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Augusta County Markers
Virginia (Augusta County), Churchville — W-227 — Colonel George Moffett
George Moffett (1735–1811), a prominent regional military and civic leader, had joined the Augusta County militia by 1758. He participated in the French and Indian War (1756–1763), led a militia company at the Battle of Point Pleasant in 1774, and rose to the rank of colonel by 1778. The Augusta County militia unit he commanded participated in several Revolutionary War battles including Guilford Courthouse in 1781. Moffett served as a justice of the peace, sheriff, and County . . . — Map (db m30460) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Churchville — W-156 — James Edward Hanger
Born near Churchville on 25 Feb. 1843, Hanger joined the Churchville Cavalry at Phillipi, W.Va., on 2 June 1861, where the next morning he was wounded. The resulting amputation of his leg was probably the first of the Civil War. He convalesced at his parents' house, which stood nearby. Within three months he had invented the first artificial limb modeled on the human leg and hinged at the knee. Hanger constructed factories in Staunton and France and England. On 15 June 1919 he died and was buried in Washington, D.C., his home since 1906. — Map (db m15905) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Churchville — W-79 — Last Indian Clash
Near this spot in 1764, Shawnee Indians killed John Tremble (Trimble) in the last such event in Augusta County. During the preceding decade, a series of conflicts between Native Americans and European settlers occurred along the western frontier of the colonies. They included the French and Indian War (1754–1763), Cherokee War (1759–1761), and Pontiac’s War (1763–1764). Although Chief Pontiac conducted most of his warfare between Detroit and Pittsburgh, the effects of that conflict rippled up and down the frontier. — Map (db m30461) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Churchville — W-226 — Mount Pleasant
Mount Pleasant, a venerable stone dwelling exemplifying traditional Shenandoah Valley domestic architecture, was erected on the 1740 land grant to John Moffett from King George II. Originally known as Moffetts Bottom, early probate records reflect a house descending to eldest son George in 1749. Colonel George Moffett (1735–1811) completed the construction by 1760 and lived here until his death. During the Revolutionary War, Moffett led the Augusta Militia. In June 1781, Mount Pleasant . . . — Map (db m30448) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Crimoro — Jackson's Valley Campaign
Brown’s Gap, ¾ of a mile north, was one of the strategic mountain passes used in the spring of 1862 by Stonewall Jackson near the beginning and end of his whirlwind offensive. His secret military strategy took full advantage of the complex topography to divide, confuse, or defeat piece-meal, over 45,000 Union soldiers engaged in a futile attempt to ensnare him. In 40 day, his 17.000 troops won five battles, maneuvering over 400 miles through the Shenandoah Valley and adjacent mountains. — Map (db m61327) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Dooms — JD-14 — Jarman's Gap
Five miles east, formerly known as Woods’ Gap. Michael Woods, his three sons and three Wallace sons-in-law (Andrew, Peter, William), coming from Pennsylvania via Shenandoah Valley, crossed through this pass into Albemarle County in 1734 – pioneers in settling this section. In 1780-81 British prisoners taken at Saratoga went through this gap en route to Winchester. In June 1862 part of Jackson’s army, moving to join Lee at Richmond, used this passage — Map (db m16644) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Fishersville — W-155 — Tinkling Spring Church
This was first the Southern Branch of the “Triple Forks of Shenandoah” Congregation, which called John Craig as pastor in 1741. A church was completed here about 1748; two other buildings have succeeded it. Beginning with 1777, James Waddel, the noted blind preacher, was supply for some years. R.L. Dabney, of Stonewall Jackson’s staff, was the minister here, 1847-1852. — Map (db m16437) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Fishersville — I-18 — Woodrow Wilson Rehabilitation Center
In 1947 the Woodrow Wilson Rehabilitation Center became the first state comprehensive rehabilitation center in the United States. Operated by the Virginia Department of Rehabilitative Services, this residential facility offers various programs for individuals with a wide range of physical, emotional, and mental disabilities to help them to live more independently. — Map (db m50617) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Fort Defiance — A-100 — Augusta Military Academy
