Near Eceabat in Eceabat district, Çanakkale Province, Turkey
The Gallipoli Campaign of 1915
Gelibolu Harekâtı --1915
The Allied objectives in the Gallipoli Campaign were, by capturing Istanbul, to force Turkey out of the war, to secure an ice-free sea supply route to Russia and to open another front against Germany and Austria-Hungary. The campaign fell into four phases the first being the naval operations of early 1915 culminating, on 18th March, in the unsuccessful attempt by battleships to force the Dardanelles. The second was the landings, beginning on 25th April, by British and French armies on Cape Helles and by the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (the Anzacs) on the Anzac Beaches. Some headway, although at heavy cost, was made by the Helles landings in operations extending to 5th June but the precipitous and strongly defended terrain limited to a kilometer the penetration from the Anzac landings. In the third phase further British landings to the north of Anzac and at Sulva Bay on 6th August, simultaneously with offensives mounted from both the Helles and Anzac areas, came near to success but after this failure to achieve a breakout the opposing armies remained deadlocked in static trench warfare. In the fourth phase, the withdrawal, the Peninsula was evacuated in two stages - from Sulva and Anzac on the night of 19/20th December and from Helles on that of 8/9th January - in operations in which not one life was lost.
The Royal Navy, with the assistance of ships of the French Navy, played a vital part throughout the campaign. The Navy was responsible for landing and finally for evacuating the troops and their stores; for protecting the wholly sea-borne lines lines of communication; for giving support to the troops by bombardment from the sea' and principally by a series of daring exploits by submarine in the Sea of Marmara, for effectively preventing intervention by the Turkish Fleet. On land the sailors of the Royal Naval Division and the Royal Marines fought and suffered equally with the soldiers.
Under the terms of the Armistice with Turkey the British Army re-entered the Peninsula and the end of 1918 and cleared the battlefields of the bodies still unburied. In the nine months of this bitterly fought campaign the Commonwealth lost more than 36,00 dead. The 31 war cemeteries on the Peninsula contain 22,000 graves but it was possible to identify only 9,000 of these. The 13,000 who rest in unidentified graves in the cemeteries together with the 14,000 whose remains were never found are commemorated individually by name on the Helles Memorial (British, Australian and Indian names), the Lone Pine Memorial (Australian and New Zealand names) and the Twelve Tree Copse, Hill 60 and Chunuk Bair Memorials ( New Zealand names).
Johnston's Jolly, Anzac
Johnston's Jolly, so called because an Australian artillery officer used to "jolly-up" the opposing troops there, was the northern and Lone Pine - a single pine grew there - the southern part of Plateau 400. Both positions were overrun in the initial Anzac landings but retaken by the Turks on the evening of the next day. The Lone Pine position, fortified to become one the strongest in the Turkish line, was again captured by the Australians on 6th August and held until the final evacuation. Johnston's Jolly was never recaptured. The burials in these two cemeteries, largely made after the Armistice, are: (see marker image for table)
A lone pine, grown from the seed of the original tree, still grows in the cemetery and the Lone Pine Memorial, carrying the names of 4,223 Australian and 709 New Zealand soldiers whose grave are unknown, stands over the captured trenches.
The Architect was Sir John Burnet
Gelibolu Harekâtı ile Müttefik Devletlerin gayesi; İstanbul'u ele geçirmek, Türkiye'yi savaşdışı bırakmak, Sovyetler Birliǧi'ne giden ve ikmal yolu vazifesini gören ılık deniz yolunu ele geçirmek ve Avusturya-Macaristan'a
Bu harekât dört safhaya ayrılır. Birinci safha, deniz harekâtı olarak 1915 yılının başlarında başlar ve 18 Mart'da en yüksek noktasına ulaşır. Çanakkale Boğazı'nı savaş gemileri ile geçmek için yapılan bu teşebbüs başarısızlıkla sonuçlanır. İkinci safha, 25 Nisan'da başlayan İngiliz ve Fransız ordularının Seddülbahir ucuna ve Avustralya ve Yeni Zelanda ordularının (Anzaklar) Arıburnu (Anzac) kumsalına yaptıkları çıkarmalardır. Seddülbahirdeki harekâtta, 5 Hazirana kadar olan sürede büyük kayıplara malolan bazı ilerlemeler sağlanır. Fakat Arıburnu çıkarmalarında, çok dik ve kuvvetli savunulan arazi, birliklerin Üçüncü safha ise, 6 Ağustosdaki Arıburnu'nun kuzeyindeki Anafarta Limanına (Küçük Kemikli Körfezine) yapılan çıkarmalardır ki- Seddülbahir ve Arıburnu bölgesinde de aynı zamanda yapılan taarruzlar ile birlikte yürütülür - bu harekât hemen hemen başarıya ulaşır gözükür. Ancak bunda da başarı sağlanamayınca, her iki tarafın orduları, kurtuluş olarak sabit siper muharebelerine geçerler ve kilitlenip kalırlar.
