|Maryland (Baltimore County), Avalon — A Place For Progress|
|"Along this section of the valley, where once the vibrant hum of a thriving industry could be heard... now the silence of the tomb prevails. The gods of progress direct its movements in mysterious ways." - L.S. LeRendu, W.J. Dickey & Sons employee.
When European settlers discovered the Patapsco Valley, they found a source of untamed beauty rich in resources. Susquehannock and Pscataway Indians hunted and fished the valley full of elk, black bear, bison, gray wolves and deer. The . . . — Map (db m8838) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Avalon — Drinking Water for the Public|
|Demands for cleaner drinking water in Baltimore City and County compelled Catonsville banker and philanthropist Victor G. Bloede to organize and Baltimore County Water & Electric Company in 1909.
In 1910, Bloede's company purchased the abandoned Avalon Iron & Nail Works and build a water filtration plant on the site. A large brick building housed the pumping machinary, and concrete holding ponds settle dirt and debris out of the ater. The remnants of the holding ponds are still visible. . . . — Map (db m8843) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Avalon — Elkridge Landing|
|Though now heavily silted, the Patapsco River was once navigable to this point, and Elkridge Landing, just downstream, was an important colonial port, rivaling old Annapolis. Here hogsheads of tobacco from nearby plantations were rolled to waiting ships by slaves and oxen along "Rolling Roads".
At a fording point just below the Thomas Viaduct both Lafayette and Rochambeau crossed the Patapsco with their armies on separate occasions in 1781 while enroute to Yorktown to force the surrender . . . — Map (db m8832) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Avalon — Forging Freedom and Nails|
|Dorsey's Forge (1761-1815):
"At that time there were two Negroes belonging to Edward H. Dorsey, a Negro man called Prince, who was a forgeman, and a Negro man called Sam who was a striker in a Blacksmith shop." - Maryland Chancery Papers, May 17, 1787.
An abundance of iron ore, trees, oysters shells and running water encouraged some tobacco planters of the 1700s to invest in iron making - the Patapsco Valley's first industry. On this site in 1761, Caleb Dorsey established an . . . — Map (db m8842) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Avalon — Iron Builds America|
|When European settlers discovered the Patapsco Valley, they found a source of untamed beauty rich in resources. Susquehannock and Pscataway Indians hunted and fished the valley full of elk, black bear, bison, gray wolves and deer. The white settlers also saw the valley's fertile and iron rich soil, fast-flowing streams, and deep shipping channels that led to Chesapeake Bay and beyond.
Here emerged Maryland's industrial revolution. Beginning in the lat 1700s, the valley erupted into . . . — Map (db m8840) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Avalon — Powering the Patapso Valley's Industries|
|This inconspicuous ditch is a remnant of the Avalon millrace. Originally dug in the 1700s, it supplied water from the Patapsco River to Dorsey's Forge. The millrace later served the Avalon Iron & Nail Works and the Baltimore County Water & Electric Company.
Waterpower made the Patapsco Valley's industrial development possible. Mills and factories harnessed the river's waterpower by damming the river and channeling the water into a canal or "millrace." The millrace created a steady water . . . — Map (db m8841) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Avalon — The Baltimore County Water and Electric Company|
|The basin in front of you and the house beside you are remnants of the Baltimore County Water and Electric Company that operated here from 1910 to 1922. the company, founded by Victor G. Bloede, supplied pressurized water to parts of Baltimore city, Baltimore Co. and Howard Co. The plant was managed by Baltimore City until 1928.
In 1775 this site, Dorsey Forge, supplied guns during the American Revolution. In 1822 the Ellicott Brothers acquired the forge and expanded its operations until . . . — Map (db m8844) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Avalon — The C.C.C. Builds Our Park — The Civilian Conservation Corps Legacy|
|"There is much to be discovered < indistinguishable > way of beautiful scenery inaccessible on account of lack of trails and < indistinquishable > time this parkwill be one of the nicest in this part of the county." - Tell W. Nicolet, Inspector for the National Park Service for the Maryland-Virginia region who supervised the work of the camp (taken from reports to the NPS in the National Archives.
The Civilian Conservation Corps transformed Patapsco State Forest Reserve's informal . . . — Map (db m8845) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Baldwin — “Quinn”|
|500 acre grant in 1704 to Thomas MacNemara. Later called “Sweet Air.” Charles and Daniel Carroll, MacNemara’s kinsmen, acquired the property and sold it in 1751 to Roger Boyce, who built the present house. It was purchased in 1785 for Henry Hill Carroll, who died here in 1804. His son, Henry Carroll, sold it in 1838. — Map (db m2052) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Baldwin — “The Eagle’s Nest”|
|Part of the Valley of Jehosaphat, now Dulaney Valley, patented August 10, 1684. Walter Dulaney acquired half, 1747, and remainder, 1767. His lands were confiscated and sold at the end of the Revolutionary War. Thomas Marsh obtained “The Eagle’s Nest” portion, 1788. It remained in his family until 1964. — Map (db m2081) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Baldwin — Gunpowder Manor — Long Green Valley|
|In this valley 7031 acres laid out, 1683, for Charles, Third Lord Baltimore. Opened to settlers, 1721 by Charles, Fifth Lord Baltimore. Frederick, Sixth Lord Baltimore, ordered manor sold, 1766. Land remaining 1782 seized and sold as confiscated British property. — Map (db m1930) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Baltimore — Water Power: Baltimore's Economic Engine — Jones Falls Trail and the Seven Foot Knoll Lighthouse|
|The best-known and least-appreciated fresh waterway in Baltimore, the Jones Falls River is an important tributary of the Chesapeake Watershed, and the largest of several waterways that empty into Baltimore Harbor. From the time of the first colonial settlements, the Jones Falls River has served Baltimore City as a transportation corridor, a power source for early industry, and a source of drinking water. In fact, the mills powered by the swift-flowing Jones Falls played a key role in making . . . — Map (db m60943) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Brooklandville — Rockland|
|The first inhabitant of this village, dating back to 1706, was Richard Gist, father of the Revolutionary War hero, Mordecai Gist. The industrial development of the Jones Falls Turnpike Road, circa 1806, and later by the Baltimore and Susquehanna Railroad, was the reason for the construction of Rockland Village. Built by the Johnson Family to house the owners of and workers in the Village’s various enterprises. The Village also included a blacksmith shop, flour mill, general store and tavern. . . . — Map (db m2272) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Catonsville — 6-Mile Marker on the National Road — 1787|
|This 6-miles-to-Baltimore marker was welcomed by thousands on horseback, in stagecoaches and wagons, who traveled this Frederick Turnpike. Some headed west to settle in the Ohio Valley, along with merchants selling their wares, while millers with their products, and farmers, driving animals on foot to market, traveled east through Catonsville to the port city of Baltimore. — Map (db m39347) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Catonsville — Baltimore Regional Trail — A House Divided|
|During the Civil War, Baltimore and its environs exemplified the divided loyalties of Maryland’s residents. The city had commercial ties to the South as well as the North, and its secessionist sympathies erupted in violence on April 19, 1861, when pro-Confederate mobs attacked Massachusetts troops en route to Washington, D.C. Because of Baltimore’s strategic importance, President Abraham Lincoln acted swiftly, stationing Federal troops in the city and jailing civilians suspected of disloyalty. . . . — Map (db m71334) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Catonsville — Benjamin Banneker — (1731–1806)|
|The self-educated Negro mathematician and astronomer was born, lived his entire life and died near here. He assisted in surveying the District of Columbia, 1791, and published the first Maryland Almanac, 1792. Thomas Jefferson recognized his achievements. — Map (db m5407) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Catonsville — Bringing Trade to Baltimore|
|"Make easy the way for them and then see what an influx of articles will be poured upon us." - George Washington, 1786
You are standing on the original roadbed of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, North America's first common-carrier railroad. Baltimore's leading merchants and businessmen founded the B&O in 1827 to connect the city to western markets. Within a few decades, raucous steam-powered trains carried daily deliveries of coal, wheat and lumber from rural areas to the port . . . — Map (db m8874) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Catonsville — Building America's First Railroad|
|"There was a man killed yesterday by a fall from the centre of the 1st arch [of the Thomas Viaduct]... What a sympathy there is between these rough men. It was affecting to see his fellow laborers dressed in their best, going in a body to escort him a part of the way upon his long journey." - Benjamin Latrobe, Jr., October 14, 1834.
Barney Dougherty was one of many laborers to die during the arduous process of building the Baltimore & Ohio, America's first railroad. Building the . . . — Map (db m8872) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Catonsville — Castle Thunder|
|A gift from Charles Carroll of Carrollton, Castle Thunder, the home of Richard and Mary Carroll Caton, stood on this site from 1787 to 1906.