Soon after the Civil War ended in 1865, Confederate veteran Charles S. Roller began teaching at the Old Stone Church nearby at Ft. Defiance. By 1874 he had founded Augusta Male Academy and incorporated military discipline into its classical curriculum by 1880. Roller renamed it Augusta Military Academy in 1890; it was the first military preparatory school in Virginia. In 1919, the Academy was among the first schools in America to adopt a Junior Reserve Officers’ Training Corps program. The . . . — Map (db m11900) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Fort Defiance — A-118 — Augusta Stone Church
The Augusta Stone Church, Virginia's oldest Presbyterian church in continuous use west of the Blue Ridge Mountains, opened on 22 January 1749. It replaced a log meetinghouse build shortly after the congregation's founding in 1740. At the outbreak of the Seve Years' War, Pastor John Craig and members of the church fortified the structure with log palisades and watchtowers to defend against Indian attack. This defensive position inspired the name Fort Defiance adopted by the community that grew . . . — Map (db m89105) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Fort Defiance — Augusta Stone Church
This, the oldest Presbyterian house of worship in Virginia, is an eloquent memorial to the liberty-loving, god-fearing Scotch-Irish folk who first settled this part of the valley. Through their arduous labors the building was completed in 1747 and dedicated in 1749 under its first pastor, Dr. John Craig, a native of Northern Ireland. It served also as a fort during the Indian raids which followed Braddock's defeat. The original walls extend from this spot to the wings in the rear, which were added in 1922. — Map (db m89111) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Fort Defiance — A-119 — The Rev. John Craig(1709–1774)
John Craig, born in County Antrim, Ireland, ad educated in Edinburgh, Scotland, immigrated to America in 1734. Ordained pastor in 1740 of the two churches known as Augusta Stone and Tinkling Sprint, Craig was Virginia's first settled Presbyterian minister west of the Blue Ridge Mountains. He led the construction of Augusta Stone Church and its defensive reinforcement. Craig, an Old Side minister who resisted the Great Awakening, traveled the backcountry to preach, baptize settlers, and organize . . . — Map (db m89107) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Grottoes — W 220 — George Caleb Bingham
George Caleb Bingham, a renowned American genre painter of the 19th century, was born in a frame house just north of here on 20 March 1811. Bingham moved to Missouri in 1819, where he began painting portraits in the 1830s and later specialized in paintings of the American West. He died in July 1879 in Kansas City, Missouri. — Map (db m13620) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Middlebrook — A-101 — Middlebrook Historic District
Nestled here in the countryside south of Staunton, along historic Middlebrook Road, is one of the oldest villages in the region. William and Nancy Scott sold the first 27 lots in April 1799 to Scots-Irish and German settlers. In 1851, the stagecoach road through the village became the Middlebrook and Brownsburg Turnpike. By the late 19th century, Middlebrook, the center of a prosperous agricultural community with 274 inhabitants including an African American community, was the . . . — Map (db m50388) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Middlebrook — A-106 — Mount Tabor Lutheran Church
Shenandoah Valley circuit-riding preacher Paul Henkel formed Mount Tabor Lutheran Church about 1785, several miles to the east. It shared a log building with St. John’s, a Lutheran and Reformed union congregation. Under the direction of David Frederick Bittle, the Mount Tabor con- gregation moved here in 1838 and built a brick church within the current cemetery. In 1842 Bittle and Christopher C. Baughman organized a preparatory school for boys in the church parsonage about a mile . . . — Map (db m50578) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Middlebrook — Virginia Institute
Near this spot stood the frame dwelling of David Frederick Bittle, pastor of Mt. Tabor Lutheran Church, in which he began in the Fall of 1842, with the assistance of Christopher C. Baughman, also a Lutheran minister, a school for young men called Virginia Institute. The following summer two log buildings were erected a short distance north of this site, and the school was chartered as Virginia Collegiate Institute, January 30, 1845. Here it remained until the spring of 1847, when it was . . . — Map (db m50575) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Mint Spring — Avenue of Trees
