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“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
Near Winchester in Frederick County, Virginia — The American South (Mid-Atlantic)
 

The Defense of the Stone Wall

 
 
The Defense of the Stone Wall Marker image. Click for full size.
By Craig Swain, October 20, 2007
1. The Defense of the Stone Wall Marker
Inscription. Southern General Thomas Jackson was already going by the nickname "Stonewall" when he directed his troops to this location to support the Southern artillery on Sandy Ridge. Ironically, his troops' retreat from this stone wall led to Jackson's only tactical defeat of the war.

The stone wall here at 1st Kernstown was originally waist-high. It was a farm fence, made of stones picked up from the farm fields full of limestone outcroppings common to the northern Shenandoah Valley. The wall began about 200 yards east of the Rose Hill farmhouse and ran east-west to the top of Sandy Ridge.

The first Southern regiment to arrive at this stone wall encountered the advancing Northern column of Colonel Erastus Tyler, marching in a long thin column from the nearby town of Winchester (to your left). The time was 3:55 p.m. The battle had started at 9:00 a.m. The sound of musketry brought other Southern units to the scene. Before long, all of Colonel Samuel Fulkerson's brigade, a little less than half of Colonel Jesse Burk's brigade, and most of the "Stonewall" brigade under the command of Brigadier General Richard B. Garnett gathered behind the stone wall. There were eventually about 1700 men, standing several rows deep.

For about an hour Southern defenders held Tyler's Northern troops at bay. The noise of this static fight increased
Map of the Battle Area image. Click for full size.
By Craig Swain, October 20, 2007
2. Map of the Battle Area
in volume and caused Jackson to comment a few days after the battle, "I do not recollect having ever heard such a roar of musketry."
 
Location. 39° 9.221′ N, 78° 12.967′ W. Marker is near Winchester, Virginia, in Frederick County. Marker can be reached from Jones Road (County Route 621), on the right when traveling north. Click for map. Located at stop five of the walking tour of Rose Hill. See the link to the Museum of the Shenandoah for details about visiting Rose Hill. Marker is at or near this postal address: 1985 Jones Road, Winchester VA 22602, United States of America.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within 2 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. The Order for Retreat (about 300 feet away, measured in a direct line); Northern Victory, Southern Defeat (about 500 feet away); The Advance of Tylerís Brigade (about 500 feet away); Fight for the High Ground (about 700 feet away); How To See the Battlefield (approx. ľ mile away); War in the Backyard (approx. ľ mile away); Rose Hill (approx. 0.3 miles away); The First Battle of Kernstown (approx. 1.3 miles away). Click for a list of all markers in Winchester.
 
More about this marker. On the lower left of the marker is a photograph of "The stone wall shown in this post-war image (c. 1885)" which "gave Southern troops
Walking Tour Stop Five for Rose Hill image. Click for full size.
By Craig Swain, October 20, 2007
3. Walking Tour Stop Five for Rose Hill
The stone wall stands beyond the marker. Portions of the wall have been reconstructed.
a natural defense work from behind which to fight. The wall was largely removed in the first half of the 20th century."

In the upper center is a photograph of "Tourists or veterans leaning against the stone wall, 1885."

On the far right is a map of the tactical situation described on the marker.
 
Regarding The Defense of the Stone Wall. This is one of seven battlefield interpretive markers at Rose Hill. See the related markers section below for a listing of the walking tour, or the Kernstown Battles Virtual Tour by Markers in the links section for a driving tour.
 
Related markers. Click here for a list of markers that are related to this marker. To better understand the relationship, study each marker in the order shown.
 
Also see . . .
1. Kernstown Battles Virtual Tour by Markers. This marker is related to several markers in the area detailing the actions of two separate battles occurring around Kernstown during the Civil War. The sites include walking trails at the Pritchard-Grim Farm and Rose Hill. (Submitted on November 12, 2007, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia.) 

2. Rose Hill - Museum of the Shenandoah. The walking tour of Rose Hill is open for self-guided tours on the third Saturday of each month April through October
The Federal approach to the Stone Wall image. Click for full size.
By Craig Swain, October 20, 2007
4. The Federal approach to the Stone Wall
The Federals' 1st West Virginia Infantry Regiment advanced in this general area against the Confederates' 23rd and 37th Virginia Infantry Regiments behind the stone wall. Remains of the original section of the stone wall are piled up along the trees in the center of this photo.
from 1 p.m. until 4 p.m. (Submitted on November 12, 2007, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia.) 

3. Battle of First Kernstown Summary. The action around Rose Hill is discussed in phase three of this National Parks Service battle summary. (Submitted on November 12, 2007, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia.) 
 
Categories. War, US Civil
 
Portions of the Reconstructed Stone Wall image. Click for full size.
By Craig Swain, October 20, 2007
5. Portions of the Reconstructed Stone Wall
 
 
Credits. This page originally submitted on , by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia. This page has been viewed 1,343 times since then and 29 times this year. Photos:   1, 2, 3, 4, 5. submitted on , by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia. This page was last revised on June 16, 2016.
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