|Alabama (Baldwin County), Bon Secour — Stop 3 — Vicinity of Salt Works and Camp Anderson — “Salt Is Eminently Contraband” — Civil War Trail Battle for Mobile Bay|
| Both people and animals need salt to remain healthy. Before the Civil War the people of Alabama consumed about 50 pounds of salt per person per year, most of which came from England and the West Indies. One quarter of all the salt imported into the United States came into the country through the Port of New Orleans.
During the war, though salt was smuggled into Mobile by blockade runners from Havana, the blockade and transportation problems constricted the supply of salt throughout much . . . — Map (db m68503) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Daphne — Daphne United Methodist Church|
|This church and cemetery have been in continuous service by the citizens of this area since the 1840's. Originally named "Methodist Episcopal Church South." Land donated by William L. Howard. Building built by L. E. Edmondson and a Creole helper, Isaac Alexander, who hand made the pegs used in the framework. Oldest marked grave is 1847. Building still houses the slave gallery, silver- dollar lined bell, original pews and the original chandelier converted to electricity. Many generations have knelt in prayer here. — Map (db m49260) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Foley — City of Foley|
The City of Foley was founded in 1905 by John B. Foley of Chicago. Mr. foley, who was in the pharmaceutical business, heard about this area from a railroad land agent as they traveled to President William McKinley's funeral in 1901. Mr. Foley came to Alabama the following year and purchased thousands of acres of land. He formed the Magnolia Land Company and began selling acreage to those in Chicago who wanted to move south and take advantage of the rich farmland. The Bay . . . — Map (db m50408) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Foley — City of Foley Camellia Walk|
|The camellia, is often called the Queen of winter flowers, is the state flower of Alabama. Originally from the Orient, the camellia made its way to Europe in the 1600s, then to America and Australia in the 1700s. It now flourishes in the southern states of the U.S. and in California. Enthusiastic camellia lovers have managed to increase the number of named cultivars from a few hundred in the eighteenth century to over 32,000 in the twenty-first. Now cold-hardy cultivars are being developed and . . . — Map (db m50411) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Foley — Cobb's Light|
|1942, Benjamin DeWitt Cobb, more affectionately known as “B.D.”, was appointed as the lone police officer for the town of Foley. In 1943, another officer was hired and B.D. was appointed as the first Chief of Police. This marked the founding of the Foley Police Department. B.D. Cobb served as Police Chief until 1971 when he resigned due to failing health. He remained with the Police Department for several more years, serving as a Captain.
Early in Chief Cobb’s tenure, the Town of . . . — Map (db m81581) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Fort Morgan — Noble Leslie DeVotie|
|(Obverse): First Alabama soldier to lose life in Civil War.
DeVotie graduated in 1856 from University of Alabama; Presbyterian Theological Seminary at Princeton in 1859. In 1856 at the University of Alabama, he was chief founder of Sigma Alpha Epsilon Fraternity, the only national social fraternity founded in the Deep South.
(Reverse): First Alabama soldier to die in Civil War.
Drowned Feb. 12, 1861 while on duty as chaplain of Alabama troops here. Before enlisting he was . . . — Map (db m4219) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Fort Morgan — The Pride of Seven Flags|
Tribute dedicated to the memory of the soldiers who gave their lives in the defense of our country here at Fort Morgan.
Here lies the pride of seven flags entombed in our ancestor’s worth, who heard the thunder of the fray break o’er the field beneath knew the watchword of the day was “Victory or Death.”
Dates of battles and some events relative to Fort Morgan.
1711 – Battle, France – England
1719 – Battle, . . . — Map (db m4649) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — 6.4” (100 pounder) Parrott Rifle / 7” Brooke Rifle|
| 6.4” (100 pounder) Parrott Rifle
Designed by Robert Parker Parrott at the outbreak of the Civil War, the Parrott Rifle became one of the most used rifled artillery pieces during the war. With shells that exploded on impact, rifled guns such as the Parrott Rifle spelled the end of masonry fortifications. In the 1870’s, the U.S. Army attempted to modernize Fort Morgan by shipping several 6.4” (100pdr.) Parrott Rifles to the fort to improve its armament.