This Avenue of Trees, sponsored by Clemmer-McGuffin Post 13, American Legion and Auxiliary, was given in loving memory by the people of Staunton and Augusta County in memoriam 1917-1918. — Map (db m50605) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Mount Solon — D 40 — Mossy Creek
Colonists first settled Mossy Creek in the 1740s. Mossy Creek Iron Works was founded by 1775, when partners Henry Miller and Mark Bird began operating an iron furnace, forge, and mills here. The ironworks became an important industrial enterprise and produced pig iron and finished pieces that were sold throughout western Virginia. Bird sold his interest in the ironworks to Miller in 1779. A community grew up around the ironworks, which likely ceased operation during the Civil War. By 1852 the . . . — Map (db m1841) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Mt. Sidney — A-102 — Salem Evangelical Lutheran Church
Salem Evangelical Lutheran Church traces its existence to 1789 when Shenandoah Valley circuit preacher Paul Henkel held services for the German community in a schoolhouse nearby at Seawright Springs. By 1805, the congregation had built a frame structure on land deeded by Mary and Samuel King. The old Salem cemetery contains several headstones with German inscriptions that date to the early 19th century. In 1859 a new building was constructed. U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s mother, Ida . . . — Map (db m30445) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), New Hope — Battle of PiedmontFinal Action at New Hope
The Battle of Piedmont, fought on June 5, 1864 between Union Gen. David Hunter and Confederate Gen. William E. "Grumble" Jones. ended here. It began more than a mile northeast when the 12,000-man strong Federal army, whose mission was to scour the Shenandoah Valley of Confederates and then destroy the rail center at Charlottesville, encountered Jones's combined force of 6,000 infantry and cavalry. The third Union assault uphill against Jones's fortified line ended in Confederate disaster when . . . — Map (db m8250) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), New Hope — Piedmont Battlefield
Here on June 5, 1864, was fought the Battle of Piedmont for the possession of Staunton. Union Forces under Gen. David Hunter 12,015 men and suffered a loss of 130 killed and 650 wounded. Confederate forces numbering 5,600 men under Gen. W.E.Jones defeated with loss 460 killed, 1450 wounded and 1,000 prisoners. Gen Jones was killed near this spot. — Map (db m80297) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Raphine — A 39 — New Providence Church
This church, seven and a half miles west, was organized by John Blair in 1746. Five successive church buildings have been erected. The first pastor was John Brown. Samuel Brown, second pastor, had as wife Mary Moore, captured in youth by Indians and known as "The Captive of Abb's Valley." The synod of Virginia was organized here, 1788. — Map (db m32081) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Raphine — A 31 — Old Providence Church
Two and a half miles northwest. As early as 1748 a log meeting house stood there. In 1793 a stone church (still standing) was built. In 1859 it was succeeded by a brick church, which gave way to the present building in 1918. In the graveyard rest ancestors of Cyrus McCormick, inventor of the reaper, and fourteen Revolutionary soldiers. — Map (db m23759) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Staunton — A 53 — Bethel Church
Two miles west. The first church was built by Colonel Robert Doak in 1779. Captain James Tate, an elder, led in the battles of Cowpens and Guilford Courthouse (1781) a company drawn mainly from this church. In the churchyard 23 Revolutionary soldiers are buried. The present building was erected in 1888. — Map (db m32104) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Staunton — Great Indian Warrior Trading Path(The Great Philadelphia Wagon Road)
The most heavily traveled road in Colonial America passed through here, linking areas from the Great Lakes to Augusta, GA. Laid on ancient animal and Native American Trading/Warrior Paths. Indian treaties among the Governors of NY, PA, & VA and the 19 chiefs of Iroquois League of Five Nations in 1685 and 1722, opened the Colonial Backcountry for peaceful settlement and colonization. In VA, the Path passed Winchester, Harrisonburg, Staunton, Lexington, Fincastle, Big Lick & Rockport as animals searched for salt. — Map (db m48469) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Staunton — I-11A — Roanoke College
