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Taliulah in Madison Parish, Louisiana — The American South (West South Central)
 

Battle for the Mississippi: The Vicksburg Campaign

 
 
Battle for the Mississippi: The Vicksburg Campaign Marker image. Click for full size.
By Mike Stroud, September 13, 2012
1. Battle for the Mississippi: The Vicksburg Campaign Marker
Inscription.   The fall of New Orleans in April 1862, capped the beginning of an 18-month drive to control Vicksburg and the Mississippi River. The fight for this strategic location was arduous. Vicksburg, sitting high atop bluffs, was protected by artillery and a maze of bayous. Confederate river fortifications interrupted the flow of Northern troops, supplies and commerce.

Driving southward from Tennessee and northward from the Gulf, Federal troops forced the surrender of Vicksburg. With this victory, the North opened the Mississippi and dealt a psychological blow to the Confederacy. The South was split in two and unable to move men and munitions across the river. While war's end was still 20 months away, control of the great Mississippi led ultimately to Union victory.

(Map included)

(Right side text)

An 18-Month Campaign

The battle for Vicksburg hit a fevered pitch when Ulysses S. Grant was appointed commander of the Department of the Tennessee and Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton, a West Point graduate and native of Pennsylvania, was given charge of 50,000 Confederate troops defending the Mississippi. Grant was ordered to clear the river of Confederate resistance and Pemberton to defend it.

Grant planned to draw Confederate troops
Battle for the Mississippi: The Vicksburg Campaign Marker, rightside text image. Click for full size.
By Mike Stroud, '
2. Battle for the Mississippi: The Vicksburg Campaign Marker, rightside text
defending Vicksburg north and pin them down while another column, led by Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman, moved moved south from Memphis. Grant led 40,000 troops from La Grange, Tennessee, toward Grenada, Mississippi, but met fierce resistance from Confederate forces dug into the Yalobusha riverbank to defend the crossing and the railroad. Grant's plan was thwarted.

Confederate cavalry, led by Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn, headed northward from Grenada, captured the Federal supply base at Holly Springs, Mississippi, and stopped the Union advance. The Mobile & Ohio Railroad carrying Northern supplies fell to Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest's raiders. These events caused Grant to retreat to Memphis. Confederate troops heading south toward Vicksburg engaged and decisively beat, Sherman's forces at Chickasaw Bayou.

Grant launched yet another drive to disrupt Southern communications and transportation, confuse the Confederates, and divert Pemberton's troops. He led his troops 50 miles down the west side of the river from Milliken's Bend, Louisiana to Hard Times. At the same time, Union Col. Benjamin H. Grierson led a brigade of 1,700 cavalry from La Grange through Mississippi to Baton Rouge destroying rolling stock, bridges, trestles, track and telegraph lines during this 16-day, 475-mile ride. He also succeeded in luring Pemberton's
Battle for the Mississippi: The Vicksburg Campaign Marker image. Click for full size.
Map, The Vicksburg Campaign Marker, September 13, 2012
3. Battle for the Mississippi: The Vicksburg Campaign Marker
click on for detailed view
cavalry and one infantry division in pursuit.

With Grant in southern Louisiana, Adm. David D. Porter maneuvered his gunboats into place to secure the river at Grand Gulf, forcing Grant farther down river to cross at Bruinsburg. Grant fought his way towards Vicksburg on the eastern side of the river, overwhelming and scattering Confederate troops. With these victories to buoy his resolve, Grant began the final siege of Vicksburg with Confederate surrender coming on July 4, 1863. Five days later Port Hudson fell and the domination of the Mississippi River was complete.

