|Texas (Brazoria County), Alvin — Confederate Cemetery|
|The John A. Wharton Camp of the Confederate4 Veterans purchased cemetery land June 27, 1898 and more in 1903 and 1927. The total is about 15 acres. 37 confederate veterans are buried here.
On Feb. 11, 1919 F. E. Acton, Y. M. Edwards, E. GH. Ward, W. L. Kidd, O. W. Glascock, and W. C Wilson decided to pass the cemetery governing to their successors since their "body of veterans had thinned down" and the were not able to bear the responsibility. The Lamar Fontain Chapter of the U. D. C. . . . — Map (db m50164) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), East Columbia — 9518 — Aldridge - Smith House|
|This local landmark was built between 1837 and 1841 for William Aldridge, a farmer and large landholder. After a 10-year ownership by merchant, Henry Hansen, the house was sold to J.H. Dance and Co., a construction firm that supplied arms to the Confederacy. Businessman Thomas Masterson Smith (1882-1965) and his wife Mary (1881-1964) leased the house from 1908 until they purchased it in 1917. The home has been in the Smith family for more than 60 years.
Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1983 — Map (db m49717) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), East Columbia — 9528 — Bell's Landing|
|Founded 1823 as Brazos River landing for Josiah H. Bell's plantation. Townsite of Marion laid out in 1824. Later named East Columbia. Army enlistment point and ferrying dock during Texas Revolution. Key river port and trade center during Republic of Texas days. — Map (db m89323) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), East Columbia — 9553 — Dance Gun Shop|
|Near site of Dance Gun Shop. Started on Brazos River in 1850 by brothers J.H., George, and David Dance. Shop produced guns which helped arm the Confederacy during Civil War, 1861-65. The firearms were noted for precision. Shop also made machinery for grist mills, cotton gins, sugar refineries, and sawmills. — Map (db m49712) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), East Columbia — 9613 — M.L. Weems House|
|This Greek revival house was built about 1847 by Dr. Mason Locke Weems II, the first of a succession of Weems family physicians to live here. The house features a center passage plan and raised cottage form. Details on the six-bay inset porch include square posts with molded caps and turned-wood balusters. To avoid Brazos River floods, the house was moved to its present location about 1869 and later enlarged and remodeled.
Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1962 . . . — Map (db m49714) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), East Columbia — 9578 — Site of Carry Nation's Hotel|
|During a brief and troubled time in her life, Carry Amelia Moore Nation (1846-1911) operated the "Old Columbia Hotel" on this site about 1880. She later achieved fame as a hatchet-wielding crusader against the use of alcoholic drink and tobacco.
Born in Kentucky to slave-owning parents, Carry Moore and her family moved to Grayson County, Texas, soon after the outbreak of the Civil War. After an unhappy first marriage in Missouri to an alcoholic, she married David Nation in 1877. They . . . — Map (db m89328) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), East Columbia — 9601 — Sweeny-Waddy Log Cabin|
|John Sweeny, Sr. (d. 1855) moved his family from Tennessee to Brazoria county, Texas, about 1833. With the help of slaves, he cleared his land and established a large plantation. This log cabin, originally located about 9 miles southwest of this site, was built soon after Sweeny's arrival and housed the slave family that included Mark and Larkin Waddy. The Waddys continued to live in the cabin after they were freed at the end of the Civil War.
Recorded Texas Historic Landmark-1983 — Map (db m49709) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), East Columbia — 9612 — The Ammon Underwood House|
|A structure erected in noted old river port town of Marion in Republic of Texas era. First portion, of hand-hewn cedar, was built about 1835 by colonist Thomas W. Nibbs. Merchant-civic leader-soldier Ammon Underwood (1810-87) bought and enlarged house in 1838-39. In 1839 he married Rachel Jane, daughter of William and Catherine Carson, of Austin's original colony. President Anson Jones and other famous Texans often visited the Underwoods.