The 7-mile Frederick Turnpike stone marker of 1804 was moved here from its original position 3/10 mile west. — Map (db m4910) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Catonsville — Catonsville — A Turnpike Town|
|This 1877 “Plan of Catonsville” lays outs all the possibilities of an energetic and emerging suburb of Baltimore, only eight miles, or a one-day carriage ride, to the east. The centerpiece of the town is the Frederick Turnpike, part of the road system that connected to the National Road in Cumberland.
Typical of many pike towns, the Plan shows that the majority of properties and buildings are directly adjacent to the road, thus making the Turnpike the hub of economic and social . . . — Map (db m5500) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Catonsville — Catonsville — From Stagecoaches to Horseless Carriages|
|The reign of stagecoaches and Conestoga Wagons on the Baltimore and Frederick-Town Turnpike only lasted seventy years. Omnibuses, attached to teams of four horses, began rolling out from Baltimore to Catonsville in 1862.
The Catonsville Short Line Railroad was next. Starting in 1884, a steam engine pulled passenger and freight cars through the countryside to a depot on Frederick Road.
In the 1890s, trolley cars hooked up to electric lines strung everywhere throughout Baltimore. For . . . — Map (db m5536) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Catonsville — Oella — Conquering the “Nine Mile Hill"|
|The Ellicott brothers constructed what became the first leg of the Baltimore and Frederick-Town Turnpike to get their flour to market in Baltimore. By 1787, they cut a new road east through the forests to shorten the trip to the city. This route became part of the National Road system in 1806.
Travelers on the turnpike faced a steep grade nine miles west of Baltimore. They had to conquer the hill using numerous switchbacks as they ascended from the Patapsco River Valley.
As the road . . . — Map (db m5741) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Catonsville — Patapsco Superlative: — "The Premiere Flour"|
|"Any Monday morning one could hear the beginnings of the stir of activity as the heavy machinery in the mill started to move, gather speed and settle into a steady rythmic rumble which was maintained at the same rate day and night until five o'clock of the following Saturday." - Thomas Phillips, former mill employee.
The ruins before you are the remains of the Orange Grove flourmill of the C.A. Gambrills Manufacturing Company. Built as a modest gristmill in 1856, the mill became . . . — Map (db m8871) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Catonsville — Rolling Road|
|A colonial road built for the purpose of rolling hogsheads of tobacco from the plantations to Elk Ridge Landing for shipment to England. — Map (db m2131) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Catonsville — The Changing River Valley|
|Over the last 300 years, the now tranquil Patapsco Valley has seen dramatic changes.
During the industrial revolution, resource-hungry industries stripped trees from the hillsides to make charcoal. Every household needed wood as its lifeline for warmth and cooking - for survival.
Hillsides were left treeless, allowing mud to slither into the river, silting shipping channels, and clogging the port of Elkridge Landing. Factories dumped chemicals into the river, changing its color . . . — Map (db m8875) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Catonsville — The Destructive Power of the Patapsco|
|"[Rainfall] nearly all night with a violent gale of wind. This morning the river begins to rise. The rain pours down furiously all day. The river in a freshet, rising all the time... At night the waters very high, threatening mischief to our works." - John Pendleton Kennedy, 1859.
Washed here by Tropical Storm Agnes in 1972, these truck tanker remains are a testament to the Patapsco River's flooding power. That spring, the water rose 30 ft., scattering trees and cars, gutting houses . . . — Map (db m8870) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Catonsville — The River Makes Electricity — Bloede Dame|
|The Patapsco Electric & Manufacturing Company, organized by Victor Gustav Bloede, harnessed the river's waterpower to generate electricity. Completed in 1907, the Bloede Dam furnished electricity for Ellicott City, Catonsville, Carroll, Halethorpe, Arbutus, St. Denis, Elkridge, and parts west of Baltimore until 1924.
Bloede's company needed an innovative design that would not flood large areas upstream. They built the turbines and generating equipment inside a small dam, making Bloede Dam . . . — Map (db m8873) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Catonsville — The Streetcar Era in Catonsville — 1880-1963|
|For over 100 years, streetcars graced the streets of Baltimore and the heavily traveled #8 line to Catonsville was one of the most popular. This line swung north from Frederick Rd. and plunged into the woods for a brief run to its terminus at Edmondson and Dutton Avenues. The #8 line's final run was on November 3, 1963, ending the era of streetcars in Baltimore. In 1996, the Old Catonsville Neighborhood Association and hundreds of volunteers from all parts of Catonsville converted this one . . . — Map (db m5534) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Catonsville — This Memorial is Dedicated to all the Men and Women of the Catonsville area|
|This memorial is dedicated to all the men and women of the Catonsville area who served their country in the armed force to preserve freedom for future generations. Some did not return. May they all be long remembered. — Map (db m8609) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Cockeysville — Gilmor's Raid — Capturing Cockeysville — Early's 1864 Attack on Washington|
In June 1864, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee and Gen .Jubal A. Early’s corps from the Richmond battlefields to the Shenandoah Valley to counter Union Gen. David Hunter’s army. After driving Hunter into West Virginia, Early invaded Maryland to attack Washington D.C., draw Union troops from Richmond, and release Confederate prisoners held at Point Lookout. On July 9, Early ordered Gen. Bradley T. Johnson’s cavalry brigade eastward to free the prisoners. The next day, Johnson . . . — Map (db m75286) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Cockeysville — Hayfields|
|Colonel Nicholas Merryman Bosley, builder, 1810, awarded silver tankard “by the hand of Lafayette” for best cultivated Maryland farm, 1824. Also home of John Merryman, early importer, 1848, of registered Hereford cattle, still, 1967, bred here. His imprisonment, 1861, led to Chief Justice Taney’s masterful “Ex-Parte Merryman.” — Map (db m2280) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Cockeysville — Lime Kiln|
|Lime Kilns in this area were built into hillsides for support. A fire was maintained at the bottom of the pit and crude lime from a nearby source was thrown on top of it. The heat from the fire would separate the pure powder form of the lime from the other rocks and minerals. Lime in Balt. Co. was used to white-wash buildings, as a disinfectant, and poured over dead bodies to slow decay. Although the exact age of this kiln is not known, it probably was constructed in the late 1800's. — Map (db m53201) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Cockeysville — North Central Railroad Trail|
|Completed in 1832, the North Central Railroad carried passengers and freight between Baltimore, York, and Harrisburg for 140 years. After the decline of the railroad, the railroad bed was converted to a rail trail in 1984. Today the Maryland portion of the trail is twenty miles long and is managed by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, as part of the Gunpowder Falls State park. York County Pennsylvania manages an additional 20 miles from the Mason-Dixon Line to York, Pennsylvania. . . . — Map (db m53200) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Cockeysville — Phoenix|
|Phoenix, one of the many mill towns of the 1800s in Baltimore County, survives today as a secluded little village beside the Gunpowder River and the Northern Central Railroad 15 miles north of Baltimore. Today's Phoenix, with its big Victorian houses with their characteristic gingerbread trim, developed in the 1890s as a suburb of Phoenix Mill and its company located a half mile to its north.
The first industry at what eventually became Phoenix, was a gristmill started in 1793 by Elijah . . . — Map (db m53202) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Cockeysville — Third and Last County Almshouse|
|Building constructed and furnished at cost of $60,000 from proceeds of sale of old Almshouse property under authority of County Commissioners granted by Acts of Maryland General Assembly, April 1, 1872. Site purchased from John Galoway. Structure erected in 1872 of stone quarried on premises. Partly destroyed by fire January 1, 1919, promptly remodeled, and fireproofed. Discontinued as almshouse August 28, 1958. — Map (db m2300) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Dundalk — Aquila Randall Monument|
|SACRED to the memory of Aquila Randall, who died in bravely defending his Country and his Home, on the memorable 12th of September, 1814. Aged 24 years.
In the skirmish which occurred at this spot between the advanced party under Major Richd. K. Heath of the 5th Regt. M. M. and the front of the British column Major General Ross the commander of the British force received his mortal wound.
The First Mechanical Volunteers commanded by . . . — Map (db m24034) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Dundalk — At Patapsco Neck — Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail — War of 1812|
|The narrow land shaped by Bear Creek, Bread and Cheese Creek, and Back River was the site of the Battle of North Point, September 12, 1814. Some 3,200 Americans clashed with 4,500 British to delay the advance on Baltimore.|
When Britain threatened Baltimore a year earlier, Bear Creek was considered a potential landing spot. More than 400 militiamen were positioned at Camp Eagleston where Bear Creek joins the Patapsco.
