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Cross Keys in Rockingham County, Virginia — The American South (Mid-Atlantic)
Battle of Cross Keys
Immigrant Soldiers

ó 1862 Valley Campaign ó
 
Battle of Cross Keys Marker Photo, Click for full size
By Robert H. Moore, II, January 30, 2009
1. Battle of Cross Keys Marker
 
Inscription. Many immigrants fought for the North and the South during the Civil War. Their numbers were especially high in Gen. Louis Blenkerís division of Gen. John C. Fremontís union army at Cross Keys on June 8, 1862.

Two Germans (Gen. Henry Bohlen and Col. John Koltes) and one Hungarian (Gen. Julius Stahel) commanded Blenkerís three brigades on this part of the field. Blenker and his lieutenants had been officers in European revolutions during the 1840s.

German, Swiss, Irish, English, Italians, Russians, Algerians, Sepoys, Turks, Frenchmen, Poles, Croats, Hungarians, and Chinese fought with Blenkerís “melting pot” division. One of Fremontís staff officers, a Romanian, Capt. R. Nicolai Dunka, was killed delivering a message to the front here.

Most immigrants fought for their adopted country and lived here after the war. Others sought military experience so they could return to their native countries to fight in or command revolutionary armies.
 
Erected 2003 by Shenandoah Valley Battlefields Foundation & Virginia Civil War Trails.
 
Marker series. This marker is included in the Virginia Civil War Trails marker series.
 
Location. 38° 21.197′ N, 78° 49.019′ W. Marker is
 
Battle of Cross Keys Marker Photo, Click for full size
By Robert H. Moore, II, January 30, 2009
2. Battle of Cross Keys Marker
 
in Cross Keys, Virginia, in Rockingham County. Marker can be reached from Goods Mill Road (Route 708), on the right when traveling south. Click for map. This is one of three markers found at this site (Goods Mill Interpretive Area/Owen D. Graves Memorial Cross Keys Battlefield Wayside). Marker is in this post office area: Port Republic VA 24471, United States of America.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within 2 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. A different marker also named Battle of Cross Keys (within shouting distance of this marker); a different marker also named Battle of Cross Keys (about 400 feet away, measured in a direct line); a different marker also named Battle of Cross Keys (approx. half a mile away); Cross Keys Battlefield (approx. 0.6 miles away); a different marker also named Battle of Cross Keys (approx. 0.6 miles away but has been reported missing); a different marker also named Battle of Cross Keys (approx. 0.6 miles away but has been reported missing); a different marker also named Battle of Cross Keys (approx. 0.6 miles away but has been reported missing); Mill Creek Church (approx. 1.1 miles away). Click for a list of all markers in Cross Keys.
 
More about this marker. On the left is a portrait of Gen. Julius Stahel, who was awarded the Medal of Honor for heroism on another Shenandoah Valley battlefield two years after the Battle of Cross Keys. In the center right is a photograph of members of the 39th New York. The 39th New York Infantry (Garibaldi Guards) had members from all over the world. They fought near here during the Battle of Cross Keys.
 
Grave of Capt. Nicolae Dunka, Staunton National Cemetery Photo, Click for full size
By Robert H. Moore, II, January 26, 2009
3. Grave of Capt. Nicolae Dunka, Staunton National Cemetery
Capt. Dunka's body was removed after the war from a nearby grave to the National Cemetery at Staunton, Virginia.
 
 
Marker showing map of trail to the different markers at the interpretive site Photo, Click for full size
By Robert H. Moore, II, January 30, 2009
4. Marker showing map of trail to the different markers at the interpretive site
 
 
Owen D. Graves Monument Boulder Photo, Click for full size
By Robert H. Moore, II, January 30, 2009
5. Owen D. Graves Monument Boulder
This is found at the site of the first marker on this trail.
 
Credits. This page originally submitted on February 17, 2009, by Robert H. Moore, II of Winchester, Virginia. This page has been viewed 1,774 times since then. Last updated on February 19, 2009, by Robert H. Moore, II of Winchester, Virginia. Photos:   1, 2, 3, 4, 5. submitted on February 17, 2009, by Robert H. Moore, II of Winchester, Virginia. • Craig Swain was the editor who published this page.
 
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