7” Brooke . . . — Map (db m69898) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — Battery Dearborn (1900-1924)|
| Constructed between 1899 and 1900, the battery was named in honor of Major General Henry Dearborn, a Revolutionary War hero. The battery mounted eight 12” breech-loading mortars. Each mortar weighed 13 tons and was 11’ 9” long. The battery’s mortars did not fire directly at a target, but rather into one of eight “zones.” Different weights of projectiles and powder charges were used in each zone. Projectiles weighted between 824 and 1046 pounds and were propelled by . . . — Map (db m69919) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — Battery Schenck (1899-1923)|
| Battery Schenck, named for First Lieutenant William Schenck who was killed in action during the Philippine Insurrection, was the second rapid fire battery constructed at Fort Morgan. Completed on June 4, 1900, the battery would sit without guns for three years before finally receiving its armament of two Model 1898, 15-pounder Rapid Fire guns in September of 1903. A third position was added to the battery in 1904 with its Model 1902, 15 pounder Rapid-Fire gun being mounted in December of . . . — Map (db m70058) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — Battery Thomas (1898-1917)|
| The first of two rapid fire gun batteries, Battery Thomas was named in honor of Captain Evan Thomas, 4th U.S. Artillery, who was killed in action with the Modoc Indians at Lava Beds, California in 1873.
In March 1898, as the nation moved towards war with Spain, the Army rushed this battery into service. The concrete platforms were completed on April 26th and two 4.7” Rapid Fire Guns were installed on May 9, 1898. Capable of firing a 45 pound projectile six miles, these guns . . . — Map (db m69826) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — Citadel (1825-1865)|
| The Citadel, a large ten sided brick and wood structure, once dominated the Fort’s parade ground. Completed in 1825 as a defensive barracks, it was capable of housing 400 soldiers.
During the Union bombardment on August 22, 1864, the pine beams used in the construction of the citadel’s roof caught fire and burned out of control. The fire forced the Confederates to dump approximately 60,000 pounds of cannon powder into the fort’s water cistern to prevent it from exploding. On the morning . . . — Map (db m68751) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — Fort Bowyer War of 1812|
|At, or near, this site, the United States, after seizing this point of land from the Spanish in 1813, built Fort Bowyer, a structure of wood and sand.
A small garrison of men courageously fought to defend the fort against two British attacks, one in September, 1814, again in February, 1815. — Map (db m28692) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — None — Gulf Shores Community|
|Officially designated “Pleasure Island” in 1949 by Governor Jim Folsom, the 32 miles of white sandy beaches in Gulf Shores has been a prime fishing and golf destination for Alabamians and tourists. Early Alabama Gulf Coast individuals and families were mariners, fishermen, boat builders, salt miners, and turpentine harvesters living off the sea and land. They were largely self-sufficient and often at the mercy of Mother Nature. The diversity of this small marine community influenced . . . — Map (db m52045) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — Indian Village Achuse|
| This Shell Banks Baptist Church rests near the location of the first Indian village in America visited by a white man. This was the Indian village of “Achuse” visited by Admiral Maldonado who was one of De Soto’s officers. He scouted the Florida and Alabama coast from Tampa Bay and entered the port of “Achuse” before De Soto started from Tampa Bay on the longest, strangest, boldest adventure in the history of the world. This was in 1539, 81 years before the Pilgrims . . . — Map (db m66295) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — Officer’s Row|
| As the U.S. Army modernized at the turn of the 20th century, so too did its military posts. In the stratified society of this period, separate and distinct areas for the various classes of individuals were developed. The Army was little different, officers and their families sat at the top of the ladder. Provided with all possible modern conveniences, including electricity, the officers were quartered in ten large houses facing Mobile Bay. In addition, the Army provided them such diversions as . . . — Map (db m70104) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — Panama Mount|
| After World War I, the versatile M1918M1 gun and its M1918A1 carriage were adapted for coast defense. Although the gun could be traversed over a wider range than other large guns of the period, it was still unable to adequately track moving targets. This deficiency was rectified by the development during the 1920’s of circular concrete gun emplacements in the Panama Canal Zone.