Five miles west is the birthplace of Virginia Institute, founded in 1842 by David F. Bittle, assisted by Christopher C. Baughman. Chartered on January 30, 1845, as Virginia Collegiate Institute, the school was moved to Salem, Virginia, in 1847, and was chartered as Roanoke College, March 14, 1853. — Map (db m32079) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Stuarts Draft — JD 15 — John Colter
John Colter, born in Stuart's Draft about 1775, was a member of the northwest expedition led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark (1804-1806). During his subsequent, solitary explorations of the West, Colter traversed the area now comprising Yellowstone National Park and discovered several passes through the Rocky Mountains suitable for wagon trains. His escape from the Blackfeet Indians following a footrace for his life has become a legend of the West. Colter died in Missouri in 1813. — Map (db m46393) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Swoope — West ViewConfederate Camps — 1862 Valley Campaign
In 1862, West View was a village of about 15 buildings including a flour mill, post office, store, wagon shop and saw mills. About 3,000 soldiers camped in the surrounding fields from April 20 to May 6. Confederates under Gen. Edward “Alleghany” Johnson withdrew to this area in April 1862, after they abandoned Camp Allegheny, 58 miles west of here at the present-day West Virginia border. Federals under Gen. Robert Milroy followed Johnson on the Staunton-to-Parkersburg Turnpike, . . . — Map (db m15788) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Verona — W-234 — Grandma Moses in Augusta County
Newlyweds Anna Mary Robertson Moses (later knows as Grandma Moses) and her husband Thomas arrived in Augusta County from New York in 1887. renting several farms before purchasing Mt. Airy, a large brick Federal style house built in 1880. The family gained renown for their butter, milk, and potato chips. The Moses family moved home to Eagle Bridge, N.Y., in 1905, where, in her late 70s, “Grandma” Moses began painting. becoming world famous for her Primitive American style. . . . — Map (db m77511) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Verona — A-99 — Willow Spout
Here stood, from the early 19th century until the mid-1900s, the tavern and stagecoach stop first owned by Peter Hanger. In 1848 its second proprietor, Samuel Harnsbarger, planted a willow tree in a spring here, across the newly-constructed Valley Turnpike from the tollhouse. Spring water flowed up the trunk and out a spout driven in its side, falling unto a wooden trough. For more than a century, three successive “willow spouts” provided water for thirsty travelers, horses, and automobiles. — Map (db m11811) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Waynesboro — Z-111 — Nelson County / Augusta County
Nelson County. Nelson County was named for Thomas Nelson, Governor of Virginia from June to November, 1871. It was formed in 1807 from Amherst County. Oak Ridge, birthplace of William Cabell Rives and later the residence of Thomas Fortune Ryan, is located near Lovington, the county seat. The area of the county’s 471 square miles. Augusta County. Augusta County was named in honor of Princess Augusta, mother of George III. It was formed from Orange County in 1738 but because of the . . . — Map (db m21701) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), West Augusta — “… to go wee did not know where”
On April 20, 1862, the Confederate garrison left Fort Johnson to protect Staunton, and to avoid being cut off from the rear by another advancing Union Army. Lt. Pryor describes the retreat from the mountain. Camp at Westview, 7 mil N, Of Staunton My Dear Penelope, I take the opportunity this morning to let you know what weev been doing since I last wrote you. Wee were lying quietly at Camp Shenandoah. Gen. Jackson dispatched to Gen. Johnson to meet him at Harrisonburg. Johnson went in 6 . . . — Map (db m16783) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), West Augusta — “It was cold business”
February 23, 1862 My Dear Penelope, I write a few lines this morning to let you know that I am well & doing as well as I have since Iv been in the service. Well, Dear, wee had an alarm Friday knight about two oclock, and the way wee got around quick untwill we were all way ready was a site. The regiment formed & was ready in ten minutes. March up to the intrenchments, got in the ditches and they were hald full of snow. It was cold business, sure. I marked time for three hours to keep my . . . — Map (db m16776) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), West Augusta — “We had a hardscrabble up…”