Life Line-The British used Bear Creek to provide the army with . . . — Map (db m79747) WM
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Dundalk — Battle Acre — September 12, 1814|
|Here General Stricker’s City Brigade inflicted severe losses upon the main body of the British Army. This spirited defense together with that of Fort McHenry the next night saved Baltimore. — Map (db m2118) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Dundalk — Battle Ground Methodist Episcopal Church|
|Erected by the Patriotic Order
Sons of America of Maryland,
In the year of the
National Star-Spangled Banner Centennial
This building, known as the
Battle Ground Methodist Episcopal Church,
was occupied by General Stricker,
the night preceding the Battle of North Point
was used as a hospital by both armies,
during and after the battle
September 12, 1814. — Map (db m40188) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Dundalk — Battle of North Point — 1814|
| Who Dies for Country, doth not yield
To death’s uncompromising sway
He soars Immortal from the field
And dwells untouched by time’s decay
Wm. M. Marine
This one-acre of the North Point Battlefield was set aside in 1839 to commemorate those who risked and gave their lives to defend their homes and country from an invading British Army.
On September 12, 1814, the 5th, 27th, 39th, 51st Regiments of Maryland Militia, engaged in battle with the British on . . . — Map (db m2136) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Dundalk — Camp Holabird|
|Named for Quartermaster General Samuel B. Holabird (1826-1907) and established in 1917 as the Army's first motor transport training center and depot. Supplied World War I American Expeditionary Forces in France with Detroit-made vehicles. Trained thousands to drive and repair automobiles and trucks. By 1920 a center for the research and development of military vehicles. Here the Jeep, a World War II icon, was tested and refined. Housed the Army Intelligence School from 1945 until closure in 1972. — Map (db m40189) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Dundalk — Commodore Joshua Barney — 1759–1818|
|Born in Baltimore, Barney at an early age moved with his family to a nearby farm on Bear Creek in the Patapsco Neck section of the County. When only 12 he went to sea.
In the War for Independence he was commissioned a 2nd Lieutenant on the “Hornet” and had the honor of flying the 1st American Flag displayed in Baltimore. At the end of the war he was Captain of the “Hyder Ally.”
In the War of 1812 he served as a privateers man and later as Commodore of a . . . — Map (db m2120) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Dundalk — Defenders Honored — Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail — War of 1812|
|The excitement was palpable as crowds gathered here September 12, 1839, to mark the 25th anniversary of the Battle of North Point. Officials laid the cornerstone for a memorial to the citizens-soldiers who defended Baltimore against British attack in 1814. |
Dr. Jacob Houck conveyed this site to Maryland “for…erecting a monument thereon.“ Known as Battle Acre, it was Baltimore County’s first public park.
Advance Fire-from their position at a log house, the Baltimore Yagers . . . — Map (db m79749) WM
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Dundalk — Dundalk, Maryland — Founded 1894|
|Approximately 200 yards northwest of this spot an iron foundry, owned by William McShane, was built in 1894. When asked to give a name to the railroad depot serving his new foundry, he chose “Dundalk” in honor of the birthplace of his father, Henry McShane, born in Dundalk, Ireland. The two seaport communities of Dundalk, on in Ireland and one in Maryland, have many other similarities. — Map (db m2126) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Dundalk — Francis Scott Key Memorial Bridge|
|To the northwest, across the Patapsco, is Fort McHenry, which British Naval Forces bombarded September 13-14, 1814. Detained on a cartel boat, Francis Scott Key waw through a spyglass that the star-spangled banner yet waved in the dawn’s early light on September 14 and he was inspired to write the National Anthem.
Some historians place Key’s position about 200 yards west of here. Others say the boat anchored about 3 miles to the southeast. — Map (db m2128) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Dundalk — General Robert Ross|
|At this spot, on September 12, 1814, General Robert Ross died. He had been mortally wounded in conflict approximately 1-1/2 miles northwest of here, at the present site of the Aquila Randall monument, and carried by stretcher to this point. He was later interred in Halifax, Nova Scotia. — Map (db m21373) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Dundalk — Logan Field|
|First commercial aviation facility in Maryland. Veteran World War I pilots formed club and opened Dundalk Flying Field in 1919. Renamed to honor stunt p1lot Lt. Patrick Logan, who was killed in crash during club's first major air meet. Became Baltimore's first municipal airport in 1920. Club members organized nation's first National Guard air unit in 1921. Visited by Charles Lindbergh and Amelia Earhart. Scheduled passenger service inaugurated in 1930. Replaced by Baltimore Municipal Airport/Harbor Field in 1941. — Map (db m4338) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Dundalk — North Point Battlefield|
|Where on September 12, 1814 the defenders of Baltimore under General John Stricker met the advancing British Army of 7000 under General Robert Rose, who was killed early in the engagement. — Map (db m2119) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Dundalk — Proud of Our Stand — Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail|
|In 1814 Baltimore's defenders watched about 4,500 British troops march from North Point toward the city. Roughly 3,200 Americans, led by Brigadier General John Stricker, were sent to impede the advance. He positioned his men across a road at a narrow neck of land midway between North Point and Baltimore.
The Battle of North Point occurred on September 12. When the smoke cleared, the Americans had retreated but not before inflicting many British casualties, including the death of the . . . — Map (db m68528) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Dundalk — Proud of Our Stand — Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail — War of 1812|
|In 1814 Baltimore's defenders watched about 4,500 British troops march from North Point toward the city. Roughly 3,200 Americans, led by Brigadier General John Stricker, were sent to impede the advance. He positioned his men across a road at a narrow neck of land midway between North Point and Baltimore.|
The Battle of North Point occurred on September 12. When the smoke cleared, the Americans had retreated but not before inflicting many British casualties, including the death of the Major . . . — Map (db m79757) HM
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Dundalk — The Conflict upon this Battle Field — War of 1812|
|The conflict upon the Battle Field on September 12, which was followed on the 13 and 14 by the unsuccessful bombardment of Fort McHenry by the British Fleet under Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, Commander-in-Chief of all the invading forces was the last battle upon American Soil before peace was secured by the Treaty of Ghent December 14, 1814. "This Battle Acre was presented to the State of Maryland" by Dr. Jacob Houck in 1839. The Acre was enclosed and this memorial cannon erected by the . . . — Map (db m79881) WM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Edgemere — About This Fountain...|
|This beautiful, ornamental water fountain was built in the early 1900s as part of the Bay Shore Amusement Park. Operating between 1906-1947, the park was located on approximately 20 acres of property in this area. The primary purpose of the fountain was to spray the iron well water used throughout the park, in an effort to relieve the natural undesirable taste and color.|
The fountain, as seen in this photograph, also provided a place of picturesque beauty for all of the park's visitors, . . . — Map (db m49092) HM
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Edgemere — North Point — September 12, 1814|
|Following a dawn landing at the tip of North Point, British Forces passed here en route to Baltimore. About four miles further on they encountered American skirmishers under Major Heath. — Map (db m2121) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Edgemere — Shaw Family Cemetery|
|Restored by the Dundalk-Patapsco Neck Historical Society and Museum, assisted by Beta Alpha Tau Honor Society-CCBC-Dundalk and B & B Welding Company.
The Shaw residence, located 100 feet west, was used by the British officers as a staging headquarters in the War of 1812 - Battle of North Point.
On September 12, 1814 legend has daughter Eleanor Shaw leaping from a second floor window to avoid improper advances of a British officer. General Robert Ross sent him back to the fleet in . . . — Map (db m68529) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Edgemere — The Presbytery of Baltimore|
|The Presbytery of Baltimore here commemorates the first regular services of the Presbyterian Church within its bounds. These were held by the Rev. Hugh Conn in the neighboring house of Thomas Todd in March 1714-15. — Map (db m68530) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Edgemere — The Rebirth of a Maryland Historical Treasure|
|Originally built in 1906 by the United Railways and Electric Company on this site, stood the once grand Bay Shore Park Restaurant. As the picture below captures the beauty of the former building's elaborate architecture complete with pergolas and towers, you briefly step back into time. Imagine relaxing in the spacious dining rooms, all set with great white cloths, shining crystal and beautiful silver, and then enjoying a seafood supper or chicken dinner, complete with local farm grown fresh . . . — Map (db m49090) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Edgemere — The Trolley Station at Bayshore Park — 1906-1947 — Trolleys Helped Build Our Parks|
|The #26 streetcar brought thousands of Baltimoreans to Bayshore Park. Trolleys provided a convenient way for people to travel and could be chartered for group outings. Many people spent their vacations trolleying, using trolley maps to see where they could go on the Red Rocket.|
Each day the first Bayshore Park trolley left for Baltimore at 6:40 am, and the last trolley left the park at 11:15 pm. A trolley stopped at Howard and Franklin streets every hour, starting at 7:00 am, to take . . . — Map (db m49089) HM
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Elicott City — The George Ellicott House|
|This house was built in 1789 by George Ellicott, a Quaker, who was a miller, surveyor, merchant and astronomer. He was friend and advisor to America's first black man of science, Benjamin Banneker, who visited here. He also entertained Chief Little Turtle and other Indian chiefs. Floods damaged the house in 1972 and 1975, but after stabilization, it was moved across the road to this site in 1987 and restored in 1990-91 under the auspices of Historic Ellicott City, Inc. — Map (db m193) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Ellicott City — Ellicott’s Mills|
|Established 1772 by the three Ellicott brothers from Bucks County, Pennsylvania. They opened the road from here to Baltimore. The B. and O. R. R. was completed to this point May 20, 1830. — Map (db m175) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Essex — Cox's Point Park — Shoreline Forest Buffer|
|Shoreline forest buffers are important for healthy streams and rivers. Forest buffers along streams and shorelines filter pollutants to improve water quality.|
An Ecosystem is a community of living and non-living things that are dependent on each other. Elements of this ecosystem include the aquatic wetland plants, and the forest buffer trees and shrubs planted along the shoreline. How many elements of the shoreline ecosystem can you find?