When emplaced on these simple, inexpensive, Panama mounts, the 155mm GPF was an effective alternative to older . . . — Map (db m81808) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — Peace Magazine (1902-1924)|
| When Fort Morgan was modified between the 1890’s and early 1900’s, an allocation of $7,000.00 was made to build a “Peace” magazine. This building was the central storage area for the powder used by the fort’s guns. If war was expected, the powder was to be moved to the better protected magazines of each gun battery.
Work was begun on the copper-roofed magazine in January 1902 and completed by the end of the year. The building was used until the post was abandoned in 1924. The . . . — Map (db m69917) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — The Battery Lincoln — Position of Company “C” of the 20th Iowa Infantry|
| Completed on August 18th, Battery Lincoln was located near the northern end of the Federal siege lines of Fort Morgan. Company “C” of the 20th Iowa Infantry Regiment, under the command of Captain Mark L. Thomson, was detailed to serve as sharpshooters on the siege line.
Near daybreak on August 22nd, the last great bombardment of Fort Morgan commenced. Private Samuel Crawford of the 20th Iowa detailed the accurate shelling of the mortars in a diary he penned during the . . . — Map (db m81809) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — Stop C1 — The Battle of Mobile Bay — “A Deadly Rain of Shot and Shell” — Civil War Trail, Battle for Mobile Bay|
| Eager to attack Mobile Bay since 1862, U. S. Admiral David Farragut knew he could not capture control of the lower bay without the support of the army and without a flotilla of ironclad monitors to confront the Confederate ironclad CSS Tennessee. In July 1864, U. S. General Edward Canby sent 1,500 men under General Gordon Granger on army transports from New Orleans. Granger landed on Dauphin Island on August 3. By August 4 all of Farragut’s monitors had joined the fleet. Farragut was . . . — Map (db m68815) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — Stop C3 — The Battle of Mobile Bay — “Damn the Torpedoes!” — Civil War Trail, Battle for Mobile Bay|
At 7:25 a.m., August 5, 1864, Admiral Farragut’s lead monitor Tecumseh steered into the torpedo field at the mouth of Mobile Bay. The admiral had ordered Commander Tunis Craven, the Tecumseh’s captain, to engage the ram Tennessee. Then west of the black buoy marking the eastern limit of the torpedo field, the Tennessee was steaming further west. Craven was too close to the black buoy to steer east of it; if he was to catch the Ram, he would have to move west of . . . — Map (db m69412) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — Stop C2 — The Battle of Mobile Bay — “Now I Am In The Humor, I Will Have It Out!” — Civil War Trail, Battle for Mobile Bay|
| As the Hartford and Brooklyn steamed into the lower bay, the Tennessee tried to ram both in succession but was too slow and had to let them pass. Admiral Buchanan then exchanged broadsides with the rest of Admiral Farragut’s ships as they ran into the Bay.
At the same time, the Rebel gunboats Selma, Gaines, and Morgan, retreating up the Bay before the advancing ships, imposed a galling fire upon the enemy for fifteen minutes.
When the Federals won . . . — Map (db m69617) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — The Overland Campaign — Storm Clouds Gather — Civil War Trail, Battle for Mobile Bay|
| To Wait and Watch
In late August 1864 the Federals controlled Mobile Bay but could not attack Mobile. Admiral Farragut could not reach the city even with his light draft vessels, because the channels in the upper Bay had been obstructed. Nor was U.S. General Edward Canby’s force big enough to take Mobile by an overland route. The soldiers that would otherwise have been available to him were tied down in other places. All Canby could do was make occasional demonstrations from the Bay to . . . — Map (db m69909) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — U.S. Model 1918M1 155mm Gun and Model 1918A1 Carriage|
| The U.S. Model 1918M1 155mm Gun, more commonly known as the “G.P.F.”, was a French heavy artillery piece manufactured in the U.S. for use by the U.S. Army during World War I. Due to the gun’s mobility and hitting power, it was used during the 1920’s and 1930’s as a coast defense weapon. By 1944, the M1918M1 gun and the M1918AA carriage with its solid rubber tires were no longer in front line service and had been relegated to a support role. During World War II, Battery F of the . . . — Map (db m69910) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Josephine — Josephine|
|In 1841, Raphael Semmes acquired farmland at the head of this bayou. The new homestead was named Prospect Hill. Several of Semmes’ colleagues from the Pensacola Navy Yard obtained nearby property and established “a very nice colony of nautical farmers”. The inlet became known as Semmes Bayou.