(Bottom) 1862 - 1863 Timeline
1862
North May18
Farragut calls for surrender of Vicksburg
South May 18
Vicksburg refuses demand

North June
Farragut steams upriver past Vicksburg

North July
Brown and Arkansas launch surprise attack against Farragut's fleet South July
Farragut retreats to New Orleans

North Sept
Federal divisions sent to reinforce Buell at Louisville
South Sept
Bragg sweeps across Tennessee to Louisville, KY

North Sept
Grant orders attacks from north and south against Price at Iuka
South Sept
Confederate force moves from Baldwyn to Iuka, MI [sic] to deter Federal divisions
Battle for the Mississippi: The Vicksburg Campaign Marker, timeline image. Click for full size.
By The Vicksburg Campaign Marker, `
4. Battle for the Mississippi: The Vicksburg Campaign Marker, timeline
click on for detailed view


South Sept
Confederates evacuate Iuka and return to Baldwyn

South Oct
Van Dorn suffers defeat by Union at Corinth

North Oct
Grant appointed to secure the Mississippi for Union
South Oct
Pemberton appointed to defend Mississippi

North Nov
Grant marches from Grand Junction, TN into southern Mississippi along Mississippi Central Railroad

North Nov
Sherman pushes down Mississippi River toward Vicksburg
South Nov
Pemberton successfully defends river and railroad at Grenada

South Dec
Van Dorn captures Federal supply base at Holly Springs

South Dec
Forrest secures the Mobile & Ohio Railroad

North Dec
Grant retreats to Memphis
South Dec
Confederate troops repel Sherman at Chickasaw Bayou

1863
North Jan-Feb
Grant launches unsuccessful Bayou Expedition

North Mar
Grant begins march from Milliken's Bend south through Louisiana to Hard Times

North April
Grieson marches from La Grange, TN through Mississippi to Baton Rouge

North April
Porter's gunboats unsuccessfully bombard Confederate forts at Grand Gulf

North May
Grant continues south and crosses river
Battle for the Mississippi: The Vicksburg Campaign Marker image. Click for full size.
By Mike Stroud, September 13, 2012
5. Battle for the Mississippi: The Vicksburg Campaign Marker
Interstate 20 at milepost 184 Westbound Reststop / Visitor Center court yard area
at Bruinsburg
South May Pemberton's forces attempt to defend Port Gibson and retreat to Vicksburg

North May
Grant defeats Confederate force at Port Gibson, Raymond and captures Jackson

North May
Grant moves along Southern Railroad toward Vicksburg with victories at Champion Hill and Big Black River Bridge

North May
Grant and Porter assault Vicksburg and are repulsed

North June
Grant and Porter continue the siege of Vicksburg by land and sea

South July 4
Pemberton surrenders Vicksburg
 
Location. 32° 19.534′ N, 90° 59.391′ W. Marker is in Taliulah, Louisiana, in Madison Parish. Marker is on Interstate 20 at milepost 184. Click for map. Located at Westbound Reststop / Visitor Center court yard area. Marker is in this post office area: Tallulah LA 71282, United States of America.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within 4 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. Grant's March Through Louisiana (a few steps from this marker); Williams' Canal – 1862 (approx. 3.3 miles away); U.S. Operations Against Vicksburg (approx. 3.3 miles away); Grant's Canal (approx. 3.3 miles away); Mississippi Sidestep (approx. 3.3 miles away); Grant's Canal – 1863 (approx. 3.3 miles away); a different marker also named Grant's Canal (approx. 3.3 miles away); Freedmen Fight at Milliken's Bend (approx. 3.3 miles away).
 
Also see . . .  The Vicksburg Campaign, Wikipedia entry. ...The campaign consisted of many important naval operations, troop maneuvers, failed initiatives, and eleven distinct battles from December 26, 1862, to July 4, 1863. Military historians divide the campaign into two formal phases: Operations Against Vicksburg (December 1862 – January 1863) and Grant's Operations Against Vicksburg (March–July 1863). ... (Submitted on October 11, 2012, by Mike Stroud of Bluffton, South Carolina.) 
 
Categories. War, US Civil
 
 
Credits. This page originally submitted on , by Mike Stroud of Bluffton, South Carolina. This page has been viewed 861 times since then and 44 times this year. Photos:   1, 2, 3, 4, 5. submitted on , by Mike Stroud of Bluffton, South Carolina. This page was last revised on February 17, 2017.
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