“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
Pensacola in Escambia County, Florida — The American South (South Atlantic)


Hawkshaw Marker image. Click for full size.
By Mark Hilton, March 10, 2014
1. Hawkshaw Marker
(Side 1)
The Hawkshaw site has supported prehistoric and historic occupations which span a period of nearly 2,000 years. It was inhabited around A.D. 150 by groups of Native Americans whom archaeologists call the Deptford Culture. Scientific excavation of the site revealed hundreds of trash pits containing food remains and household debris which provided detailed information about the daily life of these prehistoric people. They sustained themselves with the abundant marine resources available in the area.

Hawkshaw is important to archaeologists because the remains of the Deptford Culture are not mixed with those of other Native American cultures. For this reason the site gives a very good indication of what life was like during Deptford times.

The next time the site was used was the middle of the 18th Century when the Spanish built a brick kiln here before 1761. A little later, during the British occupation of Pensacola (1763-1783), a complex known as the Governor's Villa was built nearby for Peter Chester, Governor of the Province of West Florida. The Villa was burned in 1781 by the troops of General Bernardo de Galvez during his recapture of Pensacola for the Spanish.
(Continued on other side)
(Side 2)
(Continued from other side)
Hawkshaw Marker (reverse) image. Click for full size.
By Mark Hilton, March 10, 2014
2. Hawkshaw Marker (reverse)
Florida was acquired by the United States in 1821, Hawkshaw became part of a plan to create a "New City" to serve the railroad industry. The New City Hotel was built in 1836 with over 100 rooms. It remained in operation into the 1840's. After the failure of the "New City", Hawkshaw evolved into a working class neighborhood whose residents were largely employed by the industrial and commercial establishments associated with lumbering and the railroad. It became the first of Pensacola's outlying black neighborhoods.

Hawkshaw's waterfront once contained Wright's Lumber Mill, which could cut 30,000 board feet of lumber a day in 1882, and the Muscogee Wharf, which served as a coaling station for the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. After the destruction of Wright's Mill during the 1906 hurricane and the decline of the lumber and railroad industries, many of the residents of Hawkshaw became "baymen" who earned their living by loading ships, fishing and gathering shellfish.
Erected 1987 by Gulf Power Company in cooperation with the Department of State. (Marker Number F-313.)
Location. 30° 24.884′ N, 87° 12.21′ W. Marker is in Pensacola, Florida, in Escambia County. Marker is on South 10th Avenue 0.1 miles north of East Colfax Street, on the
Hawkshaw Marker Area image. Click for full size.
By Mark Hilton, March 10, 2014
3. Hawkshaw Marker Area
right when traveling north. Click for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: 20 South 10th Avenue, Pensacola FL 32502, United States of America.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Historic John the Baptist Church (about 400 feet away, measured in a direct line); John Innerarity (approx. 0.3 miles away); Eugenio Antonio Sierra (approx. 0.3 miles away); Ebenezer Dorr (approx. 0.3 miles away); Stephen R. Mallory (approx. 0.3 miles away); Don Manuel Gonzalez (approx. 0.3 miles away); P.K. Yonge (approx. 0.3 miles away); Jose Noriega (approx. 0.3 miles away). Click for a list of all markers in Pensacola.
Categories. AnthropologyIndustry & CommerceNative AmericansRailroads & StreetcarsSettlements & Settlers
Credits. This page originally submitted on , by Mark Hilton of Montgomery, Alabama. This page has been viewed 289 times since then and 88 times this year. Photos:   1, 2, 3. submitted on , by Mark Hilton of Montgomery, Alabama. • Bernard Fisher was the editor who published this page. This page was last revised on June 16, 2016.
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