Back River watershed has 73 miles of streams . . . — Map (db m62886) HM
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Essex — The Fields at Renaissance Park — Water Quality Wet Pond — Hopkins Creek Watershed, Middle River|
|This water quality wet pond was constructed in 2006 to reduce pollution entering Hopkins Creek, Middle River, and the Chesapeake Bay. The pond filters the runoff draining from 124 acres of land including Stemmers Run Elementary School, the Middlesex Community and Eastern Avenue. Wet ponds are among the most effective storm water practices for filtering pollution such as nitrogen, phosphorus, suspended solids, metals and bacteria.|
Aquatic plants improve water quality by absorbing excess . . . — Map (db m63279) HM
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Fork — Fork United Methodist Church|
|Oldest Methodist Congregation in Maryland worshipping in its original location. Organized as Fork Meeting by Robert Strawbridge. Land near “The Forks of the Gunpowder” given in 1771 by James Baker, who converted to Methodism under the preaching of Rev. John King. Francis Asbury preached here June 9, 1776. — Map (db m1928) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Fort Howard — Battery Clagett|
|Completed in 1900, this battery contained two 3" rapid fire guns. Named in honor of Lieut. Levi Clagett, who was killed in the defense of Fort McHenry. — Map (db m68690) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Fort Howard — Battery Nicholson|
|Completed in 1900 and armed in 1902 with two 6" disappearing rifles. Named in honor of Judge Joseph H. Nicholson, Captain of Volunteer Artillery, in the defense of Fort McHenry, September 13 & 14, 1814. — Map (db m68692) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Fort Howard — Fort Howard — The Bulldog at Baltimore’s Gate|
|Fort Howard had its beginning when the U. S. Government began to purchase land for the post in 1896. Its location at the mouth of the Patapsco River, was excellent for its purpose, the defense of the City of Baltimore from naval attack. Until April 4, 1900, it was known only as the North Point Military Reservation. On that date, the Fort was named in honor of Col. John Eager Howard, a distinguished soldier of the Maryland Continental Line during the Revolutionary War. Fort Howard was to become . . . — Map (db m2124) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Fort Howard — Fort Howard|
|Built here in 1896 to defend Baltimore from possible naval attack. Named for Col. John Eager Howard, Revolutionary hero. Five coastal artillery batteries bore names of Col. Davis Harris; Francis Scott Key; Judge Joseph H. Nicholson; Brig. Gen. John Stricker. A sixth battery honored Dr. Jesse W. Lazear of Baltimore who gave his life in 1900 to further Yellow Fever research. Fort remained under Army command until 1940 but its guns were never fired in anger. — Map (db m68401) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Fort Howard — North Point Beachhead|
|At 3 a.m. on September 12, 1814, British began landing troops and supplies here from ships anchored in Old Road Bay. By 6:30 a.m., columns formed on Long Log Lane (now Old North Point Road) when bugles sounded at 7 a.m., 4700 British soldiers, sailors and marines set out for Baltimore. That afternoon, their Commander, Major General Robert Ross, was killed and they were met by Americans in the Battle of North Point. In 2 days of fighting, Baltimore withstood these land forces and the simultaneous naval attack on Fort McHenry. — Map (db m2127) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Fort Howard — Power House|
|At one time, this building housed all of the generators and power distribution panels for the fort's gun emplacements. — Map (db m68696) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Fort Howard — Searchlight Power House|
|This building originally contained the electrical generating and power distribution equipment for the fort's searchlights, used for night illumination of the river. — Map (db m68694) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Fort Howard — Todd’s Inheritance — (National Register of Historic Places)|
|Thomas Todd settled here from Gloucester County, Virginia, in 1664. Homestead has remained in Todd Family for more than three centuries. Farm once contained 1,700 acres. 17th Century brick house was burned by British Soldiers September 14, 1814, as they withdrew from unsuccessful assault on Baltimore. Rebuilt on site in 1816. Remobeled in 1867. — Map (db m2123) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Fort Howard — Todd’s Inheritance — Citizens in Harm’s Way|
|Todd’s Inheritance is a lasting symbol for Americans land especially Baltimoreans) who stood their ground when attacked by invading forces. Throughout the War of 1812, settlements around the Chesapeake Bay fell to British raiders who had superior equipment and well-trained troops. The British easily captured Alexandria, Virginia, and after burning Washington, D.C., the British attempted a two-prong attack on Baltimore to destroy the heart of America’s ship building industry.
In the early . . . — Map (db m79874) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Franklinville — Franklinville|
|Manufacturing village started in 1827 on site of Isaiah Linton;s 1772 Jericho Lower Gristmill by Dean Walker and members of Shaw and Tiffany families. Town acquired in 1838 by James Mahool. The first cotton mill burned in 1881. Second cotton mill designed by Albert A. Blakeney opened in 1884 and is now the Belko plant. Upton Reed's shovel foundry downstream started in 1808, evolved into Franklinville Ironworks and closed about 1860. — Map (db m53287) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Glen Arm — Gunpowder Copper Works — 1804 - 1883|
|Levi Hollingsworth built a mill here to roll and fabricate refined blocks of copper that were shipped to Baltimore from Wales and hauled to the mill by oxcart. The copper used for the roofing of the original dome of the Capitol was rolled and fabricated here. — Map (db m21523) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Glen Arm — The Baltimore and Harford Turnpike Company|
|Authorized by the Maryland Legislature in 1816 to open a road from Baltimore City with two branches, one through “Belle Air” to the Susquehanna at Rock Run, and the other to Susquehanna Bridge at McCall’s Ferry, Pennsylvania. — Map (db m21524) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Glyndon — Emory Grove|
|Founded in 1868 for the purpose of promoting the cause of morality and religion by holding camp meetings under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church.