In 1881, the first post office was established with Amos Ross as postmaster. The settlement was then named for Ross’ daughter, Josephine.
In 1898, the McPherson family acquired the . . . — Map (db m71957) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Magnolia Springs — Magnolia Springs, Alabama|
Settlement of this area began in the early 1700’s and was expedited by a series of Spanish land grants in the early 1800’s. During the 1819-33 time period a brick factory along the south river bank supplied brick for construction of Fort Morgan at the mouth of Mobile Bay. In 1891 the community of Magnolia Springs was established when the first subdivision was platted. The village’s name was a combination of two local assets - the ever-flowing springs and the towering canopy . . . — Map (db m66271) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Magnolia Springs — The Springs|
| Old tales have it that early explorers and even pirate vessels obtained potable water from springs scattered throughout the community of Magnolia Springs. This park is located at the largest of dozens of springs in the area.
In 1865 The Springs played a part in history by refreshing and restoring battle worn Federal troops traveling from the fallen Fort Morgan to Spanish Fort and Old Blakeley.
While building a log and timber bridge over Magnolia River, many of the Yankee soldiers . . . — Map (db m68486) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Orange Beach — Orange Beach Community Cemetery — “Bear Point Cemetery” — Baldwin County|
The property where the cemetery is located was part of a Spanish Land Grant issued to the Suarez family prior to the War of 1812. In 1925, a United States Land Patent was confirmed and issued. The property has been in use since the days of Spanish West Florida and perhaps even before this time. The cemetery was previously known as Bear Point Cemetery because of the bears that inhabited this end of the island. The property changed ownership man times until the Low and . . . — Map (db m71618) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Orange Beach — Orange Beach, Alabama|
Orange Beach was named for the oranges that were grown here and exported until the hard-freezes of 1916. The orange groves are gone, but the name remained. Drawn here by the game they hunted, the early Indians discovered the seafood bounty of the Gulf of Mexico. The shell mounds and archeological digs give evidence of thousands of years of Indian visits. The Spanish land grants of Samuel Suarez and William Kee were the beginnings of area development. Logging and pine sap . . . — Map (db m81851) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Spanish Fort — “Damn The Torpedoes!” — The Campaigns for Mobile, 1864-1965|
|“Damn The Torpedoes!” is the familiar battle cry, but there’s much more to the story! The Mobile Bay Civil War Trail is your guide to military movements and the way of life on and around Mobile Bay in the closing two years of the Civil War. Stand in the very spots where the action occurred during the Battle of Mobile Bay (August 1864) and the later overland effort to capture Mobile, called the Campaign for Mobile (March - May, 1865). The complete Trail stretches from the Gulf of . . . — Map (db m81853) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Spanish Fort — Revolutionary War Battlefield and Burial Ground at Spanish Fort (1780-1781)|
|During the Revolutionary War, France, Spain, Britain, and the United States were interested in the fate of this region. In March 1780, Spanish forces captured Mobile. They established a palisaded fort with trenches (one mile north of here) to protect nearby Frenchtown, also known as The Village from British forces based in Pensacola. Early on the foggy Sunday morning of 7 January 1781, the British, under Col. von Hanxleden, attacked with about 200 German, Swiss, English, loyalist American . . . — Map (db m61451) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Spanish Fort — Saluda Hill Cemetery|
|Saluda Hill Cemetery is a private historical cemetery established in 1824. Among the graves here is that of Zachariah Godbold, the only known Revolutionary War veteran buried in Baldwin County. Many Blakeley residents and Confederate soldiers also are buried in the cemetery. — Map (db m81854) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Spanish Fort — Stop 7 Fort McDermott: — "The Men Dig,Dig,Dig" — Civil War Trail|
|Late on March 26, C.S. General St. John Liddell withdrew into the relative safety of Fort Blakeley and Spanish Fort, Liddell, assisted by General Francis Cockrell, assumed personal responsibility for the defense of Blakeley and put the defense of Spanish Fort in General Randall Gibson's capable hands. On the morning of the 27th, A.J. Smith, leaving an entrenched division at Sibley's Mills, wheeled around and closed in on Spanish Fort's left flank, near Bay Minette. Granger and Bertram . . . — Map (db m50597) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Spanish Fort — Stop 8 The Eighth Iowa Line: — “The Very Air Was Hot”|
|Canby brought up his heavy guns from Stark’s Landing a process that took several days, beginning on the 28th. Supported by the Federal monitors, Chickasaw and Winnebago, Canby tried to pound the enemy into submission The Confederates naturally attempted to slow the progress of the Federal engineers and artillerists with cannon fire from Spanish Fort, Forts Huger and Tracey, and their gunboats on the river. The most deadly artillery duels occurred on April 2, 4, and 8. At first, Gibson’s command . . . — Map (db m50602) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Stockton — Bartram’s Trail|
|William Bartram, America’s first native born artist - naturalist, passed through Baldwin County during the Revolutionary era, making the first scientific notations of its flora, fauna and inhabitants. As the appointed botanist of Britain’s King George III, he traveled 2,400 miles in three journeys into the southern colonies in 1775-1776, collecting rare plants and specimens and making detailed drawings of plants and animals.