Ingiltere Kraliyet Deniz Kuvvetleri, Fransız Deniz Kuvvetleri gemilerinin de yardımı ile bütün harekât boyunca çok önemli bir rol oynamıştır. Kraliyet Deniz Kuvvetleri bütün bu çıkarmalardan ve sonunda birliklerin ve malzemenin geri çekilmesinden sorumluydu. Ayrıca; tamamen deniz yolundan yapılan muhaberenin sağlanması, denizden yapılan borbardımanlar ile birliklere destek sağlanması ve Marmara Denizinde, genellikle denizaltılar ile bir seri cüretli kahramanlık gösterileri yapma ve özellikle Türk Donanmasının işe karışmaması için gerekli önlemleri alına görevleri de vardı. Karada ise, Kraliyet Deniz Kuvvetlerine ait asker ve deniz piyadeleri diğer askerlerle birlikte aynı şartlar altında çarpışmış ve aynı güçlüklerle karşılaşmış ve bunlara katlanmıştı.
Türkiye ile yapılan Mütareke hükümleri gereğince, Ingiliz ordusu
Johnston's Jolly Mezaarliǧi, Arıburnu
Lone Pine Mezarlıǧı ve Âbidesi, Arıburnu
Johnston's Jolly, bir Avustralyalı Topçu Subayının karşı tarafın birliklerine şaka yapması anlamına gelen "jolly-up" kelimesinden esinlenerek bu isim konmuş olup 400 rakımlı Platonun kuzeyinde; tek çam anlamına gelen Lone Pine ise, bu platonun güneyinde yer alırlar. Her iki mevkii de, Arıburnu
O zamanlar burada mevcut bulunan tek bir çam aǧacının tohumundan yetiştirilmiş olan tek çam ağacı şimdi gene Lone Pine (Tek Çam) mezarlığında bulunmakta olup mezarları bilinmeyen 4223 Avustralyalı ve 709 Yeni Zelandalının isimleri de yazılı Lone Pine Âbidesi ise, ele geçirilmiş siperlerin üzerinde yükselmektedir.
Erected by Commonwealth War Graves Commission.
Location. 40° 13.834′ N, 26° 17.225′ E. Marker is near Eceabat, Çanakkale Province Click for map. Marker is in this post office area: Eceabat, Çanakkale Province 17900, Turkey.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Lone Pine Cemetery (within shouting distance of this marker); Beach Cemetery (approx. 0.9 kilometers away); Anzac Cove (approx. 0.9 kilometers away); 57th Infantry Regiment (approx. 1.2 kilometers away); Monument of Respect for the Mehmetcik (approx. 1.2 kilometers away); North Beach & Sphinx (approx. 1.2 kilometers away); Ariburnu (approx. 1.2 kilometers away); Atatürk's Tribute (approx. 1.2 kilometers away). Click for a list of all markers in Eceabat.
More about this marker. This marker is located at the entrance to the Lone Pine Cemetery in the Çanakkale Savaşı (Battle of Çanakkale, Battle of Gallipoli) memorial park grounds. Internal park roads are not named, at least on the park map or Google maps. Most road inside the park are one-way and signs point the way to the various cemeteries and sights.
Also see . . . Gallipoli Campaign - Wikipedia. The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli or the Battle of Çanakkale (Turkish: Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of World War I that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 25 April 1915 and 9 January 1916. The peninsula forms the northern bank of the Dardanelles, a strait that provided a sea route to the Russian Empire, one of the Allied powers during the war. Intending to secure it, Russia's allies Britain and France launched a naval attack followed by an amphibious landing on the peninsula, with the aim of capturing the Ottoman capital of Constantinople (modern Istanbul). The naval attack was repelled and after eight months' fighting, with many casualties on both sides, the land campaign was abandoned and the invasion force was withdrawn to Egypt/ (Submitted on July 6, 2015, by Barry Swackhamer of San Jose, California.)
Categories. • War, World I •
Credits. This page originally submitted on , by Barry Swackhamer of San Jose, California. This page has been viewed 175 times since then and 14 times this year. Photos: 1, 2, 3, 4. submitted on , by Barry Swackhamer of San Jose, California. 5, 6. submitted on . 7, 8. submitted on , by Barry Swackhamer of San Jose, California. • Andrew Ruppenstein was the editor who published this page. This page was last revised on June 16, 2016.