Recorded Texas Historic Landmark-1970 . . . — Map (db m49707) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), East Columbia — 12937 — Tyler-Bryan-Weems House|
|Ariadne O. Gautier (1834-1910) came from Florida to this part of Texas in 1841 with her parents. Her father, Dr. Peter Gautier, Jr., joined other Texans in turning back an invading Mexican army in 1842. In 1855, Ariadne married Clinton Lucretius Terry, with whom she had four children. Terry, serving with Terry's Texas Rangers, died in the Civil War at Shiloh in 1862. Six years later, Ariadne wed William Tyler. Again widowed, she purchased property at this site in 1871. Records indicate she . . . — Map (db m49716) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), Freeport — 12420 — Old Oakland Plantation|
|Founded 1828 by Henry Wm. Munson, who bought site from Stephen F. Austin, Father of Texas. This land joined Peach Point Plantation, Austin's home. Munson, one of Texans in uprising over injustices at Anahuac and Velasco in 1832, died in yellow fever epidemic in 1833. — Map (db m9551) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), Freeport — 11766 — Site of San Luis|
|Located on an island owned by Stephen F. Austin in 1832, the town of San Luis was established by the early 1830s. In 1836 the Follett family opened a boardinghouse and established a ferry service between Galveston and Brazoria County. Developers such as George L. Hammeken laid off town lots and planned for a major rail and canal connection to local plantations for shipping cotton and other local products. By 1840 San Luis was a thriving community with a population of 2,000. There were plans to . . . — Map (db m71624) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), Jones Creek — 9558 — Ellerslie Plantation|
|John Greenville McNeel came to Texas in 1822 with his parents and brothers. Each of the men received land grants from the Mexican government as members of Stephen F. Austin's "Old Three Hundred" colony. Located near this site was the Ellerslie Plantation, home of John Greenville McNeel and his family. One of the largest sugar plantations in the area, it consisted of a large home, sugar mill, hospital, overseer's house, and slave quarters. Large entrance gates to the property were topped by . . . — Map (db m9453) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), Jones Creek — Major Guy M. Bryan, C.S.A. — 1821-1901|
|Born in Missouri. Rode a mule to Texas in 1831 to join his uncle, Stephen F. Austin, Father of Texas. A private in Texas War for Independence. Legislator, congressman, member of Texas Secession Convention. Enlisted as a private in the Civil War, but his administrative ability, diplomacy and political understanding soon cast him in the role of troubleshooter and liaison man between state and Confederate governments and the military. Convinced C. S. A. leaders of need to leave enough troops in . . . — Map (db m53084) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), Liverpool — 9545 — Vicinity of Oyster Creek and Chocolate Bayou|
|Most early Texas homes and towns were built along streams that provided water for people and livestock, and travel for boats said to be capable of "floating on a heavy dew".
Oyster Creek served, 1822-1861, as such a homesite-highway. Its boat landings were piled high with sugar, cotton, cane and other products of some of America's richest plantations.
Chocolate Bayou was an area of early-day cattle raising.
These were 2 of 50 streams and 10 bays that made this coast a network of useful waterways. — Map (db m89334) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), Old Ocean — 9600 — Sweeny Plantation|
|John Sweeny, Jr., after returning from the Texas Revolution, was given this plantation by his father, an extensive landholder. In 1837 slaves built the house, using only brick, nails and wood made on his land. Molasses, cotton, sugar were produced. Still owned by descendants. — Map (db m89331) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), Pearland — Old Settler's Cemetery — (0.2 miles west)|
|Settlement of this area began as a result of railroad development through north Brazoria County in 1882. First known as Mark Belt, the townsite was platted in 1894 and named Pearland because of the abundance of pear orchards in the vicinity. An advertising campaign featuring favorable farm conditions brought many settlers to the area in the 1890s. Although some were discouraged by storm and freeze damage to their homes and crops in the early years, many remained and established permanent homes. . . . — Map (db m50134) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), Surfside — 9607 — Old Velasco, CSA|
|Historic and key Texas port of entry located near here. During the Civil War was fortified by troops and 8 gun batteries at the mouth of the Brazos River, to provide shelter and landing facilities for blockade runners; to protect rich farmlands; and to prevent Federal invasion. The South exchanged cotton for European guns, ammunition, milled goods and medicines for army and home use. Velasco was one of the busiest ports. Federal vessels attempted to stop vital trade, and constantly fired upon . . . — Map (db m10331) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), Surfside — 9605 — Velasco|
|Here was fought a battle-- the first collision in arms between Texas colonists and the Mexican military-- a conflict preliminary to the Texas War for Independence. On June 26, 1832, when Texans under John Austin and Henry Smith came down river with cannon for use against Mexican forces at Anahuac, they ran against the resistance of Lt. Col. Domingo de Ugartechea. As commander of Mexican forces at Velasco, Ugartechea refused passage through the mouth of the Brazos River to the vessel bearing . . . — Map (db m10332) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), West Columbia — 9547 — Columbia|
|In September 1836 Columbia, now known as West Columbia, became capital of the Republic of Texas. This took place with the removal of the ad interim government here from Velasco. After the election called by ad interim President David G. Burnet, the first permanent government of the Republic went into operation here in Columbia in October.
