foreground green fields, moving generally from left to right in the photograph.
 
 
Holy Cross Abby Photo, Click for full size
Public Domain Resource from Wikipedia.org
5. Holy Cross Abby
 
 
Robert W. Smalley, Sr. Memorial Bridges At Castelmans's Ferry Marker Photo, Click for full size
By Craig Swain
6. Robert W. Smalley, Sr. Memorial Bridges At Castelmans's Ferry Marker
 
Credits. This page originally submitted on June 19, 2007, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia. This page has been viewed 4,657 times since then. Photos:   1, 2, 3, 4. submitted on June 19, 2007, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia.   5. submitted on July 24, 2007, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia.   6. submitted on June 19, 2007, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia. • J. J. Prats was the editor who published this page.
 
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