Incorporated 1871 and reincorporated 1884 under present name of the Emory Grove Association of Baltimore City. — Map (db m2066) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Glyndon — Glyndon — 1871–1971|
|By 1860 the Western Maryland Railroad reached this site. In 1871 Dr. Charles A. Leas employed Augustus Bouldin, surveyor, to plan the town. The railroad and ideal climate encouraged the early development as a resort center with Victorian summer houses, boarding houses and campgrounds. Glyndon has now become primarily a residential community. — Map (db m2067) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Gwynn Oak — Franklintown's Historic Roots|
|The Gwynns Falls Trail begins near Franklintown at the abrupt end of Interstate 70 and passes by two of the community's landmarks, a mill and an inn. The gristmill operated on Dead Run from 1761 to 1934. Franklintown Inn accommodated patrons of a racetrack established by William H. Freeman, an 1800s entrepreneur who also was involved in building Franklin Turnpike and planning a Victorian cottage suburb called Franklin Towne. Though it became a part of Baltimore City in 1918, Franklintown never . . . — Map (db m6332) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Hoffmanville — Hoffman Paper Mills|
|The first paper maker in Maryland was William Hoffman. In 1775 he built his first mill on Gunpowder Falls a quarter mile upstream from the present Hoffmanville Bridge. In September 1776 Congress adopted watermarked paper for its currency. Hoffmanville Mills manufactured this type paper as well as writing and wrapping paper. — Map (db m1871) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Hydes — St. John the Evangelist Catholic Church|
|First Roman Catholic Church in (present) Baltimore County founded in 1822. One and one half miles southeast of Sweet Air, one half mile northeast of Manor Road. Building destroyed by fire February 25, 1855. Parish relocated to present site. First Mass offered December 30, 1855. — Map (db m1929) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Kingsville — Ishmael Day’s House|
|When one of Harry Gilmor’s Confederate Cavalrymen (on July 11, 1864) pulled down his Union Flag, Day shot him and then escaped to the woods. They burned his house and barn. — Map (db m1927) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Kingsville — Saint John’s Parish — (Gunpowder) — Established 1692|
|The old church here standing was built by Edward Day at his own expense and consecrated in 1817 to replace Saint John’s at Joppa Town which, built in 1725, lay in ruins. — Map (db m1921) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Kingsville — The Sweathouse Road|
|Called for a branch of that name on which Native Americans practiced a spiritual purification ceremony. Still done today, by generating steam from heated rocks in a sacred lodge while prayers are made. — Map (db m1923) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Long Green — Maj. Gen. Isaac Ridgeway Trimble, C.S.A.|
|Civil Engineer, graduated West Point 1822. Among engineer officers sent to assist railroad companies, surveyed first route of B&O, 1827. Resigned commission to pursue distinguished railroad career. Enlisted in Confederate Army after Baltimore riots, 1861. Led brigade at Cedar Mountain, fought at Manassas and Sharpsburg; lost leg in "Pickett's Charge" at Gettysburg. His elaborate gothic mansion, "Ravenhurst," stood near here until it burned in 1985. — Map (db m40864) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Lutherville — “The Valley of Jehosophat”|
|Patented to Richard Smith, Jr. 10th August 1684 for 2500 acres. Daniel Dulaney acquired 1250 acres of this tract 19th November 1724, after which it was called “Dulaney’s Valley.” — Map (db m2080) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Lutherville — Jones Falls Watershed|
|Congratulations! You are helping to protect the environment. By choosing to ride the Light Rail instead of driving a car to your destination, you are conserving fuel, decreasing emissions, and reducing pollutants in the air and water.
Many of the pollutants that impact our streams and reduce water quality come from gasoline-powered cars. The dirt and emissions from vehicles are deposited on the roadway and in the air. Each rain washes the contaminants directly to the stream. . . . — Map (db m8483) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Lutherville — Lutherville Historic District|
|National Register of Historic Places, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1972.
Lutherville, named for Martin Luther, was founded, 1852, by Dr. John G. Morris, a Lutheran clergyman, as the location of Lutherville Female Seminary. The planned village, centering around the Lutheran Church and Seminary, was surveyed into 118 lots by William sides, 1854. “Oak Grove,” 1852, the home of Dr. Morris, one tenth mile east, is a notable example of 19th century architecture. — Map (db m2298) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Lutherville — Northampton Furnace|
|Built in 1759 by Charles Ridgely (the Elder) of Hampton and two sons, the iron foundry operated for 70 years on Spring Branch of Patterson’s Run. It furnished cannon and shot for the Revolution as well as other supplies: “300 kettles” were ordered by the Council of Safety July 15, 1775. “Premature discharge” of cannon tested in 1780 killed Captain John Fulford and “dreadfully wounded” others. The furnace stack is now submerged near here in Loch Raven. — Map (db m2079) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Lutherville — Trentham|
|Named for free school of Trentham, Staffordshire, England, where Reverend Thomas Craddock had taught. When he married High Sheriff John Risteau’s daughter, this estate was her dowry. They built a house in 1746 and in 1747 he opened a boy’s boarding school there. The original house, damaged by fire in 1857, was rebuilt in 1860. The octagonal bathhouse dates from 1747. — Map (db m2069) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Lutherville-Timonium — Brooklandwood Plantation — 1798|
|Built by Charles Carroll of Carrollton for his daughter, Mary Caton. Site of the first Maryland Hunt Cup and Grand National Races. Owned successively by John Cockey, Charles Carroll, George Brown, Captain Isaac Emerson and Saint Paul's School (established 1849). — Map (db m2273) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Lutherville-Timonium — Sater’s Church|
|1742. Pioneer of the Maryland Baptist denomination. Only eternity, interpeted by God, can make known the moral, mental and spiritual work of the “Mother Church” of the Baptists of Maryland. Founded by Henry Sater 1690–1754. Resolute and inflexible, he carried his religion with him. — Map (db m2278) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Lutherville-Timonium — Saters Church — 1742|
|On land granted by the Fifth Lord Baltimore, Henry Sater, gentleman planter, founded this first church of Baptists in Maryland. To the congregation he deeded a plot and chapel “forever to the end of the world.” — Map (db m2276) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Middle River — Gunpowder River — So Called as early as 1600|
|Legend relates that the name originated with an Indian attempt to plant gunpowder in the hope that a crop could be raised.
Big Gunpowder Falls flows through Baltimore County, joins the Little Gunpowder Falls at Day’s Island to form Gunpowder River. The River empties into the Chesapeake Bay at Carroll Island. — Map (db m2117) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Middle River — The First Orems Schools — 1863 to 1927 — Sarah Pielert (Principal) 1891 to 1927|
|Located near the corner of Orems Road and Glider Drive; adjacent to the West side of the Orems Methodist Church Cemetery. Built for the education of local students from Stemmers Run and Middle River. Originally a one-room log school house. — Map (db m36848) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Monkton — Clynmalira — 5000 Acres|
|Surveyed April, 1705 for Charles Carroll, Lord Baltimore’s Attorney-General of his Province of Maryland 1688. In 1822 Henry Carroll, Great-great Grandson of Charles Carroll built Clynmalira house. — Map (db m49267) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Monkton — My Lady’s Manor|
|“Lord Baltemore’s Guift” Deeded 1713 — Map (db m2053) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Monkton — My Lady's Manor — 10,000 Acres ... Baltimore County|
|Sometimes called "Lord Baltimore's Gift"
Surveyed 26 August, 1713
and granted by Charles 2d Lord Baltimore
to his fourth and last consort Margaret,
Baroness of Baltimore, Daughter of
Thomas Charleton of Hexham, Esq.,
with all the prerogatives of a manorial court
to be held from time to time
"by the law or custome of England,"
devised by her to Charlotte Calvert,
wife of Thomas Brerewood the Younger — Map (db m15110) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Monkton — My Lady's Manor 10,000 Acres|
|In 1713 Charles Calvert, third Lord Baltimore gave to his wife, Margaret 10,000 acres known as My Lady;s Manor. In 1731, Thomas Brerewood was engaged to manage the land. During the Revolution the property was confiscated by Maryland and in 1782 sold at auction to veterans and tenants. Descendants of original owners continue to live on the manor to this day. — Map (db m70923) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Monkton — St. James’s — My Lady’s Manor|
|Established 1750 as a Chapel of Ease in the Parish of St. John’s of Joppa. In a brick chapel 60 x 30 feet, now the transept, was finished on this site “in the fork of the Gunpowder River” at the cost of 790 pounds. In 1770 by Act of the Maryland Assembly the separate Parish of St. James’s was established. In 1950 St. James’s completed two centuries of continuous service. — Map (db m2054) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Oella — Benjamin Banneker|
Buried in an unmarked grave near here lies the remains of Benjamin Banneker, distinguished son of Maryland, who was born, lived, and died in this area. — Map (db m66604) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Overlea — Women's Suffrage|
|Before the 19th Amendment was passed in 1920, American women were not guaranteed the right to vote. The National American Woman Suffrage Association organized a large parade in Washington, DC. for March 3, 1913. On February 12, a group of women called "The Army of the Hudson" began marching from New York City to the Capital. They were met by supporters at Overlea Town Hall on February 23, after a journey of 230 miles. They joined the parade of 8,000, bringing national attention to voting rights for women. — Map (db m74356) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Owings Mills — Garrison Forest Church — (St. Thomas Parish)|
|A frontier parish church authorized by Act of Assembly 1742 as “a Chapel of Ease for the Forest Inhabitants” of Saint Paul’s Parish (Baltimore). Reverend Thomas Craddock inducted as first minister January 14, 1745. — Map (db m2070) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Owings Mills — Gwynnbrook State Farm No. 1|
|290 acres, purchased from Dolfield estate October 29, 1919, from hunter's license fund for the purpose of breeding game in captivity for propagation purposes.
E. Lee LeCompte
State Game Warden of Maryland — Map (db m4339) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Owings Mills — In Memory of William Maxwell Wood, MD|
|Surgeon General United States Navy, born in Baltimore, Maryland May 21, 1809 and died at Owings Mills, Maryland March 1, 1880. He served his country well.
And in memory of Rosemary Carson, his wife, born in Mercersburg, Pennsylvania November 9, 1828, and died at Owings Mills, Maryland June 22, 1885. She was a dutiful wife and a most loving mother. — Map (db m2071) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Owings Mills — Lieutenant Milton Ernest Ricketts Memorial — World War II Congressional Medal of Honor Recipient|
|In Memory of Lieutenant Milton Ernest Ricketts, United States Navy, August 7, 1913-May 8, 1942.