Inaugurated were President Sam Houston and Vice-President Mirabeau B. Lamar. Under their leadership the first duly elected congress convened and the . . . — Map (db m49703) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), West Columbia — Columbia - First Capital of The Republic of Texas|
|In 1836 and 1837, the town of Columbia (Now West Columbia) served as the capital of the Republic of Texas. Josiah Hughes Bell, a colonist with Stephen F. Austin's Old Three Hundred, surveyed and platted Columbia in 1824 to serve as a center for shipping activities. In the mid-1830s, Columbia played an important part in the Texas War for Independence, as residents adopted resolutions for sovereignty.|
In July 1836, Ad Interim President of the Republic of Texas, David G. Burnet, named . . . — Map (db m41707) HM
|Texas (Brazoria County), West Columbia — 13949 — Columbia Rosenwald School|
|A grant from the Rosenwald Foundation of Chicago led to the establishment of a local school for African American students. The foundation represented a collaboration between Julius Rosenwald, President of Sears, Roebuck, and Company, and the noted African American educator, Booker T. Washington, to fund similar schools throughout the south. This is one of the few remaining of the hundreds built in Texas.|
The program began in 1917, and by the 1920s, there was a strong need for an African . . . — Map (db m83276) HM
|Texas (Brazoria County), West Columbia — Columbia United Methodist Church|
|This congregation traces its history to early Methodist missionary activity during Texas' years as a republic in 1839. The Rev. Isaac L. G. Strickland was assigned to the Brazoria Circuit and organized a Methodist Church in Columbia (now West Columbia), an early capital of the Republic.|
During the latter half of the nineteenth century, the town of Columbia lost much of its population to Marion (now East Columbia), and eventually the Methodist Church began meeting there. The congregation . . . — Map (db m46456) HM
|Texas (Brazoria County), West Columbia — 9575 — Home of George B. McKinstry — 1802 - 1837|
|A member of Austin's colony, 1829. Soldier in the Battle of Velasco; delegate to the General Convention, 1832; chief justice of Brazoria County, 1836. In this home, built about 1830, Stephen F. Austin died, December 27, 1836 — Map (db m78618) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), West Columbia — Old Columbia Cemetery|
|Site given by Josiah H. Bell family out of their grant, the first deeded to one of "Old 300" in colony of Stephen F. Austin. Has graves of many heroes of Texas Revolution of 1836.
Deeded in 1852 to Bethel Presbyterian Church. Since 1933 managed by Columbia Cemetery Association. — Map (db m46452) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), West Columbia — 9526 — Site of the Home of Josiah Hughes Bell — 1791 - 1838|
|One of the “Old Three Hundred” who came to Texas with Stephen F. Austin in 1821 • First alcade of Austin's Colony • On this tract of 6,642 acres, granted him in 1824, was later built the town of Columbia, First Capital of the Republic — Map (db m52793) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), West Columbia — The First Capitol of the Republic of Texas|
| Near site of The First Capitol of the Republic of Texas
About 1833 Leman Kelsy built a story-and-a-half clapboard structure near this location. When Columbia became capital of the Republic of Texas in 1836, the building was one of two which housed the newly formed government. The First Republic of Texas Congress convened in Columbia. Here Sam Houston took office as President and Stephen F. Austin as Secretary of State. In 1837 the government moved to Houston. The 1900 storm destroyed . . . — Map (db m43057) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), West Columbia — 2007 — Vietnam Veterans Memorial|
|Dedicated to all the veterans who have served their country.
They served with honor, and now we honor them. — Map (db m9552) HM|
|Texas (Brazoria County), West Columbia — 9515 — W. H. Abrams Well No. 1|
|In 1920, Texas & Pacific Railway official William H. Abrams (1843-1926) of Dallas owned this old plantation land, then considered fit only for pasture. He leased mineral rights to the Texas Company (now Texaco, Inc.), whose drilling reached a climax on July 20, 1920. At 7:45 that evening a massive jet of oil and gas erupted from a 2,754-foot depth, heralding a major discovery now known as West Columbia Field.
W.H. Abrams No.1 was a gusher. Three pipe lines were laid at once to draw the oil . . . — Map (db m52766) HM|