Erected by Baldwin County Commission And Alabama Bicentennial Commission — Map (db m81855) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Stockton — Fort Mims And The Creek Indian War, 1813-14|
In 1813, people on the United State’s southwestern frontier were fearful. The Redstick faction of the Creek Indian Nation opposed growing American influence in the area and had voted for war. However, Creeks living in the Tensaw area had intermarried with the European and American settlers and were close allies.
Early in the summer, local American militia and allied Creeks attacked a group of Redsticks at Burt Corn Creek. Tensions grew and many families along the Tensaw, . . . — Map (db m66394) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Stockton — Historic Stockton / Old Schoolyard Park|
Modern Stockton is situated on a hill just above the original settlement, which was abandoned around 1840 because of Yellow Fever outbreaks. No verified source for the town name exists. Most likely it was named by the local postmaster. The Indian mounds located near Stockton are witnesses of a prehistoric Indian population in the area. In the latter 1700s, Stockton was the most populous settlement in this area, excepting Mobile. Some records indicate the . . . — Map (db m66390) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Stockton — Kennedy Mill, c.1811|
|Site of one of Alabama’s first sawmills. In 1811, Joshua Kennedy engaged Jesse Ember to build two water-powered sawmills, convertible to grist mills, for a total of $1400. The mills were operated by Kennedy through 1820; were burned twice, once by Indians. The mill dam and site were late used by Byrne Bros., and then by Hastie & Silver Co., until 1906, when they were abandoned — Map (db m66379) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Stockton — Major Robert Farmar Plantation|
|Here on the banks of the Tensaw River -- named for the Tensa Indian tribe whose principal village was located at this place -- Major Robert Farmar developed a plantation c. 1772. Farmar was one of the most prominent and controversial Alabamians of the British period, being commander of the regiments at Mobile from 1763-1765. He resigned his commission in 1768 and was elected to every Commons House of Assembly for the District of West Florida from 1769 until his death in 1778. Artist-Naturalist, . . . — Map (db m66380) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Stockton — Stockton Presbyterian Church — Organized 1847|
|First known as Baldwin Presbyterian Church, members met in 1847, in Old Union Church near John Gallagher Springs. In 1903, the membership was moved to this site and the name was changed to Stockton Presbyterian Church. In 1956, the membership moved into its new church on this same site. The bell in the steeple was housed in all three buildings. May it continue to toll and call all future generations into Thy service. — Map (db m66387) HM|
|Alabama (Baldwin County), Stockton — The Mound Line — (Ellicot Line) — Mile Mound No. 216 located 1200 feet east|
Surveyed in 1799 to mark the 31° North Latitude, this line charted the first southern boundary of the United States, separating the U.S. from Spanish Florida. The line was marked at one-mile intervals by earthen mounds approximately fifteen-feet square and three-feet high with a charred lighter-pine post at the center, hence the name Mound Line.
Jointly surveyed by Major Andrew Ellicott, U.S. Commissioner, and Esteban Minor, Spanish Commissioner, to determine boundaries as agreed in the . . . — Map (db m81856) HM|