Lieutenant Ricketts of Baltimore County was killed in action during World War II, aboard the Aircraft Carrier USS Yorktown (CV 5), in the battle of the Coral Sea on May 8, 1942. He was posthumously awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor by President Franklin D. Roosevelt for service above and beyond the call of duty. A destroyer-escort vessel, the USS Ricketts (DE 254), was commissioned in his honor on October 5, 1943. — Map (db m72402) WM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Owings Mills — Maryland State Veterans Cemetery — Garrison Forest Baltimore County — Bell Tower Carillon|
|In recognition of the 50th anniversary of America’s entry into World War II, December 7, 1941, this bell tower carillon is dedicated in memory of all Maryland veterans and to those who made the supreme sacrifice while serving in the Armed Forces of the United States of America. — Map (db m62832) WM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Owings Mills — Soldiers Delight|
|Chrome was first discovered in the United States in Baltimore County circa 1808. Isaac Tyson, Jr. operated chromite mines at Soldiers Delight and in other serpentine barrens and from 1828 to 1850 his mines produced almost all the world’s chromium. The unique beauty of this area is enhanced by rare plants and animals. — Map (db m2073) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Perry Hall — “Long Calm”|
|Maryland History. During the Colonial Period this was one of the most navigable stretches of the Gunpowder Falls. A Ferry operated here between 1754 and 1759. The Nottingham Forge and Gunpowder Furnace built metal products and battleship parts from 1759 to 1858, when a flood distroyed the industrial site. — Map (db m9587) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Perry Hall — Camp Chapel|
|The site of camp meetings between 1776 and 1807, when a log chapel was built. Methodist leader Francis Asbury visited frequently. — Map (db m9581) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Perry Hall — Germantown|
|After the Civil War, dozens of immigrant families moved into the area. The village of Germantown started here, later known as Perry Hall. — Map (db m24516) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Perry Hall — Gunpowder Falls State Park — Sweathouse Branch Wildlands — Central Area|
|Wildlands are state designated small areas that retain their wilderness character. They have unique ecological, geological or scenic resources, and may provide a home for rare plant and animal species.
Established in 1995, the Sweethouse Branch Wildlands protects 800 acres of pristine watershed along the Big Gunpowder Falls. No mechanical vehicles, including bicycles, are permitted in the Wildlands.
The Sweathouse Branch Wildlands provides an ideal environment for small-mouth bass, catfish, . . . — Map (db m64765) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Perry Hall — Harry Dorsey Gough — 1745-1808 — Maryland History|
|The founder of Perry Hall, Gough owned a 1,300 acre estate that bordered the Gunpowder Falls. He dominated commerce in Northeast Baltimore County during the colonial period. An active supporter of the Methodist church, he sheltered Francis Asbury and others at the Perry Hall Mansion. — Map (db m9611) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Perry Hall — Harry Dorsey Gough|
|The founder of Perry Hall, Gough and his wife Prudence sheltered Methodist leaders at the Perry Hall Mansion between 1775 and 1808. — Map (db m18235) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Perry Hall — Indian Rock|
|The village of Indian Rock, located here in the early 20th Century, started as a stop on the Baltimore and Jerusalem Turnpike. — Map (db m24512) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Perry Hall — Perry Hall — "The Adventure" 1000 Acres|
|One of the largest houses in Maryland. Begun in 1773 by Corbin Lee. Completed in 1776 by Harry Dorsey Gough. East wing of the Mansion partially burned in 1824. Repaired by Harry Dorsey Gough Carroll circa 1825. Restored by the owners in 1967. — Map (db m9755) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Phoenix — Glen Ellen — Maj. Harry Gilmor's Childhood Home — Early's 1864 Attack on Washington|
In June 1864, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee and Gen .Jubal A. Early’s corps from the Richmond battlefields to the Shenandoah Valley to counter Union Gen. David Hunter’s army. After driving Hunter into West Virginia, Early invaded Maryland to attack Washington D.C., draw Union troops from Richmond, and release Confederate prisoners held at Point Lookout. On July 9, Early ordered Gen. Bradley T. Johnson’s cavalry brigade eastward to free the prisoners. The next day, Johnson . . . — Map (db m75287) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Pikesville — Sudbrook Park|
|Early romantic suburb designed in 1889 by Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr., father of landscape architecture in America. On 204 acres of James Howard McHenry’s “Sudbrook” estate. Olmsted designed a naturalistic landscape with curvilinear roads intersecting at triangular islands. In an early application of comprehensive land-use regulation, lots were sold subject to 16 restrictions suggested by Olmsted. Not surviving are 2 original cottages, the Western Maryland Railway Station, a hotel, a . . . — Map (db m2266) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Pikesville — The Garrison Fort|
|Built about 1695 as headquarters for a troop of mounted rangers to patrol paths from the Patapsco to the Susquehanna as a protection against hostile Indians. It was nine miles from nearest white inhabitants when built. — Map (db m2265) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Pikesville — The Old Court Road|
|Originally an Indian trail, then used by the Rangers from the Garrison Fort to keep back the Indians. Later used as a road to the Court at Joppa Town, the County Seat of Baltimore County from 1712 to 1768 and the rival of Baltimore. — Map (db m2270) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Pikesville — The Old United States Arsenal|
|Built in 1816 after the close of the War of 1812 as an arsenal. Removed to a point of safety beyond Baltimore. Used during the War between the States and later as a Confederate Home. Now the property of the State of Maryland (1935). — Map (db m2322) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Randallstown — Mt. Paran Presbyterian Church and Cemetery|
|Mt. Paran Church was incorporated September 18, 1841. The chruch was called Soldier’s Delight prior to 1841 and that congregation began circa 1776. The oldest legible tombstone is that of Robert Gilchrist, dated October 17, 1767. The oldest known deed mentions this area as the Plains of Paran, used as a place of worship and burial by the Society of Christians called Presbyterians dated May 4, 1784. — Map (db m2074) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Randallstown — New Tavern|
|Built in 1802 by Robert Ward, the tavern served traffic to and from the west. This was an early Methodist preaching place until 1845. Woodstock Seminarians held Catholic Services here in 1875 for Chrome Mine workers of Soldiers Delight. Holdbrook Post Office was located on the grounds in 1893. — Map (db m2098) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Reisterstown — “Buffalo Soldiers”|
|First Sgt. Augustus Walley, a Reisterstown native, awarded The Congressional Medal of Honor for bravery at Cuchillo Negro Mountain, New Mexico. Dedicated on the 100th anniversary of The Spanish-American War July 13, 1998. — Map (db m7196) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Reisterstown — Colonel William Norris — (1820-1896)|
|Chief of the Confederate States Army Signal Corps and Secret Service Bureau, 1862–1865. Appointed Commissioner of Prisoner Exchange with rank of Colonel in April 1865. The Norris Home, “Bookland,” stood 2½ miles south of this spot. His grave is located in All Saints Cemetery, 1 mile northeast. — Map (db m2064) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Reisterstown — Hannah More Academy — Founded 1832|
|Oldest Episcopal Boarding School for girls in the United States. Mrs. Ann Van Bibber Neilson gave three acres of land at this location and $10,000 to found and academy for girls. The academy became the Diocesan School for the Episcopal Diocese of Maryland in 1873. — Map (db m65292) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Reisterstown — Nicholson’s Manor|
|Patented sixth of August 1719 to William Nicholson, gentleman of Anne Arundel County for 4200 acres. Subdivided in 1757 into four equal parts by Byron Philpot, Junior, Corbin Lee, Kinsey Johns and Roger Boyce. — Map (db m2077) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Reisterstown — Oldest High School in Baltimore County|
|Franklin Academy founded January 10, 1820 by an Act of the General Assembly of Maryland. On January 25, 1849 became a public school. Was Reisterstown High School from 1874–1896. Became Franklin High School in 1897. — Map (db m2062) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Relay — A Rural Vacation Spot|
|Beginning in 1873, the picturesque Viaduct Station Hotel complimented the Thomas Viaduct. The Viaduct Hotel was built in the town of Relay as a rural vacation spot and a comfortable place for passangers to change trains. The hotel was a forerunner of many notable station hotels constructed by the B&O and other railroads.