Union forces now occupied Fort Johnson and were moving to capture Staunton. “Stonewall” Jackson, moving with speed and secrecy, had arrived at the foot of Shenandoah Mountain and moved west to defeat Union Generals John C. Fremont and R.H. Milroy at the Battle of McDowell two days later on May 9, 1862. Major Jedediah Hotchkiss, Jackson’s mapmaker, tells how he led an attack on Fort Johnson up the steep slopes below it: Wednesday, May 7th. The General and part of the staff . . . — Map (db m16784) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), West Augusta — “Wee are faring badly…”
Camp Shenandoah April 9th, 1862 My Dear Penelope, I take the opportunity this morning to write you a few lines to let you know that I am yet in the land of the living and enjoying good health. I thought last week that it was done snowing up here, but wee are now having an awful time certain. The citazens say this is about the last snow that will be here this spring. It is sleeting now fast & sleet is about 4 inches deep now. Wee are faring badly now in tents, I assure you. Cant stay by the . . . — Map (db m16777) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), West Augusta — “Wee are now looking out for a fight…”
Camp Shenandoah April 18th, 1862 My Dear Penelope, I take the opportunity this evening to write you a few lines to let you know that I am yet in the land of the living &, thank God, enjoying good health. Wee are now looking out for a fight here; wee had yesterday morning an alarm. Wee had to march up to the top of the mountain about ten oclock – it was quite warm – it is four miles, I think. I never suffered so much with heat before in my life. They on the top have a signal when . . . — Map (db m16781) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), West Augusta — W 149 — Fort Edward Johnson
Confederate troops, the remnant of the Army of the Northwest commanded by Brig. Gen. Edward “Allegheny” Johnson, constructed this fortification about 1 Apr. 1862 to protect the Shenandoah Valley, the “Breadbasket of the Confederacy.” Federal troops briefly occupied the fort after he withdrew to West View near Staunton later that month. With Maj. Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s Army of the Shenandoah, Johnson’s command confronted Union forces under Brig. . . . — Map (db m15791) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), West Augusta — Healing the Wounds
After surviving the Battle of McDowell, in which he lost many comrades, Lt. “Shep” Pryor was later wounded in battle near Culpepper, Virginia. He survived the war, returned to his beloved Penelope, and became Sheriff of Sumter County, Georgia. Lt. Pryor died on May 2, 1911 at the age of 82. The 12th Georgia Volunteer Infantry fought with honor in Jackson’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign and then moved on to fight with the Army of Northern Virginia, General Early’s Shenandoah Valley . . . — Map (db m16785) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), West Augusta — Z-110 — Highland County / Augusta CountyArea 422 Square Miles / Area 1006 Square Miles
Highland County. Formed in 1847 from Pendleton and Bath, and given its name because of its mountains. The Battle of McDowell, 1862, was fought in this county. Augusta County. Formed in 1738 from Orange and named for Augusta, Princess of Wales and mother of George III. Originally it included a large part of the middle west. President Woodrow Wilson was born in Staunton. — Map (db m30389) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), West Augusta — Mountain HouseJackson's March — 1862 Valley Campaign
The Battle of McDowell began three miles to the southeast (near the intersection of Routes 629 and 716) when Confederates were fired upon by Union cavalry on May 7, 1862. After skirmishing, Federals rushed to the base camp here, sounding the alarm as they rode through. A Northern cavalryman wrote, “Our company was the only company in the fight. They were the furthest company out – five miles beyond Shenandoah Mountain. They were cut off by Johnson’s force, and the only way they had . . . — Map (db m62920) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Weyers Cave — Future Farmers of America
One mile west at Weyers Cave on April 30, 1927, twenty-eight students of vocational agriculture formed the Future Farmers of Virginia which became the Future Farmers of America in 1928 at Kansas City. The organization has grown to include all of the states and Puerto Rico. — Map (db m30414) HM
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