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Near Amissville in Rappahannock County, Virginia — The American South (Mid-Atlantic)
Battle Mountain
Custerís Early “Last Stand”

ó Gettysburg Campaign ó
 
Battle Mountain Marker Photo, Click for full size
November 12, 2011
1. Battle Mountain Marker
 
Inscription. (Preface): After Confederate Gen. Robert E. Leeís stunning victory at Chancellorsville in May 1863, he led the Army of Northern Virginia west to the Shenandoah Valley, then north through central Maryland and across the Mason-Dixon Line into Pennsylvania. Union Gen. George G. Meade, who replaced Gen. Joseph Hooker on Jun 28, led the Army of the Potomac in pursuit. The armies collided at Gettysburg on July 1, starting a battle that neither general planned to fight there. Three days later, the defeated Confederates retreated, crossing the Potomac River into Virginia on July 14.

During the second half of July 1863, the Union army pursued Gen. Robert E. Leeís Army of Northern Virginia through Rappahannock County as the Confederates marched south for the protection of the Rapidan River. The largest single military engagement in the county occurred here on the morning of July 24 when Union Gen. George A. Custer, with five cavalry regiments and two batteries, attacked the rear of Confederate Gen. James Longstreetís corps and the head of Gen. A.P. Hillís corps as they marched down the Richmond road. Custer placed artillery on the shoulder of Battle Mountain and shelled Hillís men, who returned fire from the embankment on the southeastern corner of the crossroads.

Col. William Oates and the 15th Alabama Infantry conducted
 
Battle Mountain Marker Photo, Click for full size
November 12, 2011
2. Battle Mountain Marker
The center of 3 Civil War Trails markers in this grouping.
 
a reconnaissance from the crossroads northeastward along the side of Battle Mountain. Confederate Gen. Henry L. Benning, who was farther south on the Richmond Road, doubled back to flank Custer with 2,000 Georgia and Alabama infantrymen at Newmanís Crossroads (a quarter mile to the east). A member of the 4th Alabama recalled that an “enthusiastic old citizen led us within 50 yards of the flank of the Union Cavalry.”

Custerís rear guard—two guns of Battery M, 2nd U.S. Artillery, and the 5th and 6th Michigan Cavalry—held Benningís Confederates in check for two hours. This delaying action enabled Custer and his command to escape by cutting a road through dense woods and racing back to his camp at Amissville, several miles northeast. Hillís corps continued its march to Culpeper County.

(Sidebar): Two Union officers received the Medal of Honor for their actions during this engagement. Lt. Carle A. Woodruff, 2nd U.S. Artillery, commanded the two-gun section of guns in Custerís rear guard when he “was attacked by the enemy and ordered to abandon his guns Ö [but] disregarded the orders received and aided in repelling the attack and saving the guns.” Likewise, when Capt. Smith H. Hastings, Co. M, 5th Michigan Cavalry, whose squadron was guarding the guns, received orders to abandon them because they “were in imminent danger of
 
Close-up of Map on Marker Photo, Click for full size
November 12, 2011
3. Close-up of Map on Marker
 
capture, he disregarded the orders received and aided in repelling the attack and saving the guns.”

“There is no doubt that an entire corps was in line of battle and advancing upon me. ... I think our position to-day the most critical I was ever in.” – Gen. George A. Custer, July 24, 1863
 
Erected by Virginia Civil War Trails.
 
Marker series. This marker is included in the Virginia Civil War Trails marker series.
 
Location. 38° 38.96′ N, 78° 4.482′ W. Marker is near Amissville, Virginia, in Rappahannock County. Marker is at the intersection of Laurel Mills Road (County Route 618) and Richmond Road (County Route 729), on the left when traveling east on Laurel Mills Road. Click for map. Marker is in this post office area: Amissville VA 20106, United States of America.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within 6 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. Dangerfield Newby (here, next to this marker); Encounter with Lee (here, next to this marker); Hinson's Ford (approx. 4.3 miles away); Campaign of Second Manassas (approx. 4.3 miles away); Corbin's Crossroads (approx. 4.5 miles away); Twilight of Slavery (approx. 4.8 miles away); Gainesís Crossroads (approx. 4.8 miles away); a different marker also named Campaign of Second Manassas (approx. 5.7 miles away). Click for a list of all markers in Amissville.
 
Battle Mountain Photo, Click for full size
November 12, 2011
4. Battle Mountain
View to the east from Newby's Crossroads.
 

 
Regarding Battle Mountain. The marker displays four portraits captioned: Gen. George A. Custer Library of Congress, Gen. Henry L. Benning Photographic History of the Civil War, Capt. Smith H. Hasting Courtesy Michigan Historical Museum, and Lt. Carle E. Woodruff Courtesy Library of Congress. On the upper center of the marker is a map of the area around Newby's Crossroads indicating troop movements.
 
Also see . . .
1. Carle Augustus Woodruff. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Submitted on December 3, 2011.) 

2. Smith H Hastings. From Find a Grave.com (Submitted on December 3, 2011.) 
 
Credits. This page originally submitted on December 3, 2011. This page has been viewed 478 times since then. Photos:   1, 2, 3, 4. submitted on December 3, 2011. • Craig Swain was the editor who published this page.
 
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