Designed by B&O architect E. Francis Baldwin, the station's gothic architecture with extravagant stonework, grand towers and many windows belied its modest size. An . . . — Map (db m8833) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Relay — Great War|
|To remember those of this locality who gave their lives in the Great War 1917-1918
Clifton R. Faith, James Flood, Luther Williams (colored)
And to honor those who served
David Allen, Norman F. Andreae, Millard Barnes, William Barnes, Charles P. Bealle, Morris A. Bealle, C. Randolph Burbank, George F. Burns, Joseph A. Burns, Bryan Clayton, George A. Cooper, Joseph Digus, H. <indistinguishable> Diggs, Frank Domier, Charles F. Duvall, Charles F. Evans Jr., . . . — Map (db m8767) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Relay — Masterpiece of the Early B&O Railroad|
|Before you stands the thomas Viaduct, named after Philip E. Thomas, the first president of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. This unique bridge has become an enduring symbol of the B&O Railroad and the Patapsco Valley, surviving several floods and outlasting many modern structures.
In 1833, B&O engineers sough to build a first-class railroad line with gentle curves and low grades from Baltimore to Washington D.C. Spanning the cavernous Patapsco Valley was a formidable challenge. Benjamin . . . — Map (db m8834) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Relay — Relay|
|Created in 1830 as a change point, or "relay," for horses hauling the first scheduled railroad cars in the U.S. The first rail link to nation's capital began here. Thomas Viaduct carries the track across Patapsco gorge; completed in 1835, it is the oldest multiple-arch railroad bridge in North America. In the Civil War, Union troops were stationed here to protect this critical junction. — Map (db m8764) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Relay — Site of Old Relay Station and Hotel|
|Baltimore & Ohio Railroad.
Here in 1830, passengers on B&O horse-drawn cars stopped to eat at the Relay House.
Meanwhile, the relays of horses were changed for the remainder of the 13 mile journey between Baltimore and Ellicott’s Mills, hence the name Relay.
In 1835, a second station superseded the earlier one.
In 1872, a large combination passenger station and hotel was erected on this spot. It was razed in 1950.
This stone is from that building. — Map (db m2502) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Relay — The Thomas Viaduct|
|Commenced, July 4th, 1833. Finished July 4th, 1835.
Johnathan Knight, Chief Engineer, Caspar W. Wever, Superintendent of Construction. Designed by Benjamin H. Latrobe. Built by John McCartney of Ohio.
(Other two sides of the monument list company directors.) — Map (db m127) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Relay — World War II — 1941 - 1945 — In Freedom's Cause|
|To honor and commemorate those of us who served in the Armed Forces
Andersen, Alber T.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Arnold, Lester e.; Bailey, Charles W.; Baker, Wilfred E.; Baquol, Calvin L.; Barbaro, Joseph R.; Barnes, Beverly L.; Barnes, Richard A.; Benler, Freerick V., Jr.; Bennett, Grayson A.; Bennett, Louis G.; Benson, John B.; Berlin, T. Clark; Berrett, James N.; Blackburn, Ellsworth C.; Bodin, William K.; Bond, William R.; Burns, Edgar A.; Burton, William E.; Campion, Jerome; Carter, . . . — Map (db m8768) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Sparks Glencoe — Scott's Quarry|
|Marble from this quarry, located nearby, was used to build the Washington Monument in Baltimore. Designed by architect Robert Mills and erected between 1815 and 1829, this was the first public monument erected to George Washington. The construction contract specified "the whole of the column is to be of the whitest and the best quality marble from Scott's Quarry." The quarry was operated from about 1810 to about 1855. — Map (db m36850) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Sparks-Glencoe — Gorsuch Tavern|
|At “19 mile stone” on York Road built in 1810 by Captain Joshua Gorsuch, a shipbuilder. The tavern was the meeting place of the Baltimore Countians who went to Pennsylvania to reclaim their slaves, thus bringing on the Christiana Riot of 1851. — Map (db m2057) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Sparrows Point — A Heavy Price — Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail — War of 1812|
|Private Bernard Todd paid dearly for having his home used for military purposes. When the British threatened Baltimore in 1813, it was headquarters for American troops who guarded the Patapsco Neck.
Todd’s property also served as a signal house and horse courier station. Three mounted sentries stationed here on September 11, 1814, hurried to announce that the British had arrived. In retaliation, enemy soldiers torched the house and some buildings.|
“Todd’s is a commodious two story . . . — Map (db m80869) HM
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Sparrows Point — Dedicated to All Men and Women|
|Dedicated to all men and women who made the ultimate sacrifice for our country during all wars and conflicts. — Map (db m68562) WM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Sparrows Point — Dreaded Alarm — Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail — War of 1812|
|The cupola atop the Ridgely house, c. 1767 farmhouse located near here, served as a lookout station in 1813 and 1814, operated by Major Josiah Green. A white flag raised on September 11, 1814, indicated that a British fleet was moving toward Baltimore.
The warning was relayed to Baltimore’s Federal Hill. General Samuel Smith then ordered alarm guns to fire, signaling troops to muster and citizens to prepare for an attack. |
Ship to Shore-The Ridgely house was part of an intricate early . . . — Map (db m79760) HM
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Sparrows Point — The Landing — Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail — War of 1812|
|Transport ships carrying a British invasion force arrived in Old Road Bay, September 11, 1814. Before dawn the next day, troops were ferried to this landing site to begin the 15-mile march to Baltimore. Reinforced by navy warships, they expected easy victory.|
Losses at the Battle of North Point, including Major General Robert Ross; the navy’s failure to take Fort McHenry; and superior America defenses outside Baltimore caused the British army to withdraw to their waiting ships at North . . . — Map (db m79775) HM
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Sparrows Point — Unexpected Resistance — Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail — War of 1812|
|British troops landing at North Point on September 12, 1814, could almost taste victory. Three weeks earlier they defeated the Americans at Bladensburg and invaded Washington. Now 4,500 men marched up North Point Road toward Baltimore, while the Royal Navy launched an assault on Fort McHenry.|
They met unexpected resistance. Seven miles from the city they clashed with Americans in the Battle of North Point. The British forced an American retreat but suffered more casualties, including their . . . — Map (db m79759) HM
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Sparrows Point — Wetlands|
| Wetlands are Valuable Far from being scary or worthless places, wetlands are wonderful. We know now that wetlands are a vital link in the natural system that supplies the water which sustains all life. Wetlands are important in many ways. *Wetlands lessen the destructive effects of storms and floods. *Wetlands cleanse water of pollutants. *Wetlands recharge groundwater supplies. *Wetlands provide homes for many kinds of wildlife. *Wetlands are beautiful places for people to enjoy being . . . — Map (db m79763) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Timonium — Baltimore and Susquehanna Railroad Marble Track Bed|
|Marble blocks from Cockeysville area quarries were used in 1836 to bed the track fro this section of the Baltimore and Susquehanna. One of the nation's earliest commercial railroads. Revealed during construction of the MTA Light Rail, the marble track bed represents an early British experimental railroad technology that was only briefly used in the U. S. The B&S RR opened a corridor between central Pennsylvania and Baltimore, strategically drawing commerce away from Philadelphia. Rail transport . . . — Map (db m4340) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — A Romance with Nature: The Falling Garden — Gardens and Parterres, ca. 1785-1904 — Hampton National Historic Site|
| The jewel of Hampton’s cultural landscape and the focus of Ridgely family horticultural pursuits for 150 years is the Falling Garden. Constructed under Charles Ridgely “The Builder” in the 1780s, the Falling Garden was one of the largest earthmoving projects in America. The terraces were planted with geometric gardens called parterres from the French meaning “on the ground.” Originally laid out by 1810, they are attributed to William Booth, a renowned designer of the . . . — Map (db m78625) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — A Slave Village — Hampton National Historic Site|
|Slave/Workers Quarters, ca 1855 To our eyes, the stone facades and decorative woodwork that adorn these buildings seem at odds with their use as slave quarters. But the entire farm site—based on a popular European architectural concept called ferme ornee (ornamental farm)--was intentionally designed to look like a picturesque village. Such ornamentation offered the Ridgelys a more pleasing view from the mansion. The living quarters were located in the center of the farm, in close . . . — Map (db m78687) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — Baltimore County Courthouse|
|Separation of Baltimore City and County effective July 4, 1851. Towsontown was chosen as County Seat by popular vote February 13, 1854. The Courthouse of local limestone and marble was completed in 1855 at a cost of $30,000. Enlarged in 1910-1925-1958. — Map (db m36852) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — Baltimore County Courthouse|
|Separation of Baltimore City and County effective July 4, 1851. Towsontown was chosen as County Seat by popular vote February 13, 1854. The Courthouse of local limestone and marble was completed in 1855 at a cost of $30,000. Enlarged in 1910-1925-1958. — Map (db m36853) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — Captain Charles Ridgely — 1733-1790 — Patriot|
|Builder of Hampton and owner Northampton Iron Works. Supplier to American Revolutionary Forces. — Map (db m78632) HM WM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — Corn Culture — Hampton National Historic Site|
| Mule Barn, constructed 1855, Corncrib, ca. 1845, destroyed by fire, 1989.|
There were lots of mouths to feed on a large plantation like Hampton and this made corn an all-important crop. Hard or “dent “corn was used as feed for livestock and ground into cornmeal for slaves as well as for the Ridgelys’ pantry. Most importantly, corn was sold for profit. The cornfields here once extended for thousands of acres. The ears were husked and stored in the corncrib to dry.
You can . . . — Map (db m78633) HM
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — Domestic Service Buildings-Behind the Big House — Hampton National Historic Site|
| At Hampton’s height, hundreds of workers labored to make this a self-sufficient and profitable estate. Slaves and servants who worked in the mansion carried out their daily chores in this yard and also had living quarters in this area (see octagonal foundation nearby). In the early 19ths century, there were more outbuildings than you see now, including a carpenter’s shed and smokehouse. In the 1850s, a gas works was built nearby. Servants heated coal to make gas, which was fed through pipes to . . . — Map (db m78624) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — Epsom Chapel|
|Built 1839 and located just West of this marker on land donated by Henry B. Chew of Epsom Estate, the chapel served Towsontown both as church and community center. The chapel was first used by Methodists and became the cradle of Methodism in Towson. Demolished, 1950. — Map (db m36851) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — Hampton|
|1783–1790, Baltimore County. Estate of the Ridgely Family from 1745 to 1948. Home of Charles Carnan Ridgely, Govenor of Maryland, 1815–1819. One of the largest Georgian Houses in the United States. Now a National Historic Site. Open to the public. — Map (db m2078) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — Hampton: An American Story — Hampton National Historic Site|
|This land was once part of one of the largest estates in Maryland---and one of the most impressive. The Ridgley family owned Hampton Plantation for more than 200 years, and their home and many farm buildings have changed little since the mid-19th century. This property weathered the growing pains of the nation from colonial times through World War II. Here you can experience American history through the architecture, original objects, and stories of those who lived and worked on this . . . — Map (db m78481) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — Hometown Hero — Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail — War of 1812|
|Nathan Towson, born 1784 in the area named for his family, served in the U.S. Army for 42 years. He enlisted in 1812 when war with Britain seemed imminent. As an artillery captain, Towson distinguished himself in nearly every major engagement on the Niagara Frontier.|
A lieutenant colonel at war’s end, Towson was later made a brigadier general. He was still on active duty, as paymaster general, when he died in 1854.
(Side Bar) Sword of Honor-Nathan Towson was fighting on the Canadian border . . . — Map (db m79649) HM
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — Hunt’s Church|
|A Methodist Society Established in 1773. First meeting house built on this site 1780. Previously met in Phineas Hunt’s House, still standing on Joppa Road. His grave is nearby. The present church building was erected in 1874. — Map (db m2281) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — Ice Cream in July-Icehouse, ca.1790 — Hampton National Historic Site|
|Having ice in summertime was a real luxury in the early 19th century. Storing enough ice to last throughout the summer was a true feat. A large icehouse was a sign of wealth, and originally there were two such structures at Hampton. Although it looks like a grassy mound from the outside, take steps to view the elaborate underground vault that allowed the Ridgelys to serve ice cream in July.
When the Ridgelys needed ice, a servant would descend into the pit, chip off what was needed, and heist . . . — Map (db m78487) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — Nicholas Ruxton Moore — 1736–1816|
|He commanded “Baltimore Light Dragoons” during the Revolution, attaining rank of Captain. He took active part in suppression of Whiskey Rebellion in 1794, and that year purchased “Bosley’s Adventure,” a 350 acre farm west of Roland’s Run (north of present Lake Roland). Member of State Legislature 1801–1802, he served in Congress 1803–1811 and 1813–1815. As a Lieutenant Colonel at outbreak of War of 1812, he was appointed Commandant of 6th Regiment . . . — Map (db m2283) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — Oranges in January — Hampton National Historic Site|
| Orangery, originally constructed ca. 1830s. Destroyed by fire 1926, reconstructed 1976.
It was not possible to grow fresh oranges and lemons’ outside in Maryland, as delicate fruit trees could not survive the winter. The Ridgely family, however, enjoyed the luxury of having fruit on their table all winter long. To protect their treasured citrus plants, they built a specialized greenhouse called an orangery. |
Designed to resemble a Greek temple, the building was heated by the sun through . . . — Map (db m78631) HM
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — Ridgely's Pride — Hampton National Historic Site|
|The Mansion, completed 1790. When Captain Charles Ridgely's country neighbors saw him erecting a "palace in the wilderness" in the 1780s, they called it "Ridgely's Folly." The mansion before you, modeled on the great country houses of Britain, was of the largest private residences in America, and impressive sight for all who visited. The imposing building was a physical expression of the success of the entrepreneur for whom it was built. As you walk through this site, try to imagine how the . . . — Map (db m78485) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — The Colored Methodist Protestant St. John’s Chapel of Baltimore County — 1833|
|Originally constructed as a log cabin in 1833, St. John’s Chapel and land adjacent thereto served the local black community as a house of worship and burying ground. Services had been held in the present chapel since its construction in 1886. The stone parsonage was built around 1833. Declining attendance forced St. John’s to close in the early 1960’s but in the 1980’s the property, still owned by descendants of one of the founders, Aquilla Scott, was restored through involvement of the Ruxton Community. — Map (db m2286) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — The Home of Governor Augustus W. Bradford|
|The home of Governor Augustus W. Bradford, which stood on this site was burned July 11, 1864 by Confederate Troops “to retaliate the burning of Governor Letcher’s Home” in Virginia by Federal troops. This was the closest point to Baltimore reached during the war by Confederate Troops. — Map (db m2334) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — The Joppa Road|
|Originally an Indian trail used in 1695 by a troop of Rangers from the Garrison Fort to keep back the Indians. Later the high road to Joppa Town, the County Seat of Baltimore County from 1712 to 1768 and the rival of Baltimore. — Map (db m2302) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — The Lower House — Hampton National Historic Site|
|Lower House, constructed ca. 1745; with later additions in the 1700s to ca. 1950.|
This building, historically referred to as the “Lower House” by the Ridgely family, served a variety of purposes. Originally, Hampton’s first master, Captain Charles Ridgely, lived in this house before the mansion was completed. In the 19th century, the building served primarily as a residence for the farm manager or overseer.
Close to both fields and farm slaves, it was “lower” in . . . — Map (db m78645) HM
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — The View from Below — Hampton National Historic Site|
|The Hampton Farm, as it might have looked ca.1850-1870.|
From this part of the farm, you have an ideal view of the Ridgely mansion. The imposing structure on the hill would have inspired different emotions among the various people on the estate.
The Ridgelys owned many farms, scattered across thousands of acres. This site was called the Home Farm probably because it was closest to the family residence. The crops and animals raised on this land directly supported life in the Ridgely . . . — Map (db m78685) HM
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Towson — War of 1812 Cannon|
|During the War of 1812, an armory was built near the intersection of Dulaney Valley and Joppa Roads. It was soon abandoned. In the 1830's, Henry Chew built a house on this site and decorated the lawn with a cannon from the deserted armory. The house burned down in 1886 and was never rebuilt. The cannon settled into the ground where it remained until it was unearthed when construction of the Julia Rogers Library began in 1951. It was mounted here in 1953.|
The cannon is of the type cast . . . — Map (db m57136) HM
|Maryland (Baltimore County), Upperco — St. Paul’s Lutheran Church (LCA)|
|Believed to be the oldest existing Lutheran Congregation in Baltimore County. It was begun as a Union Church in the early 1700’s. The reformed congregation worshiping in the same building. The first recorded communion was in 1794. The first house of worship built of logs, held about 50 people. The present brick church was built in 1882, with additions in 1892 and 1963. — Map (db m2058) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), White Marsh — “Whitemarsh”|
|Rochambeau’s Troops camped here September 11, 1781 where the baggage train and heavy artillery rejoined them. After the victory at Yorktown the French Troops, in five divisions, camped here again on their way northward, at the end of August 1782. — Map (db m2135) HM|
|Maryland (Baltimore County), White Marsh — Union of Brother and Sisters of Ford’s Asbury Lodge No. 1|
|Built for the African American Community in 1874 as a school for children in the Loreley area and as home to this “benevolent” society, founded in 1872. Beginning in the late 18th century, such mutual aid societies, often formed by church congregations, were part of a national humanitarian movement to provide emergency assistance to members in times of sickness, accident and death, and to benefit communities through social, commercial and political networks. — Map (db